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Sample records for family planning project

  1. Baseline study on the Integrated Project on Family Planning, Parasite Control and Nutrition in Zambia.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    Zambia's Integrated Project on Family Planning, Parasite Control, and Nutrition was set up in a government effort to adopt policies and projects to manage population growth. In Zambia, the population is expected to reach 11.5 million people by the year 2000--twice as large as the current population. 2 project areas were chosen to represent both rural and urban settings. Kapata, a typical rural area located on lake Bangweulu in the province of Luapula, was chosen as the 1st project site. The majority of its 15,000 inhabitants are engaged in fishing. In contrast, the Zambia Sugar Company, the 2nd project area is located in Ndola City in urban Kabushi. About 1200 people live within the sugar company compound. In May and July 1985, the integrated project in Zambia conducted a baseline study on these 2 project areas. The average number of members per household in both project areas was more than 5. 74.6% of the women in Kabushi said they were familiar with oral contraceptives (OCs), while only 30% of women in kapata indicated a knowledge of family planning methods. The practice of family planning was very low in both areas. Only 20.9% of the Kabushi respondents said that they practiced family planning (mainly using condoms); 11% of the Kapata respondents indicated the use of a family planning method. In both areas, women of childbearing age indicated that they did not use a contraceptive method cause of the unavailability of contraceptives. Foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, vitamins are minerals are available in the households in both areas. The quantitities and frequencies with which these foods were consumed varied considerablY. The families in Kabushi consumed more protein carbohydrates, and vegetables than the families in Kapata whose diets consisted mainly of cassava and fish. 64% of the mothers in Kabushi breast fed their babies from birth up to 1 year; only 33.3% of the women in Kapata breast fed their babies for the same period. All the families in Kabushi have access to latrines; this is the case for only 39% of the families in Kapata. Parasite infection was 42.9% in Kabushi and 35% in Kapata. The integrated project has been very successful in using parasite control as an entry point for other health interventions. The Zambia study has demonstrated the need for adopting strategies that will suit local conditions. In the case of Kabushi and Kapata, a different entry point was needed. By attending to 3 common health concerns such as eye problems, jigger, and foot infection among children, the project staff made family planning more acceptable to the people in the 2 areas. PMID:12340744

  2. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Provide that if an application relates to consolidation of service areas or health resources or...

  3. Family planning through child health: a case study of El Kef project in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, M; Jones, M

    1985-01-01

    In 1970, a Dutch medical team began work in the city of El Kef in Tunisia on a project designed to bring family planning into rural areas. The project aimed to persuade the rural people to use urban health centers, but this approach failed partly because of the remoteness of the communities and their reluctance to discuss personal matters with strangers. Funded by UNFPA, a new project began to recruit and train local girls as home health visitors or aides-familiales, an approach which became the central focus of the El Kef project. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) took over the project and expanded it to include nutrition, health care, health education, family planning, disease prevention and domestic crafts. 4 goals were fixed for the project: total vaccination coverage for children; elimination of severe malnutrition; reduction of infant mortality; and use of family planning practice by at least 1/2 the women of childbearing age. An efficient recordkeeping system enabled the project to be carefully evaluated and provides much-needed data, showing where it has achieved its aims and where new efforts should be directed. The project resulted in large numbers of women receiving ante-natal advice, child care and family planning from their local health centers. 860 pregnant women were followed up during the 3-year study period. Some 57% of pregnant women went for advice; only 15% went for postnatal care, but 50% of the women under 50 attended child welfare sessions during the study period for weight checks, nutrition advice, vaccination and treatment for minor ailments. Over the 3 years, the number of contraceptive users more than trebled, from 14% to 54%. The IUD was the most popular method. The most successful aspect of the project was the emphasis on maternal and child health, and the home visits were the most motivating feature. Vaccination became more popular. A further aspect of the project was the training in home improvement skills, like sewing, knitting and gardening. After 4 years in the field the aides familiales were a valuable resource of skill and experience. Family planning was integrated with maternal and child health in the government program through the health infrastructure. PMID:12313877

  4. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya. PMID:26278838

  5. Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Phawaphutanond P

    1990-04-01

    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community participation approach. The PDAs Family Planning (FP) Health Checkup Program is the urban version of the IP. In 1989, the PDA sold 11,109 cycles of pills and 2100 packages of 3-piece condoms through FP volunteers based in 459 enterprises. These FP volunteers also tell their co-workers about parasite control and other issues that they learned from the annual refresher courses. The PDA also does school health checkup services. The PDA generated funds to keep the programs ongoing. The Thai government actively supports the work of the nongovernmental organizations.

  6. Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    PubMed

    Phawaphutanond, P

    1990-04-01

    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community participation approach. The PDAs Family Planning (FP) Health Checkup Program is the urban version of the IP. In 1989, the PDA sold 11,109 cycles of pills and 2100 packages of 3-piece condoms through FP volunteers based in 459 enterprises. These FP volunteers also tell their co-workers about parasite control and other issues that they learned from the annual refresher courses. The PDA also does school health checkup services. The PDA generated funds to keep the programs ongoing. The Thai government actively supports the work of the nongovernmental organizations. PMID:12316328

  7. [Pre-project evaluation of a government based international family planning co-operative project--from a survey at project site in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hyoi, N

    1991-01-01

    A government based international co-operative project for family planning was formulated between Japan and Colombia. A baseline survey was carried out at the project site in northern Colombia as a pre-project evaluation. A total of 330 households were sampled and the housewives were interviewed concerning family planning. Births averted by the existing government program were estimated employing Bongaarts prevalence model. In addition, background and conditions leading to inability to receive family planning services were analyzed. The results showed that of total births averted, government programs contributed around 50% reflecting the apparent insufficiency of the services in reaching women in their forties and teens. Educational attainment and place of birth on the part of the woman, household income, discussion of number of children desired between husband and wife were among the most important factors for women wishing contraception practice but not being able to receive family planning services. Based on this analysis, a service program was mapped out to meet the need of residents of the project site. PMID:1799686

  8. An invisible benefit: integrated project on family planning and parasite control has expanded operations multi-dimensionally.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1985-11-01

    Resolutions adopted by the 12th Annual Asian Parasite Control/Family Planning (APCO/FP) Conference held in Colombo, Sri Lanka urge the incorporation of quality of life issues of all dimensions in projects of all participating countries. 1 study discussed during the conference concerned health volunteers of the integrated project in Sri Lanka, which analyzes motivating factors which make community young people work on a voluntary basis. Another topic covered was the role of women in the achievement of primary health care. Video reports were presented by Bangladesh on family planning and parasite control activities, Brazil on utilization of existing organizations to improve successful integrated projects, China on making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care, Indonesia on strengthening urban FP/MCH clinics, Korea on health promotion through the integrated project, Malaysia on the NADI program, the Philippines on the Cebu model of integrated health care, and Thailand on fee charging urban programs. PMID:12280293

  9. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  10. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  11. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  12. Concepts of family planning.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, C W

    1978-01-01

    Family planning, often equated with birth control consists in the broadest sense of numerous issues and factors. Planning, according to the author entails realistic assessment of ones ability to plan plus recognizing the limitations inherant in planning. The following determinents of parenthood are additional factors one must consider when discussing concepts of family planning: 1) the system of relationships among groups of individuals with differing roles and expectations; 2) values toward family size and parenthood; 3) the concept of parenthood as a career. Successful family planning is often a result of perceiving the goal of planning as either termination of further childbearing or spacing of births; and 4) psychosocial and economic aspects of contraception. The author finally suggests that there are acceptable alternatives to biological parenthood. PMID:255395

  13. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

  14. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, U D; Robey, B

    1999-07-01

    This Population Reports issue focuses on family planning and the importance of advocacy in family planning programs. Key evidences supporting family planning programs are summarized. This article presents the importance of advocacy for the improvement of the family planning programs in developing countries. Advocacy for family planning is becoming crucial as demand for reproductive health care grows. As many as 600 million people have used contraception, and millions more would do so with better access to good-quality services. Although fertility levels are falling in much of the world, rapid population growth remains a critical issue in most developing countries. This is where advocacy is very much needed. Through advocacy, many individuals and countries will benefit especially in the area of family planning. The benefits include saving the lives of women and children; offering women more choices; and encouraging adoption of safer sexual behavior. Through effective family planning programs, population growth will also be affected. Slower population growth helps protect the environment and it aids development. PMID:10730298

  15. Family planning education.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology teaching in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. Sex information for adults is offered at the time of marriage. Married or about to be married adults are the major target of the state's family planning education effort. The key educators are an extensive network of family planning workers. All hospitals have a family planning office, and there are also family planning workers in the factories. What is unique about the Chinese approach is its use of reward and punishment. PMID:6550674

  16. Sri Lanka: an innovative approach to the implementation of integrated parasite control, nutrition and family planning projects.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Sri Lanka Integrated Project of Parasite Control, Nutrition, and Family Planning is to approach the community through the medium of parasite control and lead it to a better life through community participation in an integrated health program built on the 3 pillars of parasite control, better nutrition, and family planning. Other objectives include studying the mechanism of community participation in 3 very different environments, which were typical of different regions of the country and therefore replicable models. The progress of the project areas was to be monitored so that they would provide viable models for future expansion. The 3 project areas selected are broadly typical of Sri Lanka, while, at the same time, being distinctly different from each other. The Nakulugamuwa Project may be described as a typical Sinhala rural area over 120 miles southeast of the capital city of Colombo. The project area consists of the 2 adjoining villages of Nakulagamuwa and Kudawella. The Panadura Project is a semi urban area of about 20 miles from Colombo and also exhibits typical characteristics. Its population of 10,358 is not homogeneous and consists of various conclaves as well as "mixed areas." The Galnewa Project is located over 100 miles northeast of Colombo in the Mahaweli Project area. It is a new settlement of over 10,000 persons. JOICFP's link organization in Sri Lanka has been the government's Ministry of Family Health. This contributed greatly to the success of the pilot project thanks to the high level and good coordination at the National Steering Committee (NSC). The key organization is the Project Committee. Volunteers constitute the backbone of the Project Committee and link the Committee with the community. Development of human resources in the integrated project areas has been a great success. The field level officials of the Health Department (nurses, sanitarians, midwives, and health educators) have been in the forefront of activities in training the JOICFP volunteers. Human resource development has always been given the highest priority in Sri Lanka. This approach has been implemented fully. There has been a significant reduction in parasite borne infection in all 3 project areas. The achievement in the fields of nutrition and child health are not so readily quantifiable, but future nutritional surveys are expected to objectively indicate the improvement which is now subjectively observed. Sri Lanka's success in integrated project administration has been due to the following: high level interagency representation and close coordination at NSC level; field level coordination of government officials and activities at the project level; project leadership by Project Manager/Medical Officer; and considerable autonomy at project level. PMID:12313055

  17. Redefining family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

  18. Iowa Family Planning Program.

    PubMed

    Adams, C S

    1982-04-01

    Increasing national acceptance of family planning was reflected in Iowa by the designation of the Iowa State Department of Health as the grantee recipient which would administer the statewide family planning program. In October 1980 6 agencies established a separate umbrella grantee. The Iowa family planning program administered by the State Department of Health covers 60 counties through contracts with 12 local agencies representing 5 organizations: Community Action Programs, Planned Parenthoods, Independent Health Agencies, hospitals and a private social service agency. Each agency provides services to a specific geographic area. The Department allocates funds, establishes the scope of the program, evaluates programs, provides training and technical assistance, and assumes fiscal and programmatic accountability. Funding regulations require the program to provide a broad range of medically approved family planning methods including natural family planning and services including infertility and adolescent services on a voluntary basis. Abortion may not be a method of family planning, and priority must be given to low income individuals with charges to others based on ability to pay. Medical services are under the supervision of physicians trained in family planning. Local agencies have staffing patterns and service delivery mechanisms appropriate for their service areas, but significant standardization in services directed toward establishing cost indicators has occurred since 1977. Each agency collects Title XIX, Title XX, patient fees, and in-kind support; support by the Department from federal funds varied from 19% to 89% of their overall budgets. 25,124 users, 76% low income, were served in 1981. Each full-program patient receives family planning counseling, general medical history, laboratory services, physical exam, and provision of contraceptive supplies or level 1 infertility services. Average cost to the state for seeing each patient is $60. The computerized patient service record system has helped to assess and improve clinic operation. Regional workshops coordinated or provided by the state program have been held in program management, natural family planning, services to the disabled, infertility services, and interpersonal skills counseling. The program was successful in 1980 in regional and national competition for special initiative grants. PMID:7097049

  19. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  20. Thailand Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document gives details on a current Thai project whose object is to introduce family planning concepts into adult education programs. Complementary objectives are: (1) Educate 200,000 adults through literacy/family planning programs by 1976; (2) Develop appropriate instructional materials; (3) Add and emphasize family life education in the…

  1. [Mobile family planning units].

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    The family planning organization Profamilia established its mobile clinic program in 1976 with the purpose of reaching remote rural and urban areas with voluntary surgical contraceptive services. The success of the mobile clinical-surgical program depends on surveying the area where the work is to be provided, determining the date of activities to start, providing information and education to motivate the community, selecting the contraceptive method and service, and providing follow-up service after the intervention. Profamilia was founded in September 1965, and 30 years later it provides 70% of family planning services in Colombia. Initially, the mobile programs of Profamilia offered only voluntary surgical contraception for women and men. Clients who were far from a family planning center were reached by the mobile clinic and transported to a nearby center. Since 1992 Profamilia has also begun a mobile program with a wide variety of services: temporary methods of family planning, cervical-uterine cytological tests, gynecological and prenatal consultations, infertility tests, and pregnancy tests. This has allowed the recovery of the costs of the program to increase from 50% when only surgical services were offered to 85% currently. This effort is one of the reasons why Colombia has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 72%, one of the highest in Latin America. PMID:12347403

  2. A family planning miracle.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, M S

    1993-10-01

    1991 data indicate that Tamil Nadu has achieved zero population growth. This feat has been accomplished not through the efforts of a concerned and committed family planning program, but as a side effect of a statewide elementary school lunch program launched by the new Chief Minister in 1977. Anyone attending school was guaranteed at least one nutritious meal per day. Children attended schools, schools proliferated, teachers were hired, and students were educated. Many students ate only part of their meals, and offered the rest to younger siblings at home. The positive nutritional effects of the program therefore filtered to children both in and out of school. In addition to teachers, local women were hired to cook the meals. They were compensated for their work in both monetary terms and by taking some of the excess school food back to their homes for later consumption. Maternal and child nutrition benefitted from this program, while children, especially female children, stayed in school for more years than they may have otherwise. a healthier, better educated cohort of girls matured into young women capable of reading and following the prescriptions of widespread family planning messages disseminated by the Chief Secretary of the state who was obsessed about family planning. A functioning system of elementary education remains in Tamil Nadu which continues to influence fertility. The author believes that the success in reducing population growth in Tamil Nadu can and must be replicated in all states of India. PMID:12288800

  3. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-06-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception. PMID:21559818

  4. Family Planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1970-01-01

    In this article the medical director of IPPF, Dr. Malcolm Potts, reviews some new aspects of family planning as discussed in a regional IPPF conference in 1970 in Tokyo and as he gathered impressions from his travels in Asia. Nearly all Asian countries have governmental family planning programs. However, for the most part, bottlenecks have developed in these programs, and the achievements have been disappointing. The population in Asia is biased towards the younger age groups. Migration makes only a marginal difference. Unemployment is a serious social program which will be magnified by additional labor force. Japan has demonstrated that legal abortion can be a relatively safe procedure while in Korea induced abortion is illegal. Conversely, in Korea oral contraceptives have been successfully distributed in the governmental program while in Japan the method is still not approved by the government. A bill to reform the abortion law is before the Indian parliament. In Mainland China, IUDs, oral contraceptives and condoms are in use; sterilization and abortion are available upon request. PMID:12254734

  5. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders. PMID:2286082

  6. Men's Family Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Duane; Robinson, George; Taylor, Jane

    A Men's Family Learning Project was conducted in Bristol to induce men, many of whom were unemployed, to take advantage of learning opportunities and to volunteer to interact with children in the Hareclive Primary School. Following a survey of educational needs in the community, a project director (a male with experience as a volunteer and ties to…

  7. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  8. Family planning gets a new boost.

    PubMed

    Ponle, B

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on family planning was held during 1993 in Ota, Ogun State Nigeria. An active participant was the Emir of Dass, Alhaji Bilyamini Othman, who helped to develop strategies for the implementation of the Family Health Services Project of the Federal Ministry of Health. His commitment to family planning surprised participants, since most pious Muslims are some of the least sympathetic groups. Alhaji Bilyamini is very enthusiastic about family planning and gives the advice that Allah would not like people to have children who could not be fed. Many men come to him for advice and he suggests that the men allow their wives to adopt family planning. Alhaji Bilyamini was educated at Ahmadu Bello University in business administration and currently is a chairman of the advisory committee for the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria in Bauchi State. The involvement of traditional rulers such as Alhaji Bilyamini has been practiced since 1987, when the USAID approached rulers about family planning. Others who have received family planning messages were the Sultan of Sokoto, the Emirs of Kano and Suleija, and the Shehu of Borno, who also have involved their subordinates. The rulers and subordinates who receive training assist in broadcasting the messages to the people. Because of the authoritative position of the rule in the community, a family planning supporter among rulers means the whole community will be convinced. Future plans include involving the rulers through the first phase. Alhaji Bilyamini recommends continued involvement of traditional rulers, because of their success in changing public perceptions. For example, in Bauchi state, condom discussion was considered taboo, and now condoms are advertised on television. Not all emirs have so enthusiastically embraced the family planning idea. An emir in Ogun state turned away visiting family planning experts days before his daughter died while trying at school to abort a pregnancy. Conference participants were supportive of traditional rulers' involvement in spreading the message of family planning. PMID:12318632

  9. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePLUS

    Contraception; Family planning and contraception; Coitus interruptus ... and always working? Is preventing infections spread by sexual ... vagina before intercourse. A condom must be worn at all times ...

  10. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  11. Family planning in industrial units.

    PubMed

    1970-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan conducted a survey of existing Family Planning Services in industrial units in cooperation with the Government of Pakistan, Family Planning Division. In East Pakistan the Association in cooperation with the Family Planning Council selected 3 areas for this survey, in Khulna a Jute Mill, in Sylhet a Tea Estate, and in Naryangnaj (a suburb of Dacca), a cotton mill. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the extent of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning in an industrial sample in the context of the national family planning program. A further objective was to explore the possibilities of establishing family planning motivational centers in industrial units. This was the first study of its kind undertaken in Pakistan. Monogamy is the practice among the industrial laborers. 83.99% of the respondents married once only, and 97.4% have 1 wife currently with them. The mean number of years of married life is 12.88 years. The estimated mean age of all respondents is 37.2 years. At present the mean number of living children is 4.08, 2.13 boys and 1.95 girls. The desired number of children is 4.35, 1.76 girls and 2.59 boys. 69.98% of the respondents have knowledge of family planning, and level of education is closely associated. Vasectomy is the best known method followed by tubal ligation. Of the 1349 respondents, 735 or 55.97% were in favor of family planning. Only 54 persons or 4% are currently using family planning methods. It is clear from the survey that a great number of laborers are aware of the family planning program. They are also aware of the family planning methods, their uses, and their necessity. On the basis of the findings the establishment of motivational centers with full family planning services in 3 industrial units is recommended. Registration of the eligible couples for easy identification for giving family planning services and follow-ups is also recommended, and it is suggested that there be continual follow-up studies. PMID:12332197

  12. Manpower and project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to study how manpower and projects are planned at the Facilities Engineering Division (FENGD) within the Systems Engineering and Operations Directorate of the LaRC and to make recommendations for improving the effectiveness and productivity ot the tools that are used. The existing manpower and project planning processes (including the management plan for the FENGD, existing manpower planning reports, project reporting to LaRC and NASA Headquarters, employee time reporting, financial reporting, and coordination/tracking reports for procurement) were discussed with several people, and project planning software was evaluated.

  13. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena. PMID:17113431

  14. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

  15. Men and family planning in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A

    1993-10-01

    Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been disseminating information, training, and counselling since it was founded in 1967. PMID:12222247

  16. More about natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    1983-11-01

    When properly taught and practised, natural family planning can be a highly effective form of birth regulation. Recent studies indicate low failure rates of less than three pregnancies per 100 women years for couples with a strong motivation to follow the method. Studies show that pregnancy rates are high when the rules for avoiding pregnancy are not adhered to. Successful natural family planning can lead to heightened self esteem and marital enrichment. PMID:6667188

  17. Educating Adults in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    1972-01-01

    The concept of adult education for family planning is examined, and a strategy for program development in developing nations is suggested. Experience suggests that learning in groups is generally the most effective means for changing attitudes and behavior, but the skills necessary for participation in learning groups outside family and…

  18. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  19. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  20. Family planning: the global challenge.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1985-05-01

    There has been huge growth in the world population during the 20th century, and a factor which must never be forgotten in relation to global population is its inherent dynamic. The momentum of population growth is remarkable and dictates that world numbers are destined to continue growing for decades to come. Stabilization of population at 2 children per family remains a distant goal and depends on fertility on fertility levels and rates of population growth in different parts of the world. Many authorities maintain that family planning will remedy the population explosion. Family planning, most likely, does work, yet its overall success has been modest. Part of the decline in birthrates recorded in some developing countries in Asia and Latin America can be ascribed to spreading birth control practices. Yet, by far the greatest contribution to the overall decline in global population growth has been made through the draconian measures introduced in China. In spite of family planning programs which have been operational for relatively long periods of time, population growth rates in many other developing countries have changed little over the past 2 decades. The limitations of an approach based totally on family planning should be borne constantly in mind, especially in the 3rd world. The main fallacy operating, and many authorities still hold to it, is to equate family planning with a population policy. In 1967, Kingsley Davis, an American demographer, noted the flaw in this argument. He pointed out that the desired family size was often in excess of the 2 children which would be needed to produce eventual stabilization of the population. The litany of family planning assumes that the aggregate of decisions of countless couples on family building will precisely coincide with the needs of the state in terms of population. If this were the case, it would be a coincidence of monumental proportions. Yet, family planning should not be denigrated. It is an integral and essential part of any population policy. To be successful a population policy must be broad in scope and multifactorial in approach. Population education from as early an age as possible is essential as is a commitment to women's rights and female emancipation and a massive program of socioeconomic development together with better health, nutrition, and sanitation. Family planning as an important element of any program designed to curb population growth merits full support. PMID:4011567

  1. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

  2. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R. C.

    1998-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan documents the quality assurance activities for the Wastewater/Stormwater/Groundwater and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This QAPP was prepared in accordance with DOE guidance on compliance with 10CFR830.120.

