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1

Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy-to-use job aid developed for this project proved useful for screening clients' needs and reducing providers' reluctance to discuss family planning with clients and offer contraceptive services. Such family planning screening devices can be useful in traditional settings where both providers and clients shy away from discussing family planning issues. PMID:15132752

Mendez, Francisco; Lopez, Felipe; Brambila, Carlos; Burkhart, Marianne

2004-01-01

2

A Client-centered Approach to Family Planning: The Davao Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive health approach to family planning shifts the focus of service provision from macro-level demographic objectives to meeting clients' needs. Little field experience exists to date, however, to indicate how to implement this approach. This study describes a field project in Davao del Norte and Compostela Valley provinces in the Philippines that implemented the reproductive health approach on a

Marilou Costello; Marlina Lacuesta; Saumya RamaRao; Anrudh Jain

2001-01-01

3

Summary of the Third National Workshop of the Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition and Parasite Control Project.  

PubMed

The 3rd National Workshop of the Integrated Family Planning/Nutrition Parasite Control Project was held in January 1988, and hosted delegates from Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Mbeya, Morogoro and Arusha, Tanzania. It was observed the Tanzania has problems with population growth, poor economic growth, poor maternal health from frequent childbearing that saps women's strength and reduces agricultural production and poor acceptance of family planning. The integrated approach starts with parasite control as an entry point. People are diagnosed and treated for helminths, and literally see the worms being expelled as their abdominal pain disappears. This builds goodwill, making people more likely to accept family planning. In pilot projects, the attendance at family planning clinics jumped from 9 to 33%. The resulting improved nutritional and health status improves school and work attendance, and especially agricultural production by women, the core of a prosperous nation. Although rates of worm infections remain the same, possibly due to higher reporting, demand for treatment is at an all time high. Participants reported that people are resistant to the idea of building or using latrines, and revert to their old habits when workers leave the area. The traditional birth attendant training program, however, was accepted more readily because of the high credibility of the birth attendants. PMID:12342107

Mpangile, G S

1988-12-01

4

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

5

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

6

[Strengthening family planning management].  

PubMed

Prior to 1984, enforcement of family planning policies in an undisclosed PLA military settlement in China's Jinan Military Region was totally inadequate. After notification from the central government, this military settlement immediately began enforcing family planning policies, resulting in sudden and full compliance with the central government's family planning policies. The system of scientific management of promoting and enforcing family planning, established by local administrators, is described. Management by objectives, clearly defined individual tasks and responsibilities, an full cooperation and support on the part of the authorities are some of the factors responsible for the effectiveness and success of the family planning efforts in this military settlement. A number of potential problem areas are identified scientific management techniques in dealing with uncooperative parties are emphasized. PMID:12159410

Hong, C; Shi, Z

1985-09-29

7

Singing about family planning.  

PubMed

The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

Emah, E

1993-01-01

8

Law and family planning.  

PubMed

This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick case. Because the Australian legal system is so similar to England's the resulting decision can offer instruction. Judge Woolf of Londons High Court of Justice dismissed Mrs. gillick's case. According to the report, children under the age of 16 years are entitled, in England, to receive contraceptive advice without the knowledge or consent of their parents, at least where the alternatives sought to be prevented were unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and veneral diseases. Woolf reportedly viewed the prescription of the contraceptive pill as not so much "an instrument for a crime or anything essential to its commission, "but a palliative against the consequences of the crime, that is, unlawful sexual relations. In Canada the debate has been vigorous and, except in Quebec (where there is a statutory oligation to inform parents), it also proceeds against the background of the English common law. In 1976 the US Supreme Court held that a state law could not constitutionally impose a blanket requirement of parental consent on a minor having an abortion during the 1st trimester of her pregnancy. In Australia there is law reform and social reform to be carried out. PMID:6700494

Kirby, M D

1984-03-17

9

Redefining family planning programs.  

PubMed

The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

1995-01-01

10

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

11

Family Reunification Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utah's Department of Human Services' Family Reunification Project was initiated to demonstrate that intensive, time-limited, home-based services would enable children in foster care to return to their natural families more rapidly than regular foster care management permits. The following steps were taken in project development: (1) sites were…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

12

Barriers in family planning.  

PubMed

Because of cultural factors, many people in India are opposed to family planning. They are not able to understand that the real problem facing India is overpopulation. In the past, people were exhorted to have many children, and to look upon numerous offspring as a blessing, and this concept has not changed, although the times and environment have. The majority of marriages in rural areas take place when the girl is hardly 16 or 17, which contributes to high fertility. Also illiteracy breeds ignorance about improved methods of cultivation and about methods of planned parenthood. Starved, poor couples have larger numbers of children than do well-to-do families, and thus poverty becomes a vicious circle. Doctors should come forward and offer their help to family planning programs, and social workers should be less concerned with official routines than results. Educating illiterate, adamant people is no easy task, and requires the zeal of a missionary. PMID:12338670

Pendharkar, L P

1968-01-01

13

Family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

The population growth rates and population policies and programs in African countries are summarized. Individual attention is given to Algeria, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Gabon, Zaire, Botswana and the Republic of South Africa. In addition, cultural and educational obstacles to family planning programs in Africa are briefly examined. PMID:12333999

1975-01-01

14

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

1998-01-01

15

Family planning and vocations.  

PubMed

In many Western countries the number of vocations has fallen to as low as 1/10 what it was a generation ago. The author blames several factors for this occurrence. An identity crisis among the members of the faith that is a result of broken homes is seen as a factor. The growth of materialism and the consumer mentality is seen as another factor leading people away from the life of sacrifices for God. But the author feels that the strongest force behind this fact is the use of family planning without a serious reason. Catholics are only allowed to use family planning if they have a serious health or financial reason for doing so, and then it can only be a natural method. Large families reinforce the ideals and attitudes necessary to create a person that is willing to seek a vocation. People from broken homes are not usually accepted because the matter of perseverance becomes a problem. When a child grows up in a large family it learns to make sacrifices. It also sees its parents making sacrifices for the children. It is the author's opinion what without this atmosphere of sacrifice at home, one is not prepared for the sacrifices that go with a vocation. It is also the author's opinion that families in the 3rd World tend to be larger, poorer yet still happier then Western families. Further, vocations in the 3rd World are abundant. PMID:12179689

Burke, C

1989-01-01

16

Family planning concept.  

PubMed

Family planning is defined as the voluntary, responsible decision made by individuals and couples as to the desired family size and timing of births. Therefore on the microlevel it means children are born because they are wanted and provided for and on the macrolevel it contributes to the betterment of human life. This paper deals with the health consequences of uncontrolled fertility. Health risks are related to birth order, social class, maternal age, birth intervals, and family size are described, including: 1) fetal, infant, and childhood morbidity and mortality, 2) poor physical and intellectual development of the unwanted child, 3) pregnancy wastage, 4) maternal risk of illness and death, 5) father's risk of hypertension and gastric ulcers, 6) marital risk, 7) poor nutrition, 8) environmental hazards such as overcrowding, poor water supply, atmospheric contamination, 9) increased incidence of genetic diseases, and 10) mental health problems of parents as well as children due to strains caused by large families. Even though the responsibility of family planning lies mainly with married couples it is the duty of health workers to inform the people of the problems that arise in a situation of uncontrolled reproduction. PMID:6920653

Dumindin, J B

1981-01-01

17

Planning the Project Meeting  

E-print Network

Project group meetings must be planned well in advance. Members should be involved in completing some type of work before the next meeting. This helps the leader plan the next project meeting and makes efficient use of time....

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

18

Men's Family Learning Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Men's Family Learning Project was conducted in Bristol to induce men, many of whom were unemployed, to take advantage of learning opportunities and to volunteer to interact with children in the Hareclive Primary School. Following a survey of educational needs in the community, a project director (a male with experience as a volunteer and ties to…

Bryant, Duane; Robinson, George; Taylor, Jane

19

[Family planning in Europe].  

PubMed

The results of a comparative study of demographic problems in 24 European countries are presented. The focus is on reproductive behavior, including the treatment of infertility, family planning, induced abortion, education for marriage and parenthood, and consultative services. The author notes that changes in the age of sexual maturity, age at marriage, the educational status of women, the impact of mass media, the stability of marriages, the acceptance of sexual intercourse prior to marriage, and the general availability of birth control impose changes on the provision of educational and consultative services. English and Russian abstracts of this article are available separately. PMID:12313828

Wynnyczuk, V

1984-01-01

20

The family planning users' perspective.  

PubMed

The three main actors in family planning services are the service providers, the service users, and the family planning methods. While the quality of care framework mainly addresses the provision of services and the providers, and has motivated and allowed service providers to assess and improve the services they offer, the quality concept is universally valid and may be applied to the use of methods and the methods themselves. The quality of family planning methods has, in fact, been a major issue in family planning since the pill scares of the late 1960s and the Dalkon Shield in the 1970s. Contraceptive research and development have, however, since improved the safety and efficacy of both existing and new methods. With the understanding that a client's perspective differs from that of a service provider, the paper discusses increasing clients' understanding of their bodies, reproduction, and sexuality; increasing clients' understanding about how different methods of family planning work and their effects on the body and fertility; increasing clients' skills in practicing family planning; acknowledging and supporting the use of traditional methods of family planning as legitimate; supporting family planning success as well as failure; integrating family planning information and use with STD/HIV awareness and prevention; and encouraging shared responsibility between men and women. PMID:12318921

Berer, M

1994-01-01

21

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

22

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

23

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea. PMID:3314524

Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A

1987-10-01

24

Quality Assurance Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan documents the quality assurance activities for the Wastewater/Stormwater/Groundwater and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This QAPP was prepared in accordance with DOE guidance on compliance with 10CFR830.120.

Holland, R. C.

1998-06-01

25

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible...

2010-10-01

26

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2010-10-01

27

[The press and family planning].  

PubMed

The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

Abraham De D'ornellas, R

1987-01-01

28

Planning Complex Projects Automatically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

1995-01-01

29

Family Research Project Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview and progress report on the Family Research Project, started in 1974 to (1) study the relationship between family process and individual development of family members, especially children, (2) conceptualize and measure system level variables describing family structure and process, (3) develop microanalytic…

Bell, David C.; Bell, Linda G.

30

Strategies for Family Planning Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The information, education, and communication (IEC) component of family planning programs can create awareness, increase knowledge, build approval, and influence behavior. Some important lessons from the past two decades, especially the 1980s, on designin...

P. T. Piotrow, K. A. Treiman, J. G. Rimon, S. H. Yun, B. V. Lozare

1994-01-01

31

Natural Family Planning  

MedlinePLUS

... planning are currently taught. The first is the mucus or ovulation method. In this method, the days ... ovulation are determined by checking the woman's cervical mucus. When a woman is most likely to become ...

32

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

33

Family Shelter Planning.  

E-print Network

shaped cloud. When the pulverized material cools, it comes back to earth and constitutes fallout. Only very strong, reinforced underground shel- ters can protect against the first three dangers of a nuclear explosion-blast, heat and initial radiation... cost I_ $800 to $1200. This type shdttr fib? new hous This plan shows tho pouibilify of designing &-round shel- construction lessens danger from f* debris, o hn hat becomo on aclivo ama in he funaHon af tho plan. from the how giving way in case...

Russell, Laura J.; Riney, Bobye J.

1964-01-01

34

Studies in Family Planning, Number 38. Beyond Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, published by The Population Council, reviews 29 proposals dealing with population controls beyond the current efforts of national programs of voluntary family planning. The proposals are subsumed under eight descriptive categories which are: (1) Extensions of voluntary fertility control; (2) Establishment of involuntary fertility…

Berelson, Bernard

35

Incentives to promote family planning  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

2012-01-01

36

Family Planning Programmes in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

Pradervand, Pierre

37

Planning the Project Meeting (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Project group meetings must be planned well in advance. Members should be involved in completing some type of work before the next meeting. This helps the leader plan the next project meeting and makes efficient use of time....

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

38

[Family Planning Circular of 1990].  

PubMed

In 1990, the government of Guangdong issued a Family Planning Circular demanding that the people of Guangdong take immediate actions to push ahead with Guangdong's family planning (FP) work. The Circular provides that, despite the fact that Guangdong has achieved gratifying results in its FP work this year, it has failed to fulfill its FP quotas and check excessive population growth for 4 successive years in the 7th 5-Year period. The Circular also provides that, in view of this rigorous situation, the Government demands that people's governments at all levels in Guangdong immediately formulate specific plans aimed at fully implementing to the FP quotas and an FP-oriented responsibility system at all levels. All concerned departments and mass organizations in Guangdong are required actively to cooperate and coordinate with one another in carrying out FP work. PMID:12317499

1990-05-10

39

Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.  

PubMed

Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

Lee, S B

1983-12-01

40

Integration of an Essential Services Package (ESP) in Child and Reproductive Health and Family Planning with a Microcredit Program for Poor Women: Experience from a Pilot Project in Rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1992, a two-phased pilot project, initially integrating a micro-credit program for poor women with a family planning and expanded program of immunization (EPI) (in the first phase) and subsequently and incrementally with an essential services package (ESP) in reproductive and maternal and child health (in the second phase), was initiated in rural Bangladesh. Data on the project show

Ruhul Amin; Maurice St. Pierre; Ashraf Ahmed; Runa Haq

2001-01-01

41

[Sexuality, discussion and family planning].  

PubMed

Choosing a contraceptive forces clients to reflect on their way of viewing sexual relations and to confront norms and taboos they have internalized. This situation is charged with emotion which largely goes beyond technical and medical aspects. The Interregional Center of Family Planning in Monthey in the Chablais region of Switzerland has developed a framework to manage implicit demands from family planning clients. This framework permits counselors to hear the here-and-now of the client and her request and to link the request with the before-and-after. After learning the most pressing reason for visiting the clinic, the counselor begins prevention work: to expose the wishes of the client and to encourage self-confidence to dare to say no. The framework to use in a session with an adolescent guides the counselor to consider the following: the relationship with her parents; loyalty towards the original culture of her parents; success or failure at school or at her apprenticeship; her relationship with the person with whom she had sex; body image; experience of the first in-love emotions or first sexual intercourse; sense of control at the gynecologist office; and, for older teens (18-20 years), her professional life plan and becoming self-reliant. The framework to use in a session with a postpartum woman guides the counselor to consider the following: childbirth experience; relationship with the baby and evolution of the mother-baby bond; capacity of the couple to adapt to changes; return to home; role of the family and family-in-law; and how everyone envisions his/her role and place. The framework to use in a session with a woman who has undergone induced abortion guides the counselor to consider the following: eventual prejudices linked to the contraceptive (e.g., fear of cancer); her feelings about failure of that contraceptive; self-image as a woman; relationship with her partner; desire for children; and couple's plan. PMID:7847923

Launaz, E

1994-01-01

42

Post-abortion family planning.  

PubMed

In many countries, reproductive health services do not actively include post-abortion family planning services for women who are treated for complications of unsafe abortion. This greatly increases the risk of further unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. The authors, drawing on the recommendations of a meeting of experts, make a plea for bridging the gap and dealing more realistically with this urgent need. PMID:7873025

McLaurin, K E; Senanayake, P; Toubia, N; Ladipo, O A

1995-01-01

43

[The challenges of the family planning program].  

PubMed

Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural areas should be trained to administer modern methods in collaboration with institutional health services so that rural-urban differences in coverage and quality can be decreased. It is estimated that, of the 59% of women in union who want no more children, 44% are using a traditional method or no method. Encouraging these women to use contraception is a challenge for the family planning program. It will not be enough to communicate the general advantages of family planning; specific information on each method is needed. The integration of family planning into maternal-child health services is necessary for the focus on reproductive health and preventing high risk pregnancies. Health services should cooperate with the civil registration system to identify newlyweds and provide them with family planning information. Greater efforts are needed to reach adolescents through cooperation with educational institutions. PMID:12158037

Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

1991-01-01

44

Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

Stokes, Bruce

45

Managing Software Projects by Structured Project Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on the Structured Process Model formalism previously proposed by thesame authors, and describes some techniques for scheduling an execution plan whichconforms to the chosen process but adapts to all the potential changes of value of specificvariables of the project. The executive plan is generated by means of IncrementalRefinements. Each increment is the consequence of one or

Aniello Cimitile; Giuseppe Visaggio

1997-01-01

46

[Family planning in Benin: what future?].  

PubMed

In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558

Danlodji, R

1993-01-01

47

Ethical approaches to family planning in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has historically provided the geographical flashpoint of ethical issues relating to family planning programs. Until recently in Sub-Saharan Africa, advocacy of family planning by non-Africans was unacceptable and by Africans politically inadvisable. This has changed in the 1980s. The health rationale for family planning is backed by strong evidence, especially in Africa, where infant and maternal mortality and morbidity

F. T. Sai; K. Newman

1989-01-01

48

Strengthening Families Model Plan Plan Summary  

E-print Network

practices that offer children guidance without harsh punishment are related to positive outcomes, County Committee Description Positive parenting practices play an essential role in children raising grandchildren). Educating families about positive parenting practices and healthy family

49

Iran rebuilds family planning services.  

PubMed

After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

Butta, P

1993-07-01

50

Family planning propaganda outline, 1988.  

PubMed

In 1988, the regional Family Planning (FP) Commission of Nei Monggol, China, issued a propaganda outline containing the following language: "In order to fulfill the three fighting targets put forward by the autonomous regional party committee, efforts should be made to accelerate the speed of developing the economy on the one hand and bring population growth under strict control on the other hand. It is necessary to further stabilize the existing policy on FP work and to continuously encourage one couple to have one child throughout their life. In allowing rural people to have a second birth, rural authorities must strictly enforce the measure, strictly ban second or more births outside the plan, and strictly prohibit people marrying too early and giving birth too early. Minority nationalities should also implement the FP policy in line with the demand of central authorities." The propaganda outline also urges Communist party members, CYL members, and cadres at all levels to actively respond to the party's call and be vanguards in FP work. PMID:12289660

1988-01-01

51

Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

52

Military Family Projects at Zero to Three  

MedlinePLUS

... podcast series is generously funded by MetLife Foundation. Military Family Projects Home > About Us > Funded Projects > Coming ... have a strong start in life. Honoring Our Military and Veterans’ Families November has been designated as ...

53

World Family Map Project. Prototype Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010, the "World Family Map Project" seeks to launch a research initiative that will track central indicators of family strength around the globe. The "World Family Map Project" (WFMP) would partner with Child Trends, a nonpartisan research organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, and research organizations…

Wilcox, W. Bradford; Lippman, Laura; Whitney, Camille

2009-01-01

54

Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.  

PubMed

The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862

Hume, M

1991-01-01

55

Project W-320 ALARA Plan  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

Harty, W.M.

1995-06-06

56

HANDI 2000 project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

The HANDI 2000 project will meet some of the major objectives and goals of the PHMC Management and Integration Plan, HNF-MP-00, Rev. 11, by integrating the major Hanford business processes and their supporting information systems.

BENNION, S.I.

1999-09-09

57

Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting

Najat El Hamri

2010-01-01

58

Circular on family planning, 1988.  

PubMed

This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626

1988-01-01

59

Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

Hilmar, Norman A.

60

Wujiang's service-oriented family planning programme.  

PubMed

Wujiang City in south Jiangsu Province is a county-level city, well known for its economic development and effective family planning program. Family planning is practiced voluntarily by the people. The growth rate of the city's population has decreased to 5.47/1000; the proportion of planned births has increased to 98%; and the total fertility rate has declined to 1.5. There are 34 towns (and townships) and 883 administrative villages under the jurisdiction of the city. The living standard has improved significantly. The successful implementation of family planning is largely due to the quality services delivered to farmers, especially women of reproductive age. In an interview, Mme. Ji and Mme. Shen, chiefs of the Wujiang Family Planning Committee, describe the services they deliver. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program is focused on population schools (city, town, township, and village), which deliver information to middle school students, premarital youth, and women who are pregnant, lying-in, or menopausal. Pamphlets on marriage and reproductive health are published by the county population school. Family planning service centers, which deliver contraceptive and technical services, were established in every town and township in 1993. Ultrasound scans are available and have been used to diagnose diseases, including cancer. Over 3000 women have been helped. Misuse of fetal sex identification is banned. The Family Planning Committee and the technical service centers in the city provide counselling services on fewer, healthier births; maternal and child health care; reproductive health; and treatment of infertility. There are several kinds of insurance related to family planning; these include old age support for the parents of only-children, safety insurance for only-children, and old age insurance for newlyweds. The insurance premium is shared by the couple (100 yuan) and the township (400 yuan). Only-child couples, two-daughter families, and childless families will then have support when they grow old. PMID:12290278

Zhu, H

1995-08-01

61

Family Story Curriculum Project. Refugee Women's Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Family Story Curriculum Project was implemented in three English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at the Refugee Women's Alliance (ReWA) center in Seattle, Washington. This project followed a successful storytelling project in which students remembered and told folktales from their native countries. The purposes of the Family Story curriculum…

de Barros, Judy; And Others

62

Family planning via the postpartum approach.  

PubMed

Since motivation for family planning is extremely high after delivery or abortion, women should be consulted about the use of contraception within 3 months postpartum. The International Postpartum Family Planning Program began in 1966 and now provides family planning information and services in 26 urban hospitals in 15 countries for women of low socioeconomic status. In the first 2 years, 236,000 acceptors were enrolled in the program out of an estimated target in developing countries of 1,870,000 women. Home visit follow up surveys found that 82% were continuing some method of contraception 18 months after initial acceptance. The cost has been $3.20 per acceptor. The rates of postpartum return visits have increased since the initiation of the postpartum family planning program. The Population Council is now extending the program to other countries of the developing world to work in rural as well as in urban areas. PMID:12177898

Zatuchni, G I

1969-10-01

63

Jiang Sannu's home clinic for family planning.  

