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1

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5 Public...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements...

2010-10-01

2

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

3

Welcome address [to Workshop/Seminar for More Effective Promotion and Management of Integrated Projects (Family Planning and Parasite Control)].  

PubMed

The Project to Integrate Family Planning with Parasite Control was first launched in 1975; currently it has 6 member countries, with several more Asian and Latin American countries planning to develop similar projects. The Integrated Approach has proved beneficial in stimulating further research in parasitology, family planning and related fields. One of the aims of this workshop is to evaluate the administrative/management aspect of the project, particularly in the areas of community participation and mobilization, resource needs, coordination and credibility of the project. Although family planning or fertility regulation is not an end in itself, its importance lies in its role in controlling population growth and hence in its contribution to the betterment of the social and material well-being of the population. Unfortunately, most governments today are faced with many constraints on their administrative efforts and responsibilities, and family planning programs are no exceptions. It is hoped that this workshop will shed new light on how to improve the implementation of family planning projects. PMID:12179401

Aziz, N L

1979-10-01

4

An invisible benefit: integrated project on family planning and parasite control has expanded operations multi-dimensionally.  

PubMed

Resolutions adopted by the 12th Annual Asian Parasite Control/Family Planning (APCO/FP) Conference held in Colombo, Sri Lanka urge the incorporation of quality of life issues of all dimensions in projects of all participating countries. 1 study discussed during the conference concerned health volunteers of the integrated project in Sri Lanka, which analyzes motivating factors which make community young people work on a voluntary basis. Another topic covered was the role of women in the achievement of primary health care. Video reports were presented by Bangladesh on family planning and parasite control activities, Brazil on utilization of existing organizations to improve successful integrated projects, China on making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care, Indonesia on strengthening urban FP/MCH clinics, Korea on health promotion through the integrated project, Malaysia on the NADI program, the Philippines on the Cebu model of integrated health care, and Thailand on fee charging urban programs. PMID:12280293

Taniguchi, H

1985-11-01

5

Closing remarks [to Workshop/Seminar for More Effective Promotion and Management of Integrated Projects (Family Planning and Parasite Control)].  

PubMed

Dr. Aziz was very pleased to note that the workshop/seminar was able to achieve one of its most important objectives, that of an interchange of family planning experiences between countries of varying socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. She mentioned the difficulty of convincing people and governments of the merits of family planning and how the integrated approach has definitely supplemented and complemented the family planning program in her country by way of establishing credibility of family planning workers both at the community and governmental levels. Integrating family planning and parasite control has proven beneficial in many ways: people appreciate the program; it stimulated more research in parasitology; it helped make family planning a way of life; and it contributed to a more dynamic approach in family planning. The Latin American countries will be implementing similar projects in their respective countries. Although the approach will vary from country to country, the main approach will be basically the same. Dr. Aziz said that they will be pleased to offer assistance to these countries if requested to do so. PMID:12179402

Aziz, N L

1979-10-01

6

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

7

A client-centered approach to family planning: the Davao project.  

PubMed

The reproductive health approach to family planning shifts the focus of service provision from macro-level demographic objectives to meeting clients' needs. Little field experience exists to date, however, to indicate how to implement this approach. This study describes a field project in Davao del Norte and Compostela Valley provinces in the Philippines that implemented the reproductive health approach on a quasi-experimental basis. The intervention was designed to address clients' self-defined reproductive needs by providing them with relevant and accurate information and services of good quality. It consisted of two components: Providers were trained in information exchange at fixed clinics, and supervisors were trained in facilitative supervision. The results presented here indicate that the client-centered intervention was successful in enhancing service providers' knowledge and improving the content of information exchange between providers and clients. One provincial health officer has expanded the intervention throughout his province, while other provinces are interested in duplicating the model. PMID:11831049

Costello, M; Lacuesta, M; RamaRao, S; Jain, A

2001-12-01

8

Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan.....................................................................21 Hazardous Material Accidents ..............................................22 Nuclear Power Plants Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family

Noble, James S.

9

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

10

Integrating parasite control and family planning.  

PubMed

A pilot project started recently in 4 locations by the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines in cooperation with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning and the Asian Parasite Control Organization uses de-worming as an entry point to establish credibility for family planning workers among the target population. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage community participation to such an extent that family planning and related efforts are sustained by the community itself and the field worker is no longer needed. Integrated parasite control/family planning projects have already gone through the 4 principal developmental stages of strategic planning, project design and development, implementation and assessment, and program maintenance in some areas since their beginnings in 1976. Support for such programs has been obtained from 3 international bodies working in family planning, and 2 others have recently indicated interest. Activities to develop criteria for project expansion are now underway. The 4 projects in the Philippines, located in Binakayan, Cavite; San Pedro, Laguna; Caramoan, Camarines Sur; and Davao City, are each staffed by a project manager, doctors, nurses, and medical technologists. The projects, especially the Caramoan project, have been quite successful, and efforts are being made to include nutrition in the integrated program. PMID:12338133

Anigan, G

1979-01-01

11

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

12

Planning the Project Meeting  

E-print Network

Project group meetings must be planned well in advance. Members should be involved in completing some type of work before the next meeting. This helps the leader plan the next project meeting and makes efficient use of time....

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

13

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...income exceeds 250 percent of the levels set forth in the most recent Poverty Guidelines issued pursuant...accordance with a schedule of fees designed to recover...project must meet each of the following requirements...project has established good cause for its omission....

2013-10-01

14

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...income exceeds 250 percent of the levels set forth in the most recent Poverty Guidelines issued pursuant...accordance with a schedule of fees designed to recover...project must meet each of the following requirements...project has established good cause for its omission....

2014-10-01

15

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

Frequently, when one mentions natural family planning methods, the response is doubt, bewilderment, ridicule, or scorn. Much of this is due to the fact that many people know only of the rhythm method, which depends on a calculation based on the menstrual pattern. What many people do not know, including physicians and nurses, is that in Australia Drs. John and Lyn Billings have been scientifically researching natural methods of family planning for 25 years, and they have pioneered this Ovulation Method of family planning. The Billings Ovulation Method depends only on the mucus sign. It is based on a scientific knowledge of the combined fertility of husband and wife, and an understanding of the physiology of the female body through simple observations. Important facts relating to the practice of the method include: ovulation takes place only once in the cycle; mucus is secreted by the cervical mucosa before ovulation; the ovum lives for only 3 days at the most; and the sperms live for 5 days at the most, and only in the presence of this fertile mucus. There a 2 types of mucus. The 1st type to appear is cloudy or white. It is nonslippery, sticky, and breaks when stretched between 2 fingers. The 2nd type is like the part of a hen's egg. It is very slippery, much clearer than the former, and stretches when pulled between 2 fingers. This is fertile mucus, and ovulation occurs on the last day that this is present. Of course, it cannot be recognized as the last day until its absence is observed on the following day. The mucus sign can be both seen and felt. After a few months a woman will readily recognize her fertile time, but daily charting is advocated. Simple signs, representing the various observations, are taught. Once a couple knows and understands their combined fertility through the observation of the mucus sign they can plan their family. Rules of the method are outlined. The self control required by this method can only serve to increase the selfless love and unselfish care and respect between partners. PMID:7168858

Bourdillon, C

1982-11-01

16

[Natural family planning (NFP)].  

PubMed

The author reviews and makes further recommendations for 3 points of the discussion in G. Freundl's pilot study of "Natural Family Planning (Symptothermal Method) and Objective Ovulation Indicators" published by Georg Thieme Verlag in Vlume 6, "Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde," in 1984. It is suggested that the scientific basis of changes in methodological rules, such as the BT3 modified for the double control method in paragraph 3 of the discussion, must be reported Natural Family Planning (NFP) instructors in Bonn, West Germany, along with failure statistics whenever possible, to enable instructors to participate responsibly. In response to errors by users cited in paragraph 4 of the discussion, the reviewer asserts that adequate instructional materials (photos and slides) are available to acquaint the users with changes in cervical mucus and that personal guidance of a couple or small group should be carried out until detection of fertility signals is performed without difficulty and the couple has proved itself capable of abstaining for the required periods, the latter being the more difficult. The author further cautions that before shortening of the abstinence period can be promoted, instructors must be scientifically assured of the accuracy of the basal temperature -6 indicator. She emphasizes that user errors can be reduced with a shorter abstinence period, but that the couple demands reliable rules first and foremost. The author concludes with a call for closer cooperation between gynecologists and NFP instructors. PMID:6570123

Luh-Hardegg, G

1984-12-01

17

Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

18

Manpower and project planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to study how manpower and projects are planned at the Facilities Engineering Division (FENGD) within the Systems Engineering and Operations Directorate of the LaRC and to make recommendations for improving the effectiveness and productivity ot the tools that are used. The existing manpower and project planning processes (including the management plan for the FENGD, existing manpower planning reports, project reporting to LaRC and NASA Headquarters, employee time reporting, financial reporting, and coordination/tracking reports for procurement) were discussed with several people, and project planning software was evaluated.

Johnson, David W.

1991-01-01

19

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments from 1968 to 1970 in Thailand, with particular emphasis on the Family Health Project conducted by the Ministry of Public Health. This project, in reality a family planning program, provided remarkable success in that it was established with no official national population policy…

Population Council, New York, NY.

20

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

21

Putting 'family' back in family planning.  

PubMed

Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182

Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher

2015-01-01

22

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2010-10-01

23

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible...

2010-10-01

24

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply...

2011-10-01

25

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to...

2011-10-01

26

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

27

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea. PMID:3314524

Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A

1987-10-01

28

Harvard Family Research Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has focused their work and research on complementary learning, which acknowledges that "children need multiple opportunities to learn and grow at home, in school, and in the community." Visitors will definitely want to check out the "Webinar Series", which can be found on the homepage. The archive consists of seven webinars consists that have been released monthly over the past year, and cover topics such as "Data Driven: Making Student and School Data Accessible and meaningful to Families" and "Ensuring School Readiness Through Successful Transitions". The learning doesn't stop with the webinars, as each webinar provides additional resources including research-based definition and framework, data use, and professional development. Many of these supplemental resources are from the HFRP website, and the combination of the webinar and reading materials can provide visitors with an in-depth introduction to the subject presented.

29

Natural family planning methods.  

PubMed

Wade et al.'s report, entitled "A randomized prospective study of the use-effectiveness of 2 methods of natural family planning," contains items worthy of emphasis. These includes the following: 1) less than 5% of the women in the study were prevented from using the method assigned them because of problems in identifying their cervical mucus pattern; 2) those who were unable or unwilling to adhere to the methodology were encouraged to drop out; 3) the largest single category of pregnancies occurred in both groups when the volunteers failed to follow the rules for avoiding pregnancy; 4) it was judged that there were 6 pregnancies in the ovulation method group to be classified as method failures, apparently for a total of 4501 cycles, which gives a method-failure rate of 1.6%; 5) couples were required to sign an informed consent statement of their awareness that the chances of the occurrence of pregnancy could be as high as 25% for the ovulation method; 6) recruiting difficulties constituted an important finding, primarily because they were unexpected by the investigators; 7) the volunteers recruited into the trial were restricted to those women whose menstrual cycles were 24-36 days; 8) the couples who failed to continue with the use of these 2 natural methods--ovulation and temperature rhythm--were on the average younger, more sexually active, and had fewer children; and 9) the ovulation method brings the partners into confrontation with their fertility in each cycle, and this has marked psychological results, including an awakening of the suppressed desire for that fertility to become creative of human life. PMID:7081306

Billings, J J

1982-05-01

30

Men and family planning in Portugal.  

PubMed

Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been disseminating information, training, and counselling since it was founded in 1967. PMID:12222247

Vicente, A

1993-10-01

31

Birth control and family planning  

MedlinePLUS

... to have children in the future. They include vasectomy and tubal ligation. These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a ... 26. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, ...

32

A dynamic family planning and health campaign.  

PubMed

Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

1986-11-01

33

[Natural family planning].  

PubMed

Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension, and there is still a great deal to be learned about it. PMID:1618690

Odeblad, E

1992-06-01

34

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

In her contribution to the international seminar on "Natural Family Planning" organized in October by the Irish Department of Health in cooperation with the World Health Organization, Professor Judith Bardwick, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, offered an explanation for the high dropout rate from contraceptive programs based on periodic abstinence and for the difference between method failure rates of as little as 1% and user failure rates as high as 30% or more. She argued that contraceptive methods which ask women to maintain a continuous observation of the symptoms of their menstrual cycles will draw the attention of the women continuously to the act of coitus. Yet, simultaneously, the use of these symptoms as a contraceptive means requires abstinence from coitus. Even Bardwick was unable to make very definite statements regarding contraception based on periodic abstinence because of the lack of available data. A primary benefit of the Irish seminar was the presentation of the preliminary results from a 5-center international study of the Billings Method (also known as the Ovulation Method or the Cervical Mucus Method). The study, supervised by the World Health Organization in Geneva, is being conducted in Auckland, Bangalore, Dublin, Manila, and San Miguel and involves 870 couples. Over 80% of the couples are Roman Catholic. Professor H.G. Burger reported findings from the first 3 months of the study. The method (which uses observation of both the quantity and quality of vaginal mucus to determine the time of ovulation) required an average of 15-18 days abstinence in each cycle with 11-15 days available for intercourse. 90.8% of the women were thought to have acquired a good understanding of the method after the 1st cycle and 97.1% after the 3rd cycle. The couples' motivation for using the method was "religious" in 40% of the cases and "unhappiness with other methods" in about 25%. During the 2704 cycles under observation, there were 45 pregnancies in 5.2% of the women. 2 of these were regarded as user failures. Method related failures ranged from 0.48 to 3.00 and user-related failures from 0.96 to 19.25. PMID:12263405

Nowland, D

1980-04-01

35

More about natural family planning.  

PubMed

When properly taught and practised, natural family planning can be a highly effective form of birth regulation. Recent studies indicate low failure rates of less than three pregnancies per 100 women years for couples with a strong motivation to follow the method. Studies show that pregnancy rates are high when the rules for avoiding pregnancy are not adhered to. Successful natural family planning can lead to heightened self esteem and marital enrichment. PMID:6667188

Gallagher, J

1983-11-01

36

DAF Glovebox Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document defines how the glovebox project will be managed and executed. It provides a path forward for establishing a glovebox capability in Building 341 of the DAF in time to meet JASPER programmatic requirements as the first user. Note that some elements of the glovebox project have been under way for some time and are more mature than others; other elements are being worked concurrently. This plan serves the following purposes: Assign organizational and individual responsibilities for bringing the glovebox capability online; Coordinate activities between organizations; Facilitate communication between project members and management; and Identify the mechanisms used to manage and control the project. The scope of this plan includes all activities conducted to achieve project objectives, culminating in DOE/NV approval to operate. This plan does not address the issues associated with the steady-state operation of the glovebox.

Martinez, M.W.; Higgs, R.L.

2000-11-14

37

Community-based integrated family planning programs.  