  4. DAF Glovebox Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.W.; Higgs, R.L.

    2000-11-14

    This document defines how the glovebox project will be managed and executed. It provides a path forward for establishing a glovebox capability in Building 341 of the DAF in time to meet JASPER programmatic requirements as the first user. Note that some elements of the glovebox project have been under way for some time and are more mature than others; other elements are being worked concurrently. This plan serves the following purposes: Assign organizational and individual responsibilities for bringing the glovebox capability online; Coordinate activities between organizations; Facilitate communication between project members and management; and Identify the mechanisms used to manage and control the project. The scope of this plan includes all activities conducted to achieve project objectives, culminating in DOE/NV approval to operate. This plan does not address the issues associated with the steady-state operation of the glovebox.

  5. Agency leads in family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the main source of family planning assistance for the developing countries of the world. It accounts for 45% of the funding for population programs worldwide. USAID's policy promotes expanded family planning services, providing a broad range of birth control methods, promotes consumer delivery systems, and urges private sector assistance. Since the program began in the 1960's the number of people in the developing world using family planning increased from 15 million to 200 million. In 1959 there was only 1 country with a population policy, India, now there are 63 developing countries with policies. USAID has brought $567.7 million worth of contraceptives for distribution in 75 countries including 6.9 billion condoms, 1.6 billion cycles of pills, 49.7 million IUD's, and 16.5 vaginal foam tablets. USAID has funded research in contraceptives including the Hulka clip, laparoscopic sterilization, low-estrogen pills, progestin pills, Copper-T IUD, NORPLANT and NORPLANT 2. In addition, funding for a 3-month injectable and a 12 month pellet is being provided. The agency has also worked with the entertainment industry to produce songs to warn of the dangers of early pregnancy. They have also conducted the largest survey research program, using data from 149 surveys in 65 countries to assess the demand for family planning and analyze population dynamics. The number of women of reproductive age will increase 45% by the year 2000 increasing the demand for family planning dramatically. The resources needed by 2000 are estimated to be $5 billion and $7 billion by the year 2010. This will require efforts from government, private industry, and private voluntary organizations. USAID has developed a contraceptive marketing project worldwide to promote birth control sales and family planning. Another program helps private sector companies promote their own family planning services. PMID:12343035

  6. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    PubMed

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J

    1973-07-01

    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs. PMID:12257226

  7. Women's experiences with family planning.

    PubMed

    Gupte, M

    1994-06-01

    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family planning quotas create an undesirable climate to introduce injectables and implants into the family planning program. PMID:12345778

  8. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  9. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  10. A boost for family planning.

    PubMed

    Pearce-Biney, J

    1989-01-01

    In Ghana, pharmacists and sellers of non-prescription medicines are distributing contraceptives and giving family planning advice within the framework of a demonstration programme which, it is hoped, will lead to a significant improvement in the health of rural populations. PMID:2610832

  11. [Why family planning in Africa?].

    PubMed

    Salifou, A

    1993-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1985, Africa's population rose from 225 to 460 million people. The population should double in size from 2010, adversely affecting the quality of life in Africa. In 30 years forests have dwindled, deserts expanded, animal species have been decimated. In effect, the ecological system in Africa has been destroyed. An inevitable result of these conditions is the need for African populations to support family planning (FP) in their daily attitudes ad behavior. Each year thousands of women and millions of children die due to too many births or births spaced too close together, as well as too many young or old women giving birth. More than 50,000 clandestine abortions are performed each day. FP can bring more benefits at less cost than all other technologies existing today. It allows women to choose birth intervals and family size freely. FP allows men and women to engage in sexual intercourse without an unwanted pregnancy. It also allows couples to delay birth of a child until they are financially secure. Africa needs to restore parental responsibility as a necessary condition of family welfare. Political and opinion leaders in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, sidestep the issue of FP and delay supporting it. In Africa FP rests almost entirely with nongovernmental organizations and FP associations. More and more African States are beginning to consider FP as an essential element of socioeconomic development. The Africa Region of IPPF must awaken the conscience of governments in the interests of family planning. It is important to break their conspiracy of silence on FP and urge the governments to include family planning. Information, education, and communication are needed to overcome the obstacles facing family planning. Africa needs FP services now more than ever. PMID:12318557

  12. Integration and family planning programme performance: an interpretive summary of research projects in Malaysia and the Republic of Korea on the determinants and impact of integration in family planning programmes.

    PubMed

    Chan Onn Fong; Kim, K W; Ness, G D

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of research undertaken in the Republic of Korea and Malaysia to determine how far integration affects the performance of family planning and allied programs and to identify organizational determinants of clinic level interactive linkages. The report discusses the background of the research, provides overviews of the country programs, outlines research methodologies and procedures, and presents findings. 41 clinics with high, medium, and low performance ratings in Korea and 17 main health centers, 31 sub-health centers, and 49 midwife stations in Malaysia, (some of them intensive input demonstration areas) were assessed on performance, interaction measures, and organizational determinants. The overall finding was that integration affects program performance, but the direction of the impact depends on how the integrated programs are organized. In Malaysia, where the program is specifically organized to integrate family planning with maternal and child health, the integration appears to have increased service delivery and resulted in larger numbers of family planning acceptors. No spill-over was found from the inputs of the 2 components to each other. The overall positive impact and lack of service reduction due to integration appears to result from specific planning for a limited degree of integration. In Korea, a mild negative relationship was found between clinic level performance in the family planning and community development, or Saemaul Undong (SU) components. In the field SU was observed to be more favored and powerful, and was not fully integrated with family planning. The major conclusion of the study was that integration works best when family planning is linked to similar services, and does not work as well with services that are different in character or in degree of government support. PMID:12338570

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  14. Program planning for family planning services.

    PubMed

    Sieverts, S

    1970-03-01

    This exchange of opinions was occasioned by an article which appeared in the October 1969 Perspectives under the title Family Planning Services in the U.S.: a National Overview, 1968. Mr. Sieverts criticizes the article as follows. The ratio of unmet need claimed to available facilities is considered not properly stated in that all indigent girls and women from their midteens through their midforties do not need such services every year and that clinic services do not represent the total of such services available. Many have no such need. The private physician and hospital clinic provide much service. Development of new services should also consider demands, resources, and alternative solutions. Other health services must also be coordinated. Mr. Jaffe's defense follows. The stated need is an approximation by applying the Dryfoos-Pulgar-Varky (DPV) formula to the 1966 census figures. The need figure which results is about 5 million out of a total of over 8 million poor and near-poor women in the age group 15-44. This estimate is considered reasonably accurate. The number included but not in need is partially offset by some below the age of 18 who are also in need. Poor families have relatively less access to private physicians than others. This is shown by the number of women who deliver their babies on the ward service of hospitals without the presence of a private physician. Also, private physicians tend to give less attention to contraception for low income patients than do clinics. Many women depend on nonmedical and unreliable birth control measures. Family planning is not a one-time educational process. Revisits, continuing supervision, and check-up examinations are advocated particularly for IUD users and those taking pills. With current contraceptive technology adequate family planning services contemplates care extending for most of the patient's reproductive years. Resources require allocation. The study rests on the findings that the poor have a higher incidence of unwanted fertility than the nonpoor with significant adverse health and social consequences for both the individual and society. The study was a systematic attempt to achieve a national goal of providing modern family planning services to all who need and want them but cannot afford private care. PMID:5520626

  15. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication. PMID:12315793

  16. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  17. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B

    1983-12-01

    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

  18. Natural Family Planning: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Derzko, Christine M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete.”1 The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296

  19. Family Planning and Integration. IPPF Bibliography Series. November 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document is a bibliography of materials that present family planning in comprehensive programs for the alleviation of poverty and deprivation. It contains 141 entries. Some of the items describe projects or approaches in which family planning is combined with a single function such as midwifery. The other entries cover programs of varying…

  20. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  1. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  2. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  3. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  4. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  5. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  6. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  7. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  8. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  9. Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, Public Law 95-604, 42 USC 7901 (hereinafter referred to as the Act''). Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial actions at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing sites. The Act, amended in January 1983, by Public Law 97-415, also authorizes DOE to perform remedial actions at vicinity properties in Edgemont, South Dakota. Cleanup of the Edgemont processing site is the responsibility of the Tennessee Valley Authority. This document describes the plan, organization, system, and methodologies used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated vicinity properties in accordance with the Act. The plan describes the objectives of the UMTRA Project, defines participants' roles and responsibilities, outlines the technical approach for accomplishing the objectives, and describes the planning and managerial controls to be used in integrating and performing the Project mission. 21 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  11. Mental health and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1971-04-01

    It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions. PMID:5098783

  12. Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1991-09-01

    Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years. PMID:12284276

  13. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Presented in the principal article, "Planning, Starting, and Operating an Educational Incentives Project," is a summary of activities to date in an educational savings project in Taiwan. The incentive project is designed to reward those couples who limit their family size, by providing funds for their children's secondary and higher education. To…

  14. IX Disposition Project - project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, I.G.

    1994-12-08

    This report presents plans for resolving saving and disposal concerns for ion exchange modules, cartridge filters and columns. This plan also documents the project baselines for schedules, cost, and technical information.

  15. Taking family planning to the people.

    PubMed

    Fincancioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations governing the distribution, provision, and use of birth control methods. The unmet need for contraceptive advice, services, and supplies is still enormous. The greatest challenge to governments and nongovernmental organizations is to find more effective ways of taking family planning to the people while recognizing that the key to success lies in sensitivity to their needs, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:12339638

  16. Practical Suggestions for Family Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    This manual is designed to address some of the basic problems of those who work in family planning education, and is based on the recurring questions and concerns of participants in a nationwide series of DHEW-sponsored family planning education and communication workshops. The manual proceeds chronologically, dealing first with the planning of a…

  17. [Family planning in Benin: what future?].

    PubMed

    Danlodji, R

    1993-01-01

    In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558

  18. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  19. Natural family planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Klaus, H

    1982-02-01

    This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851

  20. Target community foundations to fund family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752

  1. Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    SATO, P.K.

    1999-08-31

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

  2. Communication principles in family planning.

    PubMed

    Mercado, C M

    1978-01-01

    In the area of family planning information in the Philippines and other Asian countries, the effectiveness of any communication materials in imparting learning largely depends on the source, presentation, appeal, form, illustration, language and color used in preparing the materials. The effectiveness of communication materials in imparting learning is also dependent upon how and when these materials are used. The amount of participation allowed the audience is another factor influencing the effectiveness of any communication in imparting learning. The effectiveness of any communication effort in imparting learning is strongly influenced by the group to which the audience belongs and wants to belong and by the extent to which opinion is known to others. The effectiveness of any communication is difficult to predict due to some psychological defenses in the audience, but if some characteristics of the target audience are known some amount of accuracy in predicting the effect of communication is possible. The amount of incentive given to a person for doing something he or she does not like to do usually varies inversely with attitude change. Finally, communication is necessary but not sufficient for the success of any developmental campaign. PMID:12309126

  3. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  4. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  5. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  6. Bound and gagged: America's family planning network.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of family planning clinics receiving support from the federal government has fallen from 5,000 to 4,000 despite a growing demand for their services among poor women and teenagers. At the same time, family planning providers have been under regulatory attack, forced to fend off a "squeal rule" aimed at teenagers and to stop a "gag rule" preventing abortion referral. With the climate in Washington unlikely to change, family planners should consider integrating other services into their network or press to include family planning in other care networks. A new national commission could help break the logjam on federal legislation. PMID:10116482

  7. [Population and family planning programs in Byumba].

    PubMed

    Ntandokorano, M

    1992-04-01

    In Byumba, Rwanda, the Regional ONAP Office identified the principal elements of the population program needing more attention in 1991 to be information, education, and communication; the school program; unschooled youth groups; and integration of family planning programs into health settings. It hoped to increase the operational rate of Umukangurambaga 80%, to lead 50% of teachers to play a educator/promoter role for responsible parenting and family planning programs, and to inform 60% of unschooled youth about family planning and responsible parenting. Direct interventions in management and supervision of the Umukangurambaga increased recruitment of new family planning acceptors 120.9% in Buyoga commune for a contraceptive usage rate of 66.1%. Each school chose a married man and a married woman, both of whom use family planning, to be promoters. They held discussions and distributed educational material. The Regional Office reached 74% of its promoter goal. Only 12.6% of unschooled youth stuck to the program. Obstacles in the program were lack of permanent agents posted to the youth network at the commune level, inadequate knowledge of population and family planning among some youth supporters, and almost no integration of the supporters in daily activities. 12 of 18 health centers, 4 hospitals, 7 registered dispensaries, and a health post with 3 family planning service-oriented nurses had integrated family planning services into their activities. Even though some health facilities closed after the war in October, the number of family planning users increased. In Cyumba commune, the contraceptive use rate increased to more than 18.5%. During 1989-1991, contraceptive prevalence increased from 4.2% to about 16%. Injectables are the most common method used, followed by the pill. Administrative support has emerged in the population and family planning program (e.g., National Seminar on Population). PMID:12290188

  8. Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    El Hamri, Najat

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting religious leaders to present religiously sound interpretations (fatwa) on the subject. Alongside these deliberations are some alarming statistics on maternal health. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide 211 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them deliver live infants. The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth or induced abortion. Some 200 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for effective contraception. These statistics and the ongoing discussion surrounding family planning in the Muslim communities raise legitimate questions. How is family planning perceived within the Muslim community? Does Islam address the issue of family planning? Is it permissible? How should appropriate family planning programmes within Muslim settings be developed and applied? This article seeks to present the ongoing debate on family planning within the Muslim community and offer recommendations to organisations for effective strategy implementation of family planning programmes within Muslim settings. The article provides a brief background on the historical development of family planning in the Muslim community, and outlines Muslim perceptions on this issue. It concludes with recommendations for non-governmental organisations on how to effectively implement acceptable family planning programmes within Muslim settings. PMID:20067669

  9. Evaluating family planning program effectiveness and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L; Gehrz, S L

    1975-02-01

    This article proposes an integrated in-house evaluation model for family planning programs. The model is designed to meet the need of program management for an operational and internal evaluation system suited to the ongoing character of program activities and focused on the feedback of information for program planning. The ideas presented are applied to the context of the Albany County Family Planning Service, Inc., Wyoming. PMID:1118870

  10. Project MOVE Program Planning Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Charlotte J.

    This program planning kit contains information and activities on evaluation, change, leadership, and sex stereotyping which provided the basis for planning Project MOVE (Maximizing Options in Vocational Education) programs but which can be generalized and adapted for use in planning other programs. Assumptions ano guidelines based upon theory and…

  11. Family planning communication research possibilities in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Reed, F W

    1982-06-01

    An attempt is made to offer some ideas and guidelines that would suggest a direction for family planning communication research for the next few years. A psychologically based communication model developed by Donald Bogue provides some practical guides on information which should be collected with regard to communication for family planning. This Bogue model is presented, indicating the kinds of information that is needed in Indonesia. According to Bogue, individuals are likely to adopt family planning if they are well informed about the idea of family planning, about the methods of contraception and the potential side effect of the methods. Information is needed in Indonesia concerning what different audiences know about family planning. Being informed about family planning is important for many groups in addition to the actual users: community leaders, physicians, field workers, government leaders. It is necessary to know how well these groups are informed about family planning methods, places of service, and choices. Bogue indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning methods if they are motivated to get some of the benefits obtainable through having a small family. In Indonesia systematically collected information about the benefits which people associate with having a small family is badly needed. Again, information is needed about the various motives for using family planning among audiences other than only the potential users. If people are going to adopt and continue to use family planning methods, it is important that they have positive attitudes toward the methods available. To develop a scientifically based communication program, it is necessary to know which methods are liked by which kinds of people and why. Bogue argues that adopters must feel that the innovation has legitimacy. Contraceptive use is not likely to continue if the individual feels that the community does not support that activity. Future research must devote attention for a variety of audiences when investigating the legitimacy of using family planning methods. Bogue's evidence indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning to the degree that they believe its use concerns them and that their personal concerns can be taken care of through family planning use. At a practical level, it is important to establish the degree to which various groups in Indonesia are involved in family planning as a solution to their own problems. Learning the ways in which they are involved can help in developing communication approaches to relate them more directly to the family planning program. Also of great potential utility is research directed to learning about the unintended communication done by the national family planning program. Continued development of the program's communication activities will depend upon the development of fundamental research with regard to family planning, sex, influence, village and neighborhood structure. PMID:12339318

  12. DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE PROJECT PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an industry consensus document on how to scope and implement the underlying information technology infrastructure that is needed to support a vast array of real-time digital technologies to improve NPP work efficiency, to reduce human error, to increase production reliability and to enhance nuclear safety. A consensus approach is needed because: • There is currently a wide disparity in nuclear utility perspectives and positions on what is prudent and regulatory-compliant for introducing certain digital technologies into the plant environment. For example, there is a variety of implementation policies throughout the industry concerning electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), cyber security, wireless communication coverage, mobile devices for workers, mobile technology in the control room, and so forth. • There is a need to effectively share among the nuclear operating companies the early experience with these technologies and other forms of lessons-learned. There is also the opportunity to take advantage of international experience with these technologies. • There is a need to provide the industry with a sense of what other companies are implementing, so that each respective company can factor this into their own development plans and position themselves to take advantage of new work methods as they are validated by the initial implementing companies. In the nuclear power industry, once a better work practice has been proven, there is a general expectation that the rest of the industry will adopt it. However, the long-lead time of information technology infrastructure could prove to be a delaying factor. A secondary objective of this effort is to provide a general understanding of the incremental investment that would be required to support the targeted digital technologies, in terms of an incremental investment over current infrastructure. This will be required for business cases to support the adoption of these new technologies.

  13. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  14. IEC strategy in support of family planning evaluated.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A final project evaluation report was released in April 1994 as PHI/89/PO9, Strengthening IEC Management among Thailand Family Planning Programs. The project is described as a function of the Department of Health's five year plan. The project aim is to increase the capacity for planning, supervising, and implementing IEC activities, designing and evaluating an evaluation system, developing and producing IEC materials, and training and mobilizing workers in IEC. The evaluation reveals that objectives have been met and teams are set up at all levels. Recommendations are made to develop an integrated and comprehensive family planning plan with major IEC components, to subcontract out activities where personnel skills are inadequate, to introduce operations research and integrate the results into operations, to strengthen staff capability, and to test the viability of and expand IEC teams at the local level. The report also indicates that there is a need for centrally produced IEC materials. Materials were needed on methods and how to handle misconceptions about methods. There is a need to secure the services of a private agency for production of materials. Family planning and IEC distribution systems need to be strengthened at the local government level. A training skills session is necessary for development of interpersonal communication skills on how to use and maximize use of IEC materials. Communications training in general required a longer investment in training time. Communications training methods would be improved through use of videos on family planning counseling and practical field exercises. PMID:12318973

  15. Family planning opinion leadership in Korea, 1971.

    PubMed

    Palmore, J A; Furlong, M J; Buchmeier, F X; Park, I H; Souder, L M

    1976-12-01

    The characteristics of Korean family planning opinion leaders are assessed through a secondary analysis of the 1971 national survey conducted by the Korean Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. In effect, what characterized Korean family planning opinion leaders was a rather national and democratic model. Those who had tried methods, discussed them, and knew a lot about them assumed leadership roles more than others. Place of residence, education, and other such variables mattered relatively little unless a woman had credibility imparted by actual use and knowledge imparted by use or discussions with family planning professionals. PMID:996899

  16. World Family Map Project. Prototype Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Lippman, Laura; Whitney, Camille

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, the "World Family Map Project" seeks to launch a research initiative that will track central indicators of family strength around the globe. The "World Family Map Project" (WFMP) would partner with Child Trends, a nonpartisan research organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, and research organizations…

  17. World Family Map Project. Prototype Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Lippman, Laura; Whitney, Camille

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, the "World Family Map Project" seeks to launch a research initiative that will track central indicators of family strength around the globe. The "World Family Map Project" (WFMP) would partner with Child Trends, a nonpartisan research organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, and research organizations…

  18. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services...

  19. Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1995-07-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

  20. Family Planning Among Southeast Asian Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Minkler, Donald H.; Korenbrot, Carol; Brindis, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Five different Southeast Asian groups were studied to document family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and to identify current barriers to care. Significant differences exist among ethnic groups in their knowledge and use of effective methods of contraception, as well as variations in the timing of when to adopt family planning practices and in the preferred number of children. Nearly 70% of the sample had experienced barriers to services, including language, transportation, and a lack of awareness of available services. PMID:3363968

  1. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  3. PLANNING QUALITY IN GEOSPATIAL PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.

  4. HANDI 2000 project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-09-09

    The HANDI 2000 project will meet some of the major objectives and goals of the PHMC Management and Integration Plan, HNF-MP-00, Rev. 11, by integrating the major Hanford business processes and their supporting information systems.

  5. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in research, training and service delivery. Loan assistance is provided by the World Bank for combined health, nutrition, and population projects as well as poupulation education. Although international population assistance from donor governments and private organizations increased from about $165 million in 1971 to about $445 million in 1980, the increase in constant value was only about 10% after inflation. About 2/3 of international assistance goes to family planning services and contraceptives; other activities receiving support are basic data collection, research, and IEC. Greatly increased expenditures will be needed if population stability is to be achieved. PMID:6840390

  6. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

  7. Family planning: a basic development need.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century. PMID:12345955

  8. Family planning and social position of women.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasna

    1993-04-01

    This presentation began with at least three biases: (i) Acceptance of a secular approach to the problem of artificially controlling human reproduction; (ii) acceptance of an absolute egalitarian position in matter of choices and applications of family planning methods; and (iii) acceptance of the view that a small family gives women more opportunities to flourish as humans. The conclusion of the presentation is: though in implementing family planning programmes much deviation from the egalitarian principle could be found, in reality the implementation itself does bring about some opportunities for women to enhance their position in society. Undoubtedly the malpractices in family planning programmes cause death and miseries to women. But, until better methods are invented for both male and female sexes to replace the harmful ones and the male members of the society feel equal responsibility in matters of controlling reproduction, women have now no other choice but to accept the lesser evil. PMID:11651534

  9. Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

  10. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  11. [Socio-medical aspects of family planning].

    PubMed

    Ramos, P

    1974-01-01

    3 social aspects of family planning are discussed: cultural heritage, relations between pathology and parity and the problem of unwanted children. The family as an institution enabled mankind to face successfully the adverse conditions to which it was subjected for thousand of years. Now the role of the family is changing, but this raises the problem of whether to accept a new way of life or follow traditions. No uniform solution is applicable to all places or to all s ocial strata within each country. It is necessary to limit the number of unwanted children that cannot be properly raised, but most women can only resort to abortion, which is unlawful and dangerous. Education in family planning must begin in primary school and promoted among parents. It is necessary to explain that the tradition of early marriage must be stopped, and parents must wait until they are able to p lan their family responsibly and to support and educate their children. PMID:4826046

  12. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family...