PubMed

Jiang Sannu, a physician in China's Jiang Jia Village (Shaanxi Province), opened a family planning clinic in her own home in March 1987 to increase accessibility to contraceptive supplies and information among rural couples. Jiang was the elected head of the village women's federation. During the day, Jiang Sannu travels door-to-door throughout the village, providing information on issues such as prenatal care, breastfeeding, and family planning policy and methods. She provides gynecologic and pediatric medical services as well as midwifery. The nearest maternity hospital is 2-3 kilometers from the village, so Jiang has to date delivered over 20 infants. In the evenings, she disseminates Communist Party Central Committee documents on family planning regulations through the village tweeter. There is widespread agreement among villagers that this family planning facility is well suited to the needs of the local community. PMID:12281589

1987-10-01

64

Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

Kulig, J C

1995-07-01

65

Family planning services / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

1991-92 enacted, pending, and dead legislation on family planning services, sex education, teen pregnancy, and related subtopics are summarily listed. Legislation is presented in the areas of contraceptives/contraceptive services, parental consent/notification for contraceptives, school-based clinics/school health services, sex/health education, state programs for family planning services, sterilization, and teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs. Miscellaneous legislation is also listed. PMID:12285803

1992-09-01

66

[Medical social care in family planning].  

PubMed

Basic pattern of medical social work, including its main directions and objects, methods and forms are considered. Necessity of adoption of medical social work in functioning of institutions of family planning is validated. Groups of clients as objects of medical social work are considered. Content, forms and methods of medical social work in family planning institutions differentiated depending on particular client group is analyzed. PMID:17004383

Vorobtsova, E S; Martynenko, A V

2006-01-01

67

Project resources planning and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains instructional guidelines for the resources planning and control of research and development (R&D) projects managed by NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC). Although written to serve primarily as a practical guide and reference for those LaRC personnel who perform resources planning, analysis, control, and reporting functions, it should also be meaningful to other NASA personnel who are directly or indirectly involved in or affected by these functions, especially project technical managers whose responsibilities include resources management. Certain sections should help Contractor personnel to better understand what resources information must usually be submitted on LaRC projects and what use is made of such information. The Project Manager of a large R&D project typicaly receives support from an Analyst in the area of resources management. The Analyst provides assistance in four functional areas: Planning, Analysis/Control, Administration, and Reporting. Each of these functions are discussed in detail. Examples of techniques used effectively on LaRC projects have been included where applicable. A considerable amount of information has been included on the use of Performance Measurement (Earned Value) Systems for contract cost control and reporting as little information is currently available on this subject in NASA publications.

Sibbers, C. W.

1984-01-01

68

Family Planning Programs in the Third World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the population of less developed countries (LDCs) now lives in countries with national family planning programs to reduce fertility and improve family welfare. Such programs are a new phenomenon. In some LDCs increasing birth-control practice and fertility declines occurred along with considerable social and economic development, but even there rapid changes among the disadvantaged masses are generally associated

Ronald Freedman

1990-01-01

69

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

70

Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.  

PubMed

The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

1987-08-01

71

Costs can influence family planning decisions.  

PubMed

This article discusses research in Cebu, Philippines, that examines the relationship between costs and income and family planning (FP) decisions. Clients weigh the costs and benefits of obtaining FP services. Costs may include the time to purchase supplies, travel to clinics, child care, and lost work time. Women should consider the costs of having more children. Family Health International's Women's Studies Project explored couple's FP decision-making. In Cebu, women play a decisive role in household expenditure decisions. 64% of women made sole decisions about children's shoes and clothing. 43% made decisions about taking children to the doctor. Women consulted husbands for larger expenditures, such as land purchases, hiring household help, and travel outside Cebu. If conflicts arose, 82% reported a mutual final decision, while 12% accepted the husband's judgment. Only 12% of women made sole decisions about FP. About 20% of the sample of women discussed FP with adult females. 25% of the women who consulted their husbands about FP made the final decision when there was conflict. Only 7% reported that the husband's decision was final. A recent follow-up study to a 1983 study finds that price is only one among many factors that affect contraceptive decision-making. Rural women in Cebu reported that the time needed to obtain contraceptives was an important factor in determining their use. A study of 64 women in rural southern India finds that contraceptive prevalence was influenced by women's autonomy rather than income. Women's and children's ages, family size, and birth order affected women's autonomy and access to money. In another related study, Pakistani women had lower fertility rates when wives' unearned income was high. An increase by 25% in unearned income among rural women decreased fertility by one child. PMID:12293233

Barnett, B

1998-01-01

72

Family planning KAP survey in Gaza.  

PubMed

This study explores the reproductive attitudes, contraceptive use, demand for family planning and related topics of a representative sample of the female population of reproductive age resident in a Refugee Camp in the Gaza Strip. A cluster sample of 841 resident women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was interviewed in their homes. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using BMDP software. 98% of the interviewees favour family planning and 88% plan to use a contraceptive in the future. However, 52% of the women at risk do not use any contraception because of their husband's opposition, fear of side effects or lack of knowledge. The risk of having seven or more children is positively associated with a woman's low educational level and husband's desire for more than seven children. Despite favourable attitudes regarding family planning, there is ignorance and the prevalence of contraception use is low. There is a gap between fertility preference and achievement. PMID:10695981

Donati, S; Hamam, R; Medda, E

2000-03-01

73

Virginians tune-in to family planning.  

PubMed

Virginia Bureau of Family Planning initiated an information program aimed at the state's diverse geography which reflects its many cultures using television public service announcements (PSAs). 4 PSAs were produced: economic consideration of family planning, eligibility requirements for services, and 2 general presentations. Following success of these spots, radio spots were developed geared to specific target audiences. These spots built a framework for outreach workers who independently operate clinics in the 39 Virginia health districts. Even though highly regionalized, the Bureau maintains close contact with each district and directs feedback sessions where common problems and experiences are discussed. The Bureau also began a bimonthly newsletter in 1975 which keeps 3000 subscribers abreast of family planning activities. These information dissemination efforts have paid off: Virginia hospitals are required to provide family planning literature to all maternity patients. And Virginia has the nation's 1st ongoing statewide, publicly run voluntary sterilization program, servicing 1000 patients free of charge during the 1st year of operation. The Bureau operates on an annual budget of $5.3 million in state funds as well as HEW Title 5, 10, and 20 family planning funding. PMID:12277857

1977-01-01

74

Funding for international family planning attacked.  

PubMed

US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas. PMID:12292727

Kaeser, L

1997-08-01

75

Observations concerning family planning education in China.  

PubMed

In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears that China's family planning program is achieving success, but this can only be viewed in its own sociocultural setting and not in the context of other countries. PMID:12337663

Hamburg, M V

1981-11-01

76

Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.  

PubMed

This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. PMID:4060212

Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

1985-01-01

77

Family planning services / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

State legislative proposals and actions related to family planning services/sex education/teenage pregnancy are presented for 1991 and 1992. Proposals' sponsors, topics, and dates of introduction are listed under the following subtopics: contraceptives/contraceptive services, miscellaneous, parental consent/notification for contraceptives, school-based clinics/school health services, sex/health education, state programs for family planning services, sterilization, and teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs. Proposals are listed under subheadings according to whether they were vetoed, killed, or enacted. PMID:12317962

1992-12-01

78

Advanced Life Support Project Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

2002-01-01

79

Behavior change strategies for family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of behavior modification is central to most family planning and population control strategies. Positive, differential and negative reinforcement, usually cast in terms of 'incentives' and 'disincentives', have been applied to promoting child spacing and contraceptive use throughout the developing world. A wide variety of options are available to program planners interested in decreased birth rates, increased contraceptive use

John P. Elder; Jacqueline D. Estey

1992-01-01

80

Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

Newton, Marsha

81

Data sheet charts family planning progress.  

PubMed

"Monitoring Family Planning Programs 1996," a wallchart produced by the Carolina Population Center at the University of Chapel Hill in collaboration with the Population Reference Bureau, compiles most of the available data regarding family planning programs in 96 developing countries and presents the evaluation indicators in a comparative overview. Data on government spending, types of services available, facilities, and the number of new contraceptive users served each year are included. Key findings include the following information. Although most governments are concerned about high birth rates (80% of governments in Africa and over 50% of governments in Latin America), West Asian governments (Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria) consider the high fertility rates there to be satisfactory and have not promoted family planning. In East Asia, where family planning has been established for decades, fertility has decreased below replacement level. In spite of governmental concern, family planning effort lags in many countries; of the 95 countries with family planning effort scores, only 41 received moderate or strong scores (50-92% of the maximum score possible). These included 62% of Latin American countries, 23% of African countries, and just over 50% of Asian countries. National and international spending is often insufficient. The highest annual per capita expenditure by a government on family planning services occurs in Mauritius (US $1.65 per person); Afghanistan, Brazil, the Congo, Honduras, Iran, Paraguay, Uganda, and Zaire spend less than US $0.01 per person. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mauritius, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe spend a total per capita, from all sources, of US $1 or more. Almost 50% of the married women in developing countries use a modern form of contraception; 17% of married women of reproductive age in Africa do so (11% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% in North Africa). Contraceptive prevalence in Latin America is 53%; in Asia it ranges from 34% in South Central Asia to 78% in East Asia. Service providers may be too few in number. The ratio of married women, ages 15-44, per staff member ranges from 111,235 in the Ivory Coast to 109 in Viet Nam. Of the 38 countries that have more than 1000 women per staff member, 16 are in Africa, 12 are in Latin America, and 10 are in Asia. PMID:12320944

1997-06-01

82

Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.  

PubMed

India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market. PMID:12289896

Dias Saxena, F

1995-01-01

83

Family planning in a Roman Catholic community.  

PubMed

For centuries in Malta, both Catholic and civil officials have condemned abortion. In 1650, medical practitioners found guilty of administering abortive substances were sentenced to 5 years as galley oarsmen. It was illegal to counsel on, administer, take, or cultivate abortive plants. In 1786, those considered guilty of abortion included not just women who sought abortions, but violent husbands and "careless" women who spontaneously miscarried. In the late 19th century, by the end of their childbearing years, women had a mean parity of 11. Despite the 1930 Encyclical of Pope Pius XI denouncing the use of contraceptives, the Maltese population has increasingly accepted family planning, as indicated by the decreasing birth rates beginning in the 1950s (14/100 births in 1957 to 8/100 births in 1985). A survey in the late 1950s revealed that even though 82% of couples were familiar with the rhythm method, only 27% knew how to use it. So the Maltese Church set up free family planning clinics in 1962 under the direction of the Cana Movement to promote the rhythm method. By 1971, 87% of women used some form of family planning, especially rhythm method followed by withdrawal. In 1982, the government succumbed to the pressure of a women's group and established family planning clinics which offered, free-of-charge, all family planning methods, except abortion. In 1983, 91.4% of women who had just delivered planned to use some form of family planning (coitus interruptus and other sexual practices [59%], artificial contraceptive methods (26%), and rhythm method [12%]). 37.6% of people approved of artificial contraceptive methods. 31.9% approved of abortion (39% to protect mother's health and 16% to prevent a handicapped child). In the 1990s, these figures were 49% and 36% (47% and 20%), respectively. The accelerating process of secularization and increasing disagreement with the Church's teachings have caused the change in attitudes. The Roman Catholic Church in Malta is still a quasi-political force, however. It objects to the promotion and use of condoms (despite the AIDS epidemic), sterilization, and the IUD. PMID:12289091

Savona-ventura, C

1995-03-01

84

Studies in family planning. 6. Singapore.  

PubMed

Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The informational aspects of the communications program have reached a "saturation" stage. Future emphasis must be on persuasion and motivation. PMID:4710480

Kee, W F; Lee, A S

1973-05-01

85

Spousal veto over family planning services.  

PubMed Central

In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

Cook, R J; Maine, D

1987-01-01

86

Health and family planning: facts and issues.  

PubMed

Family planning can play a significant role in reducing maternal and child health in developing countries. Poor health of women, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, low birthweight, malnutrition, and infection--all major contributors to infant and maternal mortality--are strongly affected by fertility patterns. In addition, 200,000 women a year die from complications of illegal abortions--deaths that could be prevented if couples had access to effective means of contraception. A significant number of infants in developing countries are compromised from birth by low birthweight, caused by the poor health and nutritional status of a mother whose condition has been aggravated by closely spaced pregnancies. Moreover, children of high birth orders have more frequent illnesses and grow more slowly than those from smaller families. Another contributor to poor maternal and child outcomes is births to women under 20 and over 35 years of age. Breastfeeding not only has psychological advantages in terms of maternal-infant bonding, but delays the return of fertility and thus lengthens the interpregnancy interval. However, traditional methods such as breastfeeding must be complemented by the use of technically and culturally appropriate contraceptive methods. Although 95% of the population in the Third World live in countries that provide some form of support to family planning programs, there remains a tremendous unmet need for contraception, especially improved oral contraceptives, long-acting agents, vaginal rings, new barrier methods, modern male methods, and improved forms of natural family planning. An estimated 300 million couples do not want more children, but are not using a family planning method, chiefly because of inadequate access to services in rural areas and urban slums. PMID:3387296

1988-04-01

87

Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project  

SciTech Connect

In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work was received in July 2009 under the Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Task of the Enhanced Utilization of Isotope Facilities project (Project Identification Code 2005230) funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The goal of this project is to recover the capability to produce 4-5 curium targets for the irradiation period starting with HFIR cycle 427, currently scheduled to begin 2/17/10. Assuming success, the equipment would then be used to fabricate 6-7 additional targets to hold for the next irradiation campaign specified by the program. Specific objectives are the return to functionality of the Cubicle 3 Pellet Fabrication Line; Cubicle 2 Target Assembly equipment; and Cubicle 1 Target Inspection and Final Assembly system.

Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

2009-08-01

88

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-01-01

89

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A USAID-sponsored family planning project called "FALAH" (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts-from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-08-01

90

Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness. PMID:12344860

1993-02-01

91

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

92

Family Literacy Research Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study surveyed adults with literacy problems and evaluated the Parents-as-Partners-as-Learners project. Eighty English-speaking adults in the eastern townships of Quebec, Canada, were interviewed concerning their literacy problems. Results indicated that health and social problems were identified by the adults as the major impediment to…

Fear, Marion J.

93

Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

1991-01-01

94

Varieties of Student Behavior in Project PLAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PLAN Student Observation Scale (PLAN-SOS) was developed to measure the percentage of time that students spend performing various behaviors judged to be important to the learning process in the system of individualized instruction upon which Project PLAN is based. An earlier document reported the use of this instrument in comparing PLAN

Lipe, Dewey; And Others

95

International family planning funds will be expedited.  

PubMed

With a 53-46 vote on February 25, the Senate approved a resolution to speed up the release of funding to the US Agency for International Development (USAID) for its overseas family planning programs. The resolution, which had been passed by the House on February 13 (see RFN VI/2), will make money budgeted for fiscal year 1997 available on March 1, 4 months earlier than originally scheduled. Under the omnibus budget bill approved at the end of September 1996, funding was to have been withheld until July 1--a full 9 months into the fiscal year--unless President Clinton made a finding that the delay was harming the functioning of the US family planning program. Based on a report from USAID, which found that the delay would cause at least 17 programs around the world to suspend their services and result in significant and permanent damage to US population-control efforts, President Clinton issued the finding in support of moving up the release of funds. The Senate did not consider a House-passed provision that would have barred family planning programs that receive US money from providing abortions, even if they paid for the procedures through other sources of funding. PMID:12292202

1997-02-28

96

A trial of text messaging in Family Planning Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand Family Planning Association (Family Planning) is a national not-for-profit organiza- tion providing sexual and reproductive primary care health services as well as health promotion, profe s- sional training and advocacy on issues of sexual an d reproductive health. By 2006 Family Planning had become acutely aware of the increasing amount of staff time being used to make

Helen MacKenzie

97

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

98

Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

99

[On family planning policy in Brazil].  

PubMed

Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties. PMID:12280937

Berquo, E

1987-01-01

100

Evaluation of the five-year family planning plan.  

PubMed

Interviews were conducted with white and black women in 16 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) during 1969 and 1970. Ages ranged from 15 to 44 and all the women were below the 150% poverty level. The intent was to estimate the number of unwanted births with the effects of the federal 5-year family planning plan being considered. The results showed 3.8 unwanted births per 100 white women subsequent to adoption of the pill or IUD, and 6.3 unwanted births for black women. If all women below the 150% poverty level had adopted contraceptives or sterilization, 366,456 unwanted births would have been prevented. A possible 24% reduction in unwanted births is attributed to the 5-year plan. PMID:4759553

Bauman, K E; Udry, J R

1973-11-01

101

Population problems and family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

Focus is on the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about these problems. The position of this writer is that there is definitely a population problem in Africa. Those who take the opposing view support their arguments by looking at the following indicators: population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue by external forces. Few governments have population control policies and/or national family planning programs. These countries include Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic. Currently, governments of black African countries for the greater part either support family planning programs or allow such efforts to exist under private auspices. Of the 35 African countries and territories covered by the United States Agency for International Development report, only the governments of Cameroon, Malagasy, and Malawi have stated explicitly that they want to encourage population growth. In all surveys in East Africa, the ideal family size was more than 5 and generally 6 children. In Ghana and Nigeria, the ideal size was 7 or more. Generally, the ideal family size in Black Africa ranges from 6-8 children, but the influences of urbanization and education in West Africa reduced the ideal family size to between 4 and 6. Abstinence, herbs, and withdrawal are widely known in traditional African society though withdrawal was little used as a contraceptive method. Regarding modern contraceptive methods, the most knowledgeable group is the urban elites. Below the elite, the knowledge level is very low. There is little contraceptive practice in Africa. PMID:12259218

Uche, C

1972-01-01

102

RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. (6) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) pending determination of the final disposal pathway. (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and all associated waste management and treatment facilities. (8) Optimizing the overall mission by resolution of technical and programmatic uncertainties, configuring the tank farms to provide a steady, well-balanced feed to the WTP, and performing trade-offs of the required amount and type of supplemental treatment and of the amount of HLW glass versus LAW glass. ORP has made and continues to make modifications to the WTP contract as needed to improve projected plant performance and address known or emerging risks. Key elements needed to implement the strategy described above are included within the scope of the Tank Operations Contract (TOC). Interim stabilization of the SSTs was completed in March 2004. As of April 2009, retrieval of seven SSTs has been completed and retrieval of four additional SSTs has been completed to the limits of technology. Demonstration of supplemental LAW treatment technologies has stopped temporarily pending revision of mission need requirements. Award of a new contract for tank operations (TOC), the ongoing tank waste retrieval experience, HLW disposal issues, and uncertainties in waste feed delivery and waste treatment led to the revision of the Performance Measurement Baseline (PM B), which is currently under review prior to approval. 6 This System Plan is aligned with the current WTP schedule, with hot commissioning beginning in 2018, and full operations beginning in late 2019. Major decisions regarding the use of supplemental treatment and the associated technology, the ultimate needed capacity, and its relationship to the WTP have not yet been finalized. This System Plan assumes that the outcome of these decisions will be to provide a second LAW vitrification facility. No final implementation decisions regarding supplemental technology can be made until the Tank Closure and

CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

2009-09-15

103

RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste management and treatment facilities, (8) Developing and implementing technical solutions to mitigate the impact from substantial1y increased estimates of Na added during the pretreatment of the tank waste solids, This involves a combination of: (1) refining or modifying the flowsheet to reduce the required amount of additional sodium, (2) increasing the overall LAW vitrification capacity, (3) increasing the incorporation of sodium into the LAW glass, or (4) accepting an increase in mission duration, ORP has made and continues to make modifications to the WTP contract as needed to improve projected plant performance and address known or emerging risks, Key elements of the implementation of this strategy are included within the scope of the Tank Operations Contract, currently in procurement Since 2003, the ORP has conducted over 30 design oversight assessments of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The estimated cost at completion has increased and the schedule for construction and commissioning of the WTP has extended, The DOE, Office of Environmental Management (EM), sanctioned a comprehensive review of the WTP flowsheet, focusing on throughput. In 2005, the TFC completed interim stabilization of the SSTs and as of March 2007, has completed the retrieval of seven selected SSTs. Demonstration of supplemental treatment technologies continues. The ongoing tank waste retrieval experience, progress with supplemental treatment technologies, and changes in WTP schedule led to the FY 2007 TFC baseline submittal in November 2006. The TFC baseline submittal was developed before the WTP schedule was fully understood and approved by ORP, and therefore reflects an earlier start date for the WTP facilities. This System Plan is aligned with the current WTP schedule with hot commissioning beginning in 2018 and full operations beginning in 2019. Major decisions regarding the use of supplemental treatment and the associated technology, the ultimate needed capacity, and its relationship to the WTP have not yet been finalized. This System Plan assumes that the outcome of

CERTA PJ

2008-07-10

104

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Project Athena's Model of Computation  

E-print Network

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section C Project Athena's Model of Computation by E. E. Balkovich, R to be developed by Project Athena. The computing model concentrates on academic needs and does not attempt of computing to be developed by Project Athena. The computing model concentrates on academic needs and does

Saltzer, Jerome H.

105

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION  

E-print Network

.4 Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data ..................................5 2QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION April 15, 2004 Prepared for: Colorado School Littleton, CO 80127 #12;i QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI Site Remediation Approved By: Date: Linn

106

UMTRA Project: Environment, Safety, and Health Plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has prepared this UMTRA Project Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Plan to establish the policy, implementing requirements, and guidance for the UMTRA Project. The requirements and guidance identified in this plan are designed to provide technical direction to UMTRA Project contractors to assist in the development and implementation of their ES and H plans and programs for UMTRA Project work activities. Specific requirements set forth in this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan are intended to provide uniformity to the UMTRA Project`s ES and H programs for processing sites, disposal sites, and vicinity properties. In all cases, this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan is intended to be consistent with applicable standards and regulations and to provide guidance that is generic in nature and will allow for contractors` evaluation of site or contract-specific ES and H conditions. This plan specifies the basic ES and H requirements applicable to UMTRA Project ES and H programs and delineates responsibilities for carrying out this plan. DOE and contractor ES and H personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment and apply a graded approach when interpreting these guidelines, based on the risk of operations.

Not Available

1995-02-01

107

A Congressional view: access to family planning important.  

PubMed

The US Congress has become reluctant to appropriate funds for family planning assistance in developing countries. In the Congress, international family planning has misguidedly and mistakenly become the battleground over abortion. It is unfortunate that the majority in the 104th and 105th Congress have undertaken a concerted attack on US support for international family planning by reducing needed funding and saddling the program with onerous restrictions. While the Congress debates international family planning funding, women, children, and families around the world are suffering the consequences of reduced and/or restricted access to family planning services. Cutting and/or restricting international family planning funds produces a devastating effect on the health and well-being of women and children in developing countries, and in the long term, the consequences will be overpopulation leading to poverty, malnutrition, urban crowding, environmental degradation, and the depletion of the world's resources. PMID:12322271

Pelosi, N

1998-09-01

108

[Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].  