PubMed

Since 1976, the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has operated a series of pilot projects in several Asian countries in which family planning fieldworkers are given the added taks of controlling soil-transmitted intestinal parasite (hookworm) and providing associated nutrition education, as a means of increasing their credibility, contributing to more favorable attitudes toward family planning. Given that family planning is a new and formal program being introduced into a community, the Integrated Program has 4 stages: 1) Strategic planning. The earlier people at all levels are brought into the project processes, the higher the chances of positive commitment. A tripartate steering committee is thus formed, involving influential people from government, private, and expert sectors, with primary policy-making responsibility and responsibility for project design, implementation and assessment, and with links to funding sources. 2) Project design and development. Local leadership is identified and involved in discussions, and additional project staff, other personnel, and community groups are drawn in, a process called "bottom-up planning." Community leaders, properly motivated and trained, are best for organizing in the community, with project staff providing technical and logistical support. Plans are often modified, and identifying community leaders can be time consuming, but they are essential to program success. 3) Implementation. At this stage project staff has 2 functions: promotion and delivery of services and helping the community to take over the program at its maintenance stage. Where potentially cooperative local groups are not functioning, project staff must form them. 4) Assessment. While rates of family planning acceptance and continuation and declines in parasite infestation are indicators of success or failure, more important is people's attitude as shown by participation and assumption of responsibility. In addition to conventional measurements, 4 kinds of evidence also needed are positive reaction of the community; increased government recognition or support; increased cooperation and activity among government and private organizations on information, education, and communication; observable change in the community. The final, maintenance stage, when the program has become institutionalized and self sustaining within the community, has not yet been reached by any of the pilot proejcts. PMID:483343

Trainer, E S

1979-05-01

38

Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

Fuquay, B.J.

1995-10-25

39

Planning Complex Projects Automatically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

1995-01-01

40

Preventive health services: Family planning.  

PubMed Central

Family planning in the United States has been a noteworthy success. More than 80 percent of the married women aged 15 to 44 are regular users of contraceptives. Further, virtually all primary care physicians provide contraceptives or family planning services, and there are now an estimated 4,000 family planning clinics in the country receiving support under the Title X Family Planning Authority. Despite this record of success, serious family planning problems remain. Of the slightly more than three and one half million births, an estimated one million are unplanned. More than one million pregnancies are terminated by legal abortion. Certain subgroups of the population have disproportionately high risks of unintended pregnancy. For example, unplanned births are almost twice as frequent among poor as among nonpoor women; one of every four births to black women is unintended versus one in ten to white women; and teenagers, women with language barriers, and women living in rural areas and on Indian reservations experience high rates of unintended pregnancy. PMID:6414015

1983-01-01

41

A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.  

PubMed

The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

Carder, M

1974-01-01

42

The Family Literacy Reading Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a summer project using children's literature as a teaching tool in the literacy section of the Family Literacy Reading Project. The idea for the project arose in response to a need for other resources for the English-as-a-Second-Language program and to students' desire to read to their children and grandchildren as one…

Cason, Ann; Shoufler, Ann

43

[Why family planning in Africa?].  

PubMed

Between 1950 and 1985, Africa's population rose from 225 to 460 million people. The population should double in size from 2010, adversely affecting the quality of life in Africa. In 30 years forests have dwindled, deserts expanded, animal species have been decimated. In effect, the ecological system in Africa has been destroyed. An inevitable result of these conditions is the need for African populations to support family planning (FP) in their daily attitudes ad behavior. Each year thousands of women and millions of children die due to too many births or births spaced too close together, as well as too many young or old women giving birth. More than 50,000 clandestine abortions are performed each day. FP can bring more benefits at less cost than all other technologies existing today. It allows women to choose birth intervals and family size freely. FP allows men and women to engage in sexual intercourse without an unwanted pregnancy. It also allows couples to delay birth of a child until they are financially secure. Africa needs to restore parental responsibility as a necessary condition of family welfare. Political and opinion leaders in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, sidestep the issue of FP and delay supporting it. In Africa FP rests almost entirely with nongovernmental organizations and FP associations. More and more African States are beginning to consider FP as an essential element of socioeconomic development. The Africa Region of IPPF must awaken the conscience of governments in the interests of family planning. It is important to break their conspiracy of silence on FP and urge the governments to include family planning. Information, education, and communication are needed to overcome the obstacles facing family planning. Africa needs FP services now more than ever. PMID:12318557

Salifou, A

1993-01-01

44

Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.  

PubMed

Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

Lee, S B

1983-12-01

45

[Wang Renzhong, Chen Muhua stress family planning].  

PubMed

Wang Renzhong, secretary of the Secretariat of the CCP Central Committee, and Chen Muhua, vice premier of the State Council, addressed the national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning. Wang Renzhong stated that if population control and family planning continue to be overlooked, population growth will become a calamity in the future. He identified family planning as a permanent strategic task and said that more publicity should be given to family planning, particularly in the rural areas. Chen Muhua discussed her recent briefing to Vice Chairman Deng on the progress made in family planning during 1980 and the current problems. She reported that Vice Chairman Deng expressed satisfaction over the 1980 achievements in family planning. Deng advised creating public opinion in favor of family planning. The national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning was held in Beijing during January. Measures for implementing "major points of propaganda on controlling China's population growth" were studied. PMID:12264003

1981-01-15

46

Planning the Project Meeting (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Project group meetings must be planned well in advance. Members should be involved in completing some type of work before the next meeting. This helps the leader plan the next project meeting and makes efficient use of time....

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

47

Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings  

PubMed Central

It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

Prata, Ndola

2009-01-01

48

Natural Family Planning: An Update  

PubMed Central

Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete.”1 The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296

Derzko, Christine M.

1986-01-01

49

Natural family planning: an update.  

PubMed

Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete."(1) The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296

Derzko, C M

1986-09-01

50

Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

Stokes, Bruce

51

'Natural' methods of family planning.  

PubMed

There are currently signs that more women are considering the natural family planning methods as an alternative to medical contraception. In response to this revival of interest, the World Health Organization is now conducting field work on 'natural' family planning methods in New Zealand, the Philippines, India, California, and Columbia and is also preparing a teaching package to be pilot tested in several countries. The natural methods of family planning are all based on the woman correctly ascertaining the pattern of her natural menstrual cycle and abstaining from sexual intercourse during the fertile time. In most women this means that there are 2 "safe periods" - at the beginning of the 28-day cycle until a few days before ovulation and at the end of the cycle from 3 or 4 days after ovulation has occurred. Originally, the "safe period" was taught by the calendar method, which involved a woman carefully plotting her menstrual cycle over a period of six months to a year and making calculations as to the shortest possible and longest possible cycle length, and thus the likely time of ovulation. A more accurate measure is to actually find out the point of ovulation by measuring basal body temperature. With this method the woman must take her temperature every morning immediately upon waking, before rising, smoking, eating or drinking. The Billings' ovulation method is the method now becoming increasingly popular. The method involves noticing the natural changes in the body over the whole menstrual cycle, particularly the quantity and quality of the cervical mucous. 1 new aid for pinpointing the exact time of ovulation is the Ovutime Fertility Detection System developed at Harvard University Medical School and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the long-term, the rhythm method is unlikely to prove the answer to the problem of fertility regulation for the modern woman. PMID:12260793

Jones, M

1978-10-01

52

Male involvement in family planning.  

PubMed

The prevailing focus of birth control programs on women's methods is a result of the prevailing attitude that the purpose of birth control measures is to protect women from excessive child bearing while allowing men to have their pleasure and escape the consequences of their actions. Male methods of contraception, such as coitus interruptus and condoms, although they have historically played a far greater role than women's methods, are denigrated as being unreliable or associated with extramarital sex respectively. Family planning clinics promote diaphragms, cervical caps, or pills in preference to condoms or coitus interruptus. Only 8% of the world contraceptive budget is spent on male methods. In the UK, family planning services are available free -- to women. If men choose sterilization, they are expected to pay for it themselves. Nevertheless, the increasing popularity of vasectomy shows that men are willing to accept responsibility for birth control. Male involvement needs to be promoted through small-scale studies and social marketing technics away from the medical setting, and condoms and vasectomy services must be available. The pill has placed the responsibility for birth control on the woman, but the responsibility must be shared, no matter which partner initiates the contraceptive precaution. The importance of behavioral factors is shown by the fact that most contraceptive failures are due to human error. PMID:12282033

Spencer, B

1988-08-01

53

Practical Suggestions for Family Planning Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to address some of the basic problems of those who work in family planning education, and is based on the recurring questions and concerns of participants in a nationwide series of DHEW-sponsored family planning education and communication workshops. The manual proceeds chronologically, dealing first with the planning of a…

Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

54

Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.  

PubMed

Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years. PMID:12284276

Potts, M

1991-09-01

55

Natural methods of family planning.  

PubMed

Natural methods of family planning make use of the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Recognizable signs and symptoms occur cyclically, and women can be taught to recognize them. Changes take place in basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and the cervix uteri. Basal body temperature rises about .2 degrees C (.4 degrees F) immediately after ovulation when the blood levels of progesterone increase. Following menstruation, cervical mucus is composed of cense cellular matter that forms an impenetrable barrier (typeG). As the cycle progresses under the influence of increasing estrogen, there is a predominance of characteristically lumpy opaque mucus (type L). A few days before ovulation, the characteristically thin slippery crystal clear stretchy mucus is produced (type S). Fertile mucus is composed of a combination of L-type and S-type mucus. Estrogen casuses changes to take place in the muscle and connective tissue of the cervix. As estrogen levels rise during the pre-ovulatory phase, the cervix softens and the cervical os opens. A woman can be aware of these changes by gently palpating the cervix with her finger tip. These signs and symptoms which reflect accurately the rise and fall of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are the basis of fertility awareness on which natural methods of family planning are based. In addition to knowing when ovulation takes place, it is also necessary to know the length of time the ovum can be fertilized after ovulation and the life span of the sperm in the female genital tract before ovulation. In fertile mucus, sperm will live an average of 3 days, but it must be understood that it is possible for sperm to survive for 5 days if conditions are right. To make allowances for sperm survuval, the fertile phase starts when follicular development begins and estrogen levels start to rise. The life span of the ovum is less than 24 hours. Natural family planning methods--including the temperature method, the ovulation method (Billings), the calandar method (rhythm), and the sympto-thermal method are explained. PMID:3091823

Clubb, E

1986-08-01

56

Family planning technical services in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family planning is a basic state policy in China. Its aim is to control population growth and to enhance population quality.\\u000a Technical services are the key measures for implementing the family planning policy. In order to ensure that people use safe,\\u000a effective, and appropriate contraceptive methods based on the government’s commitment, China has established countrywide family\\u000a planning service networks down

Shang-Chun Wu

2010-01-01

57

Target community foundations to fund family planning.  

PubMed

Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752

1994-04-01

58

Natural family planning: a review.  

PubMed

This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851

Klaus, H

1982-02-01

59

World Family Map Project. Prototype Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010, the "World Family Map Project" seeks to launch a research initiative that will track central indicators of family strength around the globe. The "World Family Map Project" (WFMP) would partner with Child Trends, a nonpartisan research organization in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, and research organizations…

Wilcox, W. Bradford; Lippman, Laura; Whitney, Camille

2009-01-01

60

Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

61

China's family planning policy today.  

PubMed

This paper reviews China's family planning (FP) policy and its progress and problems in reaching state goals. Opening with a brief description of the one-child policy introduced in 1979, the paper moves backward in time to a consideration of the historical perspective and government policy. The current situation is then described in more detail. It is noted that China's population of 1.14 billion in 1990 would have been 1.3 billion without FP and that China contains 22% of the world's population with only 7% of its arable land. The state hopes to limit the growth rate to 12.5/1000 in the coming decade but a birth peak is predicted, birth control work has progressed very unevenly, marriage and pregnancy under age 18 is still common in rural areas, and life expectancy has risen. Urban compliance is very high, but the desire to have sons is still strong in rural areas. Problems with the birth rate among the migrating population are being addressed by the requirement that migrants produce "FP cards" before applying for residency permits. It is believed that female infanticide is still practiced in rural areas and that eliminating son preference would reduce the overall birth rate. While many couples rely on sterilization, the government is conducting research on new forms of the IUD (the most popular contraceptive) and vaccines and is encouraging the use of condoms. Most contraceptives are distributed free through an extensive network of FP associations. China has faced international criticism for the potential abuse to human rights implicit in its one-child policy, but China maintains that it opposes forced abortions, forbids infanticide, and that the FP policy reflects a more humane response to the reality of China's situation than would allowing couples to have large families. While China's methods would not work in a more pluralistic society which extols individualism, China's success or failure will in large measure determine the future of the world. PMID:12288213

Meredith, W H

1993-01-01

62

Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities.  

PubMed

Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting religious leaders to present religiously sound interpretations (fatwa) on the subject. Alongside these deliberations are some alarming statistics on maternal health. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide 211 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them deliver live infants. The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth or induced abortion. Some 200 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for effective contraception. These statistics and the ongoing discussion surrounding family planning in the Muslim communities raise legitimate questions. How is family planning perceived within the Muslim community? Does Islam address the issue of family planning? Is it permissible? How should appropriate family planning programmes within Muslim settings be developed and applied? This article seeks to present the ongoing debate on family planning within the Muslim community and offer recommendations to organisations for effective strategy implementation of family planning programmes within Muslim settings. The article provides a brief background on the historical development of family planning in the Muslim community, and outlines Muslim perceptions on this issue. It concludes with recommendations for non-governmental organisations on how to effectively implement acceptable family planning programmes within Muslim settings. PMID:20067669

El Hamri, Najat

2010-01-01

63

DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE PROJECT PLAN  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an industry consensus document on how to scope and implement the underlying information technology infrastructure that is needed to support a vast array of real-time digital technologies to improve NPP work efficiency, to reduce human error, to increase production reliability and to enhance nuclear safety. A consensus approach is needed because: • There is currently a wide disparity in nuclear utility perspectives and positions on what is prudent and regulatory-compliant for introducing certain digital technologies into the plant environment. For example, there is a variety of implementation policies throughout the industry concerning electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), cyber security, wireless communication coverage, mobile devices for workers, mobile technology in the control room, and so forth. • There is a need to effectively share among the nuclear operating companies the early experience with these technologies and other forms of lessons-learned. There is also the opportunity to take advantage of international experience with these technologies. • There is a need to provide the industry with a sense of what other companies are implementing, so that each respective company can factor this into their own development plans and position themselves to take advantage of new work methods as they are validated by the initial implementing companies. In the nuclear power industry, once a better work practice has been proven, there is a general expectation that the rest of the industry will adopt it. However, the long-lead time of information technology infrastructure could prove to be a delaying factor. A secondary objective of this effort is to provide a general understanding of the incremental investment that would be required to support the targeted digital technologies, in terms of an incremental investment over current infrastructure. This will be required for business cases to support the adoption of these new technologies.

Ken Thomas

2014-09-01

64

Material Stabilization Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Materials Stabilization project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This is the top-level definitive project management document that specifies the technical (work scope), schedule, and cost baselines to manager the execution of this project. It describes the organizational approach and roles/responsibilities to be implemented to execute the project. This plan is under configuration management and any deviations must be authorized by appropriate change control action. Materials stabilization is designated the responsibility to open and stabilize containers of plutonium metal, oxides, alloys, compounds, and sources. Each of these items is at least 30 weight percent plutonium/uranium. The output of this project will be containers of materials in a safe and stable form suitable for storage pending final packaging and/or transportation offsite. The corrosion products along with oxides and compounds will be stabilized via muffle furnaces to reduce the materials to high fired oxides.