  13. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears that China's family planning program is achieving success, but this can only be viewed in its own sociocultural setting and not in the context of other countries. PMID:12337663

  14. Menstrual regulation in family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, E; Brenner, W E; Stathes, G H

    1975-01-01

    Menstrual regulation is a safe, effective, and economical method of fertility control. Its increased safety compared to first trimester abortion establishes menstrual regulation by vacuum aspiration for treatment of up to 14 days missed menstrual period as probably better medical practice than waiting to confirm the presence of a pregnancy. Because it is a postcontraceptive method, menstrual regulation has potential in family planning services both as a recruitment service and for the treatment of contraceptive failures. Its use as an only method of fertility control is being studied. The acceptance of this new family planning service will primarily depend on its availability, dissemination of information about the service, and the ability of women freely to avail themselves of the service without delay. Although long term effects of single and repeated use of menstrual regulation are not known, its immediate complications are few and it can be recommended as a useful addition to present fertility control methods in family planning programs. PMID:1147115

  15. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. PMID:4060212

  16. Abia mobilises men for family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, the Commissioner for Health and Social Welfare of Abia State has introduced male mobilization into Abia's Family Planning Programmes. The new program aims to have men in the workplace and the State House Assembly become more sensitive to their responsibility to family welfare and to the improvement of the quality of life for all citizens. Abia State's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has effectively conducted an IEC (information, education, and communication) campaign for men in 17 local government areas (8000 men so far). The campaign will be expanded to include all major industries in Abia. The ministry expects to bring about an 85% male acceptance rate by the year 2000. The Commissioner stresses the need for men to review their position on family planning and support their partners as they make contraception and planned parenthood decisions together. He hopes that every child in Nigeria be born healthy, wanted, and loved. PMID:12318619

  17. Population and family planning in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J

    1994-01-01

    As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys. PMID:7892742

  18. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  19. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  20. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  1. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  2. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  3. Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-03-22

    Created in 1989 to address over 50 years of environmental liabilities arising out of nuclear weapons production and testing in the United States since World War II, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Programs decade-long effort to reduce the costs of those environmental liabilities, collectively known as DOE's ''environmental mortgage,'' includes past as well as future cleanup costs associated with environmental contamination, hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes, contaminated buildings and facilities, and their associated risks. Tasked with the bulk of these cleanup efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's), Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) is attempting to complete applicable corrective actions at inactive contaminated sites and facilities managed by DOE/NV, while at the same time protecting human health and the environment. Regulated under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the objectives of the NV ERP are to identify the nature and extent of the contamination, determine its potential risk to the public and the environment, and to perform the necessary corrective actions in compliance with this and other state and federal regulations, guidelines, and requirements. Associated with this vast effort are approximately 2,000 sites both on and off of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that were used primarily for nuclear testing and are addressed in the NV ERP. This includes sites that were underground areas where tests were actually conducted, contaminated surface soils resulting from aboveground testing activities, and sites that supported other related testing hardware paraphenalia and/or NTS real estate properties (e.g., underground storage tanks, leachfields, landfills, contaminated waste areas, injection wells, muckpiles, and ponds). To assist in this effort, a NV ERP Team was assembled which is composed of organizations from both the public and private sectors. The strategy to be employed for environmental restoration is based on commonality of work and the DOE EM Program's vision to remediate the contaminated sites on a project-specific, site-by-site basis over an approximate ten-year period to be completed by the year 2006.

  4. Population reports. Community-based health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Kols, A J; Wawer, M J; Quillin, W; Kinsey, J

    1982-01-01

    This publication examines existing community-based distribution (CBD) programs for family planning and other health care measures and discusses some principles of organization and management. CBD programs have 4 essential features: community residents who are not health professionals deliver supplies and services, services are delivered to communities or households rather than to clinics, CBD workers operate without day-to-day supervision, and many record keeping, diagnostic, and screening procedures are omitted because they are not practical for community workers. CBD overcomes geographic, cost, bureaucratic, and cultural barriers to health care. The more than 70 existing CBD programs differ in services offered, fees charged, means of delivery, presence of research components, and in whether they are single purpose, integrated, government-sponsored, or private. In designing or expanding CBD programs, the health problems of the community, availability of effective remedies, and ease and safety of services and supplies must be considered. 6 aspects of CBD programs which are likely to be most difficult are discussed: recruiting effective workers, training workers in new skills, providing continued training and supervision, coordinating backup with the existing medical system, keeping supplies flowing, and establishing an evaluation system. Experience in integrated family planning and CBD health programs is inconclusive, but a few lessons are clear: CBD projects should avoid a service overload, new activities should be phased in step-by-step, community participation is desirable, combining family planning with other services is not necessary to make family planning acceptable although it may help meet other primary health care needs, and research on design and implementation of CBD programs is needed. Experiences and problems with CBD programs for health measures in addition to family planning are described, including oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea, malaria treatment, intestinal parasite treatment, nutrition education and supplements, and immunization. A table listing characteristics of selected community-based integrated family planning and health projects is included. PMID:6761676

  5. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-08-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

  6. The population problem and family planning effort.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, A C

    1972-12-01

    A discussion of any aspect of family planning must include an evaluation of the current demographic situation and the prospects for the future. With the rate of population growth in developing countries between 2-5% per annum and the drastic reduction in mortality accepted as a positive goal under any circumstances, it becomes evident that the only way to contain the population growth is by fertility control. It was the recognition of this need to contain the population by controlling their fertility which brought about India's adoption of family planning as an officially sponsored program as early as 1951. The goals and efforts have increased in each Five Year Plan. The initial emphasis on the "clinical approach" which expected the people to visit the clinics and avail themselves of the family planning services changed to the "extension approach" in 1963 which brought the advice and services to the people. The program now aims at promoting voluntary acceptance by individuals of 1 or more methods of contraception through a process of education and motivation. Regarding the national perspective, a comprehensive Bill liberalizing abortion has already been passed by the Parliament, and efforts are being made to raise the legal age of marriage from 16 to 18 for women. Concerning performance, 9.11 million sterilizations and 3.94 million IUD insertions have been performed since August 1971. A rise in the use of conventional contraceptives has also been noted. The current pressing problem is one of motivating and educating the millions of illiterate rural people towards family planning. Even if this were possible, the subsequent problem of providing them with the family planning services is formidable. Other problems are the continuation of social and psychological barriers which block the efforts of those promoting family planning, and the fact that 2 often conflicting facets of the family planning effort, the national good and the interest of the individual, need to be reconciled. Emphasis must be given to educating and motivating young couples toward birth spacing well before they marry. Voluntary organizations can help in motivating the public, and this help is needed for success depends on how best and how soon the individual can be motivated towards the common goal. PMID:12179385

  7. Project resources planning and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibbers, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains instructional guidelines for the resources planning and control of research and development (R&D) projects managed by NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC). Although written to serve primarily as a practical guide and reference for those LaRC personnel who perform resources planning, analysis, control, and reporting functions, it should also be meaningful to other NASA personnel who are directly or indirectly involved in or affected by these functions, especially project technical managers whose responsibilities include resources management. Certain sections should help Contractor personnel to better understand what resources information must usually be submitted on LaRC projects and what use is made of such information. The Project Manager of a large R&D project typicaly receives support from an Analyst in the area of resources management. The Analyst provides assistance in four functional areas: Planning, Analysis/Control, Administration, and Reporting. Each of these functions are discussed in detail. Examples of techniques used effectively on LaRC projects have been included where applicable. A considerable amount of information has been included on the use of Performance Measurement (Earned Value) Systems for contract cost control and reporting as little information is currently available on this subject in NASA publications.

  8. A Cooperative Family Literacy Project. Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Kim; And Others

    The Fayette County Community Action Agency, Inc. developed the Family Literacy Project, an innovative cooperative family literacy project with the Uniontown (Pennsylvania) School District. The project's purpose was to provide economically and educationally disadvantaged parents of teenagers with the following: basic skills instruction, instruction…

  9. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  10. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  11. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  12. An Evaluation of Project PLAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Eldon

    Project Plan, a computer managed individualized learning system developed by the Westinghouse Learning Corporation, was introduced into the St. Louis Public Schools under a Title III grant of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The program, offering individualized education in reading, language arts, mathematics, science, and social…

  13. Data sheet charts family planning progress.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    "Monitoring Family Planning Programs 1996," a wallchart produced by the Carolina Population Center at the University of Chapel Hill in collaboration with the Population Reference Bureau, compiles most of the available data regarding family planning programs in 96 developing countries and presents the evaluation indicators in a comparative overview. Data on government spending, types of services available, facilities, and the number of new contraceptive users served each year are included. Key findings include the following information. Although most governments are concerned about high birth rates (80% of governments in Africa and over 50% of governments in Latin America), West Asian governments (Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria) consider the high fertility rates there to be satisfactory and have not promoted family planning. In East Asia, where family planning has been established for decades, fertility has decreased below replacement level. In spite of governmental concern, family planning effort lags in many countries; of the 95 countries with family planning effort scores, only 41 received moderate or strong scores (50-92% of the maximum score possible). These included 62% of Latin American countries, 23% of African countries, and just over 50% of Asian countries. National and international spending is often insufficient. The highest annual per capita expenditure by a government on family planning services occurs in Mauritius (US $1.65 per person); Afghanistan, Brazil, the Congo, Honduras, Iran, Paraguay, Uganda, and Zaire spend less than US $0.01 per person. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mauritius, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe spend a total per capita, from all sources, of US $1 or more. Almost 50% of the married women in developing countries use a modern form of contraception; 17% of married women of reproductive age in Africa do so (11% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% in North Africa). Contraceptive prevalence in Latin America is 53%; in Asia it ranges from 34% in South Central Asia to 78% in East Asia. Service providers may be too few in number. The ratio of married women, ages 15-44, per staff member ranges from 111,235 in the Ivory Coast to 109 in Viet Nam. Of the 38 countries that have more than 1000 women per staff member, 16 are in Africa, 12 are in Latin America, and 10 are in Asia. PMID:12320944

  14. Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Dias Saxena, F

    1995-01-01

    India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market. PMID:12289896

  15. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  16. Developing a family-centered participatory action research project.

    PubMed

    Garwick, Ann W; Seppelt, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate strategies used to design and implement a family-centered, participatory action research (PAR) project to meet the asthma information needs identified by English-, Hmong-, and Spanish-speaking parents of preschool children with asthma enrolled in a multisite, urban Head Start program. PAR is an approach that encourages researchers and those who will benefit from the research (e.g., families and community leaders) to work together in all phases of the project. PAR projects involve two core components: a needs assessment and action plan development. PAR is rooted in the cultural tradition of the participants and builds on strengths and resources in the community. Actively involving family participants and community leaders in community-based PAR projects increases the likelihood of developing interventions and resources that are culturally relevant and address family needs. PMID:20686103

  17. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R

    1983-01-01

    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas. PMID:12265792

  18. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  19. Independent developer plans Wyoming project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-25

    Little Horn Energy Wyoming, Inc. is proposing a project on the Dry Fork of the Little Big Horn River. The lower reservoir would be impounded by a roller-compacted concrete dam and an outlet tower on the upstream face of the dam would have multilevel intakes to allow selective temperature discharges into the Dry Fork. The asphalt-lined upper reservoir on an adjacent ridge would be contained by a 100 foot high rockfill embankment. Maximum planned daily drawdown is 45 ft. Preliminary plans call for water to drop through a 21 ft. diameter shaft to a manifold. Then ft. diameter penstocks would feed a four unit underground power house.

  20. Family Reading Project, First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    The first program year evaluation of the Family Reading project addresses implementation issues at the national and local levels relating to the literacy intervention model designed for the project. The project is a collaborative effort between the National Council of La Raza and the Educational Testing Service to improve literacy levels of Latino…

  1. Family planning goes to the people.

    PubMed

    Prucell, C

    1972-01-01

    A brief profile is presented of D. Pai, director of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health for Greater Bombay. Pai attributes the lower birthrate in Bombay (22 per 1000, compared to 28 per 1000 for all India) to his sterilization program. 3 old buses, equipped with the best medical equipment and manned by trained physicians, tour Bombay. Each has been the site of 10,000 vasectomies. In addition, free condom distribution centers and vasectomy clinics have been set up in Bombay railroad stations. Fear and ignorance are the chief factors deterring people from sterilization--fear of personal injury and reduced sex drive and of group eradication. Pai and his doctors also approach women who have just delivered their second child. Nearly 30% accept tubectomy. Pai works closely with local business organizations in promoting family planning and makes it a point to enlist the help of young interns when conducting family planning surveys in the slums. Some are so shocked by what they see that they later return and volunteer their services to ghetto clinics. PMID:12229784

  2. Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Mian Bazle

    At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under…

  3. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. December 1976 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in many countries of the world. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning. Population statistics are included for five continents and many countries. Data for the continents include population in 1976, projected population in 2000,…

  4. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

  5. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    2000-02-09

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

  6. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked. PMID:12260296

  7. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that rapid population growth is detrimental to the rapid attainment of social and economic development; 35 additional developing countries favor family planning as a basic human right, to improve the status of women, and for health reasons. There is a wide range of acceptance rates for contraceptives among the developing countries with gains shown for most countries between 1972 and 1974. There is a strong pattern of fertility decline in 11 East Asian and Latin American countries plus Mauritius. Induced abortion countries to be a major means of birth control even in countries where it is illegal. Legal access to abortion on broad grounds is available in China, North Vietnam, Tunisia, Singapore, India, Zambia, and Hong Kong. It seems likely that liberalization of abortion laws will occur in more developing countries in the near future for health reasons as well as for demographic reasons. PMID:1202672

  8. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  9. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  10. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  11. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  12. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  13. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  14. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  15. Nursing's Acceptance of the Function of Family Planning Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Lois

    1974-01-01

    The changes in family planning methods in the 1960s and the recognition of population control as a public health problem brought to the nursing profession the issue of the nurse's involvement in family planning counseling. The author reviews the literature defining the functions of the nurse with regard to family planning counseling. (Author/RP)

  16. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  17. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  18. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

  19. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-03-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  20. [Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáńez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor

    2012-04-01

    The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

  1. Family Day Care Networking Project. [Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Governor's Office of Human Development Commission for Children and Youth, Jackson.

    This report describes a project that established family day care homes in Mississippi and made use of senior citizens as day care providers. The goals of the project were to provide alternative day care arrangements for low income parents and to offer senior citizens extra income and strengthen their self-image. Advantages of home-based day care…

  2. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  3. [Family planning in Hungary: past and present].

    PubMed

    Eros, Erika; HajĂłs, Anett

    2010-11-01

    Periconceptional Care Service begins 3 month before the planned pregnancy and continues until 12th week of pregnancy. Its goal is to prevent congenital abnormalities (CAs) and preterm birth. Nowadays, 20-25% of infant mortality is caused by CAs in industrialized countries and CAs are among the leading causes of death. An important feature of CAs is that they represent a defect condition; therefore it's difficult to achieve a complete recovery. Thus, prevention is considered the only optimal solution in the medical care of cases affected with CA. In the last 25 years, several studies confirmed the possible prevention of CAs mainly neural-tube defects (NTDs) by folic acid supplementation during periconceptional period. Family Planning Service exists in Hungary since 1984. This model is optimal for the introduction of periconceptional folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, thus provide an effective method for primary prevention of birth defects. PMID:20980224

  4. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  5. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-11-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  6. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Gary L; Taylor, Robin D

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work was received in July 2009 under the Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Task of the Enhanced Utilization of Isotope Facilities project (Project Identification Code 2005230) funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The goal of this project is to recover the capability to produce 4-5 curium targets for the irradiation period starting with HFIR cycle 427, currently scheduled to begin 2/17/10. Assuming success, the equipment would then be used to fabricate 6-7 additional targets to hold for the next irradiation campaign specified by the program. Specific objectives are the return to functionality of the Cubicle 3 Pellet Fabrication Line; Cubicle 2 Target Assembly equipment; and Cubicle 1 Target Inspection and Final Assembly system.

  7. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  8. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle`s contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

  9. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle's contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

  10. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  11. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  12. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  13. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...

  14. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  15. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  16. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    PubMed

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate these ideas with practice. The ability of members to discuss these problems comfortably is an indication of their acceptance of family planning as an important topic in their lives. PMID:12311875

  17. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

  18. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of rights by the donors of eggs, sperms, or preembryos, allowable compensation for such donations, and the granting of legal status to fertilized ex utero embryos. PMID:12286572

  19. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  20. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  1. Family planning in Georgia: a continuing struggle.

    PubMed

    Khomassuridze, A

    1994-03-01

    In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983

  2. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  3. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vimala Thambypillai

    1982-12-01

    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning. PMID:7167084

  4. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed. PMID:10104014

  5. Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-06-01

    The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

  6. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  7. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. (6) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) pending determination of the final disposal pathway. (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and all associated waste management and treatment facilities. (8) Optimizing the overall mission by resolution of technical and programmatic uncertainties, configuring the tank farms to provide a steady, well-balanced feed to the WTP, and performing trade-offs of the required amount and type of supplemental treatment and of the amount of HLW glass versus LAW glass. ORP has made and continues to make modifications to the WTP contract as needed to improve projected plant performance and address known or emerging risks. Key elements needed to implement the strategy described above are included within the scope of the Tank Operations Contract (TOC). Interim stabilization of the SSTs was completed in March 2004. As of April 2009, retrieval of seven SSTs has been completed and retrieval of four additional SSTs has been completed to the limits of technology. Demonstration of supplemental LAW treatment technologies has stopped temporarily pending revision of mission need requirements. Award of a new contract for tank operations (TOC), the ongoing tank waste retrieval experience, HLW disposal issues, and uncertainties in waste feed delivery and waste treatment led to the revision of the Performance Measurement Baseline (PM B), which is currently under review prior to approval. 6 This System Plan is aligned with the current WTP schedule, with hot commissioning beginning in 2018, and full operations beginning in late 2019. Major decisions regarding the use of supplemental treatment and the associated technology, the ultimate needed capacity, and its relationship to the WTP have not yet been finalized. This System Plan assumes that the outcome of these decisions will be to provide a second LAW vitrification facility. No final implementation decisions regarding supplemental technology can be made until the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement is completed and a Record of Decision is issued by DOE. Technical solutions are being developed to mitigate the impact from substantially increased estimates of sodium to be added during pretreatment of the tank waste solids. This may involve one or more of the following options: (1) refining or modifying the flowsheet to reduce the required amount of additional sodium, (2) increasing the overall LAW vitrification capacity, (3) increasing the incorporation of sodium into the LAW glass, (4) increasing the incorporation of aluminum in the HLW glass to reduce caustic leaching requirements, or (5) implementing other technical solutions. For planning purposes, the PMB assumes that option (5) above, in the form of an ARF, will be successful in reducing the sodium required to be added during pretreatment of the tank waste.

  8. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were associated with CYP: type of health facility, length of time in operation, and number of contraceptive methods available. Clinics generated higher (3-month) CYP than hospitals and health centers by 65.3 and 61.5 units, respectively (P<.01). The mean CYP for facilities in operation for 4–6 years was 26.9 units higher (P<.05), and 50.2 units higher for those operating 7+ years (P<.01), than the reference group of facilities in operation for 1 year or less. For each additional method available at a facility, CYP increased by almost 8 units (P<.01). Conclusions: Findings from these surveys suggest that lack of physical access is not the defining reason for low contraceptive use in Kinshasa, although it is highly likely that other service-related factors contribute to low service utilization. The results contributed to increasing the momentum for family planning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC. PMID:26681709

  9. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  10. UMTRA Project: Environment, Safety, and Health Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this UMTRA Project Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Plan to establish the policy, implementing requirements, and guidance for the UMTRA Project. The requirements and guidance identified in this plan are designed to provide technical direction to UMTRA Project contractors to assist in the development and implementation of their ES and H plans and programs for UMTRA Project work activities. Specific requirements set forth in this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan are intended to provide uniformity to the UMTRA Project`s ES and H programs for processing sites, disposal sites, and vicinity properties. In all cases, this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan is intended to be consistent with applicable standards and regulations and to provide guidance that is generic in nature and will allow for contractors` evaluation of site or contract-specific ES and H conditions. This plan specifies the basic ES and H requirements applicable to UMTRA Project ES and H programs and delineates responsibilities for carrying out this plan. DOE and contractor ES and H personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment and apply a graded approach when interpreting these guidelines, based on the risk of operations.

  11. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes...

  12. [Changing pattern of National Family Planning and Fertility Survey in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kong, S K

    1991-12-01

    The authors review the evolution since the 1960s of South Korea's family planning and fertility survey programs. "In the 1960s, research was interested in respondents' contraception knowledge and practice rate and in the relationships between contraceptive knowledge and the practice rate....[The] major research emphasis in the 1970s and 1980s was measuring fertility and finding obstacles or problems to family planning projects." Recommendations for future research are made. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12179747

  13. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste management and treatment facilities, (8) Developing and implementing technical solutions to mitigate the impact from substantial1y increased estimates of Na added during the pretreatment of the tank waste solids, This involves a combination of: (1) refining or modifying the flowsheet to reduce the required amount of additional sodium, (2) increasing the overall LAW vitrification capacity, (3) increasing the incorporation of sodium into the LAW glass, or (4) accepting an increase in mission duration, ORP has made and continues to make modifications to the WTP contract as needed to improve projected plant performance and address known or emerging risks, Key elements of the implementation of this strategy are included within the scope of the Tank Operations Contract, currently in procurement Since 2003, the ORP has conducted over 30 design oversight assessments of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The estimated cost at completion has increased and the schedule for construction and commissioning of the WTP has extended, The DOE, Office of Environmental Management (EM), sanctioned a comprehensive review of the WTP flowsheet, focusing on throughput. In 2005, the TFC completed interim stabilization of the SSTs and as of March 2007, has completed the retrieval of seven selected SSTs. Demonstration of supplemental treatment technologies continues. The ongoing tank waste retrieval experience, progress with supplemental treatment technologies, and changes in WTP schedule led to the FY 2007 TFC baseline submittal in November 2006. The TFC baseline submittal was developed before the WTP schedule was fully understood and approved by ORP, and therefore reflects an earlier start date for the WTP facilities. This System Plan is aligned with the current WTP schedule with hot commissioning beginning in 2018 and full operations beginning in 2019. Major decisions regarding the use of supplemental treatment and the associated technology, the ultimate needed capacity, and its relationship to the WTP have not yet been finalized. This System Plan assumes that the outcome of this decision will be to provide a supplemental LAW treatment system using in-container vitrification (ICV{trademark}) as the enabling technology. No final implementation decisions regarding supplemental technology can be made until the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement is completed and a Record of Decision is issued by the DOE.

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  15. Family planning at heart of political debate.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1998-09-01

    In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs. PMID:12348706

  16. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

  17. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  18. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  19. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

  20. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

  1. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

  2. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning program, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

  3. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

  4. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

  5. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...