PubMed

A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education. PMID:12159303

Li, C

1987-07-01

109

Planning Digital Projects for Historical Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the NYPL (last discussed in the May 15, 1999 Scout Report) consist of an overview of planning digital projects for historical collections and an example of just such a project. The site is aimed primarily at librarians and administrators who would like to promote the use of often under-accessed and difficult to classify collections of unique historical materials. The guide briefly discusses the NYPL's own digital projects, answers common questions regarding digital projects, and guides readers through the steps of planning and creating the project, including selecting, organizing, and presenting the materials. The conclusion also offers a number of useful links.

110

NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan  

E-print Network

Armor K. Tresemer NBI Power R. Ramakrishnan NTC Equipment Relocation E. Perry Control Sys Data Acquisition P.Sichta Auxiliary Systems W. Blanchard Construction E. Perry Integrated Testing/Startup C Manager E. Perry Project Controls S. Langish NSTXCenterstack Manager L. Dudek NSTXNeutral Beam Manager T

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

111

Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

Fish, Lynn

2007-01-01

112

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

113

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

114

Main points for 1991 family planning work.  

PubMed

The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to function. Certification will eventually be provided. Provision for FP insurance needs to be encouraged through civil affairs departments, banks, and insurance companies. PMID:12343642

1991-06-01

115

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

116

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

117

Family planning and maternal and child health services.  

PubMed

Considerable effort has been made in the area of family planning in the State of Punjab. Family planning personnel has been recruited and trained at the State Family Planning Training and Research Center in Kharar; supplies of Nirodh, IUDs, oral contraceptives, and hospital equipment along with transportation facilities have been made available; and there has been some building construction. The State Health Education Bureau has worked to produce publicity material and has also used the mass media to create awareness of family planning among the people. As many as 120 rural and 49 urban Family Welfare Planning Centers are providing family planning services along with 856 subcenters in rural areas. 1123 other institutions are also doing family planning work in addition to the efforts of 34 mobile sterilization and IUD units attached to the District Family Planning Bureau and the contributions of some voluntary organizations. Although the state has adopted the cafeteria approach to family planning and the focus is on provision of family planning services on routine days in the various institutions to well-motivated couples, mass family planning camps for vasectomy, tubal ligations, and IUD insertions have been held with considerable success. Additionally, the State has integrated family planning programs with maternal and child health care in order to provide a totality of service. This precedes the total integration of this national program w ith general health services. Punjab has done well in achieving its targets for 1974-1975. Sterilization targets were set at 38,300 and 36,460 sterilizations, 95.2% of the target, were performed. IUD targets were 27,000, and the number achieved was 39,637 or 109.4%. The conventional contraceptive user target was 99,800, and 151,976 or 152.3% of the target figure became conventional contraceptive users. PMID:12307760

Singh, A

1975-12-01

118

Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of rights by the donors of eggs, sperms, or preembryos, allowable compensation for such donations, and the granting of legal status to fertilized ex utero embryos. PMID:12286572

1993-05-01

119

President puts renewed emphases on family planning.  

PubMed

President Jiang Zemin called for major improvements in the country's family planning, resources management and environmental protection at a work conference held in Beijing on March 12 this year on population control, natural resources and environmental protection. In his address, the president noted that the country will strive to control its population within 1.4 billion by the year 2010, halt the deterioration of the environment and noticeably improve it, and enhance resources management. ¿It is an arduous and important task for the Party and the whole nation,¿ the president said. As the world's most populous developing nation, China has limited per capita natural resources. ¿We must always see population control, preservation of resources and environmental protection from a strategic point of view,¿ Jiang said. In the 21st century, China must continue to make great efforts to stabilize the fertility level, maintain rational use and strict management of resources, and protect and improve the environment. ¿Our success or failure will have a direct bearing on the country's economic and social security, the quality of people's lives and the long-term development of China,¿ the president said. In the new century, it is imperative that we earnestly carry out the decisions of the Party and central government on family planning and the stabilization of a low fertility. On environmental protection, the president stressed that continued efforts should be devoted to both pollution prevention and control and ecological protection. The country should implement the strictest rules and regulations, and continue to uphold the principle of ¿developing while protecting: protecting while developing,¿ he said. In developing China's vast western region, it is also necessary to handle well the relationship between economic development and population control. PMID:12295908

2000-02-01

120

Tardigrade Species Distribution Project: Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lesson plan was designed for students taking part in the active research project to document the distribution of a new species of tardigrade, a microscopic invertebrate animal. The project is part of a nationwide online collaborative research project. The lesson plan offers instructional procedures for teachers and lists materials and procedures for collecting, observing, and culturing tardigrades. The lesson involves collecting samples in the field, examining and classifying tartigrades in the samples using a microscope and an online taxonomic key, and keeping a biological journal of their study. Links are provided to other components of the species distribution project.

Balser, Susie; Lindahl, Karen

2009-06-29

121

Tardigrade Species Distribution Project: Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lesson plan was designed for students taking part in the active research project to document the distribution of a new species of tardigrade, a microscopic invertebrate animal. The project is part of a nationwide online collaborative research project. The lesson plan offers instructional procedures for teachers and lists materials and procedures for collecting, observing, and culturing tardigrades. The lesson involves collecting samples in the field, examining and classifying tartigrades in the samples using a microscope and an online taxonomic key, and keeping a biological journal of their study. Links are provided to other components of the species distribution project.

Lindahl, Karen; Balser, Susie; University, Illinois W.

122

Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

2000-11-01

123

Women need skills, income and family planning.  

PubMed

The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

Mumtaz, K

1990-01-01

124

7 CFR 1250.314 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definitions § 1250.314 Plans and projects. Plans and projects means those research, consumer and producer education, advertising, marketing, product development, and promotion plans, studies, or projects pursuant to §...

2012-01-01

125

7 CFR 1250.314 - Plans and projects.  

... Definitions § 1250.314 Plans and projects. Plans and projects means those research, consumer and producer education, advertising, marketing, product development, and promotion plans, studies, or projects pursuant to §...

2014-01-01

126

7 CFR 1250.314 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definitions § 1250.314 Plans and projects. Plans and projects means those research, consumer and producer education, advertising, marketing, product development, and promotion plans, studies, or projects pursuant to §...

2013-01-01

127

7 CFR 1250.314 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definitions § 1250.314 Plans and projects. Plans and projects means those research, consumer and producer education, advertising, marketing, product development, and promotion plans, studies, or projects pursuant to §...

2011-01-01

128

33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24 Section...Implementation Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements...local agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating...

2010-07-01

129

Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.  

PubMed

The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

1993-06-01

130

ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

131

Space Planning And Design Course: Final Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is from the space planning and design course taught by Michelle Mueller at Portland Community College. For their final project, students in the class were asked to conceptually remodel a 1920's era house into a modern studio and separate living quarters. This document includes an overview of the project which may be easily adapted to suit a similar course. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Mueller, Michelle

2011-11-28

132

Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

Worth, George; And Others

133

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

Population Council, New York, NY.

134

World society, family planning programs and the health of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Drawing on world society and policy analysis literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the uneven diffusion of family planning programs in the developing world and the subsequent consequences for child health. The study begins by assessing the effect of world society ties on countries' commitment to and capacity for family planning programs. It then examines

Wade Roberts

2009-01-01

135

The Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). ERIC Digest #E605.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes principles of the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) as required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part C. It lists five ways in which the IFSP differs from the Individualized Education Plan including the centrality of the family. Steps that lead to effective IFSPs are identified. These include:…

Bruder, Mary Beth

136

SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This project is being conducted at the request of the DOE and the NRC. The INL has been requested by the NRC to improve and maintain the Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) tool set concurrent with the changing needs of the user community as well as staying current with new technologies. Successful completion will be upon NRC approved release of all software and accompanying documentation in a timely fashion. This project will enhance the SAPHIRE tool set for the user community (NRC, Nuclear Power Plant operations, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model developers) by providing improved Common Cause Failure (CCF), External Events, Level 2, and Significance Determination Process (SDP) analysis capabilities. The SAPHIRE development team at the Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for successful completion of this project. The project is under the supervision of Curtis L. Smith, PhD, Technical Lead for the SAPHIRE application. All current capabilities from SAPHIRE version 7 will be maintained in SAPHIRE 8. The following additional capabilities will be incorporated: • Incorporation of SPAR models for the SDP interface. • Improved quality assurance activities for PRA calculations of SAPHIRE Version 8. • Continue the current activities for code maintenance, documentation, and user support for the code.

Curtis L.Smith; Ted S. Wood

2010-03-01

137

Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.  

PubMed

Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

Simbar, M

2012-03-01

138

Family planning at heart of political debate.  

PubMed

In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs. PMID:12348706

Kaeser, L

1998-09-01

139

House battles over UN family planning funds.  

PubMed

The House International Relations Subcommittee on Operations and Human Rights approved HR 1253 by voice vote on April 10, 1997. HR 1253 is a reauthorization of State Department programs for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Republican anti-choice subcommittee chair Chris Smith inserted language which prohibits the State Department from funding the UNFPA, the UN family planning program. The restriction would only be lifted if President Clinton certifies that the UNFPA has ended all activities in China or that no government-coerced abortions have taken place in China during the previous 12 months. Since neither change is likely, the Smith provision would effectively bar the US from funding the UNFPA, even though the agency does not support abortion services. The State Department authorization was then taken up by the full House International Relations Committee as part of HR 1486, a bill which would reorganize foreign policy operations. By a 23-16 vote on May 6, the committee approved an amendment which deleted the Smith provision and instead stipulated that US funds cannot be used for UNFPA programs in China. Pro-choice representative Tom Campbell sponsored the amendment which deleted the Smith provision. President Clinton's proposed budget for fiscal year 1998 also includes the Campbell provision. PMID:12292412

1997-05-01

140

Family planning perspective for Haryana State.  

PubMed

The basic, subsistence level, needs for an average Indian are Rs. 100 per month. Normally an Indian spends 57 percent of his income on food. From 1961-71 the per capita income rose by only Rs. 90, from Rs. 337 to Rs. 427. 40 percent of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. The population rises in geometric progression, but the economy develops arithmetically. The goal of family planning officials is to stabilize the population as quickly as possible. If the basic minimum is Rs. 100 per month by 1998 then the population must be stabilized by 1984 to zero population growth. The birth rate must be reduced from 20 in 1978-79 to 13 by 1984. The Gross National Product should be raised by a rate of 6 percent per year. If zero population growth is achieved, 4,160,838 births will have been avoided. 1 birth avoided saves approximately Rs. 690 to Rs. 1360. To achieve zero population growth requires massive sterilizations, IUD insertions, and constant motivational efforts through workers in a small community of 3500-5000. The hospital for the State of Haryana needs facilities and personnel to be able to perform 75,000 tubectomies. PMID:10308707

Sondhi, P R

1975-01-01

141

THEORETICALLY-BASED FAMILY INTERVIEW PROJECT TRANSCENDING FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES DISCIPLINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a family relations project that can be utilized in family related classes at either the high school or college level. The authors describe an assignment utilizing interviews with grandparents or other family members to help student understand family theory. The authors discuss how the assignment was developed, the theory guiding the project, a method of assessment, and

Rebecca A. Adams; Amy J. Harden

142

Family planning and protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

1991-12-01

143

Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

144

Role of village practitioners in family planning service delivery system.  

PubMed

The acceptability of village practitioners (VPs) as providers of family planning service and their efficiency in delivery of such services is assessed. 120 VPs were selected on stratified random sample basis from 4 Thanas in Malaysia and were trained for 21 days on different aspects of family planning, MCH diagnosis and treatment of common ailments. Regular monthly meetings at the respective Thana Health Complexes were held to assess the progress of work on clinical discussion and for problem solving. The VPs showed interest in the training program and opined that such training programs should be organized on a continual basis. After training, the VPs were actively involved in distribution of contraceptives and referral of patients for clinical methods for 1 year. The compiled progress report on distribution of contraceptives in monthly meetings shows that the VPs contributed to 37% of the total performances of the population control division in the 4 Thanas. The use of contraceptives improved during the experimental project. 50% of the males and 36% of the females reported current use of contraceptives compared to 23% in the National Program. PMID:12314740

Rahman, S

1985-12-01

145

Post-abortion family planning: reversing a legacy of neglect.  

PubMed

UN policies have been narrowly focused and have created within the international community the disintegration of family planning and postabortion family planning services. Local policy markers were thus encouraged to circumvent the difficult policy issues surrounding abortion. The result was unsafe abortion as the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Health professionals must resist the pressures to segregate abortion from reproductive health. The destructive effect is evident in the lives lost, the chronic disability or injury. and the deterioration of families. Death, disability, and injury is preventable in the case of abortion. The current political climate has changed and there is more support throughout the world for dealing with unsafe abortion. Efforts were made in the formation of a 25-member technical working group in Bellagio, Italy, in February 1993 to focus attention on reintegrating abortion and family planning. Conference participants represented a range of professions related to reproductive health needs. The group consensus was that abortion care facilities and family planning programs must be responsive to provision of family planning services to abortion patients. Family planning centers must serve all women and provide referral when abortion services are not part of the program. Abortion care providers must be aware of family planning and create links with providers of family planning. High-quality services are the goal that can be achieved by designing programs to meet the need of individuals rather than an arbitrary set of standards. Post-abortion family planning can be improved despite restrictive laws and must not be ignored until laws have changed. Political and managerial will is required in order to improve access to a full range of reproductive health services for women. It is an ethically responsible mandate to facilitate access to safe, appropriate contraceptive information and services following abortion. PMID:8105318

McLaurin, K E; Senanayake, P; Toubia, N; Ladipo, O A

1993-10-30

146

Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Facilities development project plan  

SciTech Connect

While the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) project is subject to future Administration policy decisions, budget proposals and Congressional actions, this Project Plan sets forth a feasible technical, cost, and schedule plan associated with the development of 750 million barrels of SPR crude oil storage and for enhancement of the SPR's distribution system to achieve a distribution capability of 4.5 million barrels per day. Assuming future adoption by the Administration and Congress of the project schedule identified in this Project Plan, The Total Project Cost (TPC) in program year dollars is $2,500,000,000. The TPC excludes post-development operations, capital improvement projects, terminal standby services, and oil acquisition. Under the same assumption, the schedule objectives of this project are: completion of the 750-million-barrel reserve, excluding oil fill, by September 30, 1992 in accordance with the storage capacity development schedule presented in Attachment 1. Completion of distribution enhancements to provide a distribution capability of 4.5 million barrels per day by September 30, 1992 in accordance with the following schedule: 3.0 million barrels per day by July 31, 1987; 3.5 million barrels per day by September 30, 1989; and 4.5 million barrels per day by September 30, 1992.

Not Available

1986-10-01

147

Innovative resettlement schemes planned for the Numata Dam project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Numata Dam, planned for the Tone River basin of Gunma Prefecture, was the largest dam construction project ever considered in Japan. This dam construction project, however, did not materialize. The proposal for the Numata Dam was first launched in 1959, at a time when the Tokyo Metropolitan area was mushrooming, both in population and industrial activity. The Numata Dam was supposed to be a prioritized dam construction project to alleviate the then anticipated water shortage in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The Numata Dam plan experienced fierce opposition from those who would have been obliged to resettle, whereas those in Tokyo and the surrounding metropolitan area welcomed the plan. The major concern of the planned Numata Dam was the number of resettlers, which was then estimated to be around 3000 families. The resettlement plan developed for the Numata Dam included some innovative concepts, which may be applicable even today, for dam construction projects in the developing world. The plan included such ideas as (a) having resettlers share existing farmland with the present owners provided improvements were made to increase productivity, (b) paying rent to resettlers, and (c) establishing the Tone River Development Agency. After more than a decade of debate, both at national and local levels, the Numata Dam project was finally discarded through a decision of the Prime Minister in 1972. The resettlement schemes elaborated for the Numata Dam still appear to be innovative. Such schemes may be applied to projects in the developing world, in particular, in nations that are about to take off with economic development. Copyright

Nakayama, Mikiyasu

2003-10-01

148

FY95 software project management plan: TMACS, CASS computer systems  

SciTech Connect

The FY95 Work Plan for TMACS and CASS Software Projects describes the activities planned for the current fiscal year. This plan replaces WHC-SD-WM-SDP-008. The TMACS project schedule is included in the TWRS Integrated Schedule.

Spurling, D.G.

1994-11-11

149

Issues in NASA Program and Project Management: Focus on Project Planning and Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics addressed include: Planning and scheduling training for working project teams at NASA, overview of project planning and scheduling workshops, project planning at NASA, new approaches to systems engineering, software reliability assessment, and software reuse in wind tunnel control systems.

Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

1997-01-01

150

[Family planning and community development: an indissoluble partnership].  

PubMed

Local publications about population in Rwanda over the past 3 years have tended either to view population growth and high density as advantageous because they lead to more intensive use of resources and hence development, or to view Rwanda as regressing economically and socially because of its very rapid population growth. It is questionable whether Rwanda's development goals can be attained without bringing down the rate of population growth. Population pressure in some rural areas has become catastrophic, yet parents do not see their large families as a problem because they expect their children once grown to make their living elsewhere. Local authorities should help to communicate the concept that only demographic stability will allow achievement of communal development goals. The advantages of smaller families should be discussed. Rwanda's policy of increasing agricultural production has encountered numerous obstacles. Subdivision of plots through inheritance, sale, or sharecropping is a problem in itself and also tends to increase erosion. None of the methods of increasing plot size by collectivization or resettling the population is without serious drawbacks. The best solution appears to be encouragement of better cultivation techniques through extension agents and demonstration projects at the local level. Artisanal activities and manual labor should be promoted to provide employment at the communal level. Community development projects should be decentralized and carefully planned to meet local needs. PMID:12315661

Butera, G

1988-12-01

151

PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.  

PubMed

Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250

1983-01-01

152

[Notes on family planning and political power in the Maghreb].  

PubMed

This paper examines the reasons for which family planning takes different forms in 3 similar northwest African countries, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. There is a malthusian attitude toward population growth in Tunisia and Morocco, where there are national family planning programs; such is not the case in Algeria. While all 3 countries recognize the need for limiting population growth, there is more emphasis on this politically in Tunisia than in Algeria. In Tunisia the head of state will speak out on family planning; in Morocco the head of state leaves this for organizations to do. Ideas on family planning get out more effectively to the Tunisian population than to the Moroccans. In differing degrees, respect for time honored tradition and recognition of religious values are factors that family planners must deal with in all of these countries if state authorities are to be taken more seriously. PMID:12311266

Boukraa, R

1976-01-01

153

[Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].  

PubMed

To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes. PMID:22891526

Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

2012-07-01

154

Project Management Plan (PMP) for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Project  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the PFP IAEA project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) HNF-3617 Rev 0.

BARTLETT, W.D.

1999-09-14

155

Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.  

PubMed

Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

Macqueen, I A

1974-06-01

156

UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan  

SciTech Connect

The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs.

Not Available

1989-02-01

157

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

158

FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to  

E-print Network

1 FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report (PAC1) FIRE Mission: Finding F1-1: PAC-1 felt that the FIRE mission statement, "Attain, explore, understand states the scientific direction and objectives of the FIRE program, but that the mission statement does

159

China: women benefit from the family planning programme.  

PubMed

This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role models. Family planning acceptance has not occurred evenly across the country, and some old social traditions of son preference still prevail. China is described as committed to programs for sustainable development, the protection of women's rights, and the enhancement of women's status. PMID:12290277

Xiao, Z

1995-08-01

160

Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.  

PubMed

While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

2014-09-01

161

Family Planning Practice Guidelines for HIO Service Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practical guidelines are presented for providing family planning services through polyclinics run by health insurance organizations. Intended for use by clinic medical staff, the report gives instructions on providing the following types of contraceptives...

F. Ali, J. Kulmindar, K. O'Hanley

1990-01-01

162

Effort and achievement in national family planning programmes.  

PubMed

New data show that national family planning programmes have made impressive progress in the last 25 years. Fertility rates have been reduced dramatically, but during the current decade even greater achievements will be called for. PMID:7945753

Ross, J A; Mauldin, W P

1994-01-01

163

African American Women and Family Planning Services: Perceptions of Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine perceived race-based discrimination in obtaining family planning or contraceptive services among African American women in the U.S.Methods: We conducted a 30-minute telephone survey with a random sample of 500 African Americans (aged 15–44), which included questions about race-based discrimination when obtaining family planning services. The present analyses were limited to the

Sheryl Thorburn; Laura M. Bogart

2005-01-01

164

On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.  

PubMed

This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

1999-01-01

165

Family planning policy and its implementation in China.  

PubMed

Practicing family planning constitutes China's fundamental state policy. The basic task is to control population quantity and improve population quality. Since 1970, important achievements have been made in both these categories. The birth rate has declined from 33.43/1000 to 17.5/1000. Population quality has been improved by increasing maternal and child health and education. Practicing family planning is China's most important need because China is not only the world's most populous country, it is also a developing socialist country with insufficient farm land. In 1978, the Communist party leaders, demographers, and family planners reached a consensus that social production includes both material production and human reproduction. A large population can have both positive and negative effects; where material production is underdeveloped, excessive population growth is burden to economic development and raising living standards. China is putting family planning first to help solve the problems of underdevelopment. The Chinese government has attempted to work out realistic, reasonable, and acceptable family planning policy. Goals include 1) quadrupling the gross national product by 2000 and 2) keeping the population size to 1.2 billion in the same time frame. This would give people an $800 per capita income by 2000. To achieve this goal, the government has advocated the one child family since 1979. This policy varies, however, with different economic and cultural conditions, locations, nationalities, and individual circumstances. Government guidance in combination with people's voluntarism is the basicprinciple in practicing family planning. PMID:12280504

Shen, G

1985-10-01

166

Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design  

SciTech Connect

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

EVOSEVICH, S.