SPEER, D.R.

1999-09-01

65

Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

66

[Natural family planning. An alternative].  

PubMed

The scientific foundations and most notable features of modern natural family planning (NFP) methods are described. NFP techniques require observation of the signs and symptoms occurring during the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Abstinence during the fertile period is implied when NFP is used to avoid pregnancy. Modern NFP methods are associated with success rates similar to those of oral contraceptives, the IUD, and condoms. NFP methods are based on such phenomena as the limited survival time of the ovum and sperm, the occurrence of ovulation only once per cycle, the ability to diagnose ovulation using simple means, and the ability of human beings to delay sexual satisfaction. Among the advantages of NFP methods are low cost, brevity of the required training time, increased knowledge of the body and capacity for self control, shared responsibility by both partners, and moral and religious acceptability. The Billings and symptothermal methods have shown average use-effectiveness rates ranging from 71.5 to 89.5% and from 83.4 to 97.8%, respectively. All studies of symptothermal methods conducted since 1985 have shown Pearl indexes under 5. The symptothermal method is based on observation of the duration of previous cycles, cervical mucus, basal body temperature, and optionally on palpation of the cervix and other symptoms such as breast swelling, acne, intermenstrual bleeding, and mood changes. Use of the symptothermal method requires special graph paper for recording the temperature and other symptoms. The beginning of the fertile phase is recognized by subtracting 19 from the shortest cycle in the past year, or by the appearance of cervical changes or changes in the mucus. PMID:8715078

Soler, F; Fernández Martínez, M; Díaz Sáez, J

1995-12-01

67

Family Story Curriculum Project. Refugee Women's Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Family Story Curriculum Project was implemented in three English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at the Refugee Women's Alliance (ReWA) center in Seattle, Washington. This project followed a successful storytelling project in which students remembered and told folktales from their native countries. The purposes of the Family Story curriculum…

de Barros, Judy; And Others

68

A Small Library in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

69

Readability Levels of Individualized Family Service Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The…

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara

2010-01-01

70

Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.  

PubMed

The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

1987-08-01

71

Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3  

SciTech Connect

This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

IT Corporation, Las Vegas

2002-08-01

72

Participative style of management in a family planning program.  

PubMed

In 1973, a small-scale project to involve family planning staff in program management was introduced in the Sangam primary health center in Andhra Pradesh by the Adminstrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. Through group meetings, involving all levels of health center personnel, problem areas were identified and analysed and solutions sought. On the basis of recommendations made by the groups, a work plan was drawn up. Monthly review meetings were held to discuss progress in implementing the plan. The project was found to have a positive effect on staff morale and commitment, and program acceptance levels increased. In light of the success of the project at Sangam, a proposal has been submitted to the government to expand the project to other primary health centers in the district. PMID:936257

Murthi, M N

1976-02-01

73

Project resources planning and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains instructional guidelines for the resources planning and control of research and development (R&D) projects managed by NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC). Although written to serve primarily as a practical guide and reference for those LaRC personnel who perform resources planning, analysis, control, and reporting functions, it should also be meaningful to other NASA personnel who are directly or indirectly involved in or affected by these functions, especially project technical managers whose responsibilities include resources management. Certain sections should help Contractor personnel to better understand what resources information must usually be submitted on LaRC projects and what use is made of such information. The Project Manager of a large R&D project typicaly receives support from an Analyst in the area of resources management. The Analyst provides assistance in four functional areas: Planning, Analysis/Control, Administration, and Reporting. Each of these functions are discussed in detail. Examples of techniques used effectively on LaRC projects have been included where applicable. A considerable amount of information has been included on the use of Performance Measurement (Earned Value) Systems for contract cost control and reporting as little information is currently available on this subject in NASA publications.

Sibbers, C. W.

1984-01-01

74

Project Execution Plan  

SciTech Connect

Created in 1989 to address over 50 years of environmental liabilities arising out of nuclear weapons production and testing in the United States since World War II, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Programs decade-long effort to reduce the costs of those environmental liabilities, collectively known as DOE's ''environmental mortgage,'' includes past as well as future cleanup costs associated with environmental contamination, hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes, contaminated buildings and facilities, and their associated risks. Tasked with the bulk of these cleanup efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's), Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) is attempting to complete applicable corrective actions at inactive contaminated sites and facilities managed by DOE/NV, while at the same time protecting human health and the environment. Regulated under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the objectives of the NV ERP are to identify the nature and extent of the contamination, determine its potential risk to the public and the environment, and to perform the necessary corrective actions in compliance with this and other state and federal regulations, guidelines, and requirements. Associated with this vast effort are approximately 2,000 sites both on and off of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that were used primarily for nuclear testing and are addressed in the NV ERP. This includes sites that were underground areas where tests were actually conducted, contaminated surface soils resulting from aboveground testing activities, and sites that supported other related testing hardware paraphenalia and/or NTS real estate properties (e.g., underground storage tanks, leachfields, landfills, contaminated waste areas, injection wells, muckpiles, and ponds). To assist in this effort, a NV ERP Team was assembled which is composed of organizations from both the public and private sectors. The strategy to be employed for environmental restoration is based on commonality of work and the DOE EM Program's vision to remediate the contaminated sites on a project-specific, site-by-site basis over an approximate ten-year period to be completed by the year 2006.

DOE /NV

1999-03-22

75

Population and family planning in China.  

PubMed

As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys. PMID:7892742

Wu, J

1994-01-01

76

Natural family planning: very risky business.  

PubMed

Methods of family planning involving periodic abstinence are being promoted aggressively by Catholic and other church groups in the U.S. and worldwide, under the name "natural family planning." The major methods are the calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and a combination known as the sympto-thermal methods. These methods require avoiding coitus from 7-17 days of the cycle, not including menses. Effectiveness figures quoted range from 93-99% by church sources, to 80.4% by WHO studies of selected women, to 65-89% by family planning experts. Reasons for high failure rates are irregular ovulation, human error, poor instruction, and insufficient cooperation by spouse. Although proponents claim that periodic abstinence is risk-free, they usually fail to consider the alternative risks of pregnancy and childbirth in case of method failure. Furthermore, the major complication rate of pills, IUDs, legal abortions and sterilization amount to only 0.3% of users, and artificial methods protect variously against sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancer. Other drawbacks of natural family planning are reluctance with handling one's body, cultural attitudes toward open discussion about sexuality and women's autonomy, need for mature communication between spouses, insufficient literacy to use charts, and the cost of extensive training. In the U.S., training is estimated to cost from 2.5 to 3.2 times the costs of barrier methods or pills, not including the time the woman must devote to daily measurements. The article concludes with a review of the recent history of the Roman Catholic doctrine on family planning, of attitudes and practice of U.S. catholics, and of the U.S. government's role in spreading natural family planning and hindering the implementation of other contraceptive methods within and outside of the country. PMID:12178833

Hughes, J

1988-01-01

77

The ovulation method of family planning.  

PubMed

With the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, women chart the symptoms of changes of their cervical mucus to determine when they are ovulating. The Ovulation Method is simple to learn, and some studies have shown it to be 98.5% effective. It can be used throughout a woman's child-bearing years. Unlike other methods of natural family planning, a woman need not have regular menstrual cycles to use the Ovulation Method. Usually, volunteer married couples trained in the method teach it; however, the physician's support can greatly increase the competence of these instructors. PMID:21278993

Muzzerall, L

1984-05-01

78

The Ovulation Method of Family Planning  

PubMed Central

With the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, women chart the symptoms of changes of their cervical mucus to determine when they are ovulating. The Ovulation Method is simple to learn, and some studies have shown it to be 98.5% effective. It can be used throughout a woman's child-bearing years. Unlike other methods of natural family planning, a woman need not have regular menstrual cycles to use the Ovulation Method. Usually, volunteer married couples trained in the method teach it; however, the physician's support can greatly increase the competence of these instructors. PMID:21278993

Muzzerall, Lorna

1984-01-01

79

The effectiveness of family-planning programmes.  

PubMed

By the mid-1960s, countries that accounted for 66% of the population of developing countries had adopted policies designed to reduce their rates of population growth; by 1986, the corresponding figure had reached 78%. In the developing regions as a whole, fertility has fallen by more than 30% since 1950. Contraceptive use has risen sharply, and there has been more than 10-fold increase in the number of couples in developing countries who use contraceptives. There is a very strong association between use of contraception and fertility in developing countries. Social and economic modernization is also taking place, although quite unevenly in the developing regions, so that the relationship of modernization is fertility is not very easy to demonstrate. In general, the experience of the developing countries suggest that a strong family- planning program effort can, and does, lead to a more rapid fertility decline than would be likely based only on socioeconomic variables. The effectiveness of family-planning programs can be enhanced by increasing the range of choice of contraceptive methods offered. However, it is difficult to disentangle the various factors that contribute to the effectiveness of family-planning programs. The public sector is the main supplier of family-planning services in most developing countries, and there is no clear trend towards the reliance on the private sector. PMID:12282637

Mauldin, W P

1989-01-01

80

Montana State University 1 Family Financial Planning  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Family Financial Planning Dr. Deborah Haynes Department of Health and Human Development 217 Herrick Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3540 406-994-5013 Email: dhaynes@montana in this consortium, Montana State University offers two of the twelve required courses, in addition to the three

Lawrence, Rick L.

81

New Directions in Family Planning Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two research studies in Newfoundland, Canada are summarized. The first study examined divorced persons and their family patterns. It was found that numbers and timing of children did not affect marital stability, and neither did whether children were born before or during the current marriage. But whether the children were planned had a…

Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

82

Federal Family Planning Programs: Choice or Coercion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses charges of black genocide" and the difference between the individual and structural theories about the causes of poverty and concludes that lack of access by the poor to family planning services should be regarded as a problem in the distribution of medical services and not as a welfare problem. (Author)

Rauch, Julia B.

1970-01-01

83

SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

DESAI, S.P.

2000-02-09

84

Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

Shipler, D.B.

1992-03-01

85

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-01-01

86

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds:

Callaghan

1996-01-01

87

Family planning and the Malawian male.  

PubMed

To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs. PMID:12319396

Kishindo, P

1994-01-01

88

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

89

Family Interaction, Parenting Style, and the Development of Planning: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Archival Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 68 families that participated at 3 times in the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence Project (D. Baumrind, 1973) were used to study children's participation in planning-related discussions during family interactions in relation to parenting style. Results indicate that such discussions occur from early in the child's life and that with age children initiate more of them. Children's initiations

Mary Gauvain; Ruth Duran Huard

1999-01-01

90

Fertility awareness and natural family planning.  

PubMed

Information about fertility awareness helps to fulfil the broader definition of the services many family planning clinics offer. Although information about natural family planning is requested by a small number of clients seeking family planning advice, many more clients benefit from information about fertility awareness. Fertility awareness is far more than just basic reproductive anatomy and physiology; fertility awareness involves understanding basic information about fertility and reproduction, being able to apply it to oneself, and being able to discuss it with a partner or with a health professional. Fertility awareness is fundamental to understanding and making informed decisions about reproductive health and sexual health. If clients have a better understanding of fertility awareness, they are in a stronger position to make informed decisions about how they wish to manage their reproductive and sexual health, for example: (1) Fertility awareness information is used to help couples to plan pregnancies as well as to avoid them. This can be helpful to couples who are having difficulty conceiving, for the timing of intercourse or for the timing of some of the sub-fertility investigations. (2) The information is also useful when helping couples to understand how each method of family planning works--how the family planning method interrupts normal fertility, how the method will fail if not used correctly, and how fertility returns when the method is discontinued. (3) Women who are fully breastfeeding value the knowledge about reduced fertility, as do women during the perimenopausal years who value being given clear information about their declining fertility. (4) When counselling couples about the importance of avoiding sexually transmitted diseases it is important they understand sexually transmitted diseases may damage their fertility. (5) Couples who choose only to use a barrier method during the time they think the woman is fertile are a group who do not readily identify themselves to family planning providers. These couples often do not have adequate information about fertility awareness. Advances in technology and the understanding of ovulation, ovum and sperm survival have confirmed that the guidelines used to teach fertility awareness and natural family planning effectively identify the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Serial ultrasound studies on the ovaries during the menstrual cycle have confirmed the accuracy of the hormonal assays in pinpointing the likely time of ovulation. Ultrasound studies have also shown that subjective observations of the alterations in cervical mucus and the basal body temperature rise are accurate indicators of the fertile phase. Research on the chances of conception on each day of the menstrual cycle, using hormonal assays to estimate the time of ovulation, was carried out in 1994 by Weinberg and Wilcox. Their results showed that the timing of sexual intercourse, in relation to ovulation, strongly influences the chance of conception. Conception only occurred during a 6-day interval that ended on the estimated day of ovulation. The chances of conception fell to zero 24 hours after ovulation. Several different methods of natural family planning are taught; some methods depend on only using one of the indicators of fertility, others are based on two or more indicators. The main indicators of fertility are: observing the cervical mucus, recording the basal body temperature, palpating the cervix and a calculation based on the cycle length. Research studies performed using a combination of the indicators of fertility show that the failure rate using a combination is less than most of the studies which use a single indicator. In each case the method failure is far lower than the user failure. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9678103

Pyper, C M

1997-06-01

91

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................................3 2.2.3 Fabrication Project Cost#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record by OFES B 4/5/10 PPEP Cost and schedule range & comments by SC-OPA C 6/10/2010 Final PEP Draft D 7

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

92

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................................3 2.2.3 Fabrication Project Cost#12;#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record by OFES B 4/5/10 PPEP Cost and schedule range & comments by SC-OPA C 6/10/2010 Final PEP Draft D 7

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

93

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................2 2.1 Project/Task Organization/Background.............................................................................3 2.3 Project/Task Description and ScheduleQUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION April 15, 2004 Prepared for: Colorado School

94

Natural family planning in the Philippines.  

PubMed

The calendar rhythm method of natural family planning (NFP) is one of the most popular contraceptive methods in the Philippines. As a result, the Philippines has one of the highest NFP prevalence rates in the developing world. In recent years, family planning program officials have become increasingly interested in improving the practice of NFP, both by improving the quality of rhythm practice and by introducing newer, more accurate NFP methods. Over the years a substantial body of research data related to NFP practice in the Philippines has accumulated. This paper presents major findings from past research on NFP in the Philippines, discusses their implications for program management, describes current research, and suggests needs for future research. PMID:6710549

Laing, J E

1984-01-01

95

Statement on periodic abstinence for family planning.  