  6. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

  7. Family Planning Training: A Network Program and Sample Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finseth, Katherine; Wuerscher, Anne

    1978-01-01

    To fulfill the purposes of a family planning training network for the state of Connecticut, a variety of courses and educational exercises have been developed since 1974. Special educational needs of family planning organizations are discussed, as well as the training network, and a description of a course in medical interviewing is appended.…

  8. River Protection Project (RPP) Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SEEMAN, S.E.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in accordance with the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, established the Office of River Protection (ORP) to successfully execute and manage the River Protection Project (RPP), formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The mission of the RPP is to store, retrieve, treat, and dispose of the highly radioactive Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The team shown in Figure 1-1 is accomplishing the project. The ORP is providing the management and integration of the project; the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) is responsible for providing tank waste storage, retrieval, and disposal; and the Privatization Contractor (PC) is responsible for providing tank waste treatment.

  9. The role of family planning in poverty reduction.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca H

    2007-11-01

    Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. PMID:17978110

  10. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  11. Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

  12. Prenatal birth planning for families of the imperiled newborn.

    PubMed

    English, Nancy K; Hessler, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines have not been established to address the needs of parents with imperiled newborns due to the infrequency of this obstetric situation. In this article we offer an approach to prenatal care planning for imperiled newborns and their families. Use of an interdisciplinary team and family involvement are the foci of the care planning process, which result in a perinatal birth plan that reflects parental values and ethical guidelines. PMID:23600485

  13. [Familial choices and procreative behavior of the clientele of familial planning centers].

    PubMed

    Texier, G

    1972-01-01

    This is the final article in a series on a survey of 710 couples who consulted for family planning in Lyons and Paris in 1968, Agreement before marriage on planned family size was correlated with success in achieving this plan, especially in the young, well educated, and in rightists. The number of children was directly related to desired family size, but a large proportion of those without a plan had uuplanned children. Factors tending toward larger desired family size were religious practice, higher education, and income. Factors associated with larger existing families were lower education and income, religous practice, female unemployment, longer duration of marriage, and use of traditional contrceptive methods. Among those with only elementary education, the proportion with 3 or more children remained constant with rising income, but among those with postsecondary education the proportion of large families was closely correlated with income. Couples who considered their families complete or who considered their family planning successful were overrepresented by the well educated, while couples with incomplete families or characterized by imperfect planning were more often secondary school graduates. Success in family planning was only apparent in many cases, since these results were often achieved by abortion. PMID:4636768

  14. Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment. PMID:12311584

  15. Interagency Planning and Support Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Christine

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a federally funded project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a systemically oriented process model for improving the coordination of education and human services for young children with identified disabilities and their families at the local level. The project developed and used…

  16. Interagency Planning and Support Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Christine

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a federally funded project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a systemically oriented process model for improving the coordination of education and human services for young children with identified disabilities and their families at the local level. The project developed and used…

  17. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  18. Emerging challenges in family planning programme in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D R; Shrestha, A; Ghimire, J

    2012-05-01

    Family planning is a priority program of the Government of Nepal. Despite political instability in the last two decades, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in the overall status of reproductive health, including family planning. Married women of reproductive age have been increasingly using contraceptive from 1980s to 2006. However, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 has shown unexpected results on contraceptive prevalence rate. There had been a notable decline in the prevalence rate between 2006 and 2011, creating concerns among various stakeholders working in family planning programs. This paper analyzes this situation and identifies possible reasons for the stagnated contraceptive prevalence rate in Nepal. High proportion of spousal separation, an increased use of traditional methods, abortion, emergency contraception, and a lack of innovative approaches to cater services to difficult-to-reach or special sub-groups are possible reasons. To improve the contraceptive prevalence, the family planning program should be implemented more strategically. Further data analysis, initiation of best practices to fulfill family planning needs of special groups, functional integration of family planning services into general health services, effective counseling and behavior change communication to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and increased access to modern family planning methods could be the stepping stones to improve contraceptive prevalence rate and the overall FP program in Nepal. PMID:23034371

  19. Family planning training: a network program and sample instructional materials.

    PubMed

    Finseth, K; Wuerscher, A

    1978-01-01

    Because of the absence of educational programs for family planning service providers, there is an ongoing need for staff training. In Connecticut, this training is provided statewide by a training network that develops and teaches courses to meet the training needs identified by family planning clinics and related health and social service agencies. This training is offered at the times and locations most convenient to the staff to be trained. A library of courses is being developed for use in the training network -- currently included are Basic Family Planning, Reproductive Health Care, Counseling Skills, Human Sexuality, Pregnancy Counselling, Common Medical Problems in Family Planning, Training Parents as Sex Educators, Family Planning for the Mentally Retarded, Values Clarification, Natural Family Planning, and Medical Interviewing. Each course is based on behavioral objectives, includes pretest and posttest, and is followed up after a 3-month interval by a supervisor's assessment of changes in trainees' job performance. Results show good transfer of skills and knowledge to the work situation. Posttest results in the Basic Family Planning course showed an overall gain of 35 percentage points, reflecting a high level of competency. PMID:12278130

  20. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  1. Life sciences space biology project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G.; Newkirk, K.; Miller, L.; Lewis, G.; Michaud, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Life Sciences Space Biology (LSSB) research will explore the effect of microgravity on humans, including the physiological, clinical, and sociological implications of space flight and the readaptations upon return to earth. Physiological anomalies from past U.S. space flights will be used in planning the LSSB project.The planning effort integrates science and engineering. Other goals of the LSSB project include the provision of macroscopic view of the earth's biosphere, and the development of spinoff technology for application on earth.

  2. OR construction project: from planning to execution.

    PubMed

    Worley, Dorothea J; Hohler, Sharon E

    2008-12-01

    Operating room renovation projects require planning and collaboration among physicians, hospital staff members, and vendors. Renovation involves many details, from how many electrical plugs to install in each OR to integration of the latest technologies. Details of a multiphase OR renovation project undertaken at Saint Francis Medical Center in Cape Girardeau, MO, provide information and tools that any facility planning a renovation can use. PMID:19054484

  3. Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and the management improvements resulting from data analysis. Emphasis is placed on clinics with established medical standards of care and protocols, and improvements in training and in counseling. Suggestions are made for clinics with few resources. A checklist is provided for clinic managers, supervisor,s and senior level managers for reducing discontinuation. PMID:12286670

  4. Wisconsin Dissemination Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmatuck, Loretta

    Activities of the final year are reported as they relate to the objectives of the Wisconsin Dissemination Planning (WDP) Project: (1) to develop a plan for coordination among the dissemination functions in the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) through a state-wide steering committee; (2) to complete a needs assessment for dissemination…

  5. The Perseus Project: Eight Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Eight lesson plans using materials developed for the Perseus Project are provided that show how this site may be used in the classroom. The plans also provide models for preparing students to make increasingly sophisticated use of the resources included in Perseus. (Author/VWL)

  6. SNF project engineering process improvement plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    1999-07-13

    This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819. All new procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999.

  7. Attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, J T

    1980-09-01

    A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family planning, and 28 were uncertain as to whether they would practice family planning. It appears that the better educated approve as well as practice family planning more than those with less education. PMID:7253993

  8. Population and family planning: the particulars of five nations.

    PubMed

    1974-04-01

    Population and family planning in Brazil, Nigeria, the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Romania are discussed. Brazil with a population of 100 million and a growth rate of 3% has no explicit population policies. The importation, advertisement, and sale of contraceptives are prohibited, although oral contraceptives and condoms are sold freely over the counter. The Sociedade de Bem Estar Familiar no Brasil (BEMFAM), a private family planning association, provides family planning services. Illegal abortion is a serious health problem in Brazil. Although Nigeria plans to integrate family planning into the overall health and social welfare program of the country, little has been done to implement this policy. There are 80 million people in Nigeria, the population growth rate is 2.5%, and the groos national product per capita is $140. The main responsibility for providing family planning services rests with the private organization, the Family Planning Council of Nigeria (FPCN). Illegal abortion is a serious problem in Nigeria. China's family planning program is 1 of the most comprehensive and effective in the world. Family planning services are delivered through China's extensive health network. There are an estimated 800 million people in China, and its growth rate is between 1.9% and 2.2%. The gross national product per capita is $160. In Indonesia, the government has launched an ambitious and well-organized family planning program with the Indonesian Planning Parenthood Association (IPPA). The government, which has supported family planning since 1968, has allocated $8 million of its own funds, to be matched with $6 million in foreign assistance for 1974. There are 130 million people in Indonesia, the population growth rate is between 2% and 2 1/2%, and the gross national product per capita is $80. Similar to other East European countries, Romania has an explicit policy of encouraging couples to have more children. Its population is 20 million, the growth rate is 1.1%, and the gross national product per capita is $740. In 1966, the government restricted abortion to medical grounds for women already having 4 or more children. The sale of contraceptives is illegal. There are no organized family planning activities, but contraceptive services are available at some hospitals. PMID:12276745

  9. Towards healthy family planning attitude: a self persuasion approach.

    PubMed

    Balogun, S K

    1990-07-01

    The potential usefulness of improvisational techniques in changing deeply embedded pronatalist attitudes was assessed in an exercise involving University of Ibadan students. The students were instructed to write an essay in support of family planning. To assist them, 4 statements were provided to the students as guidelines: 1) birth control is the best way to create a happy family; 2) family planning can reduce the burden created by overly large family size; 3) family planning has the potential to raise the standard of living of African families; and 4) overpopulation is at a critical point in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that these arguments, which are counter to those prevalent in Nigeria, would force students to critically examine their thinking and lead to some attitudinal conversion. In addition, some students were given a pretest before and/or after writing the essay that asked their opinion on 5 items: 1) family planning is alien to African culture; 2) excessive childbearing is unhealthy for families and the society; 3) the government should enact antinatalist legislation; 4) there is no present need for large families; and 5) family planning is essential to provide children with a good education. Although students who wrote the essays developed stronger support for all items except number 3, the change in attitudes was not statistically significant. The attitude changes were greatest among the subset of students who took the test before writing the essay and thus were sensitized to the issues. Males, Christians, and older students were more likely to be supportive of family planning than their counterparts. Although this technique was not very effective in this study, its evaluation in other populations is suggested. PMID:12343207

  10. China: women benefit from the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z

    1995-08-01

    This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role models. Family planning acceptance has not occurred evenly across the country, and some old social traditions of son preference still prevail. China is described as committed to programs for sustainable development, the protection of women's rights, and the enhancement of women's status. PMID:12290277

  11. The SANC project status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonov, A. D.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Uglov, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    The main goal of the SANG project is the creation of a computing system for automatic computation of pseudo and realistic observables with one-loop precision for various processes of elementary particle interactions. The purpose of this paper is to outline the SANC project status and next stage plans—SANC2.

  12. Massive drive to reenergize the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Kakar, V N

    1979-01-01

    A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490

  13. SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis L.Smith; Ted S. Wood

    2010-03-01

    This project is being conducted at the request of the DOE and the NRC. The INL has been requested by the NRC to improve and maintain the Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) tool set concurrent with the changing needs of the user community as well as staying current with new technologies. Successful completion will be upon NRC approved release of all software and accompanying documentation in a timely fashion. This project will enhance the SAPHIRE tool set for the user community (NRC, Nuclear Power Plant operations, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model developers) by providing improved Common Cause Failure (CCF), External Events, Level 2, and Significance Determination Process (SDP) analysis capabilities. The SAPHIRE development team at the Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for successful completion of this project. The project is under the supervision of Curtis L. Smith, PhD, Technical Lead for the SAPHIRE application. All current capabilities from SAPHIRE version 7 will be maintained in SAPHIRE 8. The following additional capabilities will be incorporated: • Incorporation of SPAR models for the SDP interface. • Improved quality assurance activities for PRA calculations of SAPHIRE Version 8. • Continue the current activities for code maintenance, documentation, and user support for the code.

  14. 11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, Diridon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Scale 1:200. Drawing no. SP701, submitted by Biggs Cardoss Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SP701. Stamped by Roy M. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  15. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    PubMed

    Li, R

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

  16. Project Specific Quality Assurance Plan (QAPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, J.J.

    1994-11-01

    The Project QAPP`s describe the program and the planned actions which WHC will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the project meets the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The Project involves retrieving the high-heat waste from Tank 241-C-106 to close the safety issue associate with the tank, demonstrate initial waste retrieval technology for a Single Shell Tank, and provide feed for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.

  17. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  18. A second look at natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Lolarga, E

    1983-01-01

    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791

  19. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a strategic location; longer clinic hours; and a reasonable fee structure. A variety of outreach activities have been found to be useful in generating communiting interest in the YKB clinics, including inviting mothers groups to hold their meetings on the clinic premises. Information/education/communication materials in the form of posters, leaflets, booklets, flipcharts, and magnetic boards are needed to support community outreach and promotional activities. Those who plan to undertake the creation of a private clinic should keep in mind the following points if success is to be realized: community outreach is critical; clinic services should be adapted to community needs; adequate staff training and support should be provided; services should be expanded; and ties with government organizations, medical organizations, and community groups should be established and maintained. PMID:12340743

  20. Family planning in South Africa: Missing essentials and desirables.

    PubMed

    Goldstuck, Norman D

    2015-11-01

    South Africa has a rapidly growing population. At the same time, our family planning options are somewhat limited compared with those available elsewhere. Adherence to reliable methods of family planning can only be successful if the individual has the correct method for her or his needs. We need to make sure that we have as wide an array of methods available as possible. PMID:26632314

  1. Family planning clinic services in the United States, 1983.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1985-01-01

    Almost five million women were enrolled in family planning clinics in the United States in 1983, eight percent more than in 1981. The number of family planning provider agencies declined slightly, from 2,504 to 2,462, but the number of clinic sites that could be identified increased slightly, from 5,124 to 5,174. Family planning clinics operate in three-quarters of U.S. counties; in 1975, the last time county coverage was checked, four-fifths of the counties had clinics. About one in 20 women who are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy and live in unserved counties are teenagers or low-income women. Nonmetropolitan counties are more likely to be without clinics than are metropolitan counties. Overall, there are 417,000 low-income women and 249,000 teenagers at risk of unintended pregnancy living in counties where there are no family planning clinics. In 1983, health departments constituted six in 10 of all family planning agencies and served two-fifths of all family planning clinic patients; Planned Parenthood affiliates accounted for fewer than one in 10 agencies and served more than one-quarter of all patients. Hospitals and all other agencies served about one-third of the total 1983 caseload. These patterns were similar to those reported for 1981. Family planning clinics continue to serve primarily low-income women: Four-fifths of the nearly five million clinic patients in 1983 had family incomes below 150 percent of the federally defined poverty level. About 1.6 million women aged 19 and younger were served, representing one-third of all clinic patients in 1983.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3979525

  2. The agenda for family planning in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1991-09-01

    Concerned over a high rate of abortions that could be undermining the health Soviet women, the USSR has begun developing a family planning agenda designed to improve maternal and child health. Compared to industrialized countries, the USSR's infant mortality is high. This fact may be explained by the extremely high rate of abortions -- an annual 12 million induced abortions in a country with 70 million women of fertile age. The average Soviet woman of fertile age has had between 4 and 6 abortions (some have had as many as 20 abortions performed in their lifetime). About 1/2 of all the country's gynecologists do nothing but perform abortions. The heavy reliance on abortion is due to shortages in any other birth control methods. When abortion was legalized in 1955, the government did not promote family planning. Many Soviet people, however, had become concerned over the dangers of abortion. With the changes brought on by Glasnost and Perestroika, a movement to develop a family planning agenda began growing. As a result, the Soviet government has begun promoting family planning programs in an effort to improve maternal health and reduce the number of abortions. And in 1989, the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA), a self-financing nongovernmental organization dedicated to family planning, started operating. Furthermore, in 1990, an appeal by President Mikhail Gorbachev led the Supreme Soviet to create the Committee on Problems of Women, Family and Maternal and Child Health Care. PMID:12284285

  3. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  4. ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

  5. River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    POWELL, P.A.

    2000-03-29

    This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

  6. Project Hanford management contract quality improvement project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, D.E.

    1999-03-25

    On July 13, 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Manager transmitted a letter to Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) describing several DOE-RL identified failed opportunities for FDH to improve the Quality Assurance (QA) Program and its implementation. In addition, DOE-RL identified specific Quality Program performance deficiencies. FDH was requested to establish a periodic reporting mechanism for the corrective action program. In a July 17, 1998 response to DOE-RL, FDH agreed with the DOE concerns and committed to perform a comprehensive review of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) QA Program during July and August, 1998. As a result, the Project Hanford Management Contract Quality Improvement Plan (QIP) (FDH-3508) was issued on October 21, 1998. The plan identified corrective actions based upon the results of an in-depth Quality Program Assessment. Immediately following the scheduled October 22, 1998, DOE Office of Enforcement and Investigation (EH-10) Enforcement Conference, FDH initiated efforts to effectively implement the QIP corrective actions. A Quality Improvement Project (QI Project) leadership team was assembled to prepare a Project Management Plan for this project. The management plan was specifically designed to engage a core team and the support of representatives from FDH and the major subcontractors (MSCs) to implement the QIP initiatives; identify, correct, and provide feedback as to the root cause for deficiency; and close out the corrective actions. The QI Project will manage and communicate progress of the process.

  7. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  8. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  9. Women's fears and men's anxieties: the impact of family planning on gender relations in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bawah, A A; Akweongo, P; Simmons, R; Phillips, J F

    1999-03-01

    The Navrongo experiment, a family planning and health project in northern Ghana, has demonstrated that an appropriately designed, community-based family planning program can produce a change in contraceptive practice that had been considered unattainable in such a setting. Simultaneously, however, evidence suggests that newly introduced family planning services and contraceptive availability can activate tension in gender relations. In this society, where payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, there are deeply ingrained expectations about women's reproductive obligations. Physical abuse and reprisals from the extended family pose substantial threats to women; men are anxious that women who practice contraception might be unfaithful. Data from focus-group discussions with men and women are examined in this report and highlight the strains on gender relations resulting from contraceptive use. The measures taken to address this problem and methods of minimizing the risk of adverse social consequences are discussed. PMID:10216896

  10. The contribution of social science research to population policy and family planning program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R

    1987-01-01

    Social science research has made important contributions to population policy and to the effectiveness of family planning programs. Social science concepts, theories, and methods potentially are relevant to all aspects of reproductive behavior, including actual fertility, proximate variables, and desired family size. Social science research also contributes to the understanding of the social, economic, and political institutions that potentially affect, either directly or indirectly, the whole biosocial reproductive system and family planning programs. At least as important as its specific theories and findings is the role of social science in testing how to adapt such knowledge to distinctive national and local cultural circumstances of family planning programs. A central point is that carefully monitored pilot projects are desirable before launching full-scale national programs, as well as being continuing resources for program development. The research on early programs in Asia has been important, because those programs encountered and overcame some of the presumed obstacles to new programs. PMID:3590266

  11. Family planning education helps build self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, P

    1993-10-01

    I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

  12. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  13. Extending Family Resources: A Project of National Significance. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Judith A.; And Others

    The project, Extending Family Resources, was designed to assess the impact on 14 families of raising children with handicapping conditions and to implement a model program to reduce obstacles facing those families. The model emphasized incorporating under-involved relatives, friends, and neighbors into the family's support network. Performance…

  14. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam. PMID:22889427

  15. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables.

  16. Technical project planning (TPP) process. Engineer manual

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    This Engineer Manual (EM) describes the Technical Project Planning (TPP) process for identifying project objectives and designing data collection programs at hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites. The TPP process helps ensure that the requisite type, quality, and quantity of data are obtained to satisfy project objectives that lead to informed decisions and site closeout. The TPP process can be used from investigation through closeout at small, simple sites as well as large, complex sites. The TPP process is a critical component of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) quality management system that meets the American National Standard for planning the collection and evaluation of environmental data. This EM is intended for use by USACE project managers and both technical and contractor personnel for implementation of Engineer Regulation (ER) 5-1-11.

  17. 7 CFR 1217.60 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Programs, plans, and projects. 1217.60 Section 1217... Programs, plans, and projects. (a) The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval programs, plans and projects authorized by this subpart. Such programs, plans and projects shall...

  18. 7 CFR 1217.60 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Programs, plans, and projects. 1217.60 Section 1217... Programs, plans, and projects. (a) The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval programs, plans and projects authorized by this subpart. Such programs, plans and projects shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1217.60 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Programs, plans, and projects. 1217.60 Section 1217... Programs, plans, and projects. (a) The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval programs, plans and projects authorized by this subpart. Such programs, plans and projects shall...

  20. Project SAFE: an Armed Forces cooperative initiative for the prevention and treatment of family violence.

    PubMed

    McNelis, P J; Awalt, S J

    1986-01-01

    About one out of every eight persons residing in the State of Hawaii is either active duty military or a military family member. In the late 1970s, it became apparent that neither the military nor the state could meet a growing obligation to provide responsive protective services to abused and neglected children of military families. Inspired by a first-ever congressional appropriation for the development of military child abuse and neglect and spouse abuse programs, the Department of Defense funded a 3-year joint-Service family violence project. Operational since 1982, Project SAFE (Services Assisting Family Environments) consists of a family violence shelter, clinical outreach teams, and a prenatal prevention project. This paper chronicles the history of Project SAFE, provides retrospective commentary on planning and implementation, and identifies key evaluation questions yet to be answered. PMID:10279231

  1. FY95 software project management plan: TMACS, CASS computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-11-11

    The FY95 Work Plan for TMACS and CASS Software Projects describes the activities planned for the current fiscal year. This plan replaces WHC-SD-WM-SDP-008. The TMACS project schedule is included in the TWRS Integrated Schedule.

  2. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

  3. Aidlin project planned for The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    A new geothermal project, called the Aidlin Project, is planned for The Geysers Geothermal field in Northern California by Geothermal Resources International, Inc. (GEO). GEO will drill the wells and construct the power plant. As part of the project, GEO has agreed to purchase from SAI Geothermal, Inc. (SAIG) two, 10-megawatt modified Standard Offer No. 4 electricity sales contracts to provide electricity to Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The Aidlin Project will include a two-unit geothermal power plant constructed by GEO, with each unit producing 10 megawatts, net, of electricity. The project will be on about 700 acres in The Geysers, leased from private landowners Joseph W. and Mary Aidlin. Total cost of the Aidlin Project is estimated to be about $50 million. The portion of the steam field where the geothermal wells for the Aidlin Project will be drilled by GEO is in the northwestern part of The Geysers, the section GEO is most likely to develop in the future. Therefore, the development drilling planned for the Aidlin Project will increase the company's geotechnical understanding of a reservoir GEO has a long-term interest in developing.

  4. Family planning in China: out of control?

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined sex ratios in 6 counties in China. METHODS: Data from a household survey (n = 5756) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A normal sex ratio was found for children less than 18 years of age. Significant differences in sex ratios and family size were observed between the household survey data and population registers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate a high number of unregistered female births and are consistent with calls for a rethinking of Chinese population policies in the direction of a more collaborative policy based on female education and participation. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9551011

  5. [What is a family? And who plans it?].