2000-10-30

167

Ironic Interventions: CUSO Volunteers in India's Family Planning Campaign, 1960s-1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian University Service Overseas (CUSO), a non-governmental organization established in 1961, placed young volunteers in assignments in the developing world. Among the volunteers was a small and atypical group, mostly nurses, who served in family planning projects in India. Although CUSO was a secular NGO, the majority worked for an Indian Christian medical organization founded by missionaries in the late

Ruth Compton Brouwer

2010-01-01

168

Ironic Interventions: CUSO Volunteers in India's Family Planning Campaign, 1960s-1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Canadian University Service Overseas (CUSO), a non-governmental organization established in 1961, placed young volunteers in assignments in the developing world. Among the volunteers was a small and atypical group, mostly nurses, who served in family planning projects in India. Although CUSO was a secular NGO, the majority worked for an Indian Christian medical organization founded by missionaries in the late

Ruth Compton Brouwer

2010-01-01

169

A Comparison of Hispanic and White Adolescent Females' Use of Family Planning Services in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: In California, the adolescent birthrate among Hispanics is three times that among whites. Because Hispan- ics are projected to make up one-half of the state's adolescents by 2020, it is important to determine how cultural and health policy-relevant factors are linked to this group's use of family planning services. METHODS: Data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey were

M. Rosa Solorio; Hongjian Yu; E. Richard Brown; Lida Becerra; Lillian Gelberg

2004-01-01

170

Family Planning: Improving Opportunities for Women. Report Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains eight articles on the importance of the role of women in family planning. An Assistant Secretary General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations, calls for increased female participation in national development. The Secretary General of The International Planned Parenthood Federation observes that women…

Victor-Bostrom Fund Committee, Washington, DC.

171

Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

172

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

173

The provision of family planning services in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

This article examines the provision of family planning services in selected countries in the Caribbean. The potential impact of the funding shortfall resulting from the phasing out of funding by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the strategies being adopted by the selected countries to cope with this, are considered. Stratified random sampling methods were employed to select eight Caribbean countries and a pre-designed questionnaire was administered to the agency responsible for family planning services in each country. The sample was stratified geographically to include countries from different parts of the Caribbean. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the services provided, the name of the agency responsible for the provision of services and, where possible, the number of users of each type of service in 1998 and 1997. Vast disparities were found in the provision of family planning services in different Caribbean countries, in terms of the groups involved, the services available in each country, as well as methods of data collection and compilation. Anguilla and Bermuda were found to provide only limited family planning services, while Barbados, Jamaica and Grenada provide much more sophisticated services. A salient finding was the innovative approaches that various countries in the region have adopted to fund family planning programmes in anticipation of the phasing out of IPPF funding. The standpoint taken in the study is that countries such as Anguilla and Bermuda must strive to improve their provision of family planning services, and that they could learn from Barbados, Grenada and Jamaica, which provide much more comprehensive services. It is also concluded that, unless alternative funding sources are identified and accessed, the provision of family planning services in the Caribbean is likely to decline in the future. PMID:12117216

Yeboah, David Achanfuo

2002-07-01

174

Family planning education helps build self-esteem.  

PubMed

I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

Choudhary, P

1993-10-01

175

Double Star project - master science operations plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Double Star Project (DSP) exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2) and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP) were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments,

C. Shen; Z. Liu

2005-01-01

176

PREPARING PERFECT PROJECT PLANS: A POCKET GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This Pocket Guide helps you prepare Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans thoroughly and easily. he Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) utilizes a four-tiered project category approach in order to more effectively focus QA with respect to the intended use of the data and ...

177

President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.  

PubMed

Presented in this brief article are excerpts of a speech given by the Chinese State President and Party Secretary-General Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection on March 8, 1997. He states that family planning and environmental policies require long-term considerations. Both family planning and environmental matters are correlated and relate to socioeconomic development in China. Population growth will have negative impacts on the environment, and environmental mismanagement will adversely affect people's health and living conditions. The importance of environmental and family planning policies must be known to every household, and these policies must be effectively implemented as part of socioeconomic development programs. Although China's family planning policy has been successful in reducing China's population size and growth, the task ahead of guaranteeing a population under 1.3 billion by 2000 is enormous. The challenge will be to implement effective programs in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Family planning should be combined with poverty alleviation and income development. Policies should give priority to poor family planning acceptors. China has made "significant progress in environmental protection," but the public is creating "a higher demand on the quality of the environment." By the year 2000, the trends in environmental pollution and ecological destruction must be controlled and the quality of the environment improved. By 2010, there should be evidence of environmental improvements in urban areas, in degraded situations, and in rural areas. Environmental protection will require the cooperation between all departments, the Communist Party, and the Chinese people. PMID:12347918

Jiang, Z

1997-04-01

178

7 CFR 1260.126 - Plans and projects.  

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.126 Plans and projects. Plans and projects...

2014-01-01

179

7 CFR 1260.126 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.126 Plans and projects. Plans and projects...

2012-01-01

180

7 CFR 1260.126 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.126 Plans and projects. Plans and projects...

2013-01-01

181

7 CFR 1260.126 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.126 Plans and projects. Plans and projects...

2010-01-01

182

Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

2014-01-01

183

Family planning programs during last one decade in Korea.  

PubMed

The public and private family planning programs in Korea are described and their progress in population control during the 1960's is discussed. A goal of a natural increase rate of 2% per year by 1971 was set in 1961 when the rate was 3%. It was estimated that 45% of the married couples of childbearing age would have to actively practice family planning to meet that goal, and 2370 family planning workers are participating now in the program throughout the country. The family planning program operates as part of the already existing national health service network. All fmaily planning services are provided free or with only a nominal charge at most. Intrauterine devices, oral contraceptives, condoms and vasectomies are the most common contraceptive methods chosen, in that order. A 1968 survey on abortion which is illegal in Korea showed 30% of urban women and 15% of rural women had had at least 1 induced abortion. In 1970 it was estimated that 1.8 million IUD insertions and 146 thousand vasectomies had been performed, 276,000 women had been started on oral contraceptives, and 163,000 condoms had been distributed. Numerous problems have been encountered by the Korean family planning program including inadequate financing and political power, association with a generally poor maternal health service, lack of follow-up and statistical evaluating, and unnecessary bureaucratic procedures. Professionally, trained family planning workers have a high attrition rate. Ever-greater numbers of young Korean women are now entering their childbearing period which increases the challenge to the family planning program, along with the problems of an increasingly heterogeneous urban society. Reducing family size to only 2 children conflicts with deep-seated cultural traditions, and even if the motivation exists, present contraceptive technology remains inadequate. In partial response to these problems, increasing emphasis is being placed on paramedical personnel and a mass media educational campaign. Improved organization, a greater supply of well-trained workers, and well-controlled field and clinical studies are needed to improve Korea's family planning program. PMID:5161482

Yang, J M

1971-01-01

184

Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. PMID:24326309

Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

2014-11-01

185

[The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].  

PubMed

Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

Portes, M

1983-01-01

186

Family planning practices in families with children affected by ?-thalassemia major in Southern Iran.  

PubMed

Preventing the birth of children with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with ?-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had ?-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with ?-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary. PMID:23181733

Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran

2013-01-01

187

Functional Education for Family Life Planning: A Program Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the first in a series of monographs, describes the experiences of World Education in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in its efforts to establish programs in functional literacy, adult education, and population planning. It is divided into three main sections. Section I, A Program Comes into Being, describes the thrust of the overall…

Keehn, Thomas B.

188

Achieving success with family planning in rural Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Afghan women have one of the world’s highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country’s health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world’s highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. Approach We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. Local setting The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. Relevant changes The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24–27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Lessons learnt Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up. PMID:20428392

Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil

2010-01-01

189

[Family planning program on the island of Mauritius].  

PubMed

Because of concern with rapid population growth and resource limitations in its island nation, the government of Mauritius several years ago adopted a family planning program whose objective was to slow the crude reproduction rate from 2.9 in 1962 to 1.1 between 1980-87. The Mauritian Family Planning Association had met considerable opposition, especially from religious groups, in the years following its formation in 1957, and a Catholic group, Family Action, had been formed to promote methods acceptable to the Church. In 1965 the government began to subsidize the Mauritian Family Planning Association. As recently as 1977 the maternal mortality rate in Mauritius was 1.6/1000, 15 times higher than in Europe or the US. 23 of each 38 deaths were believed due to complications of clandestine abortion, and hospitalization rates for abortion complications were also high. Maternal mortality following live births at home was estimated at 2.7/1000, compared to 1.3 for hospital births. The government announced the goal of reducing infant mortality from 45/1000 live births in 1977 to 40/1000 by 1982-87. Important causes of perinatal mortality were prematurity, intestinal infection, diarrhea, and pneumonia. The World Bank sent 2 missions to advise the government on organization of a family planning program in 1967, and in 1970 an accord was signed with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities for family planning assistance. In 1974, family planning services were integrated into the Maternal-Child Health Division of the Ministry of Health. A variety of contraceptive means were to be offered. Family planning personnel include physicians, clinic assistants, nurses, midwives, promoters, and fieldworkers. Family planning supervisors are responsible for fieldworkers, promoters, and clinic assistants in specified geographic areas. In 1978, there were 71 maternal-child health/family planning centers, 42 contraceptive distribution centers, and 14 family planning clinics, in addition to clinics and hospitals outside the national program. A communication committee was formed in 1978 to coordinate the communication activities of the Family Planning Association, Family Action, and the government program. IEC programs are addressed to adults and to youth in schools, who may receive instruction at primary of secondary level by any of the 3 programs on population, family life, and sex education. A 1975 survey indicated that 88% of the women interviewed knew about the pill, 44% the IUD, 52% the Ogino method, and 50% the condom. 1161 of the 1821 married women interviewed stated they had never used contraception and 833 were currently using some method. The total fertility rate declined from 5.9 in 1962 to 3.3 in 1972 and 3.1 in 1978. From 1980 to 1981 the crude birthrate declined from 27.9 to 25.1/1000 and the crude mortality rate from 7.2 to 6.9/1000. PMID:12265821

1983-01-01

190

A comparison of the individualized education plan and the individualized family service plan.  

PubMed

The individualized education plan (IEP) and the individualized family service plan (IFSP) are mandated for children with special needs. Occupational therapists participate in the development of both the IEP and the IFSP. This paper summarizes the similarities and the differences in the mandated components. The components addressed are (a) information about the child's status, (b) information about the family, (c) outcomes for the child and family, (d) intervention services, (e) other services, (f) dates and duration of services, (g) selection of a case manager, and (h) transition plans. PMID:1532691

Decker, B

1992-03-01

191

Is family planning an economic decision?  

PubMed

This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

Wunderink, S R

1995-09-01

192

Assessing the Value of the Follow-Through Family Project for Students and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of follow-through family projects that linked 120 nursing students with 90 childbearing families indicated that students enjoyed establishing therapeutic relationships and developed care skills and appreciation for childbirth as a transition. Families appreciated the health and education support and individualized assistance and felt…

Broom, Betty L.

2001-01-01

193

Project management plan for the Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the project management plan for design and development of the Object Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) Project. The purpose of the project management plan is to document the plans, goals, directions, commitments, approaches, and decisions that relate to guiding a project throughout its life cycle. Special attention is given to project goals, deliverables, sponsor and project standards, project resources, schedule, and cost estimates.

Rasch, K.A.; Reid, R.W.

1997-02-01

194

[The necessity of family planning policy].  

PubMed

The rationale behind the current government policy in promoting birth control in China was that the large population had been a heavy burden to economic growth. Besides, there had not been any important social mechanism that moved against population growth. Excessive "idle" population has facilitated raising young generations. Before rural economic reform, the income distribution in rural areas depended on the number of people in a family. This system apparently had a pro-natal effect. Even after the reform, no significant advantage of having a small family has appeared. As the net flow of wealth from children to parents was still considered positive and the opportunity costs in raising children is relatively low in rural areas, the incentive to produce more children is still present. In urban areas, grandparents may take the responsibility of caring for children for a large number of young couples; therefore, the opportunity costs to these parents may not be significant. Cultural traditions and a distorted low cost of raising children all stimulate population growth. Under such conditions, using an administrative system to implement population policies would be the most effective means of halting population growth. The target of the policy should be the causes of population growth rather than the outcome. PMID:12317523

Yan, H

1991-02-01

195

Inequalities in the Use of Family Planning in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions.

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

196

Ethical issues in family planning for hospitalized psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

The authors present guidelines based on their experience with a family planning program for patients in mental hospitals. They believe that informed consent for these patients should include an adequate knowledge base, the patients' competence to make decisions, and the absence of coercion. Among safeguards are the reversibility of contraceptive procedures, the separation of the family planning counselor from the treatment staff to avoid possible covert coercion, and careful choice of the stage of hospitalization at which counseling occurs. The authors examine the implications of a patient's refusal to use contraception, noting the impossibility of involuntary contraception and the ethical and legal problems regarding sterilization procedures. PMID:1115263

Grunebaum, H; Abernethy, V

1975-03-01

197

CAMPUS PLANNING COMMITTEE PLANNING AND REVIEW PROCESS FOR MAJOR CAPITAL PROJECTS  

E-print Network

of the program and site associated with a new building or major renovation project and includes a detailed cost project. III. DEFINITIONS A. MAJOR CAPITAL PROJECT: A project that involves construction of a new buildingCAMPUS PLANNING COMMITTEE PLANNING AND REVIEW PROCESS FOR MAJOR CAPITAL PROJECTS (Revised September

California at Santa Barbara, University of

198

[Chen Muhua gives radio talk on family planning].  

PubMed

Planned parenthood is a major event concerning the vital interests of each family and individual and the prosperity and development of China. An excessive population growth rate has limited an improvement of the people's living standards and has adversely affected economic growth. Planned parenthood should be encouraged in accordance with China's Constitution and the provisions of the new marriage law. Late marriage and childbirth is a way of showing one's responsiblity toward the next generation. Eugenics is an important aspect of planned parenthood. Giving birth to physically unhealthy or mentally retarded children will place additional burdens on the family and society. In promoting planned parenthood it is necessary to do ideological and educational work in a patient and meticulous way. Planned parenthood must be widely propagated. Late marriage, late birth, and eugenics must be encouraged, and the advantages and significance of the 1 child family must be publicized. It is necessary to make early and realistic efforts to ensure the success of ideological work in planned parenthood, contraceptive measures, and birth programs. This will prevent unwanted conceptions and help achieve the goal of bringing the population under control. It is also necessary to strengthen work regarding maternity and child care and to popularize scientific knowledge concerning nursing babies. PMID:12264021

1981-02-01

199

Organized family planning services in the United States, 1976-1977.  

PubMed

In 1977, an estimated 4.2 million women received contraceptive services from organized family planning programs in the United States. The number of patients has grown each year since the late 1960s, but since 1973, growth has slowed concurrently with a diminished increase in the level of federal funding for family planning services. The proportion of clinic patients who are teenagers increased from 20 percent in 1969 to 31 percent in 1977. An estimated 1.3 million adolescents received services in 1977, compared with just 214,000 in 1969. Contraceptive services were provided during 1977 by 2,574 agencies at some 5,300 clinic sites. Health departments served 42 percent of all family planning patients; Planned Parenthood affiliates served 27 percent; hospitals served 13 percent; and community action groups, free clinics, neighborhood health centers and women's health programs together served 18 percent. Federal expenditures for medical family planning services provided by organized clinics and private physicians rose from an estimated $13.5 million in 1968 to $239.1 million in 1977. Estimated federal expenditures for clinic services were $192.5 million--three-quarters of the total $252.6 million in public and private expenditures for such programs. Federal project grant funds under Title X of the Public Health Services Act accounted for 42 percent of all medical family planning expenditures in clinics, and for 55 percent of all federal funds expended for this purpose. These findings are based on data from the most recent study of the organized family planning service network conducted by The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) for 1977.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:401079

Torres, A

1979-01-01

200

Student Wellbeing and Development (renamed from `Pastoral Care') Work Slate Project -Project Initiation Plan  

E-print Network

Student Wellbeing and Development (renamed from `Pastoral Care') Work Slate Project - Project Initiation Plan Project objectives The Student Wellbeing and Development Project will investigate, report and make recommendations about the appropriate support of student wellbeing and development

Viglas, Anastasios

201

Planning for Quality Schools: Meeting the Needs of District Families. Phase One: Understanding Current School Supply and Student Enrollment Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…

Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping

2008-01-01

202

The Role of Communications in Population and Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author outlines the historical development of information and education programs for population control and family planning, arguing that communications activities should receive as much emphasis as the health services program. The public information aspect includes use of mass media, advertising and promotion, public relations…

Sweeney, William O.

203

A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

Hosken, Fran P.

1984-01-01

204

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

205

Local Needs Assessment and Planning Efforts for Family Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the adequacy of the current Area Agency on Aging (AAA) needs assessment techniques for identifying and meeting the unique needs of family caregivers, as required under the reauthorized Older Americans Act (OAA, 2000). Our analysis is based on a review of California AAAs' Title III-E Area Plans and their responses to a follow-up survey. The findings underscore

Kathryn G. Kietzman; Andrew E. Scharlach; Teresa S. Dal Santo

2004-01-01

206

Transition Planning Involving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family involvement in the transition process has been recognized as a crucial indicator of successful transition planning. Many parents, however, take a passive role in their child's Individualized Education Program (IEP) transition meeting. Moreover, despite the clear mandate of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are even less involved. This article explores

Kyeong-Hwa Kim; Mary E. Morningstar

2005-01-01

207

Family planning clinics: facing higher costs and sicker patients.  

PubMed

Family planning clinics throughout the United States are facing a variety of obstacles that threaten their ability to provide necessary contraceptive services to low-income women and teenagers, according to interviews with clinic administrators. In the last few years, the proportion of patients coming to family planning agencies in need of screening or treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has increased dramatically. Many providers report that 10-15 percent of their clients are infected with chlamydia, the most prevalent STD. The increasing costs of Pap tests and contraceptives are also major problems: As a result of recent federal legislation, the price of Pap tests has risen substantially, and that of contraceptives is beginning to increase steeply. Finally, Title X funding for family planning services has decreased 66 percent over the last decade if both cuts and inflation are taken into account. As a result of the squeeze between increased costs and decreased public funding, clinics have been forced to charge higher fees, maintain long waiting lists for appointments and curtail community outreach. In addition, growth of the family planning patient population has slowed dramatically, and even declined, in some places. PMID:1743271

Donovan, P

1991-01-01

208

Diffusion of Innovations: Family Planning in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.

ELAINE MURPHY

2004-01-01

209

The Use of Timelines in Illustrating the Permanency Planning Process for Families Infected\\/Affected by HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Ties Project (FTP) is a multi-agency, collaborative, federally funded demonstration project whose mission is to promote and preserve the well-being of District of Columbia (DC) children, youth, and families affected by HIV\\/AIDS by working with parents and caregivers to plan for the future care of their children. FTP was first funded in 1996 through the federal Administration for

Michelle Palmer; Melissa Zobel

2005-01-01

210

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

Ross, W.E.

1998-05-11

211

Software project initiation and planning - an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of 14 software companies, on how they initiate and pre-plan software projects. The aim was to obtain an indication of the range of planning activities carried out. The study, using a convenience sample, was carried out using structured interviews, with questions about early software project planning activities. The study offers evidence that an iterative and

D. Greer; Reidar Conradi

2009-01-01

212

Quality services for Shanghai couples. Urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article is based on a report prepared by the Family Planning Technical Guidance Station of Shanghai, China. The Municipal Bureau of Public Health and the Family Planning Office of Shanghai established a special unit for family planning and technical guidance for contraceptive services in the late 1960s. The special unit became a formal program in 1980. Recent activities focused on improving reproductive health care and contraceptive services. The first clinic offered a variety of contraceptives to choose from and a quiet setting to discuss delicate issues. The counseling involved women in a variety of circumstances, including women who sought an abortion after contraceptive failure. In one example, a couple both learned how to insert a diaphragm, which was key to contraceptive success, since the wife was unable to insert the device properly. The first training class for 100 young couples was held in 1983. The class was so popular that classes were established to train trainers. In 1990 the center introduced new up-to-date counseling skills and audiovisual aides. Training workshops are devoted to counseling, modern and up-to-date contraceptive information, health care, emergency contraception, and other topics. There are pilot programs in communities and among households that integrate health education for family planning and maternal-child health care. Over the 16-year period, 100,000 visits were recorded. IEC includes textbooks about reproductive health, wall charts, and videotapes that promote informed choice. The center conducted technical training for 320 family planning service centers. Unwanted births and abortion have declined. The center conducts studies about the safety of IUDs. PMID:12320706

1997-02-01

213

[Nursing intervention in the family treatment plan for anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

One of the main nursing interventions in the treatment of eating disorders is family psycho-education, an essential aspect of mental health treatment. This article describes and analyses the difficulties families expressed in the performance of a treatment plan for patients hospitalised for anorexia nervosa (AN) in the adolescent Day Hospital of Mental Health, of the Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, during 2009. Data was also collected data on professional interventions, performed by the nurse assigned to this unit, in order to group and categorise them, and as an aid to nursing intervention. A total of 10 families of the 10 patients admitted with a diagnosis of AN were included in the study period. In all cases, the patients were young women who had received treatment before in an Outpatient Unit, with partial or no response to the treatment. The difficulties expressed by the families were grouped into five categories from content analysis: problems in preparing a balanced diet, problems as they are unable to handle the behaviour and emotions of the patient, problems because as there are no previous family eating habits, problems because there is no family control or supervision, and problems with the established guidelines. Specific individualised interventions are proposed for developing and promoting a nursing care plan, and assessing the results. PMID:22104194

Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Arias-Núñez, Eloisa; Naranjo-Díaz, M Carmen; Palomino-Escrivá, Jezabel; Lorenzo-Capilla, Angel

2011-01-01

214

To integrate family planning into the building up of mental civilization by offering comprehensive services.  

PubMed

The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism. PMID:12281754

1988-03-01

215

Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode). The control system will be a combination of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), or equivalent, and relay logic. The operator shall have the ability to adjust lift/lower velocity and position of the table. All measurements will be made as close to, and in line with, the axis of motion as practical. Measurement data, system parameter information, and interlock status shall be displayed.