PubMed

IPPF does not advise that periodic abstinence be considered an equal alternative to more effective family planning methods because of findings from recent, carefully conducted trials that show unusually high failure and discontinuation rates compared with other methods. Periodic abstinence for family planning depends upon identifying the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle which occurs around the time of ovulation and avoiding sexual intercourse during that time. Abstinence is sometimes necessary during a large part of the cycle because of the difficulty of accurately predicting the fertile phase. In recent major studies, almost 20% of women using the sympto-thermal method became pregnant within a year, as did about 25% of those using the cervical mucus method, compared with less than 5% of those using oral contraceptives or IUDs. The sympto-thermal method appears more effective than the cervical mucus method, but both show wide ranges of pregnancy and discontinuation rates among different groups of women. Nevertheless, family planning associations should familiarize themselves with the periodic abstinence techniques for couples for whom periodic abstinence techniques for couples for whom periodic abstinence is the only choice. Such couples should be clearly informed that the method is not considered an effective method of family planning. Periodic abstinence is better than no method, however, and various other benefits can be obtained, such as knowledge of female physiology. Couples may identify the fertile phase to use barrier methods only on days estimated to be fertile, and it may lead to use of more effective contraception. Methods of detecting ovulation are also useful in diagnosis and treatment of infertility. PMID:12338510

1982-12-01

96

Indonesia family planning aims for sustainability.  

PubMed

Placing great emphasis on self-reliance, Indonesia's family planning program has been extremely successful in reducing the country's birth rate. since 1970, the once-threatening fertility rate has declined by more than 35%. And from 1980-90, the fertility rate declined from 4.6 to 3.0. The reason behind the dramatic change in fertility has been the increase in contraceptive use. Over 1/2 of all women of reproductive age use contraceptives, and nearly 95% of currently married women recognize at least one modern contraceptive method. A 1987 survey revealed that 62% of married women of reproductive age had used contraceptives, a figure that is expected to increase. The rise in contraceptive use is the direct result of carefully orchestrated initiatives under the leadership of Indonesia's National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), which has enjoyed the consistent support of President Suarto, who has headed the country for over a 1/4 century. BKKBN has implemented a highly successful self-reliance ("KB Mandiri") program called the Blue Circle campaign. Made possible by the participation of the private sector, the program has marketed government-subsidized contraceptives under the Blue Circle name. A pay-as-you-can program, the Blue Circle campaign charges middle and upper class couples full price, and only a partial fee or no fee at all for less wealthy clients. Observers also attribute the family planning program's success to the country's culture and to the strong support from the nation's Muslim population. In the coming years, the number of privately supplied contraceptives are expected to soar, and Indonesia's family planning program may soon become fully self-supported. PMID:12284516

Barron, T

1991-01-01

97

Family planning technical services in China.  

PubMed

Family planning is a basic state policy in China. Its aim is to control population growth and to enhance population quality. Technical services are the key measures for implementing the family planning policy. In order to ensure that people use safe, effective, and appropriate contraceptive methods based on the government's commitment, China has established countrywide family planning service networks down to the township level. The people can access various and convenient contraceptive services. In urban areas, all contraceptive services are free. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 2007 was 84.6%, the percentage of intrauterine device (IUD) was 52.3%, that of female sterilization was 32.3%, and that of vasectomy was 6.1%. This means that more than 90% of married childbearing couples were using long-term contraceptives. At the same time, the government gives priority to supporting research on contraceptive technology. Studies' results have provided scientific evidence for development, introduction, and expansion of contraceptive methods, and also for establishment and revision of the technical guidelines. Great efforts have been made in promoting "human-oriented and client-centered" services during the recent ten years. Remarkable success has been achieved in improving the quality of technical services. PMID:21191833

Wu, Shang-Chun

2010-09-01

98

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

99

Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

100

Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle`s contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

1992-09-01

101

Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle's contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

1992-09-01

102

Billings natural family planning in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

With cervical mucus, or Billings, method of family planning, a woman learns to recognize the characteristics of her cervical mucus that identify the fertile phase in her menstrual cycle. She and her partner abstain from sexual activity during a period from the first indication of mucus until four days after the mucus peak day, which includes ovulation. They also abstain during menses, because mucus can be confused with menstrual bleeding. This method of family planning is used widely, worldwide, by couples seeking a natural, reliable method of family planning. Between July 1988 and May 1990, 688 couples of child-bearing age, most of whom were parous, used the Billings method for contraception. Five hundred and fifty of these couples used the method for more than 12 months. Efficacy, continuation rates, and discontinuation rates were analyzed using life-table analysis for 10,175 woman-months of data collected. The net cumulative discontinuation rates per 100 women at 12 and 18 months were 19.85 and 34.58, respectively, resulting in continuation rates of 80.15 and 65.42. The discontinuation rates per 100 women for method-related reasons at 12 and 18 months were 1.61 and 2.84, respectively, while the discontinuation rates for unintended pregnancy were 1.02 and 1.18. During the study, 67 subjects volunteered to have vaginal smears taken from the upper part of the vaginal wall for cytologic examinations, and among them serum and urine LH levels were measured in 10 subjects and urinary estrogen and progesterone were assayed in 35 cases. These tests related other indications of the menstrual cycle to the ability of the women to judge ovulation by cervical mucus. Our research suggests that further investigation of the Billings method is warranted and that careful planning and organization are needed to disseminate the method more broadly. PMID:7863845

Xu, J X; Yan, J H; Fan, D Z; Zhang, D W

1994-09-01

103

Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project  

SciTech Connect

In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work was received in July 2009 under the Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Task of the Enhanced Utilization of Isotope Facilities project (Project Identification Code 2005230) funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The goal of this project is to recover the capability to produce 4-5 curium targets for the irradiation period starting with HFIR cycle 427, currently scheduled to begin 2/17/10. Assuming success, the equipment would then be used to fabricate 6-7 additional targets to hold for the next irradiation campaign specified by the program. Specific objectives are the return to functionality of the Cubicle 3 Pellet Fabrication Line; Cubicle 2 Target Assembly equipment; and Cubicle 1 Target Inspection and Final Assembly system.

Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

2009-08-01

104

Early Owner Planning Leads to Project Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the vast majority of building projects, decisions made in the first 10 percent of project activity directly determine 90 percent of the final cost and schedule. When a project is poorly planned, project costs can expand beyond estimates by as much as 50 percent. Since the owner's rate of spending increases as a building project proceeds,…

Gainsboro, Dan

2006-01-01

105

[Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].  

PubMed

The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor

2012-04-01

106

[Obtaining a change in attitude toward family planning].  

PubMed

The Paraguayan Center for Population Studies (CEPEP) has always carefully planned its activities, but a process of strategic planning beginning in 1989 allowed several shortcomings in the planning process to be identified and corrected. The planning strategy had previously been strongly vertical, with only departmental directors and the executive director fully involved. Other office personnel and clinic directors were prevented from contributing in any meaningful way by bureaucratic obstacles and their lack of an overall vision of the organization's mission. Although CEPEP had devoted considerable effort to diagnosis and evaluation prior to developing its plans, the type of evaluation conducted was not appropriate for analyzing medium and longterm trends and needs. Improved planning required continuous analysis of the organization as a whole, rather then evaluation of specific projects, and it required a frank and realistic analysis of the internal organization in relation to CEPEP's goals and its short, medium, and longterm strategies. CEPEP planning suffered from overly general objectives and failed to prioritize goals. Assignment of human and financial resources tended to reproduce the distribution of resources of the preceding year rather than being guided by the plan. New and innovative programs were not funded immediately; available funds were assigned almost exclusively to existing programs. New projects tended to be implemented only because an international donor appeared with the idea and a disposition to fund it. Such projects were often unrelated to planned activities, of short duration, and of dubious relevance to CEPEP goals. The plenary meetings, committee work, and seminars for CEPEP's strategic planning were time consuming but productive. They provided a foundation for CEPEP to redefine its goals and strategies. New plans call for a strong component of activities designed to change the attitude of the government toward family planning, and open the organization to collaborative programs with other public and private sector institutions. Activities in rural areas are to receive greater emphasis. More resources are to be devoted to information and education. The new objectives and tasks require an internal reorganization, which is currently underway. PMID:12343251

Carron, J M

1990-12-01

107

Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.  

PubMed

Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

Pachauri, Saroj

2014-11-01

108

China goes at family planning her own way: an account of 35 years of family planning.  

PubMed

Since the 3rd plenary session, the Party Central Committee and the State Council of China have attached great importance to family planning work, pointing out that the population has always been an extremely important issue in China's economic and social development. Characteristics that clarify China's situation are 1) a low level of industrial and agricultural production and the underdevelopment of economy and culture, 2) a large population with a young age composition, 3) a vast territory with conditions differing tremendously in various places, and 4) a predominantly rural population with feudal ideological influences--such as boys are superior to girls--that are relatively deep-rooted. The total fertility rate of childbearing age women in 1983 was 2.07 which, when compared with 5.68 in the 1960s and 4.01 in the 1970s, dropped 3.61 and 1.97 respectively. This growth rate is already lower than their population replacement rate, and is much lower than that of developing countries. Governments at all levels and related departments, all people's organizations, and all professions and trades now regard family planning as a part of their own work; unlike the old days, the concept of childbirth has greatly changed among the masses after years of publicity and practice in family planning. A nationwide scientific research network for family planning is now taking shape; in contraception and birth control, the types and model sizes of IUDs and oral drugs of domestic make are relatively complete. PMID:12314259

1985-07-01

109

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

110

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available

1994-09-01

111

Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.  

PubMed

The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

1987-01-01

112

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

113

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

114

42 CFR 59.7 - What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what amount...GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning...to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what...

2011-10-01

115

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

116

Natural family planning: women deserve the truth.  

PubMed

The most recent data on natural methods of family planning, notably on the Billings, or ovulation, method, show statistically significant data on their effectiveness. A study conducted on 1139 couples followed for 2 years has yielded a failure rate of only 1.14%. Another study conducted in 1980 on 55 couples followed for a 2 year period has yielded a similar failure rate. Many experts sustain that NFP methods are not only completely risk-free, but are a creative contribution to a couple's human experience. The 3 NFP methods are the thermal, the sympto-thermal, and the ovulation method. NFP methods are not as well known as they deserve to be; women have a right to know all that is available to them in the field of contraception. PMID:7264099

Hart, H

1981-06-01

117

Family planning studies the teachers' survey. Part 2: fertility differentials and practice of family planning.  

PubMed

This study deals with biologic and socioeconomic fertility differentials of married female teachers in the Alexandria Governorate who were surveyed via questionnaire from October 1966 to February 1967. It also shows fertility patterns of educated working women, their opinions about family planning, their use of contraceptives, and their knowledge and use of family planning services. Of the 3893 teachers who responded, 65%, or 2626, were married and 92.5% were of childbearing age. The average age was 32.70 years; the average duration of marriage was 7.18 years. Half had just 1 or 2 children, with an inverse relationship between educational attainment and number of children. The number of children increased with the age of the teacher, but there was an inverse relationship between age at marriage and number of children. Just over 25% of the pregnancies ended in abortion, with an average of .64 abortions per teacher. There was a direct relationship between age of teacher and frequency of abortion. Teachers who married when they were under 20 were the most likely to abort. 13% of the teachers were pregnant at the time of the study. An inverse relationship existed between the desire to be pregnant and the number of surviving children. Statistics for married teachers over 45 who had completed their fertility indicate that the average teacher is likely to have 1.02 abortions, 3.1 deliveries, and 2.6 living children. All teachers favored family planning. 77.3% were currently practicing it, most in the 30-44 age group. 42% had consulted private doctors; 44.3% were prac ticing without medical advice; and only 14.8% went to a family planning center. The pill and the IUD were the most popular method, being used by 59.7%. Among those with children, those with no boys were the least likely to use contraceptives. Teachers, with their frequent contact with young people and parents, are seen as a good conduit for information about family planning. However, most teachers themselves got their initial information about family planning from the mass media. PMID:12254508

Kamel, W H; Hanna, A T; Kamel, N A; Wahdan, M H

1970-06-01

118

The future of family planning programs.  

PubMed

National family planning programs have been an important instrument in accelerating global fertility decline and in restricting ultimate world population to a level probably below ten billion. They began to come into being after 1950 and will probably go out of existence in most of the world's regions by 2050. The archetypal programs were instituted in Asia and North Africa. The end of the twentieth century is an appropriate half-way mark at which to evaluate the twentieth-century programs and to assess what changes in them will be needed for the twenty-first century. Some changes are necessary because dramatic events have occurred: (1) long-term replacement-level fertility has been attained in most of East Asia and some of Southeast Asia, and accordingly, some programs there are being phased out; (2) mainland South Asian fertility has been slower to decline; (3) international donor funding is diminishing and may not be significant during much of the twenty-first century; (4) the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo called for a radical change in programs away from demographic aims and toward reproductive health and the improvement of the situation of women; and (5) the future family planning frontier will be sub-Saharan Africa, for which radically new types of programs may have to be developed. These issues were discussed in January 2000 at a conference held in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A selection of contributions to the conference is published here. This article provides an overview of the issues based partly on this selection and partly on the discussions that took place at the conference. PMID:11974413

Caldwell, John C; Phillips, James F; Barkat-e-Khuda

2002-03-01

119

Planning Digital Projects for Historical Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the NYPL (last discussed in the May 15, 1999 Scout Report) consist of an overview of planning digital projects for historical collections and an example of just such a project. The site is aimed primarily at librarians and administrators who would like to promote the use of often under-accessed and difficult to classify collections of unique historical materials. The guide briefly discusses the NYPL's own digital projects, answers common questions regarding digital projects, and guides readers through the steps of planning and creating the project, including selecting, organizing, and presenting the materials. The conclusion also offers a number of useful links.

120

Natural family planning in the 1990s.  

PubMed

Natural family planning (NFP) tends to be considered as a matter of chance resulting in unplanned pregnancies and large families. A World Health Organization (WHO) multicenter trial of the ovulation method of NFP was undertaken during 1975-79 with the primary objective of determining what proportion of women of many different cultures could be taught to recognize changes in the cervical mucus around the time of ovulation. The conclusions were that: a) irrespective of cultural, educational, or economic background, over 95% of fertile women could recognize the mucus signs of fertility; b) the fertility rate was 22.6 pregnancies per 100 woman years; c) the preovulatory and postovulatory days designated by the ovulation method of NFP rules as infertile were indeed infertile, as the pregnancies in this phase were 4 per 1000 acts of intercourse. The knowledge gained through the WHO trial and subsequent experience has given NFP organizations and teachers a much greater understanding of the fertile and infertile phases, so that total pregnancy rates have been steadily falling. Of the 11 NFP studies so far reported in the 1990s, the 3 that had total pregnancy rates greater than 5 per 100 woman years were trials of atypical NFP approaches or teaching methods. The results can be compared with reported pregnancy rates of between 0.18 and 3.6 for artificial contraceptive methods in well-motivated couples. One criticism of NFP is that the necessary periods of abstinence may be detrimental to the marital relationship. It is suggested that the sexual revolution of the last 20-30 years has caused marital and family breakdown on a massive scale, thus NFP might be the antidote. Since women are potentially fertile for no more than 6-8 days in the cycle, these easily recognized symptoms empower women through the knowledge they impart regarding their state of fertility. All women are entitled to this simple and fundamental information. PMID:7503859

Ryder, B; Campbell, H

1995-07-22

121

Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.  

PubMed

In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is cheaper and simpler than film production. Video will be very helpful as a communication aid in group meetings. It can also be used as a teaching aid for training. PMID:12313886

Sumarsono, S K

1985-10-01

122

14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152.109 Section...Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master...