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C

    1993-12-01

    This work questions the view of the family as a closed physical, economic, and emotional unit with longterm stability that has been the usual basis of demographic data collection and analysis, population policy formulation, and family planning program implementation. Simple models of the family assume that the parents and children live in the same household and function in a unified family economy, in which childbearing decisions reflect a longterm view of costs and benefits. But in reality, parents often live apart due to labor migration, polygamy, divorce, remarriage, or extramarital procreation. The hypothesis that family members share a household is valid only in some places, as Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data have demonstrated. In families separated by migration for economic reasons, distance often loosens economic ties, especially with the passage of time. Financial exchanges are precarious when the father and mother are not united by marriage. It is frequently assumed that satisfaction of the family planning needs of couples is equivalent to satisfying the needs of men and women separately, but this assumption may be erroneous for nonmonogamous individuals. Recent research demonstrates that single women and their partners are a potentially important group of family planning users. The assumption that increasing costs of children in developing countries will discourage parents from having large families may overlook parental efforts to have some of the cost assumed by other relatives or the older children, or to invest in only some of their children. As new proofs of the limitations of the conventional view of the family are found, the need becomes clear for research including men, adding an individual perspective to the attention usually focused on couples, and establishing a more realistic perspective on the family in all its manifestations. PMID:12287887

  6. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VI. Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report VI presents a comprehensive plan for the management of the Breckinridge Project. For the purpose of this report, the project work is divided into five major project phases: Development, Engineering, Procurement, Construction, and Operations. The results of the Development Phase (Initial Effort) of the project are discussed in Section 1.0. This phase of the project was performed under a Cooperative Agreement with US Department of Energy and has produced 43 volumes of documentation. Fifteen volumes contain information of proprietary nature for patented processes and are therefore classified as Limited Access; however, twenty-eight volumes are not classified and are suitable for public dissemination. This Project Management Plan is a volume of the unclassified documentation. The other twenty-seven volumes contain comprehensive data on technical, financial, and environmental aspects of the project. Each of the four remaining project phases is presented starting with the extensive planning that will be performed and continuing through to the execution and completion of each phase. The major roles of the Operator, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI), and the Managing Contractor are defined. Although a contract has not yet been executed with a Managing Contractor, the procedures, controls, organization and management philosophy of Bechtel Petroleum, Inc., are presented in this report as being representative of those used by contractors in the business of performing the engineering, procurement, and construction of projects of this size and complexity. The organizational structures of the Operator and the Managing Contractor are described, with designation of key project team personnel by job description and organization charts. Provisions for cost, schedule, and material control are described.

  8. NEW HAMPSHIRE ESTUARIES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project presents a broad framework and specific list of actions to protect and enhance the environmental quality of the estuaries of the State of New Hampshire. It is intended to be a guide for all...

  9. Project "Flashlight" Planning Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrmann, Stephen C.

    This final report describes results of a planning grant for the "Flashlight" project, an effort to develop, test, and disseminate evaluation procedures that a postsecondary institution or department could use to periodically assess its evolving educational strategies, in particular strategies supported by use of computing, video, and…

  10. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  11. NEW HAMPSHIRE ESTUARIES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN, 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project presents a broad framework and specific list of actions to protect and enhance the environmental quality of the estuaries of the State of New Hampshire. It is intended to be a guide for all ...

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts.

  13. Issues in NASA Program and Project Management: Focus on Project Planning and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics addressed include: Planning and scheduling training for working project teams at NASA, overview of project planning and scheduling workshops, project planning at NASA, new approaches to systems engineering, software reliability assessment, and software reuse in wind tunnel control systems.

  14. Family planning: implications for marital stability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F C; Johnson, M R

    1980-01-01

    In Spring, 1977, a random sample of divorced persons (N=165) in Spokane County was compared to a matched group of people who had not divorced (N=102). It was found that it was not possible to predict marital stability from knowledge of number of children, presence or absence of children, or timing of childbirth in relationship to marriage date. A significant predictor of marital stability was found to be whether or not children were planned. In the past 2 decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. Only 1 paper directly implicates the planning component of fertility, and then only from a theoretical perspective. Over 20% of the North American population will experience at least 1 divorce during their lifetime. Hurley and Palonen (1967) found that the higher the ratio of children per years of marriage, the less satisfactory the marital experience will be. Another study by Luckey (1966) found no relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction. This study found that there was an effect on the stability of womens' marriages if there was a child from a previous marriage in the home. It also found that men did not regard paternity as critical to their marital happiness whereas women often depend on maternity for theirs. PMID:12336546

  15. Uphold "three stresses" to improve family planning implementation.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    Shandong Peninsula, China, includes 24 towns, 4 townships, and 1006 villages with a total 1992 population of 754,000. Due to the family planning program (instituted in the mid 1950s), and its emphasis on the "three stresses" since 1983, the rate of natural increase was maintained for the past decade at 6.59/1000. Marriage and childbirth has been deferred and the annual rate of planned births is 99%. Neonatal mortality is below 10/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. There have been 260,000 births averted. In 1966, national commendation was given for the achievements in family planning. The city now ranks 12th among the top 100 counties that are the most economically developed. Success was linked with an effective IEC programs. Changing public opinion was accomplished by placing family planning slogans and cards in windows of public places and commercial centers. Contests were held, and performances publicized family planning. There are 1162 population schools in the county which have trained 10,000 family planning publicity workers and about 400,000 others since 1987. Radio and television stations have broadcast regular programs on family planning and population twice a week since 1987. Everyone has radio sets and 90% have televisions. IEC promotion has also been concerned with social security and alleviating poverty. Contraceptive prevalence among reproductive age women is now 91%. After 25 years of family planning operation, the "three stresses" were introduced and popularized in 1983. The goal was no early marriages, no early births, no induced abortions, and no unwanted births. The program strengthened family planning agencies, promoted women's services, oversaw birth quotas, and distributed contraceptives at the grassroots level. By 1991, the city began promoting control of population growth and improvement in human resources. The "four priorities" were formulated by the city for acceptors; housing sites, business licenses, recruitment of only-child parents for work, and nursery and kindergarten admissions for only children and employment of only children. Retirees with-only child certificates will receive an additional 5% pension. PMID:12318710

  16. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

  17. China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

  18. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use. PMID:22818829

  19. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  20. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

  1. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152....109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master planning is not approved unless— (1) The location of the existing or proposed airport is...

  2. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS FOR DEVELOPING PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 has prepared new QA guidance documents for preparing Air Monitoring QA project plans, PCB QA Project Plans, Aquaculture NPDES Inspection Plans and RCRA Inspection QA project plans. These documents not only serve to establish detailed and uniform policy and guidance for...

  3. Even Start Projects Serving Migrant Families: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Miriam; Goldstein, David; Stief, Elizabeth; Fiester, Leila; Weiner, Lisa; Waiters, Katrina

    Even Start was created by federal legislation to address poverty and illiteracy among low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting education into a unified family literacy program. Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects resemble other Even Start projects but are affected…

  4. The Family Writing Project: Creating Space for Sustaining Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Marilyn; Lasley, Saralyn; Holmes-Gull, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Family writing projects can change the nature of classroom writing instruction and rejuvenate teachers. Marilyn McKinney, Saralyn Lasley, and Rosemary Holmes-Gull report on their study of one such project in an urban school district. Using the concept of "third space," they describe the influence of this family literacy program on teacher practice.

  5. [Family planning. Regional differences in contraceptive practice].

    PubMed

    Palma Cabrera, Y; Suarez Morales, J

    1994-01-01

    Great efforts have been made to measure contraceptive prevalence in Mexico and to assess various aspects of differential usage. At present, 63.1% of fertile aged women in union are estimated to use a method. State prevalence rates ranged from 77.2% of couples in Baja California Sub to 46.3% in Oaxaca. In general, northern states and Mexico City had the highest prevalence rates and states in the center and south had the lowest. Results of the 1988 Survey of Determinants of Contraceptive Prevalence permit identification of sociocultural variables related to contraceptive usage. The data show that residents of the northwestern states have a considerably higher educational level and proportion urban than do those of the center or southeast. The southeast lagged the center in indicators of household characteristics and services, income, and infant mortality, and also had a higher rate of female labor force participation. The states of the center had a lower rate of contraceptive usage at 54.8% than did those of the southeast at 56.4%. The rate for the northwest states was 71.8%. Knowledge of contraceptive methods in the northwest and center was nearly universal, but almost one-fourth of rural women in the southeast reported not knowing a method. Reasons for not using a method varied in the three regions. Problems of access, lack of knowledge, and fear of side effects were the principal factors in the southeast. Opposition of the woman or spouse or religious beliefs were the main factors in the center. No significant barriers of culture or access were identified in the northwest. The average ideal family size was around 3.5 children in all three regions. The survey results demonstrate that having children was highly valued in all three regions. Children were more highly valued in the southeast for companionship, aid, and economic contribution; in the center as sources of affective relations; and in the northwest for satisfaction or personal fulfillment of the woman. PMID:12158062

  6. The National Family Planning Program: its impact on perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Kader, H A; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar

    1984-12-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of family planning on declining maternal and infant mortality rates in Malaysia since the National Family Planning Program began operation in May, 1967. Data were derived from the registration of vital events and reports from the Malaysian Family Life Survey conducted in 1978, and demonstrate declines in maternal and infant mortality rates. Although this is a result of a combination of factors (e.g., socioeconomic development, high quality health and medical services) the contribution of family planning is significant. Between 1957 and 1980 the maternal mortality rate declined by 80%. High risk births declined from 10.2% to 8.2% for mothers under age 20, and from 15% to 13.7% for mothers over age 35 during the 1967-1977 decade. From 1955 - 1980 the infant mortality rate declined by 68.2% to a level of 24.9/1000 live births; this may be partly due to the shift to lower order births (and therefore low risk) as a result of better family planning. Perinatal mortality declined 6.7% in the pre-implementation years (1957 - 1967) and 19.8% in the post-implementation years (1967 - 1977). Low birthweight is a significant correlate of infant survival, and data from this study indicate that birthweights increase with maternal age up to 30-34 years, then begin to decrease. Birthweights are also lower (and infant mortality higher) for babies born at birth intervals of less than 15 months. Therefore, concerted efforts in family planning education need to be directed to vulnerable groups such as young mothers (under 19) and older mothers (over 40). PMID:12280343

  7. 33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24... Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements. (1) The Corps of Engineers and the... agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating activities on a project. (2) The...

  8. 33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24... Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements. (1) The Corps of Engineers and the... agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating activities on a project. (2) The...

  9. 33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24... Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements. (1) The Corps of Engineers and the... agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating activities on a project. (2) The...

  10. 33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24... Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements. (1) The Corps of Engineers and the... agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating activities on a project. (2) The...

  11. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  12. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  13. Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…

  14. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

  15. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS...

  16. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  17. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning. Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This generously annotated bibliography of books, reports, and journal articles is divided into the following subject areas: 1) Demography and Social Science; 2) Human Reproduction and Fertility Control; 3) Family Planning Programs; 4) Population Policy; and, 5) General. Throughout these areas are works on demography and population control in…

  18. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  19. Attitudes Toward Family Planning Programs for the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    A pilot survey, administered in 1972, was designed to assess a rough cross section of attitudes toward birth control in both black and white neighborhoods. A survey of 41 male and 39 female white residents of Decatur, Georgia, was conducted primarily to get an indication of how attitudes held by whites relate to feelings about family planning

  20. GEMS: A Flipchart Nutrition Reference for Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gurp, Janet

    1985-01-01

    A flipchart reference booklet with nutrition information related to family planning is described. Users can assess information on a variety of topics by selecting tabbed headings, including possible nutritional implications of each of the major contraceptive methods, nutritional risks, and the four basic food groups. (JN)

  1. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

  2. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  3. Personal and Family Financial Planning: Perspectives on Community College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Robert J.; And Others

    After a brief summary of the findings of a 1979 study of Personal and Family Financial Planning (PFFP) programs at member institutions of the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), this two-part monograph provides information on selected PFFP programs. Part I presents in-depth descriptions of the implementation, subject coverage,…

  4. Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. PMID:20570955

  5. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of Navajo…

  6. IMA to conduct training courses in family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    For the last six and a half decades, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) has been actively engaged in Public Health issues, ranging from immunization, ORT, maternal and child health care, and has been cooperating with the Government of India in various National Health Programs. Recently, IMA organized a new and exciting program on India's most significantly health issue--family planning. The training is to be competency based and participatory, with the main emphasis on knowledge, attitude and skills required to provide comprehensive child spacing. IMA has developed this multilevel program to train personnel in all methods of family planning, like: participation in basic oral contraceptive training; supplementary training in other methods; clinical practice for providing information on how to select and manage non-clinical family planning services; simulated practice in IUCD; and clinical practice in IUCD training. Training can also be arranged for vasectomy practicum and minilaparotomy. The main purpose of the training program is to realize the Government's goal of 60% contraceptive prevalence usage by the year 2000. In India, less than 2% of the 132.5 million reproductives, couples use oral contraceptives, because of widespread misconceptions regarding the pill among the general populace and the medical community. This program has been designed to counter these misgivings and thus encourage the "use of modern family planning methods" to take on the menace of the population explosion. PMID:12179169

  7. Assessing the wraparound process during family planning meetings.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael H; Nordness, Philip D; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Al; Schrepf, Sheryl; Benner, Greg J; Nelson, J Ron

    2003-01-01

    Research and evaluation of the wraparound process has typically focused on outcomes, service providers, and costs. While many of these studies describe a process that is consistent with the wraparound approach, few studies have reported attempts to monitor or measure the treatment fidelity of the wraparound process. The purpose of this study was to assess the fidelity of the wraparound process in a community-based system of care using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version. Results from 112 family planning meetings indicated some strengths and weaknesses within the current system. Families and professionals were frequently involved in the planning and implementation of the wraparound process. However, informal supports and natural family supports were not present in a majority of the meetings. Given the significant number of youth served in wraparound programs, the benefits of using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version as an instrument to monitor the fidelity of the wraparound approach should not be ignored. PMID:12875102

  8. PREPARING PERFECT PROJECT PLANS: A POCKET GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Pocket Guide helps you prepare Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans thoroughly and easily. he Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) utilizes a four-tiered project category approach in order to more effectively focus QA with respect to the intended use of the data and ...

  9. Assessing the Value of the Follow-Through Family Project for Students and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Betty L.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of follow-through family projects that linked 120 nursing students with 90 childbearing families indicated that students enjoyed establishing therapeutic relationships and developed care skills and appreciation for childbirth as a transition. Families appreciated the health and education support and individualized assistance and felt…

  10. [A gold key to initiate a new situation in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Du, S; Yuan, Z; Fang, X

    1983-05-29

    Because of the popularization of a responsible agricultural production system, the livilihood of peasants has been improving greatly, while the demands and needs of the general public are also increasing at the same time. Still under the influence of the traditional belief of carrying on one's family line and emphasis on having male children, married people prefer to have more childre, and the birth rate is now rising again. In order to solve this new problem, we need to teach the peasants national policies on population, land utilization, and food supply. In order to initiate a new situation in family planning work, we need to control this "gold key" of ideological education and propaganda. The emphasis should be placed on ideological education for cadres at all levels as well as the general public in order that they may understand the Party's strategy. Education on the national strategy should be combined with material interests of the peasants, and reward and punishment in production should also be linked up with that of family planning. Social measures are needed to reduce economic burdens of the peasants, offer better treatment for single-child households, and provide adequate care for old and retired people. Family planning projects should be consolidated and improved. Scientific management, facilities and techniques for birth control, compensation for working personnel in family planning, and other practical problems deserve immediate attention and solution. PMID:12159355

  11. Men should take part in family planning. An interview with the Grand Mufti.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1994-09-01

    For Muslims the Koran provides the infallible rules of conduct fundamental to their way of life. In the past, conservative religious leaders represented a force opposing changes in the traditional status of women and large family norms in Egypt. However, the Grand Mufti has openly expressed his support for responsible parenthood and family planning. The total fertility rate would not have dropped to 3.9 in Egypt without his strong support for family planning. The Grand Mufti expressed his views on family planning in an interview. Family planning is compatible with the teaching of the Koran. There is no problem in promoting family planning according to the Koran. Family planning is the independent and voluntary decision and right of each couple. The Grand Mufti encourages practice family planning through TV, radio, and newspapers. Among Islamic countries, Egypt is one of the few countries where family planning has been well accepted. Religious leaders, medical doctors, and mass media people recognize that the Koran's teachings harmonize with family planning, therefore the promotion of family planning has been successful. More and more people in other Islamic countries will come to practice family planning as they comprehend the Koran's teachings accurately. However, it will take some time before people in these countries will be able to benefit from family planning, since many countries face economic problems thwarting the development of family planning services. The fact that most of the family planning users are women is immaterial, as family planning is the joint responsibility of the married couple. Men should definitely participate in family planning. Men's participation in family planning fits in with the Koran. At the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in the September, 1994, the Grand Mufti is going to speak on men's responsibility for family planning. PMID:12288252

  12. Clayton Family Literacy and School Support Services Project: Project Class. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurss, Joanne R.

    Project CLASS, a collaborative family literacy demonstration research project designed to meet the language and literacy needs of limited English proficient families in Clayton County, Georgia, is described. Intergenerational and age-graded classes were provided for Cambodian, Laotian, Vietnamese, and Hispanic adult family members, their…

  13. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the policy of family planning." PMID:12343815

  14. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  15. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  16. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  17. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Thi Thanh, Luu Huong; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Thi Thu, Ha Phan; Vail, Janet G

    2010-11-01

    Viet Nam has high modern contraceptive prevalence (68%), with most services received through the public sector. As the country transitions to middle-income status, Viet Nam's donors have ceased donations of contraceptive supplies, causing a large projected shortfall in the family planning budget. In response, the Ministry of Health has decided to prioritize free or subsidized contraceptives for poor and vulnerable groups, while enhancing social marketing and sales of contraceptives in the free market. To support planning for this "total market approach", a descriptive exploratory study was conducted with 38 public and private sector family planning stakeholders to gain their perceptions of the proposals. There was a high level of support for government leadership of public-private coordination and stewardship of the entire family planning system. Key information gaps were identified regarding how the reforms can promote equitable access to family planning and financial sustainability in pricing. The government's experience with this transition may yield valuable guidance for other settings. PMID:21111350

  18. Interagency Educational Planning; Community Planning Process: PROJECT DESIGN. Interagency Planning for Urban Educational Needs, Number 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokmakian, Harold

    This report, part of PROJECT DESIGN, administered by the Fresno City Unified School District and funded under ESEA Title III, describes the planning process as related to physical, social, and educational needs. A description of existing decision-making process is followed by an evaluation and an alternative approach to intergovernmental planning.…

  19. The Second Year of the Brookline Early Education Project: Progress Report and Plans for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookline Public Schools, MA.

    This is the second in a series of progress reports on the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP), a program which provides diagnostic and educational services for very young children and their families. The 1972-74 programs are described, and plans for the following 3-year period are reviewed. The purpose of this pilot project of the Brookline…

  20. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Married Couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. Result The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR?=?2.07, p<0.001), in particular among women (aORwomen?=?2.77 vs. aORmen?=?1.49; p<0.001). In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. Conclusion The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning) and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning activities both wives' and husbands' participation should be considered. PMID:23637815

  1. Planning for Quality Schools: Meeting the Needs of District Families. Phase One: Understanding Current School Supply and Student Enrollment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping

    2008-01-01

    This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…

  2. Status and potential of family planning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J

    1987-02-01

    Between 1960 and the present, Pakistan has tried a number of strategies to bring down the birth rate. This paper summarizes the various family planning programs which were not as effective as had been hoped. 1) In 1965-69 the target-oriented approach concentrated on promoting IUDs and using indigenous midwives, however at the end contraceptive use was only 6%. 2) In 1970-1973 the continuous motivation system employed male-female teams to visit eligible couples, deliver contraceptives, and encourage family planning; inadequate training and supervision and inadequate supplies of contraceptives resulted in an ineffective program. 3) The contraceptive inundation scheme (1971-1977) provided widespread access to contraceptives through shopkeepers, hospitals, clinics, and field workers, but only 22% of eligible women were aware of the services when polled. 4) The multisector approach (1980-1983) placed the Ministry of Planning and Development in charge of making family planning available. In 1983 the Government initiated the latest national population welfare program. As of July 1983 the crude birth rate (CBR) was 40.3, total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.9, and contraceptive prevalence only 7-10% of women (married) of reproductive age. Goals for 1988 are a CBR of 36.2, a TFR of 5.4, and contraceptive prevalence of 18.6%. PMID:12268248

  3. Project X Accelerator R&D Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-01-31

    Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading program in neutrino and flavor physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Project X is an integral part of the Fermilab Roadmap as described in the Fermilab Steering Group Report. Project X is based on an 8 GeV superconducting H-linac, paired with the existing (but modified) Main Injector and Recycler Ring, to provide in excess of 2 MW of beam power throughout the energy range 60-120 GeV, simultaneous with at least 100 kW of beam power at 8 GeV. The linac utilizes technology in common with the ILC over the energy range 0.6-8.0 GeV. Beam current parameters can be made identical to ILC resulting in identical rf generation and distribution systems. This alignment of ILC and Project X technologies allows for a shared development effort. The initial 0.6 GeV of the linac draws heavily on technology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for a facility for rare isotope beams. It is anticipated that the exact configuration and operating parameters of the linac will be defined through the R&D program and will retain alignment with the ILC plan as it evolves over this period. Utilization of the Recycler Ring as an H{sup -} stripper and accumulator ring is the key element that provides the flexibility to operate the linac with the same beam parameters as the ILC. The linac operates at 5 Hz with a total of 5.6 x 10{sup 13} H{sup -} ions delivered per pulse. H{sup -} are stripped at injection into the Recycler in a manner that 'paints' the beam both transversely and longitudinally to reduce space charge forces. Following the 1 ms injection, the orbit moves off the stripping foil and circulates for 200 msec, awaiting the next injection. Following three such injections a total of 1.7 x 10{sup 14} protons are transferred in a single turn to the Main Injector. These protons are then accelerated to 120 GeV and fast extracted to a neutrino target. The Main Injector cycle takes 1.4 seconds, producing approximately 2.3 MW of beam power at 120 GeV. At lower proton energies Main Injector cycle times can be shorter, allowing a beam power above 2 MW in the range of proton energy between 60 GeV and 120 GeV. In parallel, because the loading of the Recycler only requires 0.6 seconds, up to four linac cycles are available for accumulation and distribution of 8 GeV protons from the Recycler. Total available 8 GeV beam power lies in the range of 100-200 kW, depending on the energy in the Main Injector. Primary modifications to the existing accelerator complex to support Project X include integration of an H{sup -} injection system, a new RF system, a new extraction system, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects, in the Recycler Ring. The Main Injector would need a new RF system, measures to preserve beam stability through transition, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects. Finally, substantial modifications to the existing NuMI target station will be required to support >2 MW operations. It is anticipated that Project X configured as described above would initially support high intensity neutrino beams to the NOvA experiment, in parallel with at least one new 8 GeV based flavor/rare decay experiment. Depending upon future directions flexibility is retained for delivering neutrinos toward the DUSEL site and/or protons into the Tevatron. The purpose of this document is to describe an R&D plan that would position the U.S. to initiate construction of Project X in the 2012 time frame, assuming a go ahead decision in roughly 2010. The organization of this document is as follows: (1) Goals - Describes goals of the R&D and preliminary design period (2008-2011). Included are design, technical development, project documentation, and organizational goals. These are described in the context of an overall set of performance goals for Project X. (2) R&D Plan Elements - Describes the essential technical elements of the plan, including major subsystem performance requirements, associated accelerator and technology issues, and the plans for addressing these issues. (3) R&D Plan - Describes how the plan elements are assembled into a time-ordered plan, defines the associated resources required to support this plan, and describes the alignment of activities undertaken within the Project X, SRF/ILC, and HINS programs. Also describes how the R&D plan will be organized and executed by the prospective participating institutions.