Ellsworth, G F

2002-08-05

216

Project X Accelerator R&D Plan  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading program in neutrino and flavor physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Project X is an integral part of the Fermilab Roadmap as described in the Fermilab Steering Group Report. Project X is based on an 8 GeV superconducting H-linac, paired with the existing (but modified) Main Injector and Recycler Ring, to provide in excess of 2 MW of beam power throughout the energy range 60-120 GeV, simultaneous with at least 100 kW of beam power at 8 GeV. The linac utilizes technology in common with the ILC over the energy range 0.6-8.0 GeV. Beam current parameters can be made identical to ILC resulting in identical rf generation and distribution systems. This alignment of ILC and Project X technologies allows for a shared development effort. The initial 0.6 GeV of the linac draws heavily on technology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for a facility for rare isotope beams. It is anticipated that the exact configuration and operating parameters of the linac will be defined through the R&D program and will retain alignment with the ILC plan as it evolves over this period. Utilization of the Recycler Ring as an H{sup -} stripper and accumulator ring is the key element that provides the flexibility to operate the linac with the same beam parameters as the ILC. The linac operates at 5 Hz with a total of 5.6 x 10{sup 13} H{sup -} ions delivered per pulse. H{sup -} are stripped at injection into the Recycler in a manner that 'paints' the beam both transversely and longitudinally to reduce space charge forces. Following the 1 ms injection, the orbit moves off the stripping foil and circulates for 200 msec, awaiting the next injection. Following three such injections a total of 1.7 x 10{sup 14} protons are transferred in a single turn to the Main Injector. These protons are then accelerated to 120 GeV and fast extracted to a neutrino target. The Main Injector cycle takes 1.4 seconds, producing approximately 2.3 MW of beam power at 120 GeV. At lower proton energies Main Injector cycle times can be shorter, allowing a beam power above 2 MW in the range of proton energy between 60 GeV and 120 GeV. In parallel, because the loading of the Recycler only requires 0.6 seconds, up to four linac cycles are available for accumulation and distribution of 8 GeV protons from the Recycler. Total available 8 GeV beam power lies in the range of 100-200 kW, depending on the energy in the Main Injector. Primary modifications to the existing accelerator complex to support Project X include integration of an H{sup -} injection system, a new RF system, a new extraction system, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects, in the Recycler Ring. The Main Injector would need a new RF system, measures to preserve beam stability through transition, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects. Finally, substantial modifications to the existing NuMI target station will be required to support >2 MW operations. It is anticipated that Project X configured as described above would initially support high intensity neutrino beams to the NOvA experiment, in parallel with at least one new 8 GeV based flavor/rare decay experiment. Depending upon future directions flexibility is retained for delivering neutrinos toward the DUSEL site and/or protons into the Tevatron. The purpose of this document is to describe an R&D plan that would position the U.S. to initiate construction of Project X in the 2012 time frame, assuming a go ahead decision in roughly 2010. The organization of this document is as follows: (1) Goals - Describes goals of the R&D and preliminary design period (2008-2011). Included are design, technical development, project documentation, and organizational goals. These are described in the context of an overall set of performance goals for Project X. (2) R&D Plan Elements - Describes the essential technical elements of the plan, including major subsystem performance requirements, associated accelerator and technology issues, and the plans for add

Not Available

2008-01-31

217

Helping Families Adjust to Economic Change. A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was developed to gain more insight into family financial problems, to identify these problems, and to formulate educational strategies to deal with and help solve these problems. This project was conducted in three phases, which included community outreach, development of educational materials, and evaluation. Three communities with…

Matejic, Denise M.

218

Energy Education for Limited Income Families: The Choctaw Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension and the Oklahoma Department of Energy conducted a special project to deliver energy education to limited income families in rural Choctaw County. The project, conducted between September 1 and November 30, 1980, was designed to deliver energy conservation practices, increase comfort, decrease…

Williams, Sue; And Others

219

Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

NELSON, R.E.

2000-09-08

220

1993 West Virginia family practice residents: demographics and future plans.  

PubMed

To call attention to the concerns of the 92 family practice residents in the five programs in West Virginia and assist with their retention, a questionnaire was mailed to these physicians. The questions asked concerned their home states, future plans, educational debts, salary expectations, recruiting preferences, and their suggestions on how to interest more medical students into this specialty. The responses to the survey provided valuable information regarding how to improve retention of family practice residents in the state, as well as increase the number of medical students entering family medicine. In addition, the survey showed the Bureau of Public Health, the Kellogg Program and the Rural Health Initiative Program are not as effective as they could be in recruiting family practice residents to practice in underserved areas of the state. PMID:8310691

Sebert, S L

1993-09-01

221

Family planning associations vital to supervision of programme implementation.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association (FPA) of China's Shuilianyu Township (Feixian County, Shadong Province) has made a major contribution to both contraceptive acceptance and poverty alleviation. Before the FPA was established in 1988, interviews were conducted in over 700 households in 18 villages in the township. The interviews suggested that adoption of China's one-child policy was being jeopardized by the failure of Communist Party and township officials to themselves adhere to this standard. As a result of this survey, disciplinary actions were taken against 18 officials who had violated the policy or shown bias in granting others permission to have extra children. The township government expressed willingness to have the Family Planning Association assume supervision over family planning implementation and developed "Regulations Governing Democratic Participation and Democratic Supervision by the FPA." Complaint desks and special boxes were established to collect information from the public about corrupt officials. In one case, the FPA was able to advocate on behalf of a man who had two daughters but no sons and was concerned about old age support. The village association was persuaded to give the man a piece of land on which to build a three-room dwelling so his future son-in-law could live with the family. According to custom, only sons have the right to access to land for housing. PMID:12291694

Zhu, H

1996-06-01

222

The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.  

PubMed

In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process. PMID:12261441

Weaver, J L

1978-07-01

223

Cost-effectiveness of the family planning programme in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The author compares the per unit costs of different types of service outlets and contraceptive methods, and highlights methodological issues related to costing studies in his assessment of the most cost-effective way to provide family planning services from a wide range of service delivery modes and methods. Couple-year of protection and births averted data are analyzed from Sheikhupura district of Punjab for 1991-92. The low volume of activity has resulted in high per unit cost. Service outlet productivity or volume of activity can, however, be increased by increasing the variable or operational costs and without any change in the fixed staffing and capital costs up to an optimal limit to gain from economies of scale. The increase in the volume of activity by every existing service outlet will lower the per unit cost achieving economic efficiency and increase the number of births averted and couple-protection rate increasing the demographic impact. Strategic shifts can also be made between contraceptive mixes, but demand must be generated for family planning in order to ensure greater use of existing service outlets and increase the volume of activity to reduce per unit costs. Demand for family planning can be increased through an assortment of appropriate mass media venues, improving service quality, and a range of long-term initiatives including a push for female literacy, incentives/disincentives to have small families, tax benefits to individuals and corporations which donate time and/or other resources to family planning, and pricing contraceptives on the ability to pay. PMID:12346204

Manzoor, K

1994-01-01

224

Developmental Issues in StepFamilies Research Project: Family Relationships and Parent–Child Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of previous findings on children's adjustment in stepfamilies, nonresidential parent–child relationships, and steproles and new results on family relationships from the Developmental Issues in StepFamilies Research Project is presented. A multimethod, multimeasure, cross-sectional, and longitudinal design was used to study first-marriage, nuclear families (n = 97), and stepfamilies (n = 98) after 6 months, 2.5 years, and 5

James H. Bray; Sandra H. Berger

1993-01-01

225

A Place to Start: The Kenan Trust Family Literacy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains an intergenerational literacy project, established by the Kenan Trust in 1988, in which more than 300 adults and children have participated at 7 pilot sites in North Carolina and Kentucky and for which an additional 22 sites in 11 states are planned. The first section relates one participant's experience with the project.…

Perkins, David; Mendel, Dick

226

The development of national economy and family planning in China.  

PubMed

China has made great strides in family planning and in developing her national economy during the period of the 6th 5-year plan. In 1980, China's tasks were to develop the national economy and to provide her people with enough to eat and wear. By 1986, these needs had been met. The average annual growth rate for the national gross output value of industry and agriculture may reach 10% during the 6th 5-year plan and should be approximately 7% in the 7th 5-year plan. China's future goal is for all her people to be well off at the turn of the century. Controlling population growth is one of the most important steps in reaching this goal China's population growth rates were 23.33 per 1000 in 1971 and dropped to 10.81 per 1000 in 1984. Although China's family planning program advocates one child per couple, 70% of the total married women of childbearing age have 2 or 3 children. Continued publicity and education and improved medical care should gradually decrease the birth rate even more. The author cites Engels in arguing that it is one of the superiorities of the socialist system to make population growth consciously fit for the development of material production. He refutes an American view that China's population would automatically decrease with the development of a free economy and offers the US's 12 million unemployed in 1982 and 2 million homeless in 1985 as evidence that a free economy also results in overpopulation. He concludes that further demographic research should be conducted and should implement China's family planning program with different measures suited to local conditions at different stages. PMID:12268821

Xu, D

1986-07-01

227

7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.  

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

2014-01-01

228

7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

2011-01-01

229

7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

2013-01-01

230

7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

2010-01-01

231

7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

2012-01-01

232

Clinton's Child Care Plan: Helping Families to Secure and Pay for Child Care. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews features of President Bill Clinton's proposed $22 billion child care plan, a set of spending measures and tax credits designed to make child care more affordable, available, and safe for low- and middle-income families. Features noted include Head Start and after-school programs, and business tax credits. (HTH)

Lindjord, Denise

1998-01-01

233

QA program plan plutonium stabilization and handling project W-460  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies Project Quality Assurance (QA) program requirements for all parties participating in the design, procurement, demolition, construction, installation, inspection and testing for Project W-460.

SCHULTZ, J.W.

1999-09-02

234

Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

Hulvey, R.K.

1995-11-01

235

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency happens, sit down together and decide how you will  

E-print Network

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency and what you will do in an emergency. Keep a copy of this plan in your emergency supply kit or another safe member and keep it up to date. Name: Social Security Number: Date of Birth: Important Medical Information

Burke, Peter

236

Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

Dubey, Archana

2008-03-01

237

Family planning: Choices and challenges for developing countries.  

PubMed

While slow and uneven progress has been made on maternal health, attaining the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal for achieving universal access to reproductive health remains elusive for many developing countries. Assuring access to sexual and reproductive health services, including integrated family planning services, remains a critical strategy for improving the health and well-being of women and alleviating poverty. Family planning not only prevents maternal, infant, and child deaths, but also empowers women to engage fully in socioeconomic development and provides them with reproductive choices. This paper will discuss the current landscape of contraception in developing countries, including options available to women and couples, as well as the challenges to its provision. Finally, we review suggestions to improve access and promising strategies to ensure all people have universal access to reproductive health options. PMID:24957693

Mbizvo, Michael T; Phillips, Sharon J

2014-08-01

238

Differences in counseling men and women: family planning in Kenya.  

PubMed

A comparison of family planning sessions with male and female clients in Kenya found distinct gender differences. Most men came for information, while women wanted to adopt, continue, or change contraceptive methods. Consultations with men and couples were more than twice as long as consultations with women. Men communicated actively (for example, by volunteering extra information, asking questions, and expressing worries) during 66% of their turns to speak, compared with 27% for women. Providers offered men more detailed information than women, asked them fewer questions, issued fewer instructions, and responded more supportively. These communication patterns may be seen as a reflection of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Kenyan providers need to improve the quality of their interactions with women. They also need to anticipate men's outspokenness and understand the male agenda if they are to counsel men effectively. PMID:11013546

Kim, Y M; Kols, A; Mwarogo, P; Awasum, D

2000-01-01

239

Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

BARTLETT, W.D.

1999-05-13

240

Mica Project planning. Paper No. 3: planning for power facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed planning for the Mica hydroelectric power plant on the Columbia River is discussed. This planning included an evaluation of underground versus surface power units, cost and power benefits, penstock sizes, and type of tailrace system. (LCL)

1978-01-01

241

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-08-28

242

The selection of family planning discussion partners in Nepal.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the information women receive about family planning from their social network is influential in their decisions to use a contraceptive method. Less is known, however, regarding the role individuals play in constructing their social network and, thereby, determining the nature of its influence. This study examined the criteria women use to select their family planning discussion partners and the individual-level factors that promote the addition of a contraceptive user to one's discussion network. Sociometric data were collected in November 1997 and February 1999 from all currently married women aged 15 to 49 years in three villages of Dang District in the Mid-Western Region of Nepal (panel N = 281). Preference for women from one's ethnic group and the strategic selection of contraceptive users was observed. Contraceptive use and attitudes toward family planning were both positively associated with the addition of a contraceptive user to one's discussion network, suggesting that women seek contraceptive users to confirm their existing beliefs and behaviors. Understanding the dynamics of social network formation can assist programs to better utilize the behavior change potential of peer networks. PMID:16203631

Boulay, Marc; Valente, Thomas W

2005-09-01

243

Socialist spiritual civilization enhances consciousness in family planning.  

PubMed

Since 1985, there have been no cases of coercion in the practice of family planning and yet also no unplanned births among the over 1200 members of the Chinese Communist Party in Hunan Province's Fuxing Township. Ideological work is aimed at demonstrating that fertility control is in the interest of both individuals and the state. All township cadres are asked by the government to take the lead in practicing family planning, publicizing population policies, and assisting in solving the difficulties of the masses. They are further expected to take the lead in the provision of 5 services: 1) publicity about population theory and family planning policy; 2) birth control training and provision; 3) management and distribution of contraceptives; 4) maternal-child health services, including free health check-ups for the 870 children in the township and follow-up visits to the 2100 women who have undergone tubal ligation; and 5) development of social welfare and assistance to 1-child households. PMID:12341553

1987-02-01

244

Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203

Zou, P

1987-04-01

245

Double Star project - master science operations plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Double Star Project (DSP) exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2) and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP) were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments, the modes and timelines of the Payload Service System on TC-1 and TC-2, and the data receiving schedules of the three ground stations. The MSOP of TC-1 and TC-2 have been generated according to the scientific objectives of DSP, the orbits of DSP, the near-Earth space environments and the coordination with Cluster, etc., so as to make full use of the exploration resources provided by DSP and to acquire as much quality scientific data as possible for the scientific communities. This paper has summarized the observation resources of DSP, the states of DSP and its evolution since the launch, the strategies and rules followed for operating the payload and utilizing the ground stations, and the production of MSOP. Until now, the generation and execution of MSOP is smooth and successful, the operating of DSP is satisfactory, and most of the scientific objectives of DSP have been fulfilled.

Shen, C.; Liu, Z.

2005-11-01

246

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

247

Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.  

PubMed

In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family planning IEC has been an exemplary model for many developing countries. PMID:12288266

Wafai, M

1994-09-01

248

The quality of family planning services in two low-income districts of Istanbul.  

PubMed

This study examined quality of care (QOC) among a sample of 378 women from two low-income communities (Sefakoy and Halkali in Kucukcekmece District) in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1992. Data were obtained from questionnaires and site visits with structured checklists. Istanbul's TFR was 2.2 in 1990, but fertility varies within the city by socioeconomic factors. The growth rate is 4.5%. Sefakoy has had a home visitor project since 1991 that trains community women to serve as family planning counselors and providers. Halkali has a few government family planning service sites, but no home visit program. The sample of women had a mean age of 31.5 years. 66% had completed primary school. 90% were housewives. The Sefakoy women scored significantly higher on the SES index. Among ever users, the most recently used contraceptive method included 41.5% for the IUD, 29.9% for condoms, and 18.0% for the pill. 38.0% of current users relied on an IUD, 19.4% used condoms, and 14.6% used withdrawal. Over 85% reported joint decisions for fertility issues. Findings indicate that trained women from the community are competent to deliver high-quality family planning information and counseling. In contrast, doctors and nurses in health settings scored low on the QOC index. The highest QOC scores were found among community workers and private doctors. Multivariate analysis reveals that women with more education reported better information and counseling. Quality scores varied by type of family planning method. The best information and counseling occurred among women who accepted the pill, followed by spermicides, the IUD, and condoms. Constraints to public family planning services were limited hours of operation, inadequate training, limited method choice, supply problems, limited IEC, inadequate record keeping, and lack of proper equipment and procedures for assuring infection control. PMID:12321336

Turan, J M; Bulut, A; Nalbant, H

1997-01-01

249

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks  

E-print Network

Draft 0 6/17/11 1 Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks in the NSTX Test Cell: _____________________________________________________________ Jerry Levine, Environment, Safety, Health and Security Head Reviewed by describes the structure and implementation of the Health and Safety Plan for the NSTX Upgrade Project work

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

250

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Evolution to the Athena Workstation Model  

E-print Network

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section D Evolution to the Athena Workstation Model: An Overview of the Development Plan by J. H. Saltzer Project Athena will evolve to the model of computation described in section Athena's two industrial partners-- minicomputer time-sharing systems and PC workstations

Saltzer, Jerome H.

251

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2013-10-01

252

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2010-10-01

253

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2012-10-01

254

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2011-10-01

255

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

GREAGER, T.M.

1999-12-14

256

Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997. PMID:11928354

Skeer, Jeffrey

2002-02-01

257

Project management plan for project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan establishes the organization, plans, and systems for management of Project W-320 as defined in DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987). The sluicing is for retrieving high-heat waste from single shell tank 241-C-106.

Leliefeld, K.W.

1996-02-02

258

Measurement-based guidance of software projects using explicit project plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

As first steps towards establishing software engineer- ing as an engineering discipline, we need to create explicit models of its building blocks, i.e., projects, processes, products, and various quality perspectives; organize these models for effective reuse across project boundaries; and establish measurable criteria for project guidance. This paper investigates the possibilities of providing measurement-based project guidance using explicit project plans.

Christopher M. Lott; H. Dieter Rombach

1993-01-01

259

Developing a Family-Centered Participatory Action Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate strategies used to design and implement a family-centered, participatory action research (PAR) project to meet the asthma information needs identified by English-, Hmong-, and Spanish-speaking parents of preschool children with asthma enrolled in a multisite, urban Head Start program. PAR is an approach that encourages researchers and those who will benefit from

Ann W. Garwick; Ann M. Seppelt

2010-01-01

260

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Technical Objectives and Requirements  

E-print Network

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section B Technical Objectives and Requirements by S. R. Lerman and J. H. Saltzer Project Athena Technical Objectives The following one-sentence statement captures the objective of Project Athena at a very high level: By 1988, create a new educational computing environment

Saltzer, Jerome H.

261

Iran's shift in family planning policies: concerns and challenges.  

PubMed

Iran's significant success in implementing Family Planning (FP) during the past 25 years, has made it a role model in the world. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Iran has dropped from 6.5 in 1960 to 1.6 in 2012, which is well below the targeted value of 2.2 for the country. Iran's success story, however, did not merely root in the implementation of FP programs. In other words, families' strong tendency to limit fertility and delayed marriages had an undeniable role in decreasing the TFR. On the other hand, Iranian policy-makers are very concerned about such a decrease and have recently restricted access to contraception, while outlawing any surgery that reduces fertility. This paper, tries to highlight the pros and cons of such restrictive policies, and argue that the policy-makers might be jeopardizing the success of Iran's FP program by overestimating its role in the TFR reduction rate. PMID:25337596

Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Hamid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-10-01

262

Family Discussions About Contraception and Family Planning: A Qualitative Exploration of Black Parent and Adolescent Perspectives  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Parent-adolescent communication is associated with increased adolescent contraceptive use. However, studies of this association are limited by their lack of examination of the communication process, reliance on cross-sectional designs and infrequent comparison of parent and adolescent perspectives. Examining communication in black families is particularly important, given the high pregnancy rate among black adolescents. METHODS Between December 2007 and March 2008, a total of 21 focus groups were conducted with 53 black families (68 parents and 57 adolescents) in Pennsylvania. Separate groups were held for males and females, and for parents and adolescents. The discussion guide explored family communication about sexual health topics, including contraception, family planning and abortion. Sessions were audio-recorded; data were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach to content analysis and the constant comparison method. RESULTS Five key themes emerged among both parents and adolescents. First, discussions about contraception were indirect and framed in terms of the need to avoid negative consequences of sex. Second, contraceptive knowledge was low. Third, parents more often reported helping male adolescents get condoms than helping females get contraceptives. Fourth, discussions emphasized planning for the future over contraception. Finally, negative attitudes toward abortion were prevalent. CONCLUSIONS Parent-adolescent communication interventions should improve contraceptive knowledge, help parents understand the harmful effects of gender biases in information dissemination, and provide mothers and fathers with communication skills tailored to enhance the role they play in their adolescents’ sexual development. PMID:20887285

Akers, Aletha Y.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Borrero, Sonya; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2010-01-01

263

WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

264

Men's attitudes about family planning in Dakar, Senegal.  

PubMed

A survey of men's behaviour and opinions with respect to family planning, undertaken in Dakar in 1986, shows that contrary to popular belief, acceptance of contraception at least for the purpose of spacing births is substantial, even among men from the most conservative backgrounds. Actual use of contraceptives varied considerably across occupations. Among functionaries and students, it ranges between 25 and 49%. Among the working class, prevalence is low, especially within marriage. Uncertainty about the position of Islam regarding fertility control is apparent even among the highly educated and is given as a reason for rejecting use of contraceptives. PMID:2768287

Posner, J K; Mbodji, F

1989-07-01

265

Satisfied IUD acceptors as family planning motivators in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

In this study, government midwives were teamed with currently satisfied IUD acceptors to strengthen field motivational and recruitment efforts. The objective was to increase the number of new IUD acceptors. In the experimental study areas, a total of 3,019 new IUD acceptors were recruited. Time series regression analysis revealed a significant difference between the experimental and comparison areas that was over and above what might be expected on the basis of the past history of differences between these two areas. These and other findings suggest that teaming currently satisfied acceptors with government field-workers can have a substantial impact on the recruitment of new family planning users. PMID:3775829

Fisher, A A; de Silva, V

1986-01-01

266

Finance and supply management project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

BENNION, S.I.

1999-02-10

267

Designing, Planning and Selling Project A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes events that led up to the decision to create a Request for Proposals for the Army's Selection and Classification Project (Project A) and considers the conditions that made it possible. Also discusses the conditions that seem necessary to maintain such a project over the course of its life cycle. (Author/NB)

Shields, Joyce L.; Hanser, Lawrence M.

1990-01-01

268

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project: Project plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) [Public Law (PL) 95-604, 42 United States Code (USC) 7901], hereinafter referred to as the ``Act,`` authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination. To fulfill this mission, the DOE has established two projects under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office. The Ground Water Project was established in April 1991 as a major project and a separate project plan will be prepared for that portion of the mission. This project plan covers the UMTRA Surface Project, a major system acquisition (MSA).

Not Available

1993-08-11

269

Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study  

SciTech Connect

The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

1991-09-01

270

[The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].  

PubMed

The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

Ma, B

1983-01-29

271

Family planning for the mentally disordered and retarded.  