2011-01-01

123

14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152.109 Section...Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master...

2010-01-01

124

33 CFR 385.24 - Project Management Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Project Management Plans. 385.24 Section...Implementation Processes § 385.24 Project Management Plans. (a) General requirements...local agencies, develop a Project Management Plan prior to initiating...

2010-07-01

125

The economics of family planning and underage conceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on

David Paton

2002-01-01

126

RANCH ESTATE PLANNING "Keep the ranch in the family"  

E-print Network

RANCH ESTATE PLANNING "Keep the ranch in the family" Wednesday - August 8, 2012 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Basic Estate Planning Devices THE WILL. What should it say? Learn how a properly drafted Will may save family and business? ESTATE TAX DEFERRAL. A married couple can elect to not pay any estate tax

127

Integration of cervical screening in family planning clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the suitability of cervical cancer screening in family planning (FP) clinics and the relevance for women's health. Methods: A survey was done on clients visiting the clinics of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK). Client characteristics, age, screening status and PAP smear results were registered. In-depth interviews were held with a limited number of staff and

P. Claeys; H. De Vuyst; G. Mzenge; J. Sande; V. Dhondt; M. Temmerman

2003-01-01

128

Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

Worth, George; And Others

129

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

Population Council, New York, NY.

130

Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

2000-11-01

131

Tardigrade Species Distribution Project: Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lesson plan was designed for students taking part in the active research project to document the distribution of a new species of tardigrade, a microscopic invertebrate animal. The project is part of a nationwide online collaborative research project. The lesson plan offers instructional procedures for teachers and lists materials and procedures for collecting, observing, and culturing tardigrades. The lesson involves collecting samples in the field, examining and classifying tartigrades in the samples using a microscope and an online taxonomic key, and keeping a biological journal of their study. Links are provided to other components of the species distribution project.

Lindahl, Karen; Balser, Susie; University, Illinois W.

132

Seminars offer key to better family planning.  

PubMed

Current scientific information on health and contraception is in demand in Francophone countries of Africa. Contraceptive technology updates (CTU) have been held in Senegal, Niger, and Togo in order to provide family planning (FP) experts, program managers, providers, and government officials with the opportunity to exchange information and gather new materials. Family Health International's CTUs in Senegal in 1990 were useful in changing policy. Routine blood testing, as a requirement for oral contraceptives, was eliminated. In Niger, there was resistance to changing the policy requiring pelvic examinations and laboratory tests before oral pill distribution. After CTU seminars were held, the attending physicians were gradually convinced by the medical experts that these procedures interfered with and were not necessary for oral pill dispensing. Other changes that came about due to the workshops were the use of licensed practical nurses as FP providers, and the use of village health workers as oral contraceptive providers after an initial prescription. Age and parity requirements for injectables were also changed to a lower age due to the efforts of CTUs. In Togo, a CTU seminar was held with leaders from Togo and nine other African countries. In the final declaration, policies were recommended for authorizing adolescent FP services and promoting non-clinic service delivery approaches. Prior to the seminars, information on local country conditions was gathered; this information was useful in showing how changes in local barriers to contraception use and continuation could be affected. The use of international information was helpful in Togo for understanding the importance of using injectables and providing pill access through rural outlets. The participation of a delivery of professions and people involved in FP has been important for policy and service providers. Follow-up training at the service delivery level is needed, where changing habits and attitudes is necessary. The first step is convincing health workers of their important contribution to FP, and then, working to change non-medical barriers. PMID:12318095

Townsend, S

1993-03-01

133

Promotion of family planning services in practice leaflets.  

PubMed

Providing 75% of family planning services in the United Kingdom, general practitioners are required to produce leaflets which describe the contraceptive services they provide. The authors analyzed information about family planning provided to clients through practice leaflets. 88% of practice leaflets from the 198 practices in Devon were available from the Devon Family Health Services Authority for analysis. It was determined that the leaflets are not being best used to advertise the range and potential of family planning services. Although all practices in Devon offer contraceptive services, only 90% of leaflets mentioned that the services are available. Reference to postcoital contraception and information about services outside the practice for people who might not want to see their family doctor are also sorely lacking. A clear need exists to provide patients with more information. Finally, the authors found that group practices and those with female partners are most likely to give high priority to family planning issues in their leaflets. PMID:7950663

Marshall, M N; Gray, D J; Pearson, V; Phillips, D R; Owen, M

1994-10-01

134

Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981.  

PubMed

In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment. PMID:12311584

1981-12-01

135

Life sciences space biology project planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Life Sciences Space Biology (LSSB) research will explore the effect of microgravity on humans, including the physiological, clinical, and sociological implications of space flight and the readaptations upon return to earth. Physiological anomalies from past U.S. space flights will be used in planning the LSSB project.The planning effort integrates science and engineering. Other goals of the LSSB project include the provision of macroscopic view of the earth's biosphere, and the development of spinoff technology for application on earth.

Primeaux, G.; Newkirk, K.; Miller, L.; Lewis, G.; Michaud, R.

1988-01-01

136

SNF project engineering process improvement plan  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819. All new procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999.

DESAI, S.P.

1999-07-13

137

Epidemiological studies of natural family planning.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the use of natural family planning (NFP) can be estimated from sample surveys of married women in the reproductive ages (MWRA). Surveys in developed and developing countries during the past decade indicate that the prevalence of NFP use varies from 0 to 11%. In addition, if one considers NFP use in relation to other contraceptive methods, the percentage of all current contraceptors who use NFP varies from 1 to 35%. This suggests that NFP is an important method in certain countries. Pregnancy rates for NFP vary widely, but most reliable studies report 1-year life-table pregnancy rates between 10 and 25/100 woman-years. The Billings ovulation method consistently has higher pregnancy rates than the sympto-thermal method and NFP users generally have among the highest pregnancy rates compared to other methods. The major safety issue concerning NFP is the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with aged gametes. There are suggestions from a number of investigations that conceptions distant from ovulation have a higher risk of spontaneous abortion and a higher proportion of male births. The findings with respect to birth defects or multiple pregnancies are less consistent, although some studies have reported an increased risk of chromosomal anomalies. PMID:3170708

Gray, R H; Kambic, R T

1988-07-01

138

Directors' Planning Guide. Minority Business Enterprise Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by individuals interested in organizing and planning entrepreneurial activities targeted for youth, this booklet suggests procedures, ideas, and resources for activities that can be sponsored on a limited budget; and addresses the programmatic concerns new project directors may face in getting their projects started. Introductory…

Burks, Irma P.; And Others

139

Project Plan UC Online Education (UCOE)  

E-print Network

1 Project Plan UC Online Education (UCOE) March 24, 2011 Office of the President #12;3 I. Project Description UC Online Education will develop a coherent online the number of Californians able to benefit from UC's stellar education while expanding pipelines

Becker, Luann

140

Guidelines for the Planning Year. Project Trident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of education should be to prepare every young person leaving school to enter higher education or to enter useful and rewarding work. This is the goal of Project Trident, a comprehensive career education program being developed at Lincoln Community High School, Illinois. The project, in its planning year, is directed toward secondary…

Lincoln Community High School, IL.

141

National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

None

2008-09-30

142

CSA Weatherization Demonstration Project Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report comprises the plan of a research and demonstration effort to determine the fraction of energy that may be saved by installing weatherization retrofits in poor peoples' homes throughout the United States. Two broad groups of weatherization retrofits are considered for application in each dwelling: (1) 'architectural,' those affecting the building shell; and (2) 'mechanical,' those affecting space heating

R. Crenshaw; R. Clark; R. Chapman; R. Grot; M. Godette

1979-01-01

143

ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

Allen, Bradley P.

1988-01-01

144

Space Planning And Design Course: Final Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is from the space planning and design course taught by Michelle Mueller at Portland Community College. For their final project, students in the class were asked to conceptually remodel a 1920's era house into a modern studio and separate living quarters. This document includes an overview of the project which may be easily adapted to suit a similar course. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Mueller, Michelle

145

Project Hanford management contract quality improvement project management plan  

SciTech Connect

On July 13, 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Manager transmitted a letter to Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) describing several DOE-RL identified failed opportunities for FDH to improve the Quality Assurance (QA) Program and its implementation. In addition, DOE-RL identified specific Quality Program performance deficiencies. FDH was requested to establish a periodic reporting mechanism for the corrective action program. In a July 17, 1998 response to DOE-RL, FDH agreed with the DOE concerns and committed to perform a comprehensive review of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) QA Program during July and August, 1998. As a result, the Project Hanford Management Contract Quality Improvement Plan (QIP) (FDH-3508) was issued on October 21, 1998. The plan identified corrective actions based upon the results of an in-depth Quality Program Assessment. Immediately following the scheduled October 22, 1998, DOE Office of Enforcement and Investigation (EH-10) Enforcement Conference, FDH initiated efforts to effectively implement the QIP corrective actions. A Quality Improvement Project (QI Project) leadership team was assembled to prepare a Project Management Plan for this project. The management plan was specifically designed to engage a core team and the support of representatives from FDH and the major subcontractors (MSCs) to implement the QIP initiatives; identify, correct, and provide feedback as to the root cause for deficiency; and close out the corrective actions. The QI Project will manage and communicate progress of the process.

ADAMS, D.E.

1999-03-25

146

[Family planning. Objectives, measures, regulations, structures].  

PubMed

5 major criteria are used to evaluate family planning methods: efficacy, both theoretical and practical; acceptability as measured by continuation of use; safety; reversibility; and cost, including the cost of treatment, follow-up, and screening for contraindications. Traditional family planning methods are mostly based on periodic abstinence during the presumed fertile period. The calendar, temperature, Billings or cervical mucus, and symptothermal methods are based on observation of different symptoms of ovulation and fertility. Their advantages are that they do not require intervention by health personnel, their costs of use are nil, and they are morally acceptable to some couples. Their efficacy is lower than that of other methods and they should be viewed as methods to space rather than limit births. The withdrawal method, also less effective, requires active cooperation by the male partner. Among mechanical methods, the use of condoms has increased recently because of the protection they offer against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Their efficacy depends on correct use, regular use, and the quality of the condom. The Pearl index varies from 93099 per 100 woman-years. The diaphragm must be individually measured and should be used with spermicides. The Pearl index ranges from 85095 per 100 woman-years. Spermicides, generally either nonoxynol-9 or benzalkonium chloride, are surfactants that have a Pearl index of 83-97 per 100 woman-years. They are available as creams, jellies, foams, suppositories, tablets, or impregnated sponges. Most failures appear due to errors of utilization. The mechanism of action of the IUD is imperfectly understood, but it is known to prevent nidation of the fertilized egg. Copper devised have higher rates of efficacy and tolerance. Pearl indices range from 95-99.5. Contraindications include genital infection, uterine anomalies, valvular cardiopathy, and coagulation problems. The IUD is relatively contraindicated if there is history of ectopic pregnancy or upper genital tract infections. The combined oral contraceptive is the most widely utilized method in France. The Pearl index is nearly 100 in the absence of forgetting, vomiting, or drug interactions. The contraindications are basically those of estrogens: history of thrombosis, prolonged bedrest, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic disorders, hormonodependent cancers, or smoking after age 35. Progestin-only methods are available in 3 forms: low-dose pills which must be taken at the same time each day, higher-dosed progestins taken for 20 days each month, and injectable progestins providing contraception for 8-12 weeks. Postcoital contraception using OCs or IUDs is possible but not well known among women or physicians. The Neuwirth law authorizing use of contraception in France was passed in 1967. Amendments in 1974 improved access and provided for reimbursement for some methods, but some newer forms are not reimbursed. PMID:1853135

Meyer, L

1991-06-11

147

Family Medicine Curriculum Resource Project: the future.  

PubMed

Under contract to the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) created an undergraduate medical education curricular resource designed to train physicians to practice in the 21st century. An interdisciplinary group of more than 35 educators worked for 4 years to create the Family Medicine Curriculum Resource (FMCR). By consensus, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies were adopted as the theoretical framework for this project. The FMCR provides materials for the preclerkship years, the third-year family medicine clerkship, the postclerkship year, and faculty development, as well as guidance for integrating topics of special interest to the federal government (such as, geriatrics, Healthy People 2010, genetics, informatics) into a 4-year continuum of medical education. There are challenges inherent in implementing each component of the FMCR. For example, can the ACGME competency-based approach be adapted to undergraduate medical education? Can the densely packed preclerkship years be adapted to include more focused effort on developing these competencies, and whose job is it anyway? What is "core" to being a competent clinician, and what information can be obtained when needed from medical informatics sources? Will family medicine educators embrace the FMCR recommendations for their third-year clerkships? Will exit assessment of the competency levels of graduating medical students be achieved, and can it make them more capable residents? Can faculty in different clinical and educational settings integrate the teaching of "how to learn" into their repertoire? How will faculty development innovation progress in a time of increasing emphasis on clinical productivity? Developing a common language and adoption of core competencies for all levels of medical education is imperative in a society that is focusing on improving health care quality and outcomes. The FMCR Project has developed a curricular resource to assist medical educators in this task. The challenge for the future is to measure how the FMCR is used and to ascertain if it has an influence on better patient and system outcomes. PMID:17186449

Stearns, Jeffrey A; Stearns, Marjorie A; Paulman, Paul M; Chessman, Alexander W; Davis, Ardis K; Sherwood, Roger A; Sheets, Kent J; Steele, David J; Matson, Christine C

2007-01-01

148

Unit 1: Project Planning and Scheduling To provide a brief introduction to project planning  

E-print Network

planning and scheduling. The critical area where project management meets system development. Background of the project (critically timeliness) are the responsibility of the project manager ¥ The project manager may and for which we need Ð consistent and disciplined thinking Ð a method of summarising this thinking

Finkelstein, Anthony

149

Natural family planning: folly or fulfillment?  

PubMed

The experiences of natural family planning (NFP) counselors around the US indicate a growing interest in NFP methods in recent years, on the part of low parity non-Catholics as well as of higher parity Catholics. Fears of side effects of artificial methodss and interest in ecology and natural things are cited as the main reasons for the growing popularity of NFP. The calendar rhythm method has been largely replaced by the symptothermic methods, that combine observation of general physical symptoms such as mucus, abdominal pain, breast fullness, skin eruption, and mood changes with recording of basal body temperature (BBT), and the ovulation or Billings method, which records in great detail the presence and consistency of vaginal mucus during the menstural cycle. The Billings method identifies safe, relatively safe, and fertile days according to mucus signs alone. Both methods require keeping of chars. The BBT method has been rated as highly effective when intercourse is confined to the postovulatory phase, but it has the disadvantage of not being able to predict ovulation and of not being useful during menopause, after childbirth, and during nursing. Advocates of the ovulation method claim it can reliably predict ovulation at any time, but recognition of the mucus signs can be difficult and no intercourse is allowed during the menstrual period. Most NFP clinics in the US now offer a choice of methods. The majority of couples are able to assume responsibility for interpretation of their charts after a few months, but counseling is necessary at the beginning for success with the method. All NFP methods requre varied periods of abstinence during the fertile days of the cycle, a major hurdle in acceptance of NFP. Success depends on motivation, and most failures are believed attributable to "taking a chance." Cooperation of both spouses is more essential in NFP than in other methods. Couples who persevere in NFP accept the period of abstinence as a challenge and find it a source of enrichment for their marriages. PMID:12339514

Shivanandan, M

1976-10-01

150

Ovulation method of natural family planning.  