  4. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth. PMID:12290276

  5. [Family planning in the rural governorate of Mahdia].

    PubMed

    Baraket, M

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the general population, use of contraception, and suggestions for initiating a family planning program in the rural sections of the Gouvernorat of Mahdia, Tunisia. The locales examined are Chorbane, D'Essouassi and D'Ouled Chamakh, which make up 81,000 people, out of a total of 260,000 in the Gouvernorat. The population is growing at 3.1% yearly, with a mean age of 23 (median 17), or 45% under 15 years old. The density is 50 persons/sq km. About 17% of men and 2% of women are literate. Many men emigrate to find work. 75% of the people work in agriculture, the rest as laborers or textile workers. Housing is primitive, 97% with no facilities and 4 persons per room. There are a total of 12 health centers in the area, including 1 field hospital, 2 centers with family planning clinics. Data from 1981 showed that family planning acceptors in the region comprised 330 women sterilized; 612 who had abortions; 3400 on pills; 1366 with IUDs; and 830 using other methods. The contraception data were collected from records of mobile teams only. Recent data suggests that 50% of women currently covered were sterilized in campaigns 5 years ago. Their mean age is 40 years and they have 7-8 children. Pill or IUD users average 33 years with 5.5 children. Women cite hostility of their husbands toward contraception, especially in the common situation where spouses are away 6 months of the year working. There is also a fear of losing a child, since half of women interviewed have lost 1 or 2 children. On the other hand, 50% of women who have 7 or more children do not want any more pregnancies. This information suggests several opportunities for introducing family planning, such as spacing methods, especially for lactating women and educating husbands on the value of planning. PMID:12314868

  6. The Families and Democracy and Citizen Health Care Project.

    PubMed

    Doherty, William J; Mendenhall, Tai J; Berge, Jerica M

    2010-10-01

    This article describes and updates the work of the Families and Democracy and Citizen Health Care Project, which engages with community concerns in order to effect change on many system levels. The project draws on family therapy's tradition of interest in larger social issues and adds democratic public theory and community organizing strategies. Since 1999 we have developed 14 citizen initiatives with a wide range of groups on a diverse set of problem areas. We describe the overall project and several of its initiatives, we address research and evaluation issues, and we outline opportunities for marriage and family therapists to learn how to do this work in their own communities. PMID:21039654

  7. How can family planning programs delay repeat teenage pregnancies?

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F; Masnick, G S; Ricketts, S A

    1972-07-01

    The Adolescent Family Clinic of Sinai Hospital in Baltimore which opened in 1965 and which provides family planning services to pregnant adolescents and teenage parents in the hope of preventing early repeat pregnancies is partially evaluated. Evaluation of family planning programs working with teenage mothers is complicated by the variability and instability both to the critical socioeconomic contingencies associated with the young woman's motivations to have or avoid having children and in their ongoing exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The problem is to determine how the experiences of these young women who receive family planning services affect those circumstances that alter the timing of subsequent pregnancies. A life table approach in studying the factors related to the onset of the 2nd pregnancy has been used. This technique is designed specifically to study the temporal pattern of events in the fertility process, and its modification allows the tracing of the probability that a 2nd pregnancy has occurred at various durations into the postpartum period. All pregnant women under age 18 who entered the hospital were eligible to participate in the special program; however, because of staff limitations, 40% of 404 women were assigned on a random basis to the hospital's regular prenatal program. The difference in the 2 programs was the degree of education and encouragement offered. Most of the women were seen during their 2nd trimester. After a 1st visit they were closely supervised through the early months of the postpartum period. In all respects the 2 groups of women were identical. All the young women were interviewed shortly after they registered for prenatal care. A year after delivery, over 95% were interviewed again. 2 years later 90% of the original 404 were reinterviewed. The results are from all 3 interviews. The Adolescent Family Clinic program had limited success in preventing unwanted 2nd pregnancies. 3 years after the 1st delivery approximately 50% of both groups had become pregnant again. Analysis of the data reveals that the risk of pregnancy alters markedly as marital situations, motivation to avoid pregnancy, and use of contraception change. A family planning program must deal with these changes. Most young women want to postpone a 2nd pregnancy and are willing to use birth control. However, when frightening or disturbing side effects occur, they often stop using their method. If they are not offered reassurance when problems arise, they may choose to leave matters to chance. Long-term programs offering initial and ongoing family planning services have the best chance of achieving long-term results with teenagers. PMID:5040827

  8. [Family planning as a determinant of individual and community health].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1991-06-01

    The most recent contraceptive prevalence survey in Colombia indicated that over 2/3 of couples at risk of conception used some contraceptive method in 1990. This figure is close to the 80% or over common in developed countries and far exceeds the rates of 10% or even less in sub-Saharan African countries. Colombia's prevalence rate of around 15% in 1965, the 1st year of institutionalized family planning programs, included many users of ineffective traditional methods. Family planning, the possibility of determining the number and spacing of children, can be analyzed from various perspectives including its legal foundation as a human right and the demographic benefits of reproductive moderation. A stable population size would substantially simplify the problems of health, education, housing, and employment faced by developing countries. From a humanitarian perspective, family planning satisfies the ancient desire of human beings to separate reproduction and sex and also opens the door to different techniques of medically assisted conception. Some of the most significant benefits of family planning are those in the area of health. The positive effects on maternal and infant health and survival of avoiding pregnancy at the extremes of the reproductive period as well as pregnancies that are too numerous or closely spaced are now recognized. Colombia's infant mortality rate has fallen from 100/1000 live births in 1965 to 24 in 1990. Many factors besides family planning were involved, and the exact contribution of higher educational levels of mothers, use of oral rehydration therapy, promotion of breastfeedings, greater availability of potable water, and vaccination programs as well as of family planning are difficult to assess. But it is clear that child survival programs that neglect to include modern contraception as a principal component are shortsighted. Infants of adolescent mothers face mortality rates that are 15-40% higher than those of mothers over 20. Beyond 35 years, the risk of producing offspring with genetic disorders or other serious pathologies begins to rise sharply. The mortality risk of these infants is 20% higher than among those of younger mothers. Too close spacing of infants increases the risk of mortality through 2 principal mechanisms; the mother's body has insufficient time to recover from the 1st birth, consequently increasing the risk of low-birth weight and associated morbidity and mortality, and the older child is prematurely weaned and otherwise displaced by the younger child. The maternal risk of death in developing countries is estimated to increase by 30% with each succeeding pregnancy. Simply avoiding births before 20 years and after 35 would lead to decline of 20-25% in the maternal death rate. PMID:12284194

  9. 14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Application Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for...

  10. 78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan. This therapeutic area (TA) Project Plan will be the primary document for guiding all major aspects of FDA's multi-year initiative to develop and implement TA standards to support the regulatory review process for drugs and biologics. The TA Project Plan will be......

  11. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lindsay M

    2015-08-01

    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389

  12. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-11-02

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Data Link Processor (DLP) project transition plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfitt, Gary; Doucett, Noel A.

    1990-04-01

    The provision for two-way communication with aircraft, via a digital data link, has long been considered a means of providing significant enhancements for safe and efficient flight operations. The data link processor (DLP) currently being tested will initially perform the ground-based data link processing functions necessary to provide appropriately equipped aircraft with pilot requested aviation weather data from a National Weather Data Base via the Mode Select Beacon System (Mode S). The weather data base will contain six products: surface observations (SA), terminal forecasts (FT), pilot reports (UA), wind and temperature aloft forecasts (FD), radar summaries (SD), and hazardous weather advisories. The DLP project transition plan presents those activities and the organizations that are responsible to effect the transition of the DLP into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center. This plan identifies the functional interfaces, equipment description, testing, training, and logistics support necessary for an orderly transition at the FAA Technical Center.

  14. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Archana

    2008-03-01

    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  15. Black Family Basic Facts Handbook: A Resource for YMCAs Planning to Work with Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Elsie, Ed.

    This handbook is a resource tool designed to assist Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) staff and lay leaders of local communities in planning and developing programs for their constituents. Materials included consist of excerpted information from various sources. An attempt has been made to present a total family concept that provides a…

  16. Family planning: choices and challenges for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Phillips, Sharon J

    2014-08-01

    While slow and uneven progress has been made on maternal health, attaining the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal for achieving universal access to reproductive health remains elusive for many developing countries. Assuring access to sexual and reproductive health services, including integrated family planning services, remains a critical strategy for improving the health and well-being of women and alleviating poverty. Family planning not only prevents maternal, infant, and child deaths, but also empowers women to engage fully in socioeconomic development and provides them with reproductive choices. This paper will discuss the current landscape of contraception in developing countries, including options available to women and couples, as well as the challenges to its provision. Finally, we review suggestions to improve access and promising strategies to ensure all people have universal access to reproductive health options. PMID:24957693

  17. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  18. Study and introduction of family planning methods in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rivera, R

    1993-02-01

    Research in developing countries is essential for the evaluation of the safety, efficacy and acceptability of both new and already available contraceptives. Research conducted by scientists in developing countries has also played an essential role in the development of new contraceptives. The continuous delivery of progestin at a low dose, copper IUDs, contraceptive implants, monthly injectables and vaginal rings are examples of new methods developed with the input of research conducted largely in developing countries. When research in developing countries is funded or coordinated by international agencies, local scientists have to be involved not only in its implementation, but in the planning, analysis and dissemination of such research. The World Health Organization, the Population Council and Family Health International have played an important role in supporting collaborative studies for the development, introduction and evaluation of family planning methods in developing countries. PMID:8435190

  19. Sexuality, reproduction, and family planning in women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miller, L J

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews data about how schizophrenia affects sexuality, pregnancy, the puerperium, parenting, and family planning. Women with schizophrenia have high rates of coerced sex, sexual risk behavior, and unwanted pregnancies. High rates of obstetric complications and custody loss increase morbidity for women and their offspring. Since untreated psychosis increases these problems, the risks of withholding pharmacotherapy must be weighed against the risks of prescribing medications during pregnancy. The puerperium is a time when women are especially vulnerable to exacerbations of schizophrenia. Mothers with schizophrenia may have a reduced ability to read children's cues, and they often have weak social support networks. Their children may be more difficult to raise than other children. Parenting rehabilitation can address some of these problems. Often, women with schizophrenia who are sexually active and do not wish to become pregnant do not use contraception. Incorporating family planning measures into mental health care delivery systems may reduce unwanted pregnancies. PMID:9365999

  20. [Desire for pregnancy, refusal of pregnancy, ambivalence in family planning].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, P; Hopf, H; Imfeld, E

    1982-12-01

    Clinical experience at the Center for Family Information and Fertility Regulation in Geneva suggests that the ready availability of contraception has not reduced ambivalence about childbearing. Various symptoms seen in family planning centers are believed to indicate ambivalent desires for pregnancy: failure or forgetting of contraception, accidental pregnancy followed by abortion, sterility of psychogenic origin, marital conflicts, sexual symptoms, and others. Some of these conditions have always existed, but with fertility control today seemingly assured, the symptoms may have another explanation. Society, through contraceptive use, encourages programmed children who arrive at the optimal moment. The underlying myth supports consumption, discarding, and replacement of desired objects according to the tastes of the moment and the near future. The individual stresses self-realization in the here and now. Often lacking reflection on a past which is repressed and a future which may be too frightening to contemplate, with unemployment, nuclear peril, or other horrors, the individual can only validate the present moment with the fantasy of a marvelous infant, which is a reflection of himself. Family planning centers see more and more individuals shocked by personal and social contradictions. Observed symptoms seem frequently to arise from a common difficulty related to the limitation of desire to those of the present moment. The individual of today has difficulty integrating the present and the past. If this hypothesis is correct, family planning centers will be increasingly required to help clients reflect on contradictions within themselves, their relationships, and their societies regarding the desire for children. In 1980, the Center for Family Information and Fertility Regulation conducted 2781 consultations for 1502 cases. 38.4% were for contraception, 17.9% for induced abortion. 17.4% for marriage counseling, 7.9% for psychological problems, 6.7% for sexual problem, 5.7% for medical problems, 2% for legal problems, 1% for sterility and adoption, and 2.9% for others. PMID:12281320

  1. Could Family Planning Clients Benefit From More Nutrition Counselling?

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Charlotte A.; Powell, Marion G.; Yurkiw, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    The nutritional concerns of females prior to conception and while practicing birth control have often been given less emphasis than the importance of nutrition to pregnant women. This article indicates ways of ensuring that family planning clients are not frustrated in practicing their chosen method of birth control because physicians are unaware that they may have a special need for nutrition counselling and services. PMID:20469290

  2. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files.

  3. Bilingual Family School Project (Adair County, Oklahoma).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Central Region Educational Lab. Corp., Little Rock, AR.

    A survey of educational needs by the South Central Region Educational Laboratory assigned high priority to provision of bilingual preschool experiences for Cherokee Indian children and to home-school-community involvement of their parents. Established in March 1968, the Bilingual Family School in Adair County, Oklahoma, developed criterion…

  4. Highlights of the National Family Day Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy, Ed.

    The National Council of Jewish Women's National Family Day Care Project (NFDCP) is a 3-year initiative which is intended to pioneer effective roles for community groups in increasing the quality, supply, and visibility of family day care. This publication provides: (1) a statement on the importance of the NFDCP by Edward Zigler; (2) a paper called…

  5. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the family unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Thirteen brief chapters describe family life and patterns of different ethnic groups in the United States. They present stories of individuals in groups such as Puerto Ricans, Swedish Americans,…

  6. Values clarification as a technique for family planning education.

    PubMed

    Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J

    1983-02-01

    A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time. PMID:6550677

  7. Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A I

    1989-12-01

    Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's. PMID:12316117

  8. How family planning can save lives in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sai, F

    1992-03-01

    A pregnant woman in subSaharan Africa is 75 times more likely to die as a result of her pregnancy than a woman in western Europe. Most African doctors probably concentrate upon preventing and treating the medical causes of maternal mortality such as hemorrhage, toxemia, difficult and prolonged labor, incomplete abortion, and puerperal infection, but give less attention to non-medical factors such as multiparity, nutritional deficiencies, socioeconomic conditions, or whether women want children or not. Evidence from around the world shows that the risk of maternal or infant illness and death is highest in pregnancies before age 18 and after age 35 years, pregnancies after four births, and pregnancies spaced less than two years apart. Approximately 5.6 million infant deaths and 200,000 maternal deaths could thus be avoided annually if women chose to have their children within the safest years, with adequate spacing between births, and had completed families of moderate size. Good availability and use of effective and safe contraception could help reduce the number of women dying in childbirth from high-risk pregnancies and botched abortions. The author, president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, urges doctors to promote family planning and recommends re-educating all health workers in family skills and the vital importance of contraceptive services for family health. The importance of reaching rural women and applying community-based distribution and social marketing approaches is stressed. PMID:12288906

  9. Project management plan for the Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, K.A.; Reid, R.W.

    1997-02-01

    This document establishes the project management plan for design and development of the Object Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) Project. The purpose of the project management plan is to document the plans, goals, directions, commitments, approaches, and decisions that relate to guiding a project throughout its life cycle. Special attention is given to project goals, deliverables, sponsor and project standards, project resources, schedule, and cost estimates.

  10. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities. PMID:12266994

  11. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy. PMID:12295519

  12. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of the issues and increased divisiveness among environmentalists, feminists, and population control advocates. The current justification of US population program assistance is based on concern for the health of women and children. Future changes will be dependent on ideology, theology, and political philosophy. PMID:12346346

  13. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V K; Kelley, A C

    1994-01-01

    The stated aim of this discussion is to examine the extent of male use of family planning and the nature of men's role in family planning in developing countries. Case studies are presented which are successful examples of strategies for involving men in family planning. Policies that aim to increase male involvement must be sensitive to cultural values, apply to a decentralized government approach toward information and supplies, include adequate political will, and consider the costs and benefits of changing values. A male family planning policy would not always be compatible with all fertility values in developing countries or traditional values of the older population. A policy should stress the value of male individuals contributing as much as possible for their own and others' welfare. Community participation is considered important in order to create a feeling of mutual support. A sizeable investment will be required for mass distribution of contraceptive information. Schools are viewed as an ideal place for educating youth about the problems of high fertility and about use of family planning methods, such as the condom. Religious organizations should be used to educate people about responsible parenthood and to minimize barriers to use of modern contraception. Comic books on how to use condoms are suggested as a good source. Local authorities who are trusted are useful in influencing acceptance among local populations. Local personnel may be trained as information disseminators. Adequate contraceptive information needs to be supplied to a wide audience. Lack of supply and inadequate information are given as two key reasons for insufficient use of male contraception. Condoms should be priced to be affordable to the average person and free to those with no income. Program strategies that proved successful are cited for Thailand's Mechai Viravaidya program and Bali's grass-roots program. The vasectomy program in Bangladesh is also noted for its success. Low levels of condom use are attributed to factors such as price, education, availability, accessibility, culture, religion, and economic conditions. Male sterilization levels can be enhanced with wider availability of clinics and provision of correct information for challenging beliefs that vasectomy is a form of castration. PMID:12290097

  14. Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned pregnancies among users of natural family planning: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, A; Gray, R H; Simpson, J L; Queenan, J T; Kambic, R T; Perez, A; Mena, P; Barbato, M; Li, C; Jennings, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning. METHODS: Women who became pregnant while using natural family planning were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies in this cohort. The subjects were followed up at 16 and 32 weeks' gestation and after delivery. The risks of spontaneous abortion, low birth-weight, and preterm birth were estimated after adjustment by logistic regression. RESULTS: The women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to be at the extremes of age, to report more medical problems before and during the index pregnancy, and to seek antenatal care later in gestation than the women with planned pregnancies. However, women with planned pregnancies reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies (28.8%) than did women with unplanned pregnancies (12.9%). There were no significant differences in the rates of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or preterm birth between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning. PMID:9096531

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Family Planning Access in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID:25947033

  16. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

  17. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

  18. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

  19. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawa, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…

  20. Report on the Preservation Planning Project: University of Pennsylvania Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Peter G., Comp.

    The University of Pennsylvania Libraries' Preservation Planning Project was designed to explore new ideas for planning and operating a preservation program for the Penn Library. The first goal of the project was to study the feasibility of an organizational plan that would put the preservation effort under the direction of a small internal staff…

  1. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  2. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-05-22

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  3. Urban men and their participation in family planning.

    PubMed

    Jahan, S A; Thwin, A A; Nasreen, S; Ahsan, R I

    1996-01-01

    The study explores the issues relating to family planning method use by males in urban areas. Key informant interviews were held with men and women residing in selected wards of four randomly chosen zones in the Dhaka City Corporation, representing both slum and non-slum areas. Ward commissioners and a sample of health and family planning service providers in the Government, NGOs, and private sector in these wards were also interviewed in two phases in June-July 1995 and October 1995. The urban population in Dhaka seemed supportive of male contraceptive use in general. However, certain factors interplay that prevent men from assuming responsibility toward actual male method use, even when they approve and support spacing and limiting family size. The discomfort associated with the use of condoms, their unreliability in providing protection from pregnancy, together with misconceptions and perceptions relating to the fear of losing energy and productivity from using condoms and from being vasectomized, were reported. Recommendations to use the media for motivation and to provide privacy and individual counseling measures were given. The perspectives of the key respondents highlight the need to understand urban men and their attitudes, which may pave the way toward developing motivational strategies. An informed public in urban areas represents a setting conducive toward motivating men to improve achievements of a program that largely attributes its past and present success to targeting women. The findings justify exploring ways to expand choices for the urban couple to achieve reproductive health goals. PMID:12291501

  4. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  5. Planning for large construction projects in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses briefly some broad plans for developing the technology needed for large construction projects in space ranging from orbiting solar power stations to large communications antennas. Space construction classes include assembly of modules, deployment of compacted structures, assembly of passive preformed pieces, and fabrication of structures from sheet stock. Technological areas related to structural concepts include (1) analyses for prediction of structural behavior, structural/control interaction, electromagnetic and control performance, and integrated design development; (2) electronics for signal conditioning and data acquisition, power distribution, and signal channel interference and multipaction; (3) concepts for shape control, attitude/pointing control, and orbital transfer and station keeping; and (4) materials and techniques for 30-year dimensional stable composites, thermal control, thin-lightweight structural alloys, and material joining in space. The concept of a power module for the construction operations is discussed along with a concept for a habitability module.