PubMed

Increasing perception of healthy reproductive functioning and conception prevention has been accompanied by greater recognition of the needs for emotional and sexual fulfillment of individuals with mental disorder or retardation. Although family planning services have burgeoned in the United States and many other countries and the special concerns of mentally disordered and retarded persons have been well documented, organized efforts to include counseling on fertility regulation in mental health and in training programs have, with few exceptions, been sparse. Recent trends are discussed in terms of reported experience from the United States and Denmark. It is recommended that women of childbearing age in psychiatric facilities be given an opportunity to participate in programs offering screening for and treatment of gynecological conditions, as well as family planning counseling, before going on home leave or discharge. Such counseling should be adapted to a woman's emotional functioning, consider possible contraindications of specific contraceptive methods, and, to the extent possible, involve the partner. Ethical aspects need to be considered to avoid even the appearance of coercion. Similar opportunities should be provided for retarded persons seeking to achieve a satisfying sexual life. Surgical contraception and abortion are discussed within the context of patient rights, competence, and the desirability of avoiding unintended conceptions and reducing unwanted births that may engender further stress and psychosocial difficulties for the woman, the child, and society. The experience of former patients might well be useful in restructuring current service programs and priorities. PMID:2348193

David, H P; Morgall, J M

1990-06-01

272

"Family planning and population programs" a book review article.  

PubMed

RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

Hauser, P M

1967-03-01

273

HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106.

Ellingson, D.R.

1997-09-04

274

7 CFR 1250.314 - Plans and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.314...consumer and producer education, advertising, marketing, product development, and promotion plans, studies, or projects...

2010-01-01

275

7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS...lead to the development of new marketing strategies; to advance the image and desirability...programs, plans, and projects for marketing development research;...

2013-01-01

276

7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS...lead to the development of new marketing strategies; to advance the image and desirability...programs, plans, and projects for marketing development research;...

2012-01-01

277

7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS...lead to the development of new marketing strategies; to advance the image and desirability...programs, plans, and projects for marketing development research;...

2011-01-01

278

7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.  

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS...lead to the development of new marketing strategies; to advance the image and desirability...programs, plans, and projects for marketing development research;...

2014-01-01

279

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH

Sheridan, Scott

280

Business Continuity Project Project Summary: Develop Business Continuity Plans for all critical functional areas of  

E-print Network

Business Continuity Project Project Summary: Develop Business Continuity Plans for all critical-done o Perform Business Analysis-done, Marsh 1999 · Hire consultant to help develop plan-done o divisions/programs-ATD, COMET · #12;Cross Cutting Group Business Continuity Agenda 1. Review Status

281

Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

2012-01-01

282

Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

2010-01-29

283

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks in the NSTX Test Cell PRINCETON PLASMA....~_____...L....,L....q..l:::::.......:.J Larry Dudek, NSTX Center Stack Manager Reviewed by: I( Jer evine, Environment, Safety, Health and S This document describes the structure and implementation of the Health and Safety Plan for the NSTX Upgrade

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

284

[A comprehensive study of family planning rules of several provinces].  

PubMed

Since 1982, 26 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions have promulgated regulations on family planning (FP). These regulations were passed by the provincial people's congress and were equivalent to local legislation. This paper analyzed and compared the regulations of 16 provinces. The regulations basically included general principals, regulations on births, incentives and disincentives, birth control methods, prevention of genetic diseases, and program management. The regulations for the urban populations of 16 provinces were similar. Each couple was to have one child. A second child could be permitted in special circumstances. Incentives given to one-child families included their health care allowance, priority in housing allocation, in education, and in employment. For rural couples, most provinces allow families with one daughter to have another children after a few years of spacing, while 3 provinces allow 2 children for every family. Stipulations on incentives to one-child couples in rural areas were vague for most of the provinces, while 6 provinces had specific terms for incentives. Temporary migrants in China currently exceed 30 million people. It was difficult to implement the FP program among them. 7 of the provincial regulations included articles on the FP practice of migrants, mostly requiring migrants to observe the regulations of the areas migrated to before residence and work permits were issued. The other 9 provinces formulated temporary regulations for temporary migrants. Deficiencies have been found in some of the provincial regulations. Some of the terms and language used were ambiguous. An in some cases, the quality of the population and prevention of congenital diseases were neglected. It was suggested that a national FP law should be promulgated. Implementation of the law and regulations is an important as their promulgation. Such a law should be closely monitored and evaluated for subsequent improvement. PMID:12285487

Yu, Y

1991-04-01

285

Women's attitudes towards mechanisms of action of family planning methods: survey in primary health centres in Pamplona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Informed consent in family planning includes knowledge of mechanism of action. Some methods of family planning occasionally work after fertilization. Knowing about postfertilization effects may be important to some women before choosing a certain family planning method. The objective of this survey is to explore women's attitudes towards postfertilization effects of family planning methods, and beliefs and characteristics possibly

Jokin de Irala; Cristina Lopez del Burgo; Carmen M Lopez de Fez; Jorge Arredondo; Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Joseph B Stanford

2007-01-01

286

The Future of Family Medicine: A Collaborative Project of the Family Medicine Community  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a strategy to transform and renew the discipline of family medicine to meet the needs of patients in a changing health care environment. METHODS A national research study was conducted by independent research firms. Interviews and focus groups identified key issues for diverse constituencies, including patients, payers, residents, students, family physicians, and other clinicians. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with nationally representative samples of 9 key constituencies. Based in part on these data, 5 task forces addressed key issues to meet the project goal. A Project Leadership Committee synthesized the task force reports into the report presented here. RESULTS The project identified core values, a New Model of practice, and a process for development, research, education, partnership, and change with great potential to transform the ability of family medicine to improve the health and health care of the nation. The proposed New Model of practice has the following characteristics: a patient-centered team approach; elimination of barriers to access; advanced information systems, including an electronic health record; redesigned, more functional offices; a focus on quality and outcomes; and enhanced practice finance. A unified communications strategy will be developed to promote the New Model of family medicine to multiple audiences. The study concluded that the discipline needs to oversee the training of family physicians who are committed to excellence, steeped in the core values of the discipline, competent to provide family medicine’s basket of services within the New Model, and capable of adapting to varying patient needs and changing care technologies. Family medicine education must continue to include training in maternity care, the care of hospitalized patients, community and population health, and culturally effective and proficient care. A comprehensive lifelong learning program for each family physician will support continuous personal, professional, and clinical practice assessment and improvement. Ultimately, systemwide changes will be needed to ensure high-quality health care for all Americans. Such changes include taking steps to ensure that every American has a personal medical home, promoting the use and reporting of quality measures to improve performance and service, advocating that every American have health care coverage for basic services and protection against extraordinary health care costs, advancing research that supports the clinical decision making of family physicians and other primary care clinicians, and developing reimbursement models to sustain family medicine and primary care practices. CONCLUSIONS The leadership of US family medicine organizations is committed to a transformative process. In partnership with others, this process has the potential to integrate health care to improve the health of all Americans. PMID:15080220

2004-01-01

287

ENTO 489 Field Entomology Field Project Plan  

E-print Network

.com Wildlife and Fisheries Science Wildlife and Fisheries Science Class of 2006 Class of 2005 Project Campus ­ Urban · Sample sites will be arranged primarily based on habitat differences. · The sampling

Behmer, Spencer T.

288

Pathfinder Project: Five-Year Strategic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 5-year strategic plan (prepared in 1994) from Pellissippi State Technical Community College in Tennessee examines macro environmental factors (including social, government, economic and technological trends); internal and external market share trends and opportunities; micro environmental factors (including organizational structure, financial…

Pellissippi State Technical Community Coll., Knoxville, TN.

289

Research project funded by ITS Institute through TechPlan.  

E-print Network

transportation based on gas tax with new distance-based system of user fees. · State of Oregon pilot project#12;Overview ·Research project funded by ITS Institute through TechPlan. ·Research Team: Lee of tax-financing principles. ·Basis for future outreach and education. #12;Replacing the Gas Tax · Two

Minnesota, University of

290

Henan Provincial Rules and Regulations on Family Planning.  

PubMed

Effective July 1, 1990, the full text of Henan Provincial Rules and Regulations on Family Planning (FP) are reported as approved by the 7th Henan Provincial People's Congress Standing Committee on April 12,1990. The 8 chapters and 57 articles cover general principles (articles 1-8), birth control (9-15), control over FP (16=20), aristogenesis and birth control measures (21-28), administration of the law (29-32),rewards (33-36), punishments (37-52), regulations on governance (53-57). Family planning is to correspond to economic and social development and be compatible with resources, environmental protection, and ecological balance. One child/family is the advocated position. Couples are responsible. Leadership needs strengthening at all government levels. The law must be enforced and done so impartially. January is the official FP month. Early marriage, early births, births without marriage, and unapproved births are prohibited. Child births must be planned. 2nd children are allowed only 1) when county level family technical appraisal determines that the 1st child cannot grow up to become part of the normal productive work force, 2) when the couple adopted a child and then the woman 30 years becomes pregnant after suffering from sterility, 3) when returned overseas Chinese or Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwanese resettlers have 1 child, 4) when remarriage occurs and 1 spouse had no children, and 5) when one spouse of the couple is a disabled serviceman or the child of a revolutionary martyr. In rural areas, exceptions are made for 1st children who are girls and hardship conditions exist, for a man with only daughters in the spouse's family line and he has responsibility for in-law support, for longstanding livelihood in remote locations, and the couple are minorities. Regardless of the exceptions, people are encouraged to still have only 1 child. Premarriage health examination is strongly recommended. Rewards include 12 days' work leave plus holiday leave for late marriage, and 3 months' leave plus maternity leave for a late birth. Peasants are exempt from collective voluntary labor for 1 year for late birth and marriage. Certificates are given as well as special treatment. A fine of 100-200 yuan is given for an unapproved birth, unless termination occurs. 50% of the monthly income of both parties will be used as a fine for unlawful marriage at an early age until 1 year after the lawful age is reached. A fine of 100-300 yuan is imposed for babies without a permit. Wages are lowered by 20-30% for a 2nd birth for 7 years; no bonuses or advancements are given for 2 years and they may be discharged. A fine may also be imposed for 14 years. Other rules govern urban residents only and pertain to contraceptive practices and medical personnel. PMID:12285789

1990-06-01

291

Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

1998-12-31

292

DMP Planning for Big Science Projects  

E-print Network

This report exists to provide high-level guidance for the strategic and engineering development of Data Management and Preservation plans for 'Big Science' data. Although the report's nominal audience is therefore rather narrow, we intend the document to be of use to other planners and data architects who wish to implement good practice in this area. For the purposes of this report, we presume that the reader is broadly persuaded (by external fiat if nothing else) of the need to preserve research data appropriately, and that they have both sophisticated technical support and the budget to support developments. The goal of the document is not to provide mechanically applicable recipes, but to allow the user to develop and lead a high-level plan which is appropriate to their organisation. Throughout, the report is informed where appropriate by the OAIS reference model.

Bicarregui, Juan; Henderson, Rob; Jones, Roger; Lambert, Simon; Matthews, Brian

2012-01-01

293

DMP Planning for Big Science Projects  

E-print Network

This report exists to provide high-level guidance for the strategic and engineering development of Data Management and Preservation plans for 'Big Science' data. Although the report's nominal audience is therefore rather narrow, we intend the document to be of use to other planners and data architects who wish to implement good practice in this area. For the purposes of this report, we presume that the reader is broadly persuaded (by external fiat if nothing else) of the need to preserve research data appropriately, and that they have both sophisticated technical support and the budget to support developments. The goal of the document is not to provide mechanically applicable recipes, but to allow the user to develop and lead a high-level plan which is appropriate to their organisation. Throughout, the report is informed where appropriate by the OAIS reference model.

Juan Bicarregui; Norman Gray; Rob Henderson; Roger Jones; Simon Lambert; Brian Matthews

2012-08-18

294

Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

Not Available

1994-09-01

295

Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

If the crawler based retrieval system is selected, this project management plan identifies the path forward for acquiring a crawler/track pump waste retrieval system, and completing sufficient testing to support deploying the crawler for as part of a retrieval technology demonstration for Tank 241-C-104. In the balance of the document, these activities will be referred to as the Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration. During recent Tri-Party Agreement negotiations, TPA milestones were proposed for a sludge/hard heel waste retrieval demonstration in tank C-104. Specifically one of the proposed milestones requires completion of a cold demonstration of sufficient scale to support final design and testing of the equipment (M-45-03G) by 6/30/2004. A crawler-based retrieval system was one of the two options evaluated during the pre-conceptual engineering for C-104 retrieval (RPP-6843 Rev. 0). The alternative technology procurement initiated by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project, combined with the pre-conceptual engineering for C-104 retrieval provide an opportunity to achieve compliance with the proposed TPA milestone M-45-03H. This Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration project management plan identifies the plans, organizational interfaces and responsibilities, management control systems, reporting systems, timeline and requirements for the acquisition and testing of the crawler based retrieval system. This project management plan is complimentary to and supportive of the Project Management Plan for Retrieval of C-104 (RPP-6557). This project management plan focuses on utilizing and completing the efforts initiated under the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) to acquire and cold test a commercial crawler based retrieval system. The crawler-based retrieval system will be purchased on a schedule to support design of the waste retrieval from tank C-104 (project W-523) and to meet the requirement of proposed TPA milestone M-45-03H. This Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration project management plan includes the following: (1) Identification of acquisition strategy and plan to obtain a crawler based retrieval system; (2) Plan for sufficient cold testing to make a decision for W-523 and to comply with TPA Milestone M-45-03H; (3) Cost and schedule for path forward; (4) Responsibilities of the participants; and (5) The plan is supported by updated Level 1 logics, a Relative Order of Magnitude cost estimate and preliminary project schedule.

DEFIGH-PRICE, C.

2000-10-23

296

[Understanding and implementing the Party's policies on family planning accurately in an all-around way].  

PubMed

Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general. PMID:12159337

Liang, J; Peng, Z

1984-05-29

297

Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Rural Family Living and Rural Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine what adjustments the rural family will be making in the next 15 years, this study, a part of Project '80, examines past trends and future projections for the Michigan rural family. The first section on rural family living gives rural family characteristics which include information on transportation, communications, clothing, food,…

Ferrar, Barbara; And Others

298

Tailoring Small IT Projects in the Project Planning Phase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) are essential skills in information technology (IT). There is an abundance of information available detailing the comprehensive bodies of knowledge, standards, and best practices. Despite the volume of information, there is surprisingly little information about how to tailor PM and SE tasks for…

Mulhearn, Michael F.

2011-01-01

299

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

LEROY, P.G.

2000-11-03

300

STD / AIDS prevention: new challenges for family planning programs.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) professionals and programs are increasingly called upon to respond to increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. While structural and ideological readjustment to meet these demands may seem problematic for some programs, the AIDS epidemic allows the opportunity for programs to expand into preventive health activities. Dr. Nancy Williamson, Director of Family Health International's Division of Program Evaluation and 1 of the authors of the World Health Organization's guidelines on family planning and AIDS, responds to questions most frequently posed by FP providers considering the need for and process of FP program restructuring. She holds that programmatic expansion for the prevention of HIV infection enhances the capability to provide good contraceptive services. FP programs are not expected to abandon their central missions of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but to engage in both the prevention of STD infection and unwanted pregnancies where possible. Sharing responsible sex behavior and the condom as common means of prevention, these 2 missions are far from mutually exclusive. The AIDS epidemic has impacted upon FP programs in a number of ways. Increased demand for condoms has been observed in countries with high levels of HIV seropositivity, greater concern has been placed upon counseling and sterile procedures, view have been altered to accept this dual role of contraception, and universal precautions for the protection of both client and workers from infection are of greater importance. Promoting the consistent use of condoms for the prevention of STDs has proved more challenging than promoting for contraceptive uses. Gaining the legitimacy of condoms among married couples while they are also promoted among high-risk groups also remains difficult. On other issues, promoting the routine use of 2 temporary methods is not recommended, questions must be posed to determine clients' risk status for infection, counseling and services should be provided to those HIV+, and alternative funding sources may need to be sought for FP program expansion. Arguments for and against such expansion are discussed. Most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Thailand are in most serious need of programmatic changes, India and most of Central and South American need some changes, and other areas would benefit from minor changes. Dr. Williamson finally considers how programs should be modified, changes made thus far by programs, and suggests what programs may do to enhance their capability to provide contraceptive services. PMID:12284756

Williamson, N; Townsend, S

1991-12-01

301

[Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].  

PubMed

Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

Gakwaya, D

1990-08-01

302

Final Report for the Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Planning Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2011 the Tribe was awarded funds from the Department of Energy to formulate the Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan. This will be a guiding document used throughout the planning of projects focused on energy reduction on the Reservation. The Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan's goal is to create a Five Year Energy Plan for the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians in San Jacinto, California. This plan will guide the decision making process towards consistent progress leading to the Tribal goal of a 25% reduction in energy consumption in the next five years. It will additionally outline energy usage/patterns and will edentify areas the Tribe can decrease energy use and increase efficiency. The report documents activities undertaken under the grant, as well as incldues the Tribe's strategif energy plan.

Miller, Kim [EPA Specialist] [EPA Specialist

2013-09-17

303

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01

304

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27

305

Supporting Studies on Qdri Project Plan. Report No. 1. Planning and Preparation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the procedural aspects of creating a project plan and describing the necessary tasks for the development and implementation of an information processing system. In general terms, the myriad of functions that must be accomplished to deve...

J. J. Segal

1967-01-01

306

The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

Fix, N. J.

2007-01-10

307

Breast-feeding and family planning: a review of the relationships between breast-feeding and family planning.  

PubMed

A number of interrelated factors must be considered when breast-feeding is introduced as a concern for family planning programs: the number of pregnancies and births experienced, age at each pregnancy and birth, duration of the intervals between conceptions, lactation including duration and type, health and nutritional services available to meet the demands of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care. The dietary intake of the mother and her health and disease status have an effect on the duration of breast-feeding, and lactation has an effect on her ovulation and birth spacing. Those at particularly high risk include adolescent girls, older grand-multipara women, and families living in poverty. An historical relationship between the reduction in infant and childhood mortality and the falling off of births can be documented. The straightforward benefits on nutritional status of breast-fed infants, the conjunction with the antibody protection afforded by breast milk, served to reduce infant mortality and indirectly served to reduce birth rates. In addition, the prolongation of postpartum anovulatory cycles in breast-feeding women, coupled with sexual mores that postpone sexual relations while a women is breast-feeding in certain groups, will serve to prolong the interbirth intervals. Populations where breast-feeding is customary have been shown to have fewer births than populations where the women do not breast-fed and where infants are artificially fed. PMID:7039292

Brown, R E

1982-01-01

308

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

309

Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site.

McKinney, S.M.

1997-11-24

310

Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.  

PubMed

Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

Mrugala, G

1991-09-01

311

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning

Keeny, S. M., Ed.

312

Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

1972

313

Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

Maine, Deborah

314

Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesaurus should prove of direct use to the indexer of documents describing family planning program…

Speert, Kathryn H.; Wishik, Samuel M.

315

Utilizing grassroots workers in family planning programs in India: prospects and problems.  

PubMed

In order to rapidly expand the network of delivery systems and speed up the process of acceptance of family planning messages and methods, a shift took place in the Indian family planning program from the bureaucratic "clinical" approach to the people oriented "extension" approach. As a result, there is an increasing emphasis on moving the family planning efforts closer to the grassroots level. A key methodological issue centers on the proper selection, cultural acceptability, and the effectiveness of the grassroots workers who are to be trained and through whom family planning motivational messages and methods are to be introduced. The Indian government, from time to time, has trained and utilized different groups of grassroots workers in its family planning promotional efforts. Anthropological field studies were conducted in two different regions in India to examine the potential and actual roles of two groups of grassroots workers--opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants--in the delivery of family planning services in the rural areas. These studies revealed that while the traditional birth attendants can be trained and utilized to a limited extent in promoting family planning efforts, especially to the eligible female clients, the role of the opinion leaders in such efforts is at best questionable. Based on these field studies, cultural and technical (including bureaucratic) problems in training and utilizing opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants are explored in detail. Modifications in the training program strategies are suggested to improve and expand the family planning delivery system in rural India. PMID:12290156

Mani, S B

1991-01-01

316

CAP: Construction Assistance Plan. Handbook for Construction Project Planning, Oregon Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for construction project planning was developed to be used by the Oregon Department of Education to evaluate existing facilities and determine the projected needs for each of the community college districts. Each college district's eligibility for state participation in funding is based on a Basic Space Need (BSN) which is the square…

Duncan, Verne A.

317

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

318

Work plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944, with descriptions of uncertainties inherent in such estimates. The secondary objective is to make project records--information that HEDR staff members used to estimate radiation doses--available to the public. Preliminary dose estimates for a limited geographic area and time period, certain radionuclides, and certain populations are planned to be available in 1990; complete results are planned to be reported in 1993. Project reports and references used in the reports are available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room in Richland, Washington. Project progress is documented in monthly reports, which are also available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room.

Not Available

1989-12-01

319

NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan  

SciTech Connect

Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

Fishler, B

2011-03-18

320

HEDR model validation plan. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computational ``tools`` for estimating the possible radiation dose that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the planned activities to ``validate`` these tools. In the sense of the HEDR Project, ``validation`` is a process carried out by comparing computational model predictions with field observations and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the model.

Napier, B.A.; Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.

1993-06-01

321

Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

2004-01-01

322

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

2010-01-01

323

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

2009-01-01

324

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton

2009-10-01

325

Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

2012-01-01

326

78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan. This...FDA's multi-year initiative to develop and implement...FDA's multi-year initiative to develop and implement...for TAs. Standardized data elements and terminologies...stakeholder input through open standards...

2013-10-24

327

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the first of a series of manuals that present environmental guidelines for planning and implementing ecologically sustainable projects. Attention is particularly directed to the agricultural situation and needs of developing nations. Subject areas discussed include: (1) users and uses (identifying the major purposes of the…

Mohonk Trust, New Paltz, NY.