PubMed

Past practices of Natural Family Planning (NFP) have included such techniques as: 1) calendar rhythm in which a constant mathematical relationship was calculated between the day of ovulation and the beginning of the succeeding menstrual period, 2) temperature rhythm in which sexual intercourse is permitted by observing that the basal body temperature rises at the time of ovulation, 3) a combination of calendar and temperature rhythm methods, 4) paper test strips which measure glucose and electrolytes in vaginal secretions, 5) electronic devices of various sorts which record changes in the potentials of the pelvic organs at the time of ovulation, and 6) recent developments in computer technology which measure a number of variables. All of these techniques depend upon the identification of the fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle. More recent studies by the World Health Organization have analyzed the teaching phase of NFP and the effectiveness phase of NFP using the detection of ovulation by following changes in the quality of cervical mucus. These studies tested 869 women with varied backgrounds in 5 countries. The data support the fact that many motivated women can detect ovulation reasonably accurately by following changes in their cervical mucus (the Billings method), although teaching time and motivation are considerable. Long-term and detailed data are necessary to determine the value of these methods. The advantage of NFP is the avoidance of drugs and devices. Disadvantages are that demands are placed on the sex life of couples, and there are associations between failures and increased rates of congenital abnormalities. PMID:7308500

Connell-Tatum, E B

1981-11-01

151

The ovulation method of family planning.  

PubMed

The ovulation method of family planning relies on self-recognition of physiological changes occuring around time of ovulation rather than a calendar to enable a couple to avoid sexual intercourse during the fertile period. The most practical signs are elevated basal body temperature, changes in the amount and physicochemical properties of cervical mucus, and ovulation pain. The basal body temperature rises about .3 degrees C following ovulation. The problem with this method is that it is retrospective. The mucus symptoms, as described by Billings and associates in Melbourne, Australia, are: 1) a variable number of days with no vaginal discharge following menstrual bleeding; 2) onset of mucus symptoms characterized by increasing quantities of ''cloudy'' or ''sticky'' secretion; 3) a clear, slippery lubricative mucus having the characteristics of raw white of egg (spinnbarkeit), which is an immediate forwarning of ovulation; 4) a variable period of thick, opaque, diminished volume discharge followed by dry days. The clear ''peak symptom'' mucus lasts 1-2 days; in a study of 22 women followed for 27 cycles this symptom occurred .9 days +3 or -2 days before ovulation. The problem is that 2 of the 22 cycles reported in detail had ovulation 3 days after the peak symptom and 1 had ovulation 4 days after. Intercourse on the 4th day, therefore, would have had a significant risk of pregnancy. Weissman and associates collected data on 282 women on the Pacific island of Tonga who used the mucus symptoms alone to control conception. In the 2503 cycles there were 53 unplanned pregnancies, 25.4 per 100 woman-years using the Pearl formula. 50 resulted from the couples ''taking a chance,'' 2 misunderstood the method, 28 abandoned the method because they wanted more children, and 1 woman became pregnant even though she thought she understood the method. Field trials with groups who are more motivated than those in the Tongan trial are needed. PMID:12306723

France, J T

1973-06-01

152

Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience.  

PubMed

In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a strategic location; longer clinic hours; and a reasonable fee structure. A variety of outreach activities have been found to be useful in generating communiting interest in the YKB clinics, including inviting mothers groups to hold their meetings on the clinic premises. Information/education/communication materials in the form of posters, leaflets, booklets, flipcharts, and magnetic boards are needed to support community outreach and promotional activities. Those who plan to undertake the creation of a private clinic should keep in mind the following points if success is to be realized: community outreach is critical; clinic services should be adapted to community needs; adequate staff training and support should be provided; services should be expanded; and ties with government organizations, medical organizations, and community groups should be established and maintained. PMID:12340743

1986-06-01

153

11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, Diridon ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Scale 1:200. Drawing no. SP701, submitted by Biggs Cardoss Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SP701. Stamped by Roy M. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

154

[Specialization in family medicine--has all the planned been achieved?].  

PubMed

The planned, comprehensive inclusion of general practitioners/family physicians in specialist education has begun with the project entitled Harmonization of Family Medicine Service with European Standards by the Implementation of Compulsory Residency. According to the Project, all physicians working in family medicine practice should have an opportunity to complete the respective residency by 2015. Analysis of the planned and completed family medicine residency in Croatia during the 2002-2006 period is presented. Of the total family medicine residency positions planned during the four-year period, 543 (90.5%) have been completed, with the greatest discrepancy recorded in program A applying to physicians younger than 35 having concluded a contract with the Croatian Institute of Health Insurance. In addition, this relationship varied among different countries. There are a number of obstacles hindering the Project implementation. However, it should be noted that the Project has made a breakthrough in upgrading the quality of family medicine practice, as a pledge of future development and rational performance of the entire health care system in Croatia, in order to promote the health care of the population at large. PMID:17593648

Vrci?-Keglevi?, Mladenka; Kati?, Milica; Tiljak, Hrvoje; Lazi?, Durdica; Neki?, Venija Cerovecki; Petricek, Goranka; Ozvaci?, Zlata; Soldo, Dragan

2007-02-01

155

SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This project is being conducted at the request of the DOE and the NRC. The INL has been requested by the NRC to improve and maintain the Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) tool set concurrent with the changing needs of the user community as well as staying current with new technologies. Successful completion will be upon NRC approved release of all software and accompanying documentation in a timely fashion. This project will enhance the SAPHIRE tool set for the user community (NRC, Nuclear Power Plant operations, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model developers) by providing improved Common Cause Failure (CCF), External Events, Level 2, and Significance Determination Process (SDP) analysis capabilities. The SAPHIRE development team at the Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for successful completion of this project. The project is under the supervision of Curtis L. Smith, PhD, Technical Lead for the SAPHIRE application. All current capabilities from SAPHIRE version 7 will be maintained in SAPHIRE 8. The following additional capabilities will be incorporated: • Incorporation of SPAR models for the SDP interface. • Improved quality assurance activities for PRA calculations of SAPHIRE Version 8. • Continue the current activities for code maintenance, documentation, and user support for the code.

Curtis L.Smith; Ted S. Wood

2010-03-01

156

Issues in NASA Program and Project Management: Focus on Project Planning and Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics addressed include: Planning and scheduling training for working project teams at NASA, overview of project planning and scheduling workshops, project planning at NASA, new approaches to systems engineering, software reliability assessment, and software reuse in wind tunnel control systems.

Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

1997-01-01

157

Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.  

PubMed

On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

Li, R

1985-07-01

158

Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner.

Game, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

2013-12-01

159

Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role.  

PubMed

The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action. PMID:12257448

Tata, N H

1974-01-01

160

Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services.  

PubMed

The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

2014-11-01

161

Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's

Emma Varley

2012-01-01

162

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

163

Opinion: Natural family planning and the management of infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive behaviour in modern western society has changed dramatically in the last two decades. Parenthood is now well\\u000a planned. If planned pregnancies do not occur as expected, early infertility care is often demanded with the risk of over-treatment.\\u000a Live birth rates in untreated subfertile couples reach nearly 55% in 36 months. During this period, self-monitoring with natural\\u000a family planning (NFP)

Christian Gnoth; Petra Frank-Herrmann; Günter Freundl

2002-01-01

164

The use of inter vivos gifts in family estate planning  

E-print Network

Statement of the problem . Importance of the study. Purpose of the study Source of data . II. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE USE OF GIFTS IN FAMILY ESTATE PLANNING Theory of estate planning. Theory of gift planning. Theory of community property 7 14... III LEGAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INTER VIVOS GIFTS 17 Absolute transfers 17 Incomplete transfers Present or future interests. 18 20 Gifts in contemplation of death. 22 Successive estates Antenuptial gifts. Gifts to minors. Community property 24...

Lehrmann, Otto Quade

1963-01-01

165

Project Execution Plan Electron Beam Ion Source Project  

E-print Network

of Nuclear Physics (SC ­ 26) Rev. 1 May 2008 #12;#12;#12;4 Project Execution Plan for the Electron Beam Ion at Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY For the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Office

166

FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to  

E-print Network

1 FIRE Project Action Plan in Response to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report (PAC1) FIRE Mission: Finding F1-1: PAC-1 felt that the FIRE mission statement, "Attain, explore, understand states the scientific direction and objectives of the FIRE program, but that the mission statement does

167

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

168

MID-ATLANTIC LANDSCAPE INDICATORS PROJECT PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscapes are described by the spatial arrangements of ecological resources. he Project Plan details an approach that examines landscape patterns relative to their affect on the flow of energy, water, nutrients, and biota. he landscape component of the Environmental Monitoring a...

169

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Document Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The SNF Project Document Management Plan identifies and describes the currently available systems and processes for implementing and maintaining an effective document control and records management program. This program governs the methods by which documents are generated, released, distributed, maintained current, retired, and ultimately disposed.

Connor, M.D.; Harizison, G.L.; Rice, W.C.

1995-12-01

170

A second look at natural family planning.  

PubMed

There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791

Lolarga, E

1983-01-01

171

QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS FOR DEVELOPING PROJECT PLANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Region 10 has prepared new QA guidance documents for preparing Air Monitoring QA project plans, PCB QA Project Plans, Aquaculture NPDES Inspection Plans and RCRA Inspection QA project plans. These documents not only serve to establish detailed and uniform policy and guidance for...

172

The Family Writing Project: Creating Space for Sustaining Teacher Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family writing projects can change the nature of classroom writing instruction and rejuvenate teachers. Marilyn McKinney, Saralyn Lasley, and Rosemary Holmes-Gull report on their study of one such project in an urban school district. Using the concept of "third space," they describe the influence of this family literacy program on teacher practice.

McKinney, Marilyn; Lasley, Saralyn; Holmes-Gull, Rosemary

2008-01-01

173

Family planning knowledge and practice among Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates family planning activity in 308 Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic. Family planning awareness was present in 234 women (76%) and practice occurred in 168 (54.5%). Proposal to practice family planning occurred in 66 of 137 women who had never used contraception while 69 (22.4%) had no intention to practice family planning.

J. I. B. Adinma; B. O. Nwosu

1995-01-01

174

Third Asian and Pacific Conference perspectives on family planning, population, and development.  

PubMed

Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article. PMID:12313216

1984-01-01

175

Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

2014-01-01

176

Family planning practices in families with children affected by ?-thalassemia major in Southern Iran.  

PubMed

Preventing the birth of children with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with ?-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had ?-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with ?-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary. PMID:23181733

Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran

2013-01-01

177

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Family Life Education-  

E-print Network

for the Helping Professions 3 HED 32544 Human Sexuality 3 SOC 32210 Researching Society 3 ConcentrationSUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Family Life Education- Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-HDFS-FLE] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Lifespan

Sheridan, Scott

178

[The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].  

PubMed

Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

Portes, M

1983-01-01

179

Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design  

SciTech Connect

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

EVOSEVICH, S.

2000-10-30

180

Fertility awareness-based methods: another option for family planning.  

PubMed

Modern fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning have been offered as alternative methods of family planning. Billings Ovulation Method, the Creighton Model, and the Symptothermal Method are the more widely used FABMs and can be more narrowly defined as natural family planning. The first 2 methods are based on the examination of cervical secretions to assess fertility. The Symptothermal Method combines characteristics of cervical secretions, basal body temperature, and historical cycle data to determine fertility. FABMs also include the more recently developed Standard Days Method and TwoDays Method. All are distinct from the more traditional rhythm and basal body temperature methods alone. Although these older methods are not highly effective, modern FABMs have typical-use unintended pregnancy rates of 1% to 3% in both industrialized and nonindustrialized nations. Studies suggest that in the United States physician knowledge of FABMs is frequently incomplete. We review the available evidence about the effectiveness for preventing unintended pregnancy, prognostic social demographics of users of the methods, and social outcomes related to FABMs, all of which suggest that family physicians can offer modern FABMs as effective means of family planning. We also provide suggestions about useful educational and instructional resources for family physicians and their patients. PMID:19264938

Pallone, Stephen R; Bergus, George R

2009-01-01

181

CAMPUS PLANNING, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUEST FORM  

E-print Network

Approval Date Estimated Total Project Cost OPERATING BUDGET OFFICE APPROVAL ASSOCIATE VICE PRESIDENTOptionB Project # CAMPUS PLANNING, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUEST FORM CPDC - Office Use, Mailcode - 1025. Project Name: Department: Date of Submission: Requester: Phone: Proposed Occupancy Date

Oliver, Douglas L.

182

The provision of family planning services by family doctors in a health board region.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to ascertain the extent of family planning services provided by family doctors. Of the 134 doctors surveyed, 119 (88.8%) replied. Of these 97 (81.5%) were male, 30 (25.2%) were aged less than 40 and 22 (18.5%) were greater than 60. Sixty-four (53.8%) worked in single-handed practices, 52(43.7%) were vocationally trained, 101 (84.9%) had the MICGP or equivalent and 42 (35.3%) had a family planning certificate. Of the 119 respondents, 99 (83.2%) give instruction in natural family planning methods, 114 (95.8%) prescribe oral contraceptives, 102 (85.7%) prescribe the "morning after pill", 40 (33.6%) fit diaphragms and 17 (14.3%) fit intrauterine devices. Only 3 (2.5%) perform male sterilisations. Doctors aged less than 60 years were 1.3 times more likely to prescribe oral contraceptives (p < 0.0001), and were four times more likely to fit diaphragms (p < 0.01). Doctors who hold a family planning certificate were 2.4 times more likely to fit diaphragms (p < 0.001) and were 2.5 times more likely to fit intrauterine devices. As to who should provide these services, the family doctor was the preferred option for 95 (79.8%) with regard to natural family planning, 107 (89.9%) for the contraceptive pill, 76 (63.9%) for the diaphragm, 58 (48.7%) for the intrauterine device, 45 (37.8%) for male sterilisations and 4 (3.4%) for female sterilisations. Younger doctors and those with a family planning certificate were more likely to say that family doctors should provide these services.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7890537

Bedford, D; Howell, F; Lynskey, I

1995-01-01

183

Clayton Family Literacy and School Support Services Project: Project Class. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project CLASS, a collaborative family literacy demonstration research project designed to meet the language and literacy needs of limited English proficient families in Clayton County, Georgia, is described. Intergenerational and age-graded classes were provided for Cambodian, Laotian, Vietnamese, and Hispanic adult family members, their…

Nurss, Joanne R.