  6. Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in non-pilot facilities, possibly due to higher than average background dropout rates at pilot sites prior to the intervention in Lofa and the disproportionate effect of data from 1 large facility in Bong. The project provided considerable basic support to assess this proof of concept. However, results suggest that introducing a simple model that is minimally disruptive to existing immunization service delivery can facilitate integration. The model is currently being scaled-up to other counties in Liberia, which could potentially contribute to increased postpartum contraceptive uptake, leading to longer birth intervals and improved health outcomes for children and mothers. PMID:25745121

  7. Family planning through private practitioners: characteristics of Kenyan contraceptive acceptors.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K O

    1990-01-01

    Kenya has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Innovative programs are therefore called for to help curb the fast population growth rate. The Kenya Medical Association started a new program of involving private physicians in the active provision of family planning services. A preliminary analysis shows that the program serves generally young, better educated women of low parity. Sixty-one percent of the clients are new acceptors and the oral contraceptive pill the most popular method. The level of education of the clients had marked influence on family size. Age, parity and marital status also influenced the pattern of contraceptive use. These preliminary results are discussed against the background of the 1984 Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey findings and possible areas of improvement suggested. PMID:1968018

  8. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population. PMID:12277967

  9. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997. PMID:11928354

  10. The role of research and training in family planning programmes.

    PubMed

    Hefnawi, F

    1983-01-01

    The slow progress of family planning in Egypt is not due to the insufficiency of human and material resources. The problem lies in the distribution, management, and improvement of these resources. Research and personnel training are critical to directing efforts along the right course and towards the right objectives. The Population Council (USA), at the end of 1972, identified all findings of major significance from international research on family planning programs. Of the 322 studies, not 1 was carried out in Egypt or was based on 2ndary data from Egypt. Since 1972, though, Egyptian social and medical scientists have become actively involved in demographic themes and human reproduction. These are mainly personal iniatives, often limited by a scarcity of funds. Findings of population studies are not as transferable from 1 population to another. Also, there is a diversity of research needs. Many Muslims believe that their religion outlaws birth control. Religious objection appears the most widely shared reason for nonuse. This objection suggests a series of questions on what can be done to influence religious attitudes relating to contraception. A permanent and adequately managed institution for training in family planning and related aspects of maternal education has not been set up in Egypt. Training requirements of different levels and categories of personnel must be carefully identified. The impact of training on the quality of performance must be monitored. Training should not be limited to conventional groups of trainees. Al-Azhar's Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research was built 5 years ago with initial aid from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. It was an attempt to create an intellectual focus on population issues, concerning how the quality of life and Islamic standards of its quality affect each other. During the 1st 5 years, the Centre devoted itself to research activities. 44 studies were conducted. PMID:12279871

  11. Can girls also carry on the family lineage? Six contributors' views. Family planning forum.

    PubMed

    Gao, M; He, S; Zhang, F; Lu, C; Liao, J; Wei, L; Cheng, R

    1996-06-01

    This document discusses the clash between traditional concepts about fertility in China and goals which seek to reduce fertility and promote equality between the sexes. The traditional emphasis on having a son to carry on the family line and support his elders is seen as a practical necessity by many rural dwellers. During a 6-month period starting in April 1992, therefore, "China Population News" published commentaries on this subject written by people from all walks of life and all areas of China. Six of these commentaries are presented in this article. In the first, a family planning (FP) worker notes that farmers without sons currently have an economic and social disadvantage, which may be mitigated if daughters can carry on family lines and have an equal right of inheritance. Another FP worker also urges women to affirm that they can carry on the family name. A farmer, however, believes that every man should have a son to carry on their family line because daughters become members of their husband's families upon marriage. A third FP worker finds feudal ideas of male superiority still at work in small towns and feels that education and socioeconomic development will be required to encourage farmers to abandon this outmoded concept. Another farmer then relays that her family's response to having a single daughter was to have her son-in-law become a member of her family, with the first child having her surname and the second child his. The final account is from a government worker whose only brother was killed. Despair killed her mother and almost killed her father until he understood that his daughter and son-in-law would care for him in his old age. This woman's first child was given both surnames. PMID:12291697

  12. Changing men's involvement in reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Forest, Rosa; Giarratano, Gloria

    2004-06-01

    The shift in focus on men's reproductive health was influenced by the 1994 Cairo (ICPD) Action Plan to promote gender equality and equity, empower women, and improve family health in society. Changing and improving the way in which men are involved in reproductive health can only have a positive impact on women's, men's, and children's health. Educating and counseling men about contraceptive choices is essential if they are to be supportive of women's reproductive health. Research on new male contraceptive methods must continue if the bias of women shouldering the major responsibility for contraception is to be eliminated. PMID:15159181

  13. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  14. PRE-QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (QAPP) AGREEMENT (PQA) (HANDOUT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...

  15. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. Objectives The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, substantial effort is needed to accelerate rates of progress by a factor of 2 in most study countries and by a factor of 3 in Central and West African countries. PMID:26562140

  16. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  17. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

  19. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

  20. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

  1. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

  2. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.117 Plans and projects....

  3. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education. PMID:9225637

  4. Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T

    1997-06-01

    This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services. PMID:9216034

  5. Systems Engineering Management Plan. Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP).

  6. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  7. Project Management Plan (PMP) for Work Management Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    SHIPLER, C.E.

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide a project plan for Work Management Implementation by the River Protection Project (RPP). Work Management is an information initiative to implement industry best practices by replacing some Tank Farm legacy system

  8. QA GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS FOR PREPARING STATE PESTICIDE QA PROGRAM PLANS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    QA guidance documents were developed for preparing State Pesticide QA Program Plans and Quality Assurance Project Plans. These documents not only serve to establish detailed and uniform policy and guidance for the expeditious preparation of both state QA program and project plan...

  9. Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.

    PubMed

    Fahim, H I; Faris, R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

  10. Sustainable development needs family planning: Mr. Wang Guoging.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article refers to the comments of the Director of Policy and Regulation for the State Family Planning Committee in China on the need for family planning and control of population growth for the sake of sustainable development. Population growth varies between regions in China. Growth should be equalized and brought to a level that will sustain development. A representative of the Institute of Population Research at the People's University stated that the problem was in coordinating population with resources, the environment, and the socioeconomy. Population factors are not the problem. Control of population size has been effective in alleviating pressure on resources, the environment, and socioeconomic development. The population structure, with increased number of elderly and nuclear families, is becoming a problem. China's population of 5.84 billion in mid-1997 accounts for 21.2% of world total population. The growth of world population, which has accelerated since 1950, is currently concentrated in less developed countries. An important factor limiting human and other life is the supply of water. A professor at the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research indicated that the basic water needs for a Chinese population size of 1.6 billion must increase. China already has water shortage and water pollution problems that reduce the supply of water. The solution is integrated management of water resources and comprehensive effective countermeasures at all links of development, use, protection, and management of water resources. There is a need to promote efficient use of water resources that will result in water savings. Researchers need to develop new water resources, promote water reuse and wastewater reclamation, and coordinate the relationship between water supplies and development. The economy must be based on water conservation. PMID:12292781

  11. Sensemaking in Enterprise Resource Planning Project Deescalation: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battleson, Douglas Aloys

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects, a type of complex information technology project, are very challenging and expensive to implement. Past research recognizes that escalation, defined as the commitment to a failing course of action, is common in such projects. While the factors that contribute to escalation (e.g., project conditions,…

  12. Sensemaking in Enterprise Resource Planning Project Deescalation: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battleson, Douglas Aloys

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects, a type of complex information technology project, are very challenging and expensive to implement. Past research recognizes that escalation, defined as the commitment to a failing course of action, is common in such projects. While the factors that contribute to escalation (e.g., project conditions,…

  13. Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…

  14. [The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].

    PubMed

    Ma, B

    1983-01-29

    The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

  15. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization efforts appropriate to the cultural context has been integral to meeting unmet family planning needs rapidly in these crisis-affected settings. Despite the constraints in crisis-affected countries, such as travel difficulties due to security issues, in our experience, we have been able to extend access to a range of contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraceptives, in such settings using best practice approaches established in more stable environments. PMID:25745117

  16. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings I: Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization efforts appropriate to the cultural context has been integral to meeting unmet family planning needs rapidly in these crisis-affected settings. Despite the constraints in crisis-affected countries, such as travel difficulties due to security issues, in our experience, we have been able to extend access to a range of contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraceptives, in such settings using best practice approaches established in more stable environments. PMID:25745117

  17. Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-08-28

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

  18. Situation analysis: assessing family planning and reproductive health services. Quality of care.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Population Briefs contains articles on researches conducted by the Population Council concerning the delivery of quality of care, contraceptive development, safe abortion, family planning, demography, and medical anthropology. The cover story focuses on a systematic data collection tool called Situation Analysis that helps managers in program evaluation. This tool has a handbook entitled "The Situation Analysis Approach to Assessing Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services" that contains all the information needed to conduct a Situation Analysis study. The second article reports about a new contraceptive method, the two-rod levonorgestrel, which was developed at the Population Council and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The third article reports on a medical abortion procedure that was proven to be safe, effective, and acceptable to women in developing countries. Moreover, the fourth article presents initial findings of the Community Health and Family Planning Project conducted in Northern Ghana. The fifth article discusses the paper written by the Population Council demographer, Mark Montgomery entitled "Learning and lags in mortality perceptions". Finally, the sixth article deals with another paper that reports on women's health perceptions and reproductive health in the Middle East. PMID:12295356

  19. Teaching of Family Planning at Medical Nursing and Midwifery Schools in Certain Countries of the Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A review is given of the status of family planning education at medical, nursing, and midwifery schools in seven European countries. The report is presented in 11 sections. Section one, an introduction, explains the scope of the study and defines family planning to include birth control, pregnancy and delivery, problems of adolescents, family life…

  20. Health posts: providers of basic health care and family planning in the rural areas.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M

    1985-10-01

    The integrated project was introduced in in Korea in 1977 to raise the family planning practice rate by integrating parasite control and nutrition programs with family planning and thereby help enhance the health and living standard of community residents. A new integrated approach was introduced in 1984 to provide health services including basic health care and preventive medication through primary health posts in remote rural areas. Several strategies were adopted including: strengthening the functions of the steering committees at various levels; consolidating cooperative relationships between the government and related organization; and conducting training and educational activities to generate positive participation of the community volunteers in the integrated program. Of 3483 eligible couples, 2446 (70.2%) practiced family planning in 1983. In May 1985, the rate increased to 75%. Of 10,381 persons examined, 813 persons (7.9%) suffered from parasite infection in 1983, but the rate decreased to 5.8% in May 1985. An effort to improve environmental sanitation resulted in housing improvement, latrine improvement, kitchen improvement, and piped water supply. Despite manpower shortage and financial difficulties, the 11 community health practitioners (CHPs) have been active in various project activities, including health education on nutrition improvement, maternal health service, child healt service, and medical treatment. To further expand and develop the project, more primary health posts now engage in activities such as providing IEC materials to publicize the function and role of the primary health posts, fully utilize village health workers to motivate community residents and secure basic facilities and medical supplies and provide necessary manpower. PMID:12313891

  1. Mediation in Families: A Study of the Children's Hearings Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally E.; Rocheleau, Ann Marie

    This report evaluates the first 2 years of the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) which mediates in family conflicts involving rebellious and truant adolescents in Massachusetts. The report is divided into 11 chapters. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 describes staff, procedures, and mediator selection and training. Chapter 3 presents…

  2. Summative Evaluation of the Manukau Family Literacy Project, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseman, John Robert; Sutton, Alison Joy

    2005-01-01

    This report covers a summative evaluation of a family literacy project in Auckland, New Zealand. The evaluation covered 70 adults and their children over a two year period. Outcomes for the program included literacy skill gains for both adults and children, increased levels of self-confidence and self-efficacy, greater parental involvement in…

  3. 33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24 Section 385.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation Processes § 385.24 Project...

  4. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  5. Quality of care in family planning services in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Tyane, M; Bertrand, J; Lauro, D; Abou-ouakil, M; deMaria, L

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to heighten awareness of quality of care as a programmatic issue in the Moroccan governmental family planning program and to test modified Situation Analysis instruments for measuring quality of care. Data were collected from 50 service-delivery points in five provinces to measure six elements of quality in accordance with the Bruce/Jain framework. A procedure for calculating quality-indicator scores is presented. Although facilities varied by province and within provinces, most had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service-delivery points scored well on mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a dearth of materials for counseling and a widespread unavailability of the Ovrette pill. This study raises issues regarding the complexity of measuring quality, the ownership of results, and the appropriateness of a centralized study of quality in a decentralized program. PMID:7570765

  6. Assessing and improving family planning within reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Before new contraceptive options are introduced to a family planning program, administrators must ensure that the methods are needed and that the service delivery system can provide them with appropriate quality of care. The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has devised a three-stage research approach to the introduction of fertility regulation methods. This model allows for consideration of factors such as the total mix of methods available, sociocultural factors that influence contraceptive acceptance and use, provider skills and capabilities, and the managerial and logistic systems required for service delivery. Moreover, it calls for the participation of all those affected by method introduction, including policymakers, program managers, women's groups, and young people. Finally. the introduction of a contraceptive method is conceptualized as an opportunity to improve the quality of care associated with the provision of all available methods. PMID:12320516

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list.

  8. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and should involve nongovernment groups in advocacy efforts. They should help individuals achieve their reproductive goals in a voluntary, informed manner. Governments should attempt to set up programs to meet unmet needs and programs should be evaluated periodically. FP programs should respond to community needs and incorporate the user's perspective in the broadest range of services possible. The special needs of adolescents should be served through special confidential programs. Social marketing of contraception should be encouraged to create demand. The involvement and responsibility of men should be encouraged. Information, education, and communication activities should be supported, and population and family life education should be extended and strengthened in formal settings. Nongovernmental organizations should receive support from governments and the international community and should coordinate activities at these levels. Barriers to private sector involvement in FP should be removed, and public/private partnerships should be encouraged. Forecasting of contraceptive requirements should be improved, and the role of the commercial sector in meeting needs should be strengthened. Funding for programs should be increased, and costs should be made as effective as possible. Technical and social service research should receive funding. Utilization of data for program planning should be given higher priority. PMID:12287717

  9. Integrated Project Teams - An Essential Element of Project Management during Project Planning and Execution - 12155

    SciTech Connect

    Burritt, James G.; Berkey, Edgar

    2012-07-01

    Managing complex projects requires a capable, effective project manager to be in place, who is assisted by a team of competent assistants in various relevant disciplines. This team of assistants is known as the Integrated Project Team (IPT). he IPT is composed of a multidisciplinary group of people who are collectively responsible for delivering a defined project outcome and who plan, execute, and implement over the entire life-cycle of a project, which can be a facility being constructed or a system being acquired. An ideal IPT includes empowered representatives from all functional areas involved with a project-such as engineering design, technology, manufacturing, test and evaluation, contracts, legal, logistics, and especially, the customer. Effective IPTs are an essential element of scope, cost, and schedule control for any complex, large construction project, whether funded by DOE or another organization. By recently assessing a number of major, on-going DOE waste management projects, the characteristics of high performing IPTs have been defined as well as the reasons for potential IPT failure. Project managers should use IPTs to plan and execute projects, but the IPTs must be properly constituted and the members capable and empowered. For them to be effective, the project manager must select the right team, and provide them with the training and guidance for them to be effective. IPT members must treat their IPT assignment as a primary duty, not some ancillary function. All team members must have an understanding of the factors associated with successful IPTs, and the reasons that some IPTs fail. Integrated Project Teams should be used by both government and industry. (authors)

  10. Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

    2014-09-01

    Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed. PMID:25438510

  11. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  12. [Changes in midwifery practice. 26. Postwar legislative guideline concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1987-09-01

    Yoshio Furuya, who authored the 1951 legislative guidelines for family planning in Japan, designated 3 villages to model family planning upon his return from the United States in 1950. The instructors were public health nurses, midwives and regular nurses who had been trained and certified by the National Public Health Institute. They showed film strips and slides, and distributed contraceptives and medication. Population Research Group also embarked on the New Life Style Movement among Japanese industries in 1951. The new life style was said to have 3 pillars: family planning, career planning, and family morals. The idea of family planning was welcomed at the beginning by industries because it would mean less dependents of employees to provide financial aid for. The movement lasted only several years. In 1955, the International Family Planning Federation and the Japan Family Planning Federation co-sponsored the Fifth International Family Planning Conference in Tokyo. 572 participants including Margaret Sanger delivered 91 papers on techniques and practices of family planning. Soon after the conference, the Family Planning Study Committee was organized, and they met once a month to discuss socio-cultural implications of family planning, theory and practice of contraception, maternal and child health. Many of the committee members were idealistic/feminist public health officials but there were no women among them. A post-war family planning movement approved by the Japanese government resulted in the dramatic reduction in the birth rate from 34.3% in 1947 to 17.2% in 1957. Midwives played an important role in enforcing the policy but they were excluded from policy making. PMID:3682331

  13. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  14. Phased project planning and development in anticipation of operational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of future operational status on the planning and execution of the research and development activities for major space flight projects is assessed. These projects, within NASA, are part of the Applications Program involving communications and meteorology. The NASA management approach to these projects is determined by national policies governing the responsibilities and relationships among the various government agencies and private industries.

  15. The simulated client method: evaluating client-provider interactions in family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Huntington, D; Schuler, S R

    1993-01-01

    The "simulated client" method was first detailed in the family planning literature in 1985, but it has not been extensively covered since. As used by the authors to study client-provider interactions in family planning programs, this method essentially consists of sending women to a family planning service provider to request information, and interviewing them after the encounter. The women do not reveal to service providers they are participating in the study. This report describes the method; reviews some of the theoretical, ethical, and methodological issues related to it; and underlines its usefulness as a tool for examining quality-of-care issues in family planning programs. PMID:8351699

  16. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  17. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Susan; Cobb, Lisa; Babalola, Stella; Odeku, Mojisola; Kusemiju, Bola

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI), a 6-year comprehensive family planning program (2009–2015) in 4 cities, intentionally applies communication theories to all program elements, not just the demand generation ones, relying mainly on a theory called ideation—the concept that contraceptive use is influenced by people's beliefs, ideas, and feelings and that changing these ideational factors can change people's behavior. Program Description: The project used multiple communication channels to foster dialogue about family planning, increase social approval for it, and improve accurate knowledge about contraceptives. Mobile service delivery was started in the third year to improve access to clinical methods in slums. Methods: Data from representative baseline (2010–11) and midterm (2012) surveys of women of reproductive age in the project cities were analyzed. We also used propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent control group of women not exposed to project activities, and we examined service delivery data from NURHI-supported clinics (January 2011–May 2013) to determine the contribution of mobile services to total family planning services. Results: Three years into the initiative, analysis of longitudinal data shows that use of modern contraceptives has increased in each city, varying from 2.3 to 15.5 percentage points, and that the observed increases were predicted by exposure to NURHI activities. Of note is that modern method use increased substantially among the poorest wealth quintiles in project cities, on average, by 8.4 percentage points. The more project activities women were exposed to, the greater their contraceptive use. For example, among women not using a modern method at baseline, contraceptive prevalence among those with no exposure by midterm was 19.1% vs. 43.4% among those with high exposure. Project exposure had a positive dose-response relationship with ideation, as did ideation and contraceptive use. By the end of the observation period, mobile services were contributing nearly 50% of total family planning services provided through NURHI-supported clinics. Propensity score matching found that the increase in contraceptive use in the 4 cities attributable to project exposure was 9.9 percentage points. Intention to use family planning in the next 12 months also increased by 7.5 to 10.2 percentage points across the 4 cities. Conclusion: Demand-led family planning programs, in which demand generation is the driving force behind the design rather than the conventional, service delivery-oriented approach, may be more suitable in places where expressed demand for contraceptives is low. PMID:25611477

  18. Planning a change project in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    This article outlines a plan for a change project to improve the quality of physical health care on mental health wards. The plan was designed to improve the monitoring and recording of respiratory rates on mental health wards, through the implementation of a training programme for staff. A root cause analysis was used to explore the reasons for the low incidence of respiratory rate measurement on mental health wards, and the results of this establish the basis of the proposed change project and its aims and objectives. The article describes how the project could be implemented using a change management model, as well as how its effects could be measured and evaluated. Potential barriers to the planned change project are discussed, including the human dimensions of change. The article suggests methods to overcome such barriers, discusses the value of leadership as an important factor, and examines the principles of clinical governance in the context of the planned change project. PMID:26329087

  19. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  20. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-09-04

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106.

  1. The Future of Family Medicine: A Collaborative Project of the Family Medicine Community

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a strategy to transform and renew the discipline of family medicine to meet the needs of patients in a changing health care environment. METHODS A national research study was conducted by independent research firms. Interviews and focus groups identified key issues for diverse constituencies, including patients, payers, residents, students, family physicians, and other clinicians. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with nationally representative samples of 9 key constituencies. Based in part on these data, 5 task forces addressed key issues to meet the project goal. A Project Leadership Committee synthesized the task force reports into the report presented here. RESULTS The project identified core values, a New Model of practice, and a process for development, research, education, partnership, and change with great potential to transform the ability of family medicine to improve the health and health care of the nation. The proposed New Model of practice has the following characteristics: a patient-centered team approach; elimination of barriers to access; advanced information systems, including an electronic health record; redesigned, more functional offices; a focus on quality and outcomes; and enhanced practice finance. A unified communications strategy will be developed to promote the New Model of family medicine to multiple audiences. The study concluded that the discipline needs to oversee the training of family physicians who are committed to excellence, steeped in the core values of the discipline, competent to provide family medicine’s basket of services within the New Model, and capable of adapting to varying patient needs and changing care technologies. Family medicine education must continue to include training in maternity care, the care of hospitalized patients, community and population health, and culturally effective and proficient care. A comprehensive lifelong learning program for each family physician will support continuous personal, professional, and clinical practice assessment and improvement. Ultimately, systemwide changes will be needed to ensure high-quality health care for all Americans. Such changes include taking steps to ensure that every American has a personal medical home, promoting the use and reporting of quality measures to improve performance and service, advocating that every American have health care coverage for basic services and protection against extraordinary health care costs, advancing research that supports the clinical decision making of family physicians and other primary care clinicians, and developing reimbursement models to sustain family medicine and primary care practices. CONCLUSIONS The leadership of US family medicine organizations is committed to a transformative process. In partnership with others, this process has the potential to integrate health care to improve the health of all Americans. PMID:15080220

  2. Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1991-09-01

    Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

  3. Learning about the population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    This research seeks to measure children's awareness of and support for family planning in India, on the premise that they are indications of future fertility behavior. The survey was conducted in June-August 1975 in 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh State, including schools in cities, small towns and villages. The 863 respondents included Hindus and Muslims, various caste groups, 3 language groups, and students in the 6th to 12th classes. Children's awareness of family planning was operationalized through 2 questions: "Have you heard about family planning?" and "Which is better, a big family or a small family?". Results show that 70% had heard of family planning and that approval of family planning is extensive, with only 14% of the sample expressing a preference for large families. Awareness of family planning is clearly correlated in the expected direction with exposure to a modernizing environment, particularly education. Exposure to media and political involvement are also correlated with awareness. Support for family planning is most highly correlated with religion, with Muslim children less approving than Hindu. Party identification and political knowledge are both associated with higher approval. Education and the index of modernity are the only indicators of modernization that correlate with approval. PMID:12156350

  4. Family planning in Santiageo, Chile: the male viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Hall, M F

    1971-07-01

    To obtain the male viewpoint toward family planning in the Chilean population, 561 men (aged 18-54) in Santiago from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic levels were interviewed on their birth control attitudes and practices and compared with a random probability sample of 240 men from a nearby rural village. Tabulation of the interviews showed that a majority of both unmarried and married men identified themselves as active participants in birth control discussions. Younger husbands tended to have had more experience with contraception than older husbands, and respondents in higher socioeconomic levels showed a greater use of contraception (75%) than men in the lower class or village sample (35%). 23% of those in the village sample who did not use contraception cited reasons such as lack of knowledge and money or fear of harmful effects, while only 2% of the upper class in the urban sample cited such reasons. Approval of abortion for their wives was expressed by around 40% of all respondents. Approval of abortion in general ranged from 81% in cases of probable fetal deformity to 31% in single girls. Questions on sexual relations revealed that the median age for the first sexual intercourse was 16 years. 91% of the unmarried men were sexually active at a median frequence of once every 2 weeks, and contraception, if used, was most frequently oral or male devices. Among married men, sexual relations occurred at a median frequency of once every 4 days, with contraception, if used, most likely being an intrauterine device. All of the respondents tended to favor dissemination of contraceptive information more readily to men than women. Approval of providing this information to single girls was directly related to economic status. The schools were readily accepted as a forum for contraceptive discussion. The father was by far the preferred principal source of information for a son (44%) rather than friends (6%), but the respondents themselves got their information from friends (41%) rather than their fathers (2%). Including single and married men in family planning counseling programs may increase contraceptive use and lower the abortion rate. PMID:5164354

  5. Prospects and problems of integration of family planning with health services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R

    1986-06-01

    Family planning has been functionally integrated with health in Bangladesh since the Second Five-Year Plan was launched (1980-85). The integration was resented by both health and family planning functionaries at the upazila level and below, and, except on paper, there is no integration of any form in practice. There are separate budgets, and, consequently, the Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UHFPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of the Health Wing and the Family Planning Officer (FPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of Population Control and Family Planning (PCFP) Wing maintain separate and parallel administration and delivery systems. Problems of integration include: no accountability, i.e., as the UHFPO has no administrative control of the FPO, the FPO can bypass the UHFPO; differential pay scales; discrimination in the allocation of office rooms and in the provision of residential accommodations and fees for sterilization operations; noncompliance of functional responsibilities on the part of grassroots level functionaries; anarchy in the subcenters; and the neglect of maternal and child health services. To improve the operational efficiency of the health care and family planning programs, it is recommended that the PCFP Wing be separated totally from the Health Wing, that the total responsibility of the action program for health and family planning be vested in the Ministry of Health, and that the National Family Planning Control Board working under the President's Secretariat be headed by an Executive Director with the rank and status of a Minister. PMID:12281031

  6. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  7. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project: Project plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-11

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) [Public Law (PL) 95-604, 42 United States Code (USC) 7901], hereinafter referred to as the ``Act,`` authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination. To fulfill this mission, the DOE has established two projects under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office. The Ground Water Project was established in April 1991 as a major project and a separate project plan will be prepared for that portion of the mission. This project plan covers the UMTRA Surface Project, a major system acquisition (MSA).