328

Master Plan Pedestrian Project Street and Founders Drive  

E-print Network

pedestrian areas. Our campus community identified these areas during the master plan process as problem areas. These projects are designed to reduce pedestrian-vehicular conflicts and make our campus safer. As we have parking stress. We have also made accommodations for additional A1 permit zone, ADA and Student Health

329

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT PLAN Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope  

E-print Network

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT PLAN for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope, and Ronald Polidan. #12;Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 22 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 (ATLAST) A Roadmap for UVIOR Technology, 2010-2020 24 April, 2009 T. Tupper Hyde, ATLAST Technologist

Sirianni, Marco

330

OPUC Flexibility Planning Guidelines Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project  

E-print Network

OPUC Flexibility Planning Guidelines Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project February 14, 2013 to include: ­ Forecasts of flexibility needs and flexible capability in all time intervals, 20 year horizon ­ Evaluate all flexible resources to fill any needs on a consistent and comparable basis · Response

331

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section E.2.1  

E-print Network

PROJECT ATHENA TECHNICAL PLAN Section E.2.1 Kerberos Authentication and Authorization System by S, named Kerberos, for the Athena environment. An appendix specifies the detailed design and protocols. Kerberos Aside from the 3-headed dog guarding Hades, the name given to the Athena authentication service

Saltzer, Jerome H.

332

WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR 1986-1989  

EPA Science Inventory

The Field Implementation Plan (FIP) of the Watershed Manipulation Project (WMP) has been developed for the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). This document provides details on field activities for site and task groups for the period 1986 to October 1989. pecific objectives of ...

333

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

334

Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements. While the SNFP can use some work done Sitewide and by projects such as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), they will still need to make some IM investments of their own.

Main, G.C.

1996-09-13

335

Yakima Habitat Improvement Project Master Plan, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima Urban Growth Area (UGA) is a developing and growing urban area in south-central Washington. Despite increased development, the Yakima River and its tributaries within the UGA continue to support threatened populations of summer steelhead and bull trout as well as a variety of non-listed salmonid species. In order to provide for the maintenance and recovery of these species, while successfully planning for the continued growth and development within the UGA, the City of Yakima has undertaken the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project. The overall goal of the project is to maintain, preserve, and restore functioning fish and wildlife habitat within and immediately surrounding the Yakima UGA over the long term. Acquisition and protection of the fish and wildlife habitat associated with key properties in the UGA will prevent future subdivision along riparian corridors, reduce further degradation or removal of riparian habitat, and maintain or enhance the long term condition of aquatic habitat. By placing these properties in long-term protection, the threat of development from continued growth in the urban area will be removed. To most effectively implement the multi-year habitat acquisition and protection effort, the City has developed this Master Plan. The Master Plan provides the structure and guidance for future habitat acquisition and restoration activities to be performed within the Yakima Urban Area. The development of this Master Plan also supports several Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs) of the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), as well as the Water Investment Action Agenda for the Yakima Basin, local planning efforts, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program. This Master Plan also provides the framework for coordination of the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project with other fish and wildlife habitat acquisition and protection activities currently being implemented in the area. As a result of the planning effort leading to this Master Plan, a Technical Working Group (TWG) was established that represents most, if not all, fish and wildlife agencies/interests in the subbasin. This TWG met regularly throughout the planning process to provide input and review and was instrumental in the development of this plan. Preparation of this plan included the development of a quantitative prioritization process to rank 40,000 parcels within the Urban Growth Area based on the value of fish and wildlife habitat each parcel provided. Biological and physical criteria were developed and applied to all parcels through a GIS-based prioritization model. In the second-phase of the prioritization process, the TWG provided local expert knowledge and review of the properties. In selecting the most critical areas within the Urban Growth Area for protection, this project assessed the value of fish and wildlife habitat on the Yakima River. Well-developed habitat acquisition efforts (e.g., Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project by the Bureau of Reclamation and Yakama Nation acquisition projects) are already underway on the Yakima River mainstem. These efforts, however, face several limitations in protection of floodplain function that could be addressed through the support of the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project. This Master Plan integrates tributary habitat acquisition efforts with those ongoing on the Yakima River to best benefit fish and wildlife in the Urban Growth Area. The parcel ranking process identified 25 properties with the highest fish and wildlife value for habitat acquisition in the Yakima Urban Area. These parcels contain important fish and wildlife corridors on Ahtanum and Wide Hollow Creeks and the Naches River. The fifteen highest-ranking parcels of the 25 parcels identified were considered very high priority for protection of fish and wildlife habitat. These 15 parcels were subsequently grouped into four priority acquisition areas. This Master Plan outlines a four-year schedule for acquisition, protection, and restoration of the 25 highest ranked prop

Golder Associates, Inc.

2003-04-22

336

Fast Flux Test Facility, Sodium Storage Facility project-specific project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project-Specific Project Management Plan describes the project management methods and controls used by the WHC Projects Department to manage Project 03-F-031. The Sodium Storage Facility provides for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF Plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium.

Shank, D.R.

1994-12-29

337

My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.  

PubMed

Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized. PMID:12316428

Kunii, C

1990-07-01

338

[Decision on family planning work of 7 March 1990].  

PubMed

The full decision in 7 parts of the Fujian Provincial CPC Committee and Government on Family Planning (FP) Work on March 7, 1990 is reported. A general statement about population growth in Fujian urges a stop to unplanned births, early marriages, and early childbearing. Section 1 pertains to cooperative leadership at all levels of party committees and governments in strengthening FP. The call is for integration of FP with economic development in accordance with the law, available cultivated land/capita, and population growth. Leadership in FP must come from the highest levels and be integrated into normal routines with provision for manpower, material, and financial resources. Local party committees and government must supervise FP work in units at all levels according the Central Committee and State Council's directives. Members of the Communist Youth League need to be actively involved. Section 2 pertains to establishing a responsibility system at various levels in order to meet targets, particularly in the next 3 years. Average annual rate of natural population growth should not exceed 13% and should be maintained at 11.33% for 1990. Couples must stay with 1 child/family and reduce unplanned births. Evaluation of work is dependent on fulfilling FP responsibilities for leaders at all levels. Rewards and punishments are to be established. Review of FP occurs annually for individuals and units, and a progress report sent to the People's Congress at the appropriate level of the Standing Committee. Accurate statistics need to be compiled. Section 3 stipulates that FP work is be carried out within the confines of provincial law. Strict enforcement of regulations is necessary. Approval is necessary for a 2nd child, and this regulation needs to be closely monitored. The position recommended is marrying and childbearing late and having only 1 child. Prevention is the key. Rewards and punishments pertain to government or party members. Social welfare benefits for those abiding by the regulations should be expanded. In section 4, emphasis is placed on rural areas lagging behind. Section 5 calls for old age homes and insurance for the aged, which could be funded from the unplanned birth funds, and a fund for women workers' childbearing and social security system. Section 7 promotes education about population, living conditions, and the legal system and propaganda on population and FP at all ages. Population theory and adolescence science need to be incorporated into the curriculum. Section 7 is concerned with increasing the collaboration between FP associations and party and government workers, both past and present. In section 8, the means of strengthening FP work is detailed. PMID:12285788

1990-05-11

339

On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for rural medical services, or 1 US dollar/person. Unit costs are the costs to reduce the population of one and include direct and indirect costs. The unit cost between 1970-82 was 35.5 yuan, but if outlays for families and industrial units are included, the cost was 70-100 yuan. Population growth, however, must be balanced so that aging does not cancel out the benefits from FP gains. Lower costs can be achieved by better FP administration. PMID:12343682

Yang, D

1991-01-01

340

Planning Ahead: College Seniors' Concerns about Work-Family Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that working men experience as much work-family conflict as women do. More men are doing housework and childcare, and feel that family is as important as their work. An attempt was made to determine how college seniors view their potential for managing work-family conflict. College students (N=324) attending a private…

Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Steele, Jennifer

341

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references.

Vollmer, A.T.

1993-10-01

342

Vermont Rural and Farm Family Rehabilitation Project. A Benchmark Report. Research Report MP73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report presents information about client families and their farms during their contact with the Vermont Rural and Farm Family Rehabilitation (RFFR) project from March 1, 1969 to June 30, 1971. Data are from 450 family case histories which include 2,089 members. Most were from northern Vermont. Families averaged 4.64 persons each, about 1 more…

Tompkins, E. H.; And Others

343

FY 1991 project plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project was designed to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating radiation doses people may have received from Hanford Site operations since 1944. The method researchers developed relied on a variety of measured and reconstructed data as input to a modular computer model that generates dose estimates and their uncertainties. As part of Phase 1, researchers used the reconstructed data and computer model to calculate preliminary dose estimates for populations in a limited geographical area and time period. Phase 2, now under way, is designed to evaluate the Phase 1 data and model and improve them to calculate more accurate and precise dose estimates. Phase 2 will also be used to obtain preliminary estimates of two categories of doses: for Native American tribes and for individuals included in the pilot phase of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). TSP Directive 90-1 required HEDR staff to develop Phase 2 task plans for TSP approval. Draft task plans for Phase 2 were submitted to the TSP at the October 11--12, 1990 public meeting, and, after discussions of each activity and associated budget needs, the TSP directed HEDR staff to proceed with a slate of specific project activities for FY 1991 of Phase 2. This project plan contains detailed information about those activities. Phase 2 is expected to last 15--18 months. In mid-FY 1991, project activities and budget will be reevaluated to determine whether technical needs or priorities have changed. Separate from, but related to, this project plan, will be an integrated plan for the remainder of the project. HEDR staff will work with the TSP to map out a strategy that clearly describes end products'' for the project and the work necessary to complete them. This level of planning will provide a framework within which project decisions in Phases 2, 3, and 4 can be made.

Not Available

1991-02-01

344

Spermicides for family planning and disease protection: an update.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues growing in countries around the world, women are increasingly in need of ways to protect themselves from infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Although no conclusive data exists on whether spermicides used alone or with condoms effectively protect against STDs, use of vaginal spermicides should be considered a viable alternative for protection against both pregnancy and some STDs, especially among women whose partners refuse to use condoms. Despite some of the advantages and ease of using spermicides for family planning, only 3% of contraceptive users worldwide use this as their primary method. This low level of use may largely stem from perceptions of spermicides' comparative ineffectiveness among other contraceptive methods. As for preventing the spread of STDs, spermicides place a chemical barrier between infected fluids and vulnerable tissue. Lab studies demonstrate spermicides' ability to inactivate most STD pathogens, and additional data are building on human use. No published reports exist on whether spermicide use protects women against HIV infection, though anecdotal reports and unpublished findings suggest that inadequate protection may be rendered in actual field use. Speculation even exists over the potential role of frequent spermicide use in causing irritation of genital tissue. While women have complained of some spermicides' failure to properly disperse in the vagina, and vulva or penis irritation, spermicides are, however, generally acceptable to users. The gel capsule and film were particularly liked in 1 research study. In sum, spermicide use should be encouraged as appropriate especially for those with irregular sexual activity, those with partners refusing to use condoms, and those contraindicated to other methods. Even though data is lacking on method effectiveness, using this acceptable method of potentially moderate effectiveness is by far preferable to not using one which is more effective. Further research is, however, needed to assess the level of protection provided. PMID:12284758

Townsend, S

1991-12-01

345

Efficient implementation of the basic state policy of family planning for the control of population growth.  

PubMed

The speeches of Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng are summarized. The speeches were presented at the National Forum on Family Planning on March 21, 1993. Central Committee Party members, governors, and provincial party secretaries were in attendance. Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission provided introductory remarks. The highlights of Jiang's and Li's speeches emphasized controlling population growth and achieving the second and third stage targets of the modernization drive. The goal was to develop the country economically while reducing the birth rate. Importance was placed on party officials and organizations taking responsibility for family planning implementation and being firm, yet reasonable and practical. Jiang Zemin mentioned that economic development needed to be speeded up along with effective control of population. Economic development surged during 1992 and many achievements were attained in family planning. Leadership in family planning improved. The sobering reality was that although the population growth rate declined, the absolute numbers of the population were still very hugh: 20 million newborns annually and an annual net increase of population of 13-15 million. Closing the gap between demands of and supply to society will be great. Low fertility was not stabilized; the birth rate was very uneven throughout the country and unplanned births had not been lowered. Because provinces and autonomous regions will be experiencing new problems with the economic reform, and there is a need to devote attention to these situations. The economic goal was gross national strength and per capita share. Family planning regulations should be followed and family planning practice should be included in the socioeconomic plan. Minorities have improved in family planning, but rural areas are still problematic. Premier Li Peng said that lessons learned from past family planning experiences should be applied to the future; rural family planning should be stressed and unevenness smoothed out. Problems have arisen between the public and the party, which need to be worked out to the interest of each. An integrated program of population, economy, society, resources, and the environment needs to occur, and family planning needs to be strengthened so that Chinese characteristics can be taken advantage of in family planning. PMID:12286984

1993-04-01

346

[Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].  

PubMed

The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122

Wohlschlagl, H

1991-01-01

347

Assessment and Treatment of Families with Visually Handicapped Children: A Project Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project designed to analyze and remediate interaction patterns and adjustment in families with visually handicapped children uses direct observation and self-report techniques, and a behavioral family treatment strategy to enhance problem-solving and communication skills. (CL)

Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; And Others

1986-01-01

348

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) (DOE, 1993a), which was developed using US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C quality assurance (QA) criteria. The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. All QA issues in the QAIP shall comply with requirements contained in the TAC QAPP (DOE, 1933a). Because industry standards for data acquisition and data control are not addressed in DOE Order 5700.6C, the QAIP has been formatted to the 14 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) QA requirements. DOE Order 5700.6C criteria that are not contained in the CERCLA requirements are added to the QAIP as additional requirements in Sections 15.0 through 18.0. Project documents that contain CERCLA requirements and 5700.6 criteria shall be referenced in this document to avoid duplication. Referenced documents are not included in this QAIP but are available through the UMTRA Project Document Control Center.

Not Available

1994-03-01

349

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

GREAGER, T.M.

2000-12-06

350

Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia.  

PubMed

Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image. PMID:2075624

Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R

1990-01-01

351

DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA  

PubMed Central

This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

2014-01-01

352

Evaluating the Role of the Project Course in Professional Planning Education and Its Influence on Planning Policy and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project courses in graduate planning education are characterized by collaborative work among participants, including students, faculty and community members who act as clients and\\/or coaches. Drawing from empirical research involving focus groups with these course participants, this article examines the mechanics and outcomes of project-based learning in professional planning education and the relevance of this form of learning to planning

Leela Viswanathan; Graham S. Whitelaw; John Meligrana

2012-01-01

353

[Coverage of family planning services in five health regions].  

PubMed

In 1984, a team of specialists from the National Population Council and the Ministry of Health evaluated the availability of family planning services in 5 health regions of Peru: a sector of Lima, Arequipa, San Martin, Cuzco, and Cajamarca. The numbers of women aged 15-49 years in the health regions, the numbers subject to Ministry of Health programming, the numbers of acceptors, and the percentage of coverage respectively were 1,357,298, 906,675, 83,542, and 9.21% in Lima; 183,168, 122,356, 4789, and 3.91% in Arequipa; 77,427, 51,721, 1610, and 3.11% in San Martin; 283,088, 189,103, 7695, and 4.07% in Cuzco; and 120,375, 80,411, 1181, and 1.47% in Cajamarca. There were 98,817 acceptors in the 5 regions, and the coverage was 7.32%. The differences in coverage achieved in the 5 regions were due to different financial and professional resources in the different regions as well as to differences in sociodemographic characteristics and especially degree of urbanism. A better distribution and more rational utilization of budgetary and professional resources would permit a levelling of the regional rates of coverage and an increase of the total coverage. The number of acceptors of condoms and other methods, pills, and IUDs respectively were 17,034, 30,117, and 36,391 in Lima; 2176, 1830, and 783 in Arequipa; 352, 751, and 507 in San Martin; 2879, 3507, and 1309 in Cuzco, 250, 445, and 486 in Cajamarca, and 22,691, 36,650, and 39,476 in all 5 regions. Of the 98,817 acceptors, 23.0% chose condoms and others, 37.1% pills, and 39.9% chose IUDs. Regional variations in methods selected depended primarily on the professional resources available. In areas where more physicians were available there were higher rates of IUD use. PMID:12267241

Herrera Miranda, J L

1985-04-01

354

Social impact assessment - new dimensions in project planning  

SciTech Connect

The Objective of the presentation is to provide understanding of how to improve attention to the social dimensions of EP projects. Social Impacts are the consequences to human populations, communities or individuals resulting from a project or activity. Such impacts may change the way in which people live, relate to one another, organize and cope as members of society. There is an increasing demand and expectation that Exploration and Production activities will both understand their impacts and define benefits for the local communities. Social Impact Assessment can be considered a branch of Environmental Impact Assessment. It has become a tool in its own fight due to the focus that was paid to the natural and physical issues within the EIA process. However there are still strong alignments and the wise project planner will integrate social and environmental issues within their project planning process. This can be done through a combination of studies but can result in a single report. The benefits of SIA will be demonstrated to include: (1) obtaining approvals (2) forward planning and design (3) increased project success-benefits to local community (4) economic benefits (5) decision making by management The types of impacts including demographic, socioeconomic, health, social infrastructure, resources, psychological and community, cultural and social equity will be reviewed. Methods and techniques to identify and assess impacts will be addressed. One of the main challenges in SIA is to reach the right audience. Methods to scope studies and implement consultation will be addressed.

Jones, M.G.; Hartog, J.J.; Sykes, R.M.

1996-11-01

355

Real-Time Projection to Verify Plan Success During Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Data System provides a framework for modeling complex systems in terms of system behaviors and goals that express intent. Complex activity plans can be represented as goal networks that express the coordination of goals on different state variables of the system. Real-time projection extends the ability of this system to verify plan achievability (all goals can be satisfied over the entire plan) into the execution domain so that the system is able to continuously re-verify a plan as it is executed, and as the states of the system change in response to goals and the environment. Previous versions were able to detect and respond to goal violations when they actually occur during execution. This new capability enables the prediction of future goal failures; specifically, goals that were previously found to be achievable but are no longer achievable due to unanticipated faults or environmental conditions. Early detection of such situations enables operators or an autonomous fault response capability to deal with the problem at a point that maximizes the available options. For example, this system has been applied to the problem of managing battery energy on a lunar rover as it is used to explore the Moon. Astronauts drive the rover to waypoints and conduct science observations according to a plan that is scheduled and verified to be achievable with the energy resources available. As the astronauts execute this plan, the system uses this new capability to continuously re-verify the plan as energy is consumed to ensure that the battery will never be depleted below safe levels across the entire plan.

Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Knight, Russell L.; Morris, John R.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Ingham, Michel D.

2012-01-01

356

Couple communication in family planning decision-making in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

A qualitative study in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran, used focus group discussions with 120 people in 8 main groups to understand more about couple's decision-making and the role of men in family planning. The study included men and women from Sunni and Shia sects as well as theologians from both sects. Shiites, lay people and theologians, believed that both husband and wife play a major role in decision-making about family planning, while Sunnis believed that men are the main decision-makers. All participants believed that men have an important role in family planning, but also that men do not like attending family planning clinics. Religious tenets were important in couple's decision-making about using contraceptives but there were confusions over different teachings. PMID:16700372

Rakhshani, F; Niknami, S; Ansari Moghaddam, A R

2005-07-01

357

Interspousal communication on family planning and its effect on contraceptive adoption in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article explores the hypothesis that interspousal communication on family planning significantly influences the use of contraceptive method in Bangladesh using the nationally representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis. Both cross-sectional and fixed-effect binary logistic regression models yielded quantitatively important and statistically reliable estimates of the positive effect of husband-wife discussion on family planning on the current use of contraceptive method. Son preference, current residence, region, and visitations by family planning workers are also important determinants of contraceptive use. Programs should be undertaken on behalf of the government to involve men in family planning to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate at the point that needs to achieve the replacement level of fertility in Bangladesh. PMID:21659331

Kamal, S M Mostafa; Islam, Md Aynul

2012-05-01

358

Tulane Family Planning Operations Research in the English Speaking Caribbean: Final Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations research in the area of family planning has proved useful in identifying barriers to contraceptive use, resolving these problems, and testing new approaches to service delivery. The results of operations research in six English-speaking Caribbe...

J. T. Bertrand, P. Russell-Brown, E. Landry

1986-01-01

359

Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

Norwood, Carolette

2011-01-01

360

Learning about the Population Problem: Children's Attitudes toward Family Planning in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here examines the socialization of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning. Taken into account are socioeconomic, political, and religious influences on the attitudes of the subjects studied. (Author/EB)

Iyengar, Shanto

1979-01-01

361

The impact of mass media family planning programmes on current use of contraception in urban Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A sample of 871 currently married urban Bangladeshi women was used to assess the impact of mass media family planning programmes on current contraceptive use. The analyses suggested that radio had been playing a significant role in spreading family planning messages among eligible clients; 38% of women with access to a radio had heard of family planning messages while the figures for TV and newspaper were 18.5% and 8.5% respectively. Education, number of living children and current contraceptive use were important predictors of exposure to any mass media family planning messages. There was a negative relationship between breast-feeding and the current use of contraception indicating a low need for contraception among women who were breast-feeding. PMID:10979233

Kabir, M; Islam, M A

2000-07-01

362

Planning Grant for Breast cancer Family-based Intervention Trial (BFIT) Investigators  

E-print Network

Planning Grant for Breast cancer Family-based Intervention Trial (BFIT) Investigators: Department and Epidemiology Department of Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons Sheldon Feldman, MD, Associate Professor of Clinical Surgery Preya Ananthakrishnan, MD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Surgery Department

Grishok, Alla

363

242-A evaporator quality assurance project plan: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is sampling and analytical services including, but not limited to, sample receipt, handling and storage, analytical measurements, submittal of data deliverables, archiving selected portions of samples, returning unneeded sample material to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and/or sample disposal associated with candidate feed samples and process condensate compliance samples. Sampling and shipping activities are also included within the scope. The purpose of this project is to provide planning, implementation, and assessment guidance for achieving established data quality objectives measurement parameters. This Plan requires onsite and offsite laboratories to conform to that guidance. Laboratory conformance will help ensure that quality data are being generated and therefore, that the 242-A evaporator is operating in a safe and compliant manner. The 242-A evaporator feed stream originates from double-shell tanks (DSTs) identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending it to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) storage basin before further treatment. The slurry product is returned to DSTs. Evaporation results in considerable savings by reducing the volume of mixed waste for disposal.

Tucker, B.J.

1994-11-04

364

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

Not Available

1991-11-01

365

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan. Revised  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

Not Available

1991-11-01

366

Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.  