184

Customer-focused planning: Demonstration project summaries  

SciTech Connect

To succeed in the increasingly competitive and dynamic markets in which they operate, electric utilities are focusing ever greater attention on understanding and meeting customer needs. EPRI's Customer Focused Planning (CFP) project was established to develop concepts and tools that will help utilities enhance their commitment to customer service. The project team conducted a series of interviews and meetings with participating utilities to collaboratively implement crucial steps in the CFP process. Although there is no unique set of tools or single management approach for improving product and service delivery, customer-focused companies have at least five ideals in common. They (1) define goals and objectives in concrete terms, (2) extend the planning boundaries of the organization to include all members of the energy services infrastructure, (3) painstakingly link functional activities directly to customer needs, (4) incorporate the customer's voice in new product/ service design, and (5) align performance measures with customer needs. In addition, customer-focused companies use a variety of methods to improve customer satisfaction and company performance. These methods include conducting market research, developing market processes such as demand-side management contracting or bidding to reveal customer preferences, and involving customers more directly in the planning process. This report summarizes two brief demonstration projects conducted as part of EPRI's CFP project, one at Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) and one at PSI Energy. The CECo project emphasized developing customer-focused performance measures for telephone inquiries. The PSI Energy project involved a one-day workshop underscoring two important CFP elements-understanding customer wants and explicitly linking those wants to utility activities.

George, S.S. (Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1992-12-01

185

Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families.  

PubMed

One hundred planned lesbian-parent families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) were compared with 100 heterosexual-parent families on child adjustment, parental characteristics, and child rearing. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data. The results show that especially lesbian social mothers (i.e., nonbiological mothers) differ from heterosexual fathers on parental characteristics (e.g., more parental justification and more satisfaction with the partner as coparent) and child rearing (e.g., more parental concern and less power assertion). Child adjustment is not associated with family type (lesbian-parent families vs. heterosexual-parent families), but is predicted by power assertion, parental concern, and satisfaction with the partner as coparent. PMID:17352583

Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; van den Boom, Dymphna C

2007-01-01

186

The Family Backpack Project: Responding to Dual-Language Texts through Family Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Backpack Project provided 249 low-income, prekindergarten children and their families with opportunities to read and listen to audio recordings of 3 sets of books in their homes. Families received English or dual-language texts (English plus Spanish, Arabic, Kurdish, or Somali) matched to their home languages. Children and their…

Rowe, Deborah; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

2013-01-01

187

The Second Year of the Brookline Early Education Project: Progress Report and Plans for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second in a series of progress reports on the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP), a program which provides diagnostic and educational services for very young children and their families. The 1972-74 programs are described, and plans for the following 3-year period are reviewed. The purpose of this pilot project of the Brookline…

Brookline Public Schools, MA.

188

Very preliminary and incomplete Has the Family Planning Policy Improved the Quality of the Chinese New Generation? †  

E-print Network

One of the most influential social policies which are still being implemented in China is family planning policy, also known as one-child policy. The policy was enacted in the late 1979, and was written into the 1982 Chinese Constitution. The Official objectives of the family planning policy are to slow the population growth, improve the quality of population, and facilitate economic growth. In this project, we will answer an important question: Has the family planning policy improved the quality of the Chinese new generation, as measured by education level?

Yingyao Hu; Zhong Zhao; Discussion Dan Hamermesh; David Neumark; We Yi Zeng

2006-01-01

189

PREPARING PERFECT PROJECT PLANS: A POCKET GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This Pocket Guide helps you prepare Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans thoroughly and easily. he Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) utilizes a four-tiered project category approach in order to more effectively focus QA with respect to the intended use of the data and ...

190

Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.  

PubMed

Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

Sumarsono

1989-07-01

191

Inequalities in the use of family planning in rural Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

192

Inequalities in the Use of Family Planning in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

193

Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity  

PubMed Central

Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use. PMID:22818829

2012-01-01

194

The Costs and Benefits of Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A benefit-cost technique to measure the economic returns of family planning programs and the assumptions and limitations inherent in this type of analysis are presented. This approach takes the present value of the discounted consumption stream of an unborn child as the main measure of the benefit accruing to society from the prevention of a…

Zaidan, George C.

195

Diffusion of Innovations: Family Planning in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.

ELAINE MURPHY

2004-01-01

196

[Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo speak at family planning meeting].  

PubMed

Chen Muhua, the Chinese vice premier in charge of family planning spoke at a forum on the family, marriage, and family planning held in Beijing. She made the point that an attempt will be made to realize the goal of a 1 child family on the part of 95% of the married couples in the cities and 90% of the married couples in the countryside. Chen Muhua pointed out that the population growth rate should be in scale with economic developments, and she called for wide scale propaganda regarding the importance of birth control. The vice premier went on to say that late marriage and late birth should be advocated and that attention should be paid to the well being of women, children, and the aged. More than 200 delegates from Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces and from the People's Liberation Army attended the forum. 10 representatives spoke of their experience in promoting family planning. Vice Premiers Wang Zhen and Bo Yibo also spoke and noted that birth control was of considerable importance in improving the material and spiritual life of China's future generations. PMID:12338054

1980-02-01

197

Career\\/family conflict in adolescent girls' future plans—An interactive simulation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of family plans has always been an undisputed assumption underlying research in the area of adolescent girls' career development. However, the exact manner in which family plans affect girls and the specific theoretical implications of this effect have been understood differently during the last 30 years. The depressing effect of family plans on adolescent girls' career plans

Tsilia Romm

1987-01-01

198

78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to Improve Its Oversight of Project Costs.'' DATES: Comments must...to Improve Its Oversight of Project Costs'' (GA-090-751). That...Financial Plans include the cost of financing the project. Comments on the proposed...

2013-09-06

199

[Family planning with different contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

Female hormonal contraceptives, introduced commercially in 1959, contained 10 mg of norethynodrel and .15 mg of mestranol. The estrogen and progesterone doses were progressively reduced over time. In 1989, approximately 60 million couples used oral contraceptives (OCs) ranging from 1% in Japan to 40% in the Netherlands. The monophasic pill contains .01 - .04 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), and the biphasic pill contains increasing doses of progesterone and estroprogesterone in the course of the menstrual cycle. Triphasic combined pills contain an initially dominant estrogen dose. In oral sequential pills, estrogen is given on days 14-16 followed by a estroprogesterone for 5-7 days. Micropills with progesterone, injectables with medroxyprogesterone, and 3rd-generation OCs such as gestoden with a low progesterone dose of .04 mg/day and reduced androgenic activity are among other OCs. The OCs are administered in 21-22 day packets. Absolute contraindications include history of venous thrombosis, atherogenic lipid profile, hormone-dependent cancer, and allergy. Relative contraindications include arterial ailments, smoking, hypertension, older age, obesity, and familial history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. Interactions with antibiotics (ampicillin and tetracycline) occur as the modified intestinal flora reduces the level of deconjugated EE. Most frequent side effects are depression, modification of libido, ocular disorders, headache, and urinary infection. Benefits include favorable modification of menstrual cycle, and reduction of endometriosis and endometrial and ovarian cancer. Systemic risks such as cardiovascular and blood coagulation effects occur mainly with high-dose OCs. Further topics addressed are the cancer risk and protective effect of OCs, postcoital OCs, traditional contraception, the IUD, RU-486, implants, vaccination with the human antigonadotropine, and the vaginal ring. PMID:1823414

Dumitrache, F; Gheorghi??, E

1991-01-01

200

Data Link Processor (DLP) project transition plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision for two-way communication with aircraft, via a digital data link, has long been considered a means of providing significant enhancements for safe and efficient flight operations. The data link processor (DLP) currently being tested will initially perform the ground-based data link processing functions necessary to provide appropriately equipped aircraft with pilot requested aviation weather data from a National Weather Data Base via the Mode Select Beacon System (Mode S). The weather data base will contain six products: surface observations (SA), terminal forecasts (FT), pilot reports (UA), wind and temperature aloft forecasts (FD), radar summaries (SD), and hazardous weather advisories. The DLP project transition plan presents those activities and the organizations that are responsible to effect the transition of the DLP into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center. This plan identifies the functional interfaces, equipment description, testing, training, and logistics support necessary for an orderly transition at the FAA Technical Center.

Morfitt, Gary; Doucett, Noel A.

1990-04-01

201

Natural family planning in 1985: a status report.  

PubMed

The current status of natural family planning (NFP) was reviewed. There is renewed interest in NFP, and many couples who find other methods unacceptable for medical, safety, or personal reasons are turning to NFP methods. The percent of contraceptive users who rely on behavioral methods in developing countries in 35% in Peru, 20%-25% in Haiti, Philippines, and Sri Lanka, and average 7.5% for the remaining 23 developing countries. IN the US about 4.7% of all contraceptive users rely on behavioral methods. Worldwide, rhythm is the most commonly used form of behavior fertility control, but this method is not promoted by most NFP programs. The 3 modern methods of NFP are 1) the basal body temperature method, 2) the cervical mucus, or Billings method, and 3) the sympto-thermal method. All these methods rely on physical signs and symptoms to detect ovulation and require sexual abstinence during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The basal body temperature method requires women to detect the slight rise in temperature which occurs at the time of ovulation. The method is 94%-97% effective if intercourse is restricted to the postovulatory phase of the cycle. Disadvantages of the method are that intercourse must be restricted to only 7-13 days of the cycle, women must take their temperature daily, the method cannot be used during fever episodes, and the method is inappropriate for use during lactation or near menopause. The cervical mucus method is based on observing cervical mucus changes during the cycle. These changes signal the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle. According to a World Health Organization study, 93% of the women instructed in the method were able to detect mucus changes, and illiterate women were as adept at identifying these changes as university graduates. Findings also indicated that the method was 97% effective if abstinence was practiced during 15 days of the cycle, but use-effectiveness was only about 80%. This method has the advantage of not requiring ovulatory regularity. The sympto-thermal method uses a combination of symptoms including temperature shifts and mucus changes to detect ovulation. Some studies indicate that the combined method is more effective than those methods based on only 1 symptom, but many individuals find the combined method difficult and confusing. The advantages of NFP methods are that they require no medical supervision and that they have no side effects. Family planning providers often have negative attitudes toward NFP and many programs do not provide NFP services. Many providers maintain that the methods are ineffective and difficult to apply and that there is little demand for NFP. Research should be undertaken to determine if these opinions are valid. The major source of funding for NFP programs and projects is the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The agency is currently supporting 22 NFP projects under USAID grants and another 16 bilateral NFP programs. The research undertaken in connection with these projects should provide needed information on NFP advantages, disadvantages, effectiveness, and demand. PMID:12280130

Spieler, J; Shuler, A

1985-05-01

202

Family planning associations vital to supervision of programme implementation.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association (FPA) of China's Shuilianyu Township (Feixian County, Shadong Province) has made a major contribution to both contraceptive acceptance and poverty alleviation. Before the FPA was established in 1988, interviews were conducted in over 700 households in 18 villages in the township. The interviews suggested that adoption of China's one-child policy was being jeopardized by the failure of Communist Party and township officials to themselves adhere to this standard. As a result of this survey, disciplinary actions were taken against 18 officials who had violated the policy or shown bias in granting others permission to have extra children. The township government expressed willingness to have the Family Planning Association assume supervision over family planning implementation and developed "Regulations Governing Democratic Participation and Democratic Supervision by the FPA." Complaint desks and special boxes were established to collect information from the public about corrupt officials. In one case, the FPA was able to advocate on behalf of a man who had two daughters but no sons and was concerned about old age support. The village association was persuaded to give the man a piece of land on which to build a three-room dwelling so his future son-in-law could live with the family. According to custom, only sons have the right to access to land for housing. PMID:12291694

Zhu, H

1996-06-01

203

Liberating the shackled half. Family planning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan's national family planning program dates back to 1965. Despite these many years of family planning campaigns, Pakistan still has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Only 12% of Pakistani couples currently use contraceptives, approximately the same percentage as in 1972, and the average total fertility rate per woman is 5.5 children, only 1 less than two decades ago. Average annual per capita income in Pakistan is less than US$400. Were each Pakistani woman to limit her family to just two children, effective immediately, Pakistan's population would still exceed 150 million by 2000. If fertility rates remain at current levels, however, Pakistan's population will surpass 280 million by 2020. The manner in which Islam is interpreted by some religious leaders, a broad preference for sons over daughters, early and almost universal marriage, the low status of women, traditional support for natural fertility, and poor health status are principle reasons why population growth remains high in Pakistan. Poor health and the low status of women play particularly important roles. Health conditions therefore need to be improved and women educated so that birth spacing and birth limiting at lower levels may become realities. The actions of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and that a woman holds her position should go far to help improve women's status in Pakistan. Well-trained health professionals are also needed to become more aware about family planning and to take the lead for change. PMID:12319515

Geary, J

1995-01-01

204

Developmental Issues in StepFamilies Research Project: Family Relationships and Parent–Child Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of previous findings on children's adjustment in stepfamilies, nonresidential parent–child relationships, and steproles and new results on family relationships from the Developmental Issues in StepFamilies Research Project is presented. A multimethod, multimeasure, cross-sectional, and longitudinal design was used to study first-marriage, nuclear families (n = 97), and stepfamilies (n = 98) after 6 months, 2.5 years, and 5

James H. Bray; Sandra H. Berger

1993-01-01

205

An integrated approach to operations research for strengthening family planning programs: a case example in kenya.  

PubMed

The Africa Operations Research/Technical Assistance Project developed an integrated approach to introducing and institutionalizing family planning in Kenya. This approach consisted of: 1) the development of the Situation Analysis methodology to diagnose problems; 2) the development of a computer simulation model for choosing operations research (OR) strategies; 3) an OR training workshop; 4) the implementation of three OR field studies testing educational approaches to several program problems; 5) a conference to review the findings and implications from the three studies. Technical assistance was provided in all phases. Results from the field studies indicated that all of the tested educational interventions had at least some short-term impact. Health talks with waiting maternal and child health (MCH) clients doubled the proportion adopting family planning; a simple educational package for clinic supervisors, along with a day of training, raised the proportion of family planning clients receiving education and referral for voluntary surgical sterilization (VSC) and increased the number of tubal ligations at a referral hospital. Waiting time was reduced. The Division of Family Health of the Ministry of Health has submitted plans to introduce these interventions into several districts of the country in the near future. Full institutionalization of OR requires additional cycles of program activities. PMID:20840985

Miller, R A; Frerichs, R R

1992-01-01

206

Measuring university student satisfaction with a campus family planning clinic in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Family planning clinics for university students play a valuable role in promoting health. This research project, a pilot study among women students who sought family planning services through a Costa Rican university clinic, introduced student evaluation of the family planning clinic, documented services provided in family planning visits, and identified issues for further study. Aged 18-33 years, the 53 respondents (a convenient sample) who completed a self-administered questionnaire were mostly (64%) single; all were sexually active; and 78% wished to have children (or more children) some day. Though all were sexually active at the time of their visit, only 62% were currently using contraception, and fewer than half of these were using effective methods. Nearly all students (96%) reported they learned new information during their appointment, and many received screening tests and examinations. Respondents rated their satisfaction with aspects of clinic service as high, citing the clinic's low visibility on campus as the most important area for improvement. All of the students said they would definitely return (85%) or would consider returning (15%). The results support the continuance of such a clinic on the campus, as well as of the practice of student evaluation. This collaborative study demonstrated areas for future research and stimulated interest in the university clinic as a research setting. PMID:8375977

Kalma, S

1993-08-01

207

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

Ross, W.E.

1998-05-11

208

Field trial of billings ovulation method of natural family planning.  