  9. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings II: Results

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality family planning services, to do so rapidly, and to see a dramatic increase in the percentage of users choosing long-acting reversible methods. PMID:25745118

  10. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality family planning services, to do so rapidly, and to see a dramatic increase in the percentage of users choosing long-acting reversible methods. PMID:25745118

  11. Project Helios-A. [mission planning for solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Helios-A solar probe which will fly within 28 million miles of the sun is described as a joint American and German project. The spacecraft and instrument designs, planned experiments, and mission are briefly discussed.

  12. RIKEN RIBF Project - present status and future plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, H.

    2010-08-12

    Programs for studying nuclear reactions and structure of exotic nuclei available at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory project are introduced and discussed through demonstrating recent highlights. Special emphasis is given to present status and future plans of new devices.

  13. Plan for extensive energy project with forty windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    Dutch electricity production companies have highly advanced plans for an extensive wind energy project. They call for a "park" of thirty to forty middle sized windmills which would have to produce a total of 10,000 kilowatts of electricity.

  14. Family planning for new mothers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kantner, A; Westley, S B

    1998-10-01

    From November 1997 to February 1998, a survey was conducted to evaluate postpartum family planning (FP) services in the Philippines. Data were gathered from records at 86 clinics in 28 provinces and from interviews with 338 FP providers and 3452 clients who began to use FP within 6 months of delivery. Only 7% of women began using FP within 6 months of delivery, and most postpartum attention was devoted to child care issues. Among the women surveyed, most resumed sexual intercourse at 2.4 months postpartum and experienced a return of menses at 4.4 months postpartum despite breast feeding for 6.2 months. The most commonly recommended method to space births was the IUD followed by the injectable contraceptive. Very few providers recommended use of barrier methods. The results indicate that many breast-feeding women are receiving hormonal contraceptives too soon and that IUD insertion may not be occurring at the ideal time postpartum. While a significant percentage of providers recommended use of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) and 16% of the women relied on it, the providers lacked sufficient understanding of LAM. In addition, many women switched or discontinued methods. The study led to the recommendations that postpartum FP services be promoted as an essential part of maternal-child health care and that FP providers receive improved training about contraception and LAM. PMID:12295250

  15. Reassessing Unmet Need for Family Planning in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Bradley, Sarah E K; Ross, John; Winfrey, William

    2015-12-01

    Despite renewed interest in postpartum family planning programs, the question of the time at which women should be expected to start contraception after a birth remains unanswered. Three indicators of postpartum unmet need consider women to be fully exposed to the risk of pregnancy at different times: right after delivery (prospective indicator), after six months of amenorrhea (intermediate indicator), and at the end of amenorrhea (classic indicator). DHS data from 57 countries in 2005-13 indicate that 62 percent (prospective), 43 percent (intermediate), and 32 percent (classic) of women in the first year after a birth have an unmet need for contraception (40 percent when including abstinence). While the protection afforded by postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea lowers unmet need, further analysis shows that women also often rely on these methods without being actually protected. Programs should acknowledge these methods' widespread use and inform women about their limits. Also, the respective advantages of targeting the postnatal period, the end of six months of amenorrhea/exclusive breastfeeding, or the resumption of sexual intercourse to offer contraceptive services should be tested. PMID:26643487

  16. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  17. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  18. Successful Family Planning Programs. Draper World Population Fund Report, No. 4, Summer 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    This publication describes successful family planning programs throughout the world. Discussed in detail are programs in Colombia, Mauritius, Maharashtra, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Photographs illustrate the articles and, in some cases, family planning vital statistics are given. The Draper World Population…

  19. Utilizing grassroots workers in family planning programs in India: prospects and problems.

    PubMed

    Mani, S B

    1991-01-01

    In order to rapidly expand the network of delivery systems and speed up the process of acceptance of family planning messages and methods, a shift took place in the Indian family planning program from the bureaucratic "clinical" approach to the people oriented "extension" approach. As a result, there is an increasing emphasis on moving the family planning efforts closer to the grassroots level. A key methodological issue centers on the proper selection, cultural acceptability, and the effectiveness of the grassroots workers who are to be trained and through whom family planning motivational messages and methods are to be introduced. The Indian government, from time to time, has trained and utilized different groups of grassroots workers in its family planning promotional efforts. Anthropological field studies were conducted in two different regions in India to examine the potential and actual roles of two groups of grassroots workers--opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants--in the delivery of family planning services in the rural areas. These studies revealed that while the traditional birth attendants can be trained and utilized to a limited extent in promoting family planning efforts, especially to the eligible female clients, the role of the opinion leaders in such efforts is at best questionable. Based on these field studies, cultural and technical (including bureaucratic) problems in training and utilizing opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants are explored in detail. Modifications in the training program strategies are suggested to improve and expand the family planning delivery system in rural India. PMID:12290156

  20. Concurrent Planning and beyond: Family-Centered Services for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative…

  1. Mass media exposure and its impact on family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Hasan, A H

    2000-10-01

    This paper analyses mass media exposure and its effect on family planning in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1993-94. The findings indicate that radio and television are two important mass media for disseminating family planning information in Bangladesh. However, access to them and exposure to family planning through them are still limited. Slightly more than 40% (42.1%) of respondents reported that they had heard family planning messages via radio, while 17.2% said television, 8.4% said poster and 5.4% said billboard. Respondent's place of residence, education, economic status, geographical region and number of living children appeared to be the most important variable determining mass media exposure to family planning. Multivariate analysis shows that both radio and TV exposure to family planning messages and ownership of a radio and TV have a significant effect on current use of family planning methods. These factors remain significant determinants of contraceptive use, even after controlling socioeconomic and demographic factors. The study reveals that both socioeconomic development policies and family planning programmes with a special emphasis on mass media, especially radio, may have a significant effect on contraceptive use in Bangladesh. The principal policy challenge is to design communications strategies that will reach the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who are by far the majority in Bangladesh. PMID:11075643

  2. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  3. Interpretations and Explanations in Discourse: Modes of Advising in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlin, C.; Lucas, J.

    A study investigates the roles and frames of reference of a family planning counselor as she offers information and counsel to her client and examines the implications for the training of counselors. First, the ideology of family planning counseling is discussed, focusing on the counselor's need to find an appropriate place on the counseling…

  4. Personal and Family Financial Planning: A Resource Manual for Community College Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Norb; And Others

    This resource manual was designed to improve community college instructors' understanding of personal and family financial planning (PFFP) and to provide them with guidelines for developing and implementing PFFP programs. After introductory material, the manual presents a five-part teaching guide, "Teaching Personal and Family Financial Planning

  5. Non-Participation in a Public Family Planning Program After a Commitment to Participate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Candyce D.; Cole, Steven G.

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain reasons for non-participation in a public family planning program following a commitment to participate. A sample of 650 women who had made appointments at a public family planning clinic were divided into four groups: Post-Partum Kept (PPK), Post-Partum Missed (PPM), Supply Kept (SK), and Supply Missed…

  6. Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

  7. Ask Pete, software planning and estimation through project characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ask Pete, was developed by NASA to provide a tool for integrating the estimation and planning activities for a software development effort. It incorporates COCOMO II estimating with NASA's software development practices and IV&V criteria to characterize a project. This characterization is then used to generate estimates and tailored planning documents.

  8. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  9. Pathfinder Project: Five-Year Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellissippi State Technical Community Coll., Knoxville, TN.

    This 5-year strategic plan (prepared in 1994) from Pellissippi State Technical Community College in Tennessee examines macro environmental factors (including social, government, economic and technological trends); internal and external market share trends and opportunities; micro environmental factors (including organizational structure, financial…

  10. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  11. Knowledge of family planning methods in Bangladesh, 1969-1979: trends and implications.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Mariam, A G

    1986-12-01

    The changes in levels of knowledge about different contraceptive methods in Bangladesh between 1969-79 were assessed. 2 surveys provided the data: the 1969 National Impact Survey (NIS) of family planning and the 1979 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) from Bangladesh. Both surveys were nationally representative and retrospective, containing detailed questions of pregnancy histories, socioeconomic background, family planning knowledge and attitude, and contraceptive practices. The sampling frames for both surveys consisted of all households in Bangladesh from which national probability samples of married women between the ages of 10-50 were selected and stratified by urban-rural residence. Unprompted data were analyzed. Apparently, the National Family Planning Program (NFPP) was successful in communicating general knowledge of family planning among the masses in Bangladesh. In terms of absolute level, the increase in general knowledge of family planning was from 46.3% in 1969 to 82.8% in 1979. With the exception of the oral contraceptive (OC), absolute increase in knowledge of specific family planning methods or a variety of methods was far less than that of general knowledge of family planning. Knowledge of condoms, female sterilization, and male sterilization increased between 1969-79, yet in terms of absolute levels these increases were far less than those of either general knowledge of family planning or knowledge of OCs. The percentages of couples reporting knowledge of the IUD, vaginal methods, rhythm, injection, or induced abortion either decreased or slightly increased between 1969-79. Nearly 40% of couples had knowledge of only 1 method; fewer couples knew of 2 or more methods. There were relative increases in the knowledge of OCs and female sterilization, an 8-fold increase in knowledge of the OC and a 6-fold increase in knowledge of female sterilization between 1969-79. Respondents from the urban areas or those who attended schools were more likely to know about different contraceptive methods. Despite government orders stipulating that each household be visited every month by a family planning worker, face-to-face contact with family planning extension workers continued to be very low. In view of poor field worker performance, the government has made various modifications in the NFPP operation aimed at strengthening information and service delivery programs, yet recent evidence shows their continuing ineffectiveness. The low levels of knowledge about different family planning methods and low level of contact between family planning workers and family planning target couples show that the NFPP, by failing to inform married couples of wider choice of methods, missed many potential new acceptors of family planning methods. PMID:12341026

  12. Medical education and family planning: developing future leaders and improving global health.

    PubMed

    Landy, Uta; Blodgett, Madeline; Darney, Philip

    2013-05-01

    Well-trained medical professionals are key to improving global reproductive health and reducing rates of unsafe abortion, but medical training often fails to prepare practitioners to provide essential family planning services. The field of medical education is currently undergoing reformation to better meet the needs of a global population, and comprehensive, integrated family planning training will be an important part of those reforms. Family planning training is not only vital to address global reproductive healthcare demand, but integrates effectively with cornerstones of current medical education reform: competency-based education, leadership development, collaboration with practitioners of all levels, and global health context. Examples of successful integration of family planning education are outlined, and recommendations for integrating family planning into medical education detailed at the 2012 FIGO World Congress are discussed. PMID:23497747

  13. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

  14. Transition to Adulthood for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Shifting toward Person-Family Interdependent Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Turnbull, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The transition from high school to adulthood is a major life change for most young adults and their families, and generally it is depicted as an especially stressful time for young people with disabilities and their families. Adequate planning is required to address the challenging impact of this stage of life on families. The purposes of this…

  15. 45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165 Section 286.165 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF...

  16. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

  19. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

  20. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

  1. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  2. QUEST2: Release 1: Project plan deliverable set

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-10

    This Project Management Plan combines the project management deliverables from the P+ methodology which are applicable to Release 1 of the QUEST2 work. This consolidation reflects discussions with WHC QA regarding an appropriate method for ensuring that P+ deliverables fulfill the intent of WHC-CM-3-10 and QR-19.

  3. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  4. The Upper Peninsula Multi-District Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelston, Richard; And Others

    The Upper Peninsula Multi-District Planning Project was designed to provide analysis of large quantities of data postulated to have some bearing on student achievement and educational programs. It provided a means by which educational progress in Michigan's upper peninsula could be assessed. A brief history of the project is followed by a…

  5. Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Teresa Almeida; Marreel, Iris; Hatton-Yeo, Alan

    2009-01-01

    "Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects," is for all professionals that are or wish to be enrolled in the development of intergenerational activities. This "Guide" is the main product of the Project MATES--Mainstreaming Intergenerational Solidarity, co-financed by the Lifelong Learning Programme from the…

  6. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... disbursements of the Board in the administration of this subpart, including the projected costs of Hass avocado..., or on its own initiative develop programs, plans and projects for Hass avocado promotion,...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... disbursements of the Board in the administration of this subpart, including the projected costs of Hass avocado..., or on its own initiative develop programs, plans and projects for Hass avocado promotion,...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... disbursements of the Board in the administration of this subpart, including the projected costs of Hass avocado..., or on its own initiative develop programs, plans and projects for Hass avocado promotion,...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... disbursements of the Board in the administration of this subpart, including the projected costs of Hass avocado..., or on its own initiative develop programs, plans and projects for Hass avocado promotion,...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information... disbursements of the Board in the administration of this subpart, including the projected costs of Hass avocado..., or on its own initiative develop programs, plans and projects for Hass avocado promotion,...

  11. Metropolitan Planning Project, 1977-78. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoff, Steven M.

    This document provides a description of the Metropolitan Planning Project (MPP), its objectives, strategies, and an evaluation of its implementation in the Boston area. In order to encourage the voluntary elimination, reduction, and prevention of minority group isolation in elementary and secondary schools in Boston, the project focuses on two…

  12. IAIMS at Columbia: a strategic plan and model project.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, G L; Anderson, R K; Levy, R I

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) prototype project at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, the factors that led to the selection of this particular project, and the planning for its implementation. The lessons learned to date and implications for the library are summarized. PMID:3527311

  13. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  14. Project ARISTOTLE. Submission. Training Improvement Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnett, William E.

    The aim of the Automated Retrieval Information System to Track and Optimize the Training and Learning Environment (ARISTOTLE) project is to develop a computer-based training model to link program standards, tests, resources, curriculum, and operational and student placement procedures of the Canada Manpower Centers, the Ministry of Colleges and…

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  16. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings…

  17. School Yard Environmental Projects: A Planning Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megalos, Mark A.; And Others

    This guide describes how to establish successful trails, outdoor classrooms, or other environmental education improvements on rural and urban school grounds. Teachers are encouraged to promote the environmental project as a solution to an existing problem and to include all parties and stakeholders that can benefit from a coordinated environmental…

  18. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings…

  19. Provider Counseling to Young Women Seeking Family Planning Services

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Luecke, Ellen; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Contraceptive nonuse and misuse contribute to rates of unintended pregnancy and STDs among young women in the United States. Clinical providers assume an important role in guiding youths’ contraceptive method choices. METHODS Sixty-seven women aged 16–21 were recruited as part of a cohort study, conducted in 2009–2012, that examined provider-patient interactions during family planning visits at six San Francisco clinics. Interactions between patients and providers were audio-recorded. Participants completed questionnaires about method preference immediately before seeing the provider; they reported on method choice immediately after the visit and by telephone three and six months later. Transcripts were analyzed to examine providers’ strategies for guiding decision making and addressing youths’ contraceptive concerns. Missed opportunities for promoting young women's reproductive health were identified. RESULTS Twenty-one percent of young women who did not report desiring a hormonal or long-acting reversible method (IUD or implant) before seeing their provider chose one after counseling. Use of a highly effective (hormonal or long-acting reversible) method at follow-up was more common among women who had received interactive counseling by providers who guided them to consider contextual influences than among those who had not received such counseling. Attention to relationship characteristics, sexual behavior patterns and STD risk was largely absent from contraceptive counseling. CONCLUSION High-quality strategies used by providers to guide contraceptive decision-making were tailored to adolescents’ developmental and environmental needs. Several areas of counseling require increased attention and seem vital to providing comprehensive reproductive health care to adolescents. PMID:24786186

  20. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  1. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    PubMed

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122

  2. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

  3. Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

  4. Safe teleradiology: information assurance as project planning methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Alaoui, Adil; Nguyen, Dan; Lindisch, David

    2003-05-01

    This project demonstrates use of OCTAVE, an information security risk assessment method, as an approach to the safe design and planning of a teleradiology system. By adopting this approach to project planning, we intended to provide evidence that including information security as an intrinsic component of project planning improves information assurance and that using information assurance as a planning tool produces and improves the general system management plan. Several considerations justify this approach to planning a safe teleradiology system. First, because OCTAVE was designed as a method for retrospectively assessing and proposing enhancements for the security of existing information management systems, it should function well as a guide to prospectively designing and deploying a secure information system such as teleradiology. Second, because OCTAVE provides assessment and planning tools for use primarily by interdisciplinary teams from user organizations, not consultants, it should enhance the ability of such teams at the local level to plan safe information systems. Third, from the perspective of sociological theory, OCTAVE explicitly attempts to enhance organizational conditions identified as necessary to safely manage complex technologies. Approaching information system design from the perspective of information security risk management proactively integrates health information assurance into a project"s core. This contrasts with typical approaches that perceive "security" as a secondary attribute to be "added" after designing the system and with approaches that identify information assurance only with security devices and user training. The perspective of health information assurance embraces so many dimensions of a computerized health information system"s design that one may successfully deploy a method for retrospectively assessing information security risk as a prospective planning tool. From a sociological perspective, this approach enhances the general conditions as well as establishes specific policies and procedures for reliable performance of health information assurance.

  5. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  6. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  7. Integrated monitoring plan for the Hanford groundwater monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Mercer, R.B.; Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.

    1998-09-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project (groundwater project), which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project does not include all of the monitoring to assess performance of groundwater remediation or all monitoring associated with active facilities. This document is the first integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

  8. Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DEFIGH-PRICE, C.

    2000-10-23

    If the crawler based retrieval system is selected, this project management plan identifies the path forward for acquiring a crawler/track pump waste retrieval system, and completing sufficient testing to support deploying the crawler for as part of a retrieval technology demonstration for Tank 241-C-104. In the balance of the document, these activities will be referred to as the Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration. During recent Tri-Party Agreement negotiations, TPA milestones were proposed for a sludge/hard heel waste retrieval demonstration in tank C-104. Specifically one of the proposed milestones requires completion of a cold demonstration of sufficient scale to support final design and testing of the equipment (M-45-03G) by 6/30/2004. A crawler-based retrieval system was one of the two options evaluated during the pre-conceptual engineering for C-104 retrieval (RPP-6843 Rev. 0). The alternative technology procurement initiated by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project, combined with the pre-conceptual engineering for C-104 retrieval provide an opportunity to achieve compliance with the proposed TPA milestone M-45-03H. This Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration project management plan identifies the plans, organizational interfaces and responsibilities, management control systems, reporting systems, timeline and requirements for the acquisition and testing of the crawler based retrieval system. This project management plan is complimentary to and supportive of the Project Management Plan for Retrieval of C-104 (RPP-6557). This project management plan focuses on utilizing and completing the efforts initiated under the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) to acquire and cold test a commercial crawler based retrieval system. The crawler-based retrieval system will be purchased on a schedule to support design of the waste retrieval from tank C-104 (project W-523) and to meet the requirement of proposed TPA milestone M-45-03H. This Crawler Acquisition and Testing Demonstration project management plan includes the following: (1) Identification of acquisition strategy and plan to obtain a crawler based retrieval system; (2) Plan for sufficient cold testing to make a decision for W-523 and to comply with TPA Milestone M-45-03H; (3) Cost and schedule for path forward; (4) Responsibilities of the participants; and (5) The plan is supported by updated Level 1 logics, a Relative Order of Magnitude cost estimate and preliminary project schedule.

  9. 49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of a project management plan. 633.25... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.25 Contents of a project management plan. At a minimum, a recipient's project management plan shall...

  10. 49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of a project management plan. 633.25... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.25 Contents of a project management plan. At a minimum, a recipient's project management plan shall...

  11. 49 CFR 633.27 - Implementation of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implementation of a project management plan. 633... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.27 Implementation of a project management plan. (a) Upon approval of a project management plan...

  12. 49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of a project management plan. 633.25... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.25 Contents of a project management plan. At a minimum, a recipient's project management plan shall...

  13. 49 CFR 633.27 - Implementation of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implementation of a project management plan. 633... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.27 Implementation of a project management plan. (a) Upon approval of a project management plan...

  14. 49 CFR 633.27 - Implementation of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implementation of a project management plan. 633... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.27 Implementation of a project management plan. (a) Upon approval of a project management plan...

  15. 49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of a project management plan. 633.25... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.25 Contents of a project management plan. At a minimum, a recipient's project management plan shall...

  16. 49 CFR 633.27 - Implementation of a project management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implementation of a project management plan. 633... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.27 Implementation of a project management plan. (a) Upon approval of a project management plan...

  17. The RHIC project -- Status and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Project is in the 4th year of an estimated 8 year construction cycle at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The accelerator complex is designed to collide a variety of ion species at center-of-mass energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon in a two ring superconducting structure. Industrial magnet production is in progress as well as the other accelerator systems. This presentation will outline the status of the construction effort, near and long term goals.

  18. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL METHODS TESTING SITE PROJECT: PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Methods Testing Site Project is being conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency with the cooperation of the state of Georgia, the state of Tennessee, Hamilton County, Tennessee, and the city of Chattanooga. The concept is to establish one well-characteriz...

  20. Tailoring Small IT Projects in the Project Planning Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhearn, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) are essential skills in information technology (IT). There is an abundance of information available detailing the comprehensive bodies of knowledge, standards, and best practices. Despite the volume of information, there is surprisingly little information about how to tailor PM and SE tasks for…