PubMed

The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of appreciation, a three day stay in Manila, and a round trip ticket to award ceremonies. Personnel will receive a complete medical kit, while the center will get a refrigerator. An opportunity to visit a family planning program in an Asian country will be provided to national winners. PMID:12290569

1994-01-01

367

Minister Peng on population situation and major experiences of family planning implementation.  

PubMed

Minister Peng Peiyen of the State Family Planning Commission delivered a speech at the 6th National Symposium on Population Science and the Conference of the Population Association of China. Population programs should be an integral part of economic and social development and a priority for the Communist Party and at all levels of government. Full responsibility for implementation should be taken by top Party organizations and government. Achievement in family planning should be based on the target responsibility system. Family planning policy should be evenly implemented throughout the country. Family planning quotas are preferred as strict and effective controls on births. Traditional ideas about childbearing should be challenged through information, education, and communication [IEC]. Grassroots level networks should be strengthened for effective program management. Family planning should better serve and be integrated with the socialist agenda of economic development. Large numbers of family planning workers need to be trained in a systematic way. Self-management, self-education, and self-service should be encouraged among the population. The family planning program is still unevenly developed in the country, and there are still a large number of annual births, which puts pressure on socioeconomic development, natural resources, and ecology. The most important task for China is the control of population growth, which also involves improving the quality of human resources and readjusting the population structure. The practice of family planning is a policy decision, which is required for attainment of the 2nd and 3rd strategic goals for economic development. There is a need for demographic research to guide program implementation. Research should focus on controlling population growth, improving the quality of human resources, and expanding the scope of inquiry. PMID:12318708

Peng, P

1994-02-01

368

49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimum, a recipient's project management plan shall include...budget covering the project management organization, appropriate...organizational structures, management skills, and staffing levels required throughout the...

2010-10-01

369

Integrated project management plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant stabilization and deactivation project  

SciTech Connect

This document sets forth the plans, organization, and control systems for managing the PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project, and includes the top level cost and schedule baselines. The project includes the stabilization of Pu-bearing materials, storage, packaging, and transport of these and other nuclear materials, surveillance and maintenance of facilities and systems relied upon for storage of the materials, and transition of the facilities in the PFP Complex.

SINCLAIR, J.C.

1999-05-03

370

Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.  

PubMed

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

371

NOVEMBER 2013 POLICY BRIEF | Integrating family planning into HIV services increases use of more effective contraception | 1 Integrating family planning into HIV services  

E-print Network

), subdermal implants, injectables and oral contraceptives--in sub-Saharan Africa in general and among HIV effective contraception | 1 Integrating family planning into HIV services increases use of more effective contraception Policy Brief KEY MESSAGES � There is a very high rate of unintended pregnancy among HIV

Mullins, Dyche

372

We've come a long way, maybe: College students' plans for work and family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young men and women today face considerable choices as they plan for family and work. We explore college students' educational preparations, as well as their attitudes, orientations, and expectations for work and family. Although we find some changes toward a more gender-equal society, we also find potential conflicts which these individuals will have to face as they attempt to combine

Joan Z. Spade; Carole A. Reese

1991-01-01

373

Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

Henry, Kathleen

374

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM  

E-print Network

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM Certification of Health Care Provider for Employee's Serious Health Condition Family and Medical to other health care provider(s) for evaluation or treatment (e.g., physical therapist)? ____No ____Yes

Myers, Lawrence C.

375

Family Involvement in Transition Planning and Implementation. PRO-ED Series on Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series designed to provide practical resources on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on family involvement in transition planning and implementation. Chapter 1, "Overview and Introduction," discusses the history of family involvement in education, and the…

Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Morningstar, Mary; Husted, Doris

376

Family Planning and Rural Fertility Decline in Iran: A Study in Program Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the flrst few years of the Islamic Revolution Iranian fertility was on the rise, in part because of the revolutionary government's pro-natal policies. In a policy reversal, in 1989 the government launched an ambitious and innovative family planning program speciflcally aimed at rural families. By 2005, the program had covered more than 90 percent of the rural population and

Djavad Salehi-Isfahani; Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi

2008-01-01

377

Cultural eactors constraining the introduction of family planning among the Kassena-Nankana of Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a focus group investigation of reasons why women in a rural, Sahelian community are reluctant to adopt family planning even when convenient services are made freely available. First, women opting to practice contraception must do so at considerable risk of social ostracism or familial conflict. Implementing individual preference is something that must be done without the support

Philip B. Adongo; James F. Phillips; Beverly Kajihara; Clara Fayorsey; Cornelius Debpuur; Fred N. Binka

1997-01-01

378

Resource significance: A new prospective for environmental project planning  

SciTech Connect

Resource significance is one of the metrics used in the decision making process of selecting environmental projects for implementation. The theory being that the more `significant` resources, as defined in Institutional, Technical, and Public parameters, will be carried into the implementation phase of project planning. This report provides a brief discussion of the sources for determining resource significance. It also provides summary statistics of 95 programs developed for purposes of ranking projects based on various levels of significance. The report presents summaries of selected existing programs that can assist in the identification and description of the significance of environmental resources. Included are discussions of models for prioritizing National and Regional environmental resource priorities as well as models which use established sets of scientific or TECHNICAL criteria, INSTITUTIONAL criteria, PUBLIC support or opinion and models which promote interagency cooperation to establish environmental resource priorities.

Doll, A.; Rubin, K.I.

1995-06-01

379

Safety Planning Guidance Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects  

E-print Network

..................................................................................6 4. Communications Plan..........................................................................7 Emergency Response

380

Engaging Families to Support Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: The Family Acceptance Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families play a critical role in child and adolescent development and well-being, and connections to family are a protective factor against major health risk behaviors. However, few research studies have looked at the family context for LGBT youth, and in fact, when LGBT youth do seek services they are not routinely asked about their families and…

Ryan, Caitlin

2010-01-01

381

FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229) project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan defines the cost, scope, schedule, organizational responsibilities, and work breakdown structure for the removal of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC).

Metcalf, I.L.

1997-05-16

382

Recommended Academic Plan for Human Development and Family Studies (HFSCC at DuBois) Lifespan Human Services Option (LSHS) Focus on Adult Development and Aging  

E-print Network

and Ethics in Health and Human Development Professions 3 HDFS 315 (US) or 315Y (US/IL & W) Family Development Semester 8 Credits HDFS 401 Project Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in the Human Services 3 HDFS 402 Human Services Seminar 4 HDFS 455 Development and Administration of Human Services Programs 3 HDFS

Kaye, Jason P.

383

Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

2011-01-01

384

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

385

Physician extender services in family planning agencies: issues in Medicaid reimbursement.  

PubMed

The US Social Security Amendments of 1972 mandated the inclusion of family planning services in state Medicaid plans, authorized 90% of reimbursements for family planning care, and imposed financial penalties for failure to provide these services to Medicaid-eligible clients. On the other hand, many states have retrictive policies regarding Medicaid reimbursements to family planning agencies for services provided by physician extenders (e.g.s nurse practitioners and physician assistants). There is concern that such restrictions greatly reduce accessibility to family planning services. Reasons that hae been suggested as causes of such restrictive policies include physician concern over loss of income, the uncertain status of physician extenders in some states, a fear that this step will lead to a demand for reiimbursement for the services of other allied health care providers such as social workers, and concern that care for the indigent will lead to an expensive increase in state reimbursement for family planning services. However, a review of relevant federal law and regulations indicates that Medicaid reimbursement for services provided to eligible patients by physician extenders has never been prohibited or discouraged. Physician supervision is required in reimbursement cases, but this does not mean that a physician must be on the premises while services are delivered. The Medicaid program actually allows significant latitude in establishing administrative policies and procedures. Rather, problems faced by family planning agencies in receiving Medicaid reimbursements for physician extenders' services are due to restrictions in state laws and staff misinterpretations of policy. Research has demonstrated that physcian extenders can contribute significantly to cost effectiveness, while providing types of care in localities such as rural areas that physicians tend to avoid. Given the importance of family planning services to Medicaid-eligible clients, unwarranted policy restrictions contrary to congressional intent should be eliminated. PMID:2874155

Mondy, L W; Lutz, D B; Heartwell, S F; Zetzman, M R

1986-01-01

386

Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project  

SciTech Connect

This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium-containing ceramic forms within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2006 and be completed within 10 years.

Kan, T.

1998-07-01

387

Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

Berger, Matthew T.

1994-01-01

388

The Strengthening Washington D.C. Families project: a randomized effectiveness trial of family-based prevention.  

PubMed

The Strengthening Washington DC Families Project (SWFP) examined implementation fidelity and effectiveness when a selective, evidence-based prevention program was implemented with a sample of 715 predominantly African American families across multiple settings in an urban area. Using a true experimental design, this study reports on the differential effectiveness of four conditions (child skills training only, parent skills training only, parent and child skills training plus family skills training, and minimal treatment controls) in reducing child antisocial behavior and its precursors. Major challenges with recruitment and retention of participants and uneven program coverage were documented. No statistically significant positive effects for any of the program conditions were observed, and a statistically significant negative effect on child reports of Negative Peer Associations was observed for children of families assigned to the family skills training condition. Two marginally significant findings were observed: Child's positive adjustment favored families assigned to family skills training condition relative to minimal treatment and child training only, and family supervision and bonding was lower for children in family skills training than in the other three conditions. Hypotheses about potential explanations for the weaker than expected effects of this program are offered, as are thoughts about the infrastructure necessary to successfully implement family strengthening programs and the future of prevention science. PMID:16555144

Gottfredson, Denise; Kumpfer, Karol; Polizzi-Fox, Danielle; Wilson, David; Puryear, Veronica; Beatty, Penny; Vilmenay, Myriam

2006-03-01

389

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

390

Large hadron collider (LHC) project quality assurance plan  

SciTech Connect

The LHC Quality Assurance Plan is a set of operating principles, requirements, and practices used to support Berkeley Lab's participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project. The LHC/QAP is intended to achieve reliable, safe, and quality performance in the LHC project activities. The LHC/QAP is also designed to fulfill the following objectives: (1) The LHC/QAP is Berkeley Lab's QA program document that describes the elements necessary to integrate quality assurance, safety management, and conduct of operations into the Berkeley Lab's portion of the LHC operations. (2) The LHC/QAP provides the framework for Berkeley Lab LHC Project administrators, managers, supervisors, and staff to plan, manage, perform, and assess their Laboratory work. (3) The LHC/QAP is the compliance document that conforms to the requirements of the Laboratory's Work Smart Standards for quality assurance (DOE O 414.1, 10 CFR 830.120), facility operations (DOE O 5480.19), and safety management (DOE P 450.4).

Gullo, Lisa; Karpenko, Victor; Robinson, Kem; Turner, William; Wong, Otis

2002-09-30

391

SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

Flament, T.A.

1998-03-03

392

In-space propellant logistics. Volume 4: Project planning data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prephase A conceptual project planning data as it pertains to the development of the selected logistics module configuration transported into earth orbit by the space shuttle orbiter. The data represents the test, implementation, and supporting research and technology requirements for attaining the propellant transfer operational capability for early 1985. The plan is based on a propellant module designed to support the space-based tug with cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen propellants. A logical sequence of activities that is required to define, design, develop, fabricate, test, launch, and flight test the propellant logistics module is described. Included are the facility and ground support equipment requirements. The schedule of activities are based on the evolution and relationship between the R and T, the development issues, and the resultant test program.

1972-01-01

393

The ANURIB project at VECC - Plans and preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VECC is planning to develop a rare ion beam facility called ANURIBplans for ANURIB project and present status of the R&D activities will be presented.

Chakrabarti, Alok; Bandyopadhyay, Arup; Naik, Vaishali; Dechoudhury, Siddhartha; Mondal, Manas; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

2013-12-01

394

Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

1990-01-01

395

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

396

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

Randklev, E.H.

1993-06-01

397

Modeling studies for planning: The Green Bay project  

SciTech Connect

A major contaminant monitoring and modeling study is underway for Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Monitoring programs in support of contaminant modeling of large waterbodies, such as for Green Bay, are expensive and their extent is often limited by budget limitations, laboratory capacity, and logistic constraints. Physical/chemical and food chain models were applied using historical data to aid in project planning by identifying processes having the greatest impact on the predictive capability of mass balance models. Studies were also conducted to estimate errors in computed tributary loadings and in-Bay concentrations and contaminant mass associated with different sampling strategies.

Martin, J.L.; Richardson, W.L.; McCutcheon, S.C.

1991-06-01

398

GEWEX America Prediction Project (GAPP) Science and Implementation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this Science and Implementation Plan is to describe GAPP science objectives and the activities required to meet these objectives, both specifically for the near-term and more generally for the longer-term. The GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP) is part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) initiative that is aimed at observing, understanding and modeling the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes at various time and spatial scales. The mission of GAPP is to demonstrate skill in predicting changes in water resources over intraseasonal-to-interannual time scales, as an integral part of the climate system.

2004-01-01

399

NASA Global Hawk: Project Update and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawk's range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the first two science campaigns. In addition the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

Naftel, Chris

2010-01-01

400

NASA Global Hawk: Project Overview and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawk's range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the first two science campaigns. In addition the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

Naftel, Chris

2011-01-01

401

The Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project: Experiences and future plans  

SciTech Connect

Fully operational in June of 1994, the Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project was started to gain insight into the costs and benefits of providing ISDN service to the homes of Fermilab researchers. Fourteen users were chosen from throughout Fermilab, but the number of Fermilab-employed spouses pushed the total user count to 20. Each home was equipped with a basic rate ISDN (BRI) line, a BRI Ethernet half-bridge, and an NT-1. An inter-departmental team coordinated the project. Usage at each home was tracked and frequent surveys were attempted. Lessons learned include: working with Ameritech can be difficult; careful monitoring is essential; and configuration of home computing equipment is very time consuming. Plans include moving entirely to primary rate ISDN hubs, support for different home ISDN equipment and better usage and performance tracking.

Martin, D.E.; Lego, A.J.; Clifford, A.E.

1995-12-31

402

Transuranic waste projections at SRS for long range planning  

SciTech Connect

This report predicts 30 year receipts of solid transuranic (TRU) wastes from eventual plutonium facility deactivation and cleanup, and combines them with the existing TRU waste holdings to provide a technical and quantitative basis for interim and long range TRU waste management planning. The current TRU waste holdings have been characterized based on data from the Computerized Radioactive Waste Burial Records Analysis (COBRA) system. Six TRU waste disposition categories have been identified for existing TRU waste as shown in Table 1. An additional category has been quantified that includes projected waste volumes from the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of TRU waste generating facilities. These projections are based on COBRA data from D&D of the original plutonium finishing facilities in F and H Areas that were replaced in the 1970`s and 80`s.

Hootman, H.E.; Cook, J.R.

1994-05-01

403

Labor Project for Working Families Cornell ILR Labor Programs  

E-print Network

security and privacy for the workers we organize. The use of social media and new technology for organizing New Approaches to Organizing Women and Young Workers Social Media & Work Family Issues #12;New Approaches to Organizing Women and Young Workers Social Media and Work Family Issues This report

Keinan, Alon

404

7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan...prepared at the project area/management unit level, addressing those deficiencies...area. These project area/management unit corrective action...

2010-01-01

405

The HOPE Family Project: A Family-Based Group Intervention to Reduce the Impact of Homelessness on HIV\\/STI and Drug Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HOPE Family Project (HIV Prevention for Parents and Early Adolescents) is an eight- session, family-based group intervention modeled on three evidence-based curricula targeting HIV\\/AIDS and alcohol and drug abuse prevention. The design and implementation of the HOPE Family Project was carried out by an established community collaborative board. The project aims to educate and provide tailored support to families

Nisha Beharie; Kosta Kalogerogiannis; Mary M. McKay; Angela Paulino; Ana Miranda; Anita Rivera-Rodriguez; Ervin Torres; Aida Ortiz

2010-01-01

406

Awareness, use, and unmet need for family planning in rural northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Access to quality reproductive health and family planning services remain poor in Nigeria. We present results on family planning awareness and use from a survey of 3,080 women (age 15-49 years) in Jigawa, Katsina, Yobe, and Zamfara States. About 43.0% had heard of any method of contraception whereas 36.6% had heard of any modern method. Overall, 7.0% of all currently married women reported ever using a method of contraception; 4.4% used a modern method and 2.9% used a traditional method. Only 1.3% of women in union (currently married or cohabiting) used modern contraception methods at the time of the survey; 1.3% of women in union used traditional methods. Unmet need for family planning was 10.3%. Low family planning use in the presence of low awareness and low felt need suggests, among other things, a need to increase awareness and uptake and make family planning commodities available. PMID:24558787

Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Uzondu, Charles; Ashir, Garba M

2013-12-01

407

Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (b) Future of the clinic service.  

PubMed

The National Health Service (N.H.S.) of the United Kingdom will be resturctured in April 1974 and that will be the start of a new era, the author asserts. Family planning services are ready for an integration and that is what the reorganization will aim for. Access to family planning services at present is achieved through the general practitioner, free access clinics and hospitals, and there is no coordination of these 3 contraceptive services. The family planning Association (FPA) has been responsible for the establishment of clinic services and for the rise in contraceptive services. The reorganization of N.H.S. will also aim for decentralization so that the main reponsibility for the integration of family planning services will be done at the district level. A Co-ordinator of Family Planning Services should be appointed for each district. In the integrated Health Service, each clinic is to have a local backup of health visitor and social workers, and consultant obstetricians and gynecologists. PMID:4428025

Elstein, M

1974-06-01

408

Valuation of a well construction project with a flexible project plan, comparison of real option pricing and Monte Carlo simulation  

E-print Network

analysis can be performed to analyze the profitability of a project. However, performing an economic risk and the recovery factor are decisive for the profitability of the project. If the uncertainty concerning have a negative effect on the project profitability. In such situations a flexible project plan can

Ford, David N.

409

Page 1 | B.A. in Child and Family Development | Academic Plan of Study Updated May 2014 B.A. in Child and Family Development  

E-print Network

Page 1 | B.A. in Child and Family Development | Academic Plan of Study Updated May 2014 B.A. in Child and Family Development Academic Plan of Study College of Education Department of Special Education and Child Development spcd.uncc.edu PROGRAM SUMMARY · Credit Hours: 120 hours · Concentrations

Raja, Anita

410

River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

POHTO, R.E.

2000-03-09

411

Site characterization plan for the W-058 Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this preoperational study plan is to characterize the proposed pipeline route for the Cross-Site Transfer System (W-058). The purpose of this study is to meet the requirements set forth in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, Chapter 4, (DOE 1990). The W-058 pipeline is intended to replace the existing Cross-Site Transfer System (H-2-43056). The proposed route for the W-058 project will be reviewed to provide information on documented waste sites and potentially to identify any undocumented hazards that may currently exist along the proposed route. Historical records will be researched for pertinent information. Health Physics personnel will perform a ``walk-down`` radiological survey of the proposed path. A sampling plan will be generated and will consist of actual drilling of boreholes to allow field screening for radionuclides and/or chemical contamination and the collection of samples at selected sites for laboratory analyses. The information generated from this combined effort will establish existing/potential contamination levels, aid in developing personnel safety requirements, assist in determining the need for any changes in the proposed route prior to installation/construction of the new pipeline, and satisfy the requirements of a preoperational baseline for the project.

Rowley, C.A.

1993-09-01

412

Project responder: a national technology plan for emergency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency responders are the front line of defense against catastrophic terrorist attacks on US soil. Advanced systems and cutting-edge technologies can increase responders' capabilities, or make their resources go farther in time of crisis, but there is a disconnection of understanding between those who produce the systems and technologies, and those who need them at the local level. Local jurisdictions rarely have a budget to support or influence technology development and acquisition. The laboratories, agencies, universities, or industries that develop these emerging technologies are responding to requirements from different markets (usually larger) than individual local jurisdictions. Indeed, responders may not even know of new technology development, availability, or relevance to responders" needs. Consequently, technology developers have limited insight into what technologies responders need. Local, and even state, budgets by themselves are not sufficiently large or coordinated to influence technology development towards the needs of responders, without the assistance of federal direction and funding. If federal direction and funding of technology is to produce and deliver useful capabilities for local responders, federal technology planners must understand the needs of responders, and develop technology plans to meet those needs. Project Responder's National Technology Plan for Emergency Response provides a foundation and building blocks for technology planning, to focus federal research and development investments toward improving the capabilities of state and local emergency responders.

Pollard, Neal A.; Tuohy, Robert V.; Garwin, Thomas M.; Powell, Maria E.; Royal, Michelle; Singley, George T., III

2004-09-01

413

Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.

Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P Evan; Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

2000-10-18

414

RIB Project RIBLL and CSR--- The Upgrading Plan of HIRFL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will first talk on the recent upgrading of the Heavy Ion Research Facility Lanzhou (HIRFL) with an emphasis on the development of Radioactive Ion Beam Line Lanzhou (RIBBL) at the accelerator. And then my talk will be focussed on the proposed project Co oler Storage Ring (CSR) at HIRFL. Heavy Ion Research Facility Lanzhou (HIRFL) is of cyclotron family delivering intermediate energy heavy ions. RIBBL1 has been completed and the construction of an advanced RIBBL is in progress. Both RIBBL1 and RIBBL are of PF type which has advantages of fast in-flight separation, capability for studying drip-line nuclei or short-lived resonance states, low radi oactivity background, and simplicity and reliability for operation. In addition, CSR project has been proposed to upgrade the HIRFL with a multifunctional Cooler Storage Ring. The CSR will consist of two rings, a main ring and an experimental ring. RIB physics, physics of highly charged heavy ions and applications of RI B will be carried out at CSR. The CSR project is at the final stage to be considered and authorized by the government.

Luo, Y. X.

1997-04-01

415

Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.  

PubMed

The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

Kagurusi, Patrick T

2013-09-01

416

[20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].  

PubMed

The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge. PMID:1561604

Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

1992-02-28

417

Recommended Academic Plan for A.S. in Human Development and Family Studies (2FSCC at DuBois) Children, Youth, and Family Services Option (C Y F)  

E-print Network

in Health and Human Development Professions 3 HDFS 315 (US) or 315Y (US/IL & W) Family Development 3 HDFSRecommended Academic Plan for A.S. in Human Development and Family Studies (2FSCC at DuBois) Children, Youth, and Family Services Option (C Y F) Effective Spring 2005 Semester 1 Credits Semester 2

Kaye, Jason P.

418

Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.

Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

2014-01-01

419

Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

2013-01-01

420

Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach.

Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

2013-01-01