PubMed

There are couples with unmet family planning needs and couples who do not use any modern method, yet they desire to space or avoid pregnancies. Many of them look for safe and effective options like the natural family planning methods. The Billings Ovulation Method based on single index cervical mucus parameter is one such option. The present multicentre trial conducted in India has shown an encouraging use-effectiveness of the method, indicating method failure as low as 1.5 +/- 0.3 and use-failure 15.9 +/- 0.8 per 100 users at 21 months. The method continuation rates have also been as high as 88.3/100 users at 6 months and 52.0/100 users at 21 months. PMID:8838482

Bhargava, H; Bhatia, J C; Ramachandran, L; Rohatgi, P; Sinha, A

1996-02-01

209

The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.  

PubMed

We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

2012-07-14

210

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

Clobes, A.R.

1996-10-01

211

[Natural family planning: ovulation method after Billings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

During the last decade, the World Health Organization has paid increasing attention to some reliable methods of birth control based on periodic abstinence. There are 2 main methods of natural family planning--the Sympto-Thermal method and the Billings Ovulation method. The latter is explained in this paper. Its scientific basis, use, effectiveness, and importance as a birth control method as well as for understanding certain types of infertility are discussed. (author's) PMID:7037526

Meier-Vismara, E; Meier-Vismara, U

1982-01-01

212

The use of periodic abstinence for family planning.  

PubMed

This review of periodic abstinence for family planning emphasizes terminology and distinctions between the prevalent methods, and issues that will enable the health practitioner to be informed about this family planning choice. Periodic abstinence developed in the 1930s when Ogino and Knaus independently discovered the timing of ovulation, and consequently the calendar-based rhythm method became sanctioned by the church. Philippine surveys find a 40/100 woman-year pregnancy rate with rhythm. The cervical mucus method is also known as the ovulation, Billings or mucus method. Coitus is permitted by the 4th night after the peak day. Symptoms may be obscured by vaginal or seminal fluids, infections, allergies, or drugs. The symptothermal method employs mucus symptoms and basal body temperature. Coitus is allowed on the 3rd night after the temperature rise. It has the lowest failure rate, ranging from 11.2-19.8. Some family planning groups also use other symptoms such as midcycle spotting or pain, cervical position, dilation or texture, moods or libido. Various teaching groups have published charts that facilitate charting symptoms, such as temperature graphs with wide scales to make it easier to read the temperature rise. Measuring efficacy rates is difficult, and different definitions are used for several types of failures. The most important factor in success with natural family planning is the motivation of the couple. The most common cause of failure is conscious departure from the rules. Some current issues regarding abstinence are possible risks of birth defects from aged gametes, the difficulty of predicting ovulation in women with irregular cycles, the effects of vaginal infection and illness on the mucus signs, the potential for sex selection through the use of timing of intercourse and development of tests and devices to predict ovulation. PMID:2663279

Labbok, M H; Queenan, J T

1989-06-01

213

Communication and family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

An analysis of 46 posters from 27 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa allowed the values conveyed by this medium to be defined, the status of the announcer and the recipient to be clarified, and their relationship and the attendant social consequences to be brought out. One of the primary characteristics of this sample was that the vast majority of the posters contained drawings and only a limited number used photos. The family was the theme most commonly represented by the image and the text: information on family planning necessarily involved the family, the synonym of fertility. The majority of posters represented the traditional, nuclear family of the Western world, comprising the father, mother, and children. It was interesting to observe that this image did not necessarily reflect reality in Africa, where traditionally the extended family, including the grandparents, uncles and aunts, is more widespread. The message most commonly conveyed the image of the nuclear family. The number of children shown varied from 1 to 4, with an average of 2. The most widely used message strategies in this sample of posters involved three types of announcer: authoritarian, nonauthoritarian, and character announcer. The authoritarian type announcer was not visually depicted but consisted of messages that were written orders or threats. The nonauthoritarian announcer, also not depicted, gave messages that contained no orders or threats. The character announcer was one the characters portrayed in the picture. PMID:12319939

De Paolis, M R

1994-01-01

214

Project X Accelerator R&D Plan  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading program in neutrino and flavor physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Project X is an integral part of the Fermilab Roadmap as described in the Fermilab Steering Group Report. Project X is based on an 8 GeV superconducting H-linac, paired with the existing (but modified) Main Injector and Recycler Ring, to provide in excess of 2 MW of beam power throughout the energy range 60-120 GeV, simultaneous with at least 100 kW of beam power at 8 GeV. The linac utilizes technology in common with the ILC over the energy range 0.6-8.0 GeV. Beam current parameters can be made identical to ILC resulting in identical rf generation and distribution systems. This alignment of ILC and Project X technologies allows for a shared development effort. The initial 0.6 GeV of the linac draws heavily on technology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for a facility for rare isotope beams. It is anticipated that the exact configuration and operating parameters of the linac will be defined through the R&D program and will retain alignment with the ILC plan as it evolves over this period. Utilization of the Recycler Ring as an H{sup -} stripper and accumulator ring is the key element that provides the flexibility to operate the linac with the same beam parameters as the ILC. The linac operates at 5 Hz with a total of 5.6 x 10{sup 13} H{sup -} ions delivered per pulse. H{sup -} are stripped at injection into the Recycler in a manner that 'paints' the beam both transversely and longitudinally to reduce space charge forces. Following the 1 ms injection, the orbit moves off the stripping foil and circulates for 200 msec, awaiting the next injection. Following three such injections a total of 1.7 x 10{sup 14} protons are transferred in a single turn to the Main Injector. These protons are then accelerated to 120 GeV and fast extracted to a neutrino target. The Main Injector cycle takes 1.4 seconds, producing approximately 2.3 MW of beam power at 120 GeV. At lower proton energies Main Injector cycle times can be shorter, allowing a beam power above 2 MW in the range of proton energy between 60 GeV and 120 GeV. In parallel, because the loading of the Recycler only requires 0.6 seconds, up to four linac cycles are available for accumulation and distribution of 8 GeV protons from the Recycler. Total available 8 GeV beam power lies in the range of 100-200 kW, depending on the energy in the Main Injector. Primary modifications to the existing accelerator complex to support Project X include integration of an H{sup -} injection system, a new RF system, a new extraction system, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects, in the Recycler Ring. The Main Injector would need a new RF system, measures to preserve beam stability through transition, and measures to mitigate electron cloud effects. Finally, substantial modifications to the existing NuMI target station will be required to support >2 MW operations. It is anticipated that Project X configured as described above would initially support high intensity neutrino beams to the NOvA experiment, in parallel with at least one new 8 GeV based flavor/rare decay experiment. Depending upon future directions flexibility is retained for delivering neutrinos toward the DUSEL site and/or protons into the Tevatron. The purpose of this document is to describe an R&D plan that would position the U.S. to initiate construction of Project X in the 2012 time frame, assuming a go ahead decision in roughly 2010. The organization of this document is as follows: (1) Goals - Describes goals of the R&D and preliminary design period (2008-2011). Included are design, technical development, project documentation, and organizational goals. These are described in the context of an overall set of performance goals for Project X. (2) R&D Plan Elements - Describes the essential technical elements of the plan, including major subsystem performance requirements, associated accelerator and technology issues, and the plans for add

Not Available

2008-01-31

215

Socialist spiritual civilization enhances consciousness in family planning.  

PubMed

Since 1985, there have been no cases of coercion in the practice of family planning and yet also no unplanned births among the over 1200 members of the Chinese Communist Party in Hunan Province's Fuxing Township. Ideological work is aimed at demonstrating that fertility control is in the interest of both individuals and the state. All township cadres are asked by the government to take the lead in practicing family planning, publicizing population policies, and assisting in solving the difficulties of the masses. They are further expected to take the lead in the provision of 5 services: 1) publicity about population theory and family planning policy; 2) birth control training and provision; 3) management and distribution of contraceptives; 4) maternal-child health services, including free health check-ups for the 870 children in the township and follow-up visits to the 2100 women who have undergone tubal ligation; and 5) development of social welfare and assistance to 1-child households. PMID:12341553

1987-02-01

216

A Study of Women Who Drop-Out of Family Planning Clinics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inconsistent use of contraceptives or discontinuance of family planning services places women at risk of unintended pregnancies. Dropping out of family planning clinics also could mean interrupting gynecological care. Nonetheless, approximately 20% of adolescent family planning patients and nearly 25% of adult patients do not return for a second…

Armstrong, Kay A.; And Others

217

Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

Swartz, Barbara

218

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

219

AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with

John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo

1992-01-01

220

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

221

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

222

Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned pregnancies among users of natural family planning: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning. METHODS: Women who became pregnant while using natural family planning were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies in this cohort. The subjects were followed up at 16 and 32 weeks' gestation and after delivery. The risks of spontaneous abortion, low birth-weight, and preterm birth were estimated after adjustment by logistic regression. RESULTS: The women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to be at the extremes of age, to report more medical problems before and during the index pregnancy, and to seek antenatal care later in gestation than the women with planned pregnancies. However, women with planned pregnancies reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies (28.8%) than did women with unplanned pregnancies (12.9%). There were no significant differences in the rates of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or preterm birth between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning. PMID:9096531

Bitto, A; Gray, R H; Simpson, J L; Queenan, J T; Kambic, R T; Perez, A; Mena, P; Barbato, M; Li, C; Jennings, V

1997-01-01

223

Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-08-28

224

40 CFR 93.115 - Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. 93.115 Section...or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. (a) The...

2012-07-01

225

40 CFR 93.115 - Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. 93.115 Section...or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. (a) The...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 93.115 - Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. 93.115 Section...or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. (a) The...

2013-07-01

227

40 CFR 93.115 - Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. 93.115 Section...or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. (a) The...

2010-07-01

228

40 CFR 93.115 - Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. 93.115 Section...or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed...Criteria and procedures: Projects from a transportation plan and TIP. (a) The...

2014-07-01

229

Summative Evaluation of the Manukau Family Literacy Project, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report covers a summative evaluation of a family literacy project in Auckland, New Zealand. The evaluation covered 70 adults and their children over a two year period. Outcomes for the program included literacy skill gains for both adults and children, increased levels of self-confidence and self-efficacy, greater parental involvement in…

Benseman, John Robert; Sutton, Alison Joy

2005-01-01

230

A Mutual-Help Project for Families of Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program for families of handicapped children that features educational programs and parent and sibling support groups. Notes that parents and siblings involved in the mutual-help project have uncovered salient issues and have taken an active role in community education and advocacy. (Author/NB)

Pearson, Judith E.; Sternberg, Abby

1986-01-01

231

Central and South Florida Project, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan  

E-print Network

Central and South Florida Project, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Site 1 Impoundment Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The CERP was approved by WRDA 2000 as a framework for the purpose. The Site 1 Impoundment Project will improve the ecological function of the Everglades by capturing

US Army Corps of Engineers

232

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks  

E-print Network

Draft 0 6/17/11 1 Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks in the NSTX Test Cell: _____________________________________________________________ Jerry Levine, Environment, Safety, Health and Security Head Reviewed by describes the structure and implementation of the Health and Safety Plan for the NSTX Upgrade Project work

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

233

Automated transportation management system (ATMS) software project management plan (SPMP)  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management plan (SPMP) is the lead planning document governing the life cycle of the ATMS and its integration into the Transportation Information Network (TIN). This SPMP defines the project tasks, deliverables, and high level schedules involved in developing the client/server ATMS software.

Weidert, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-20

234

An Analysis of Extended Planning Periods for Teacher Corps Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and disadvantages of an extended planning period for implementing a Teacher Corps program are examined. A planning period of several months duration, four to six months for example, is deemed beneficial to the outcome of a project, while a longer period may possibly cause a loss of momentum and sense of goal. However, a planning…

Houston, W. Robert; And Others

235

42 CFR 59.7 - What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Human Services use to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what amount...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.7 What criteria...

2010-10-01

236

The role of the clinician in natural family planning.  

PubMed

Despite skepticism on the part of the health care delivery system, increasing numbers of women and couples are relying on natural family planning methods to avoid or achieve pregnancy. Most clients require 2-4 cycles to become familiar with the delineation of the fertile phase. Both the ovulation and the sympto-thermal methods are considered to have a method effectiveness of at least 98%. Teaching-related unplanned pregnancies fall below 5%. Use of the Billings ovulation method requires the couple to abstain from intercourse from the beginning of mucus until the 4th day after peak. The sympto-thermal method is preferred by those desiring a multiple-index approach. 75-80% of users of this method can detect cervical softening and dilatation, and 50% are aware of the change of position of the cervix. Knowledge of mucus buildup patterns can be expecially important for adolescents, lactating women, and premenopausal women in helping them to determine whether cycles are ovulatory. Instruction in interpretation of the mucus cycle is further advised in cases of infertility. Unwillingness of the partners to practice it constitutes the only contraindication to natural family planning. However, couples are advised to wait for the postovulatory infertile phase of the cycle to have intercourse in cases where prgnancy would pose a serious threat to the life of the mother or fetus. Although some groups recommend the use of a barrier method rather than abstinence during fertile periods, this practice makes mucus recognition more difficult and impedes confidence in the method. Attainment of couple autonomy in natural family planning involves 2 phases: 1) correct recognition of the signs of fertility and 2) comfort with periodic asbsinence. Successful autonomy is reflected in the high continuation rates found in programs that offer adequate counseling support. PMID:6672043

Klaus, H

1983-12-01

237

Predictors of recruited melanoma families into a behavioral intervention project  

PubMed Central

Background Examination of families represents an important priority in health research. In this paper we report on individual and family-level factors associated with enrollment in a cancer prevention research project. We approached families affected by melanoma for possible participation in a randomized controlled trial of a web-based communication and support intervention. Methods We recruited three family members per family for assessment – the melanoma case, a first-degree relative (FDR), and a relative who is a parent of a child age 18 or younger. Recruitment involved three steps: requesting the physician’s consent to approach the melanoma case, approaching the case to request their participation and family contact information, and they approaching the FDRs and parents. Results Of the 1380 families approached, 313 were enrolled, 263 were excluded because we could not find or contact a family member (FDR or parent), 331 did not have eligible family members, and 473 refused. The most frequently noted reason for refusal was being too busy or having no time. The primary predictors of participation for cases, FDRs, and parents included higher educational attainment (OR’s=1.5–2.15); FDRs were more likely to enroll if they were female (OR=1.77), parents were more likely to enroll if the case had been diagnosed more recently(OR=3.3), if the parent was partnered (OR=4.37), and if the parent lived in the same city as the case(2.88). Conclusions The results can provide information on the potential generalizability of family recruitment. PMID:22001361

Bowen, Deborah J.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Mayer, Joni; Kuniyuki, Alan; Meischke, Hendrika; Harris, Julie; Asgari, Maryam; Shoveller, Jeannie; Press, Nancy; Burke, Wylie

2014-01-01

238

Natural family planning and sex selection: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

Determining sex of offspring by timing of intercourse has been a subject of intense interest for the lay public and professional community. This metaaanalysis of couples practicing natural family planning provides an opportunity to evaluate sex ratios in relation to the timing of conception with several parameters, including basal body temperature shift and peak mucus as markers of ovulation. Data from six studies show a statistically significant lower proportion of male births among conceptions that occur during the most fertile time of the cycle. PMID:1836712

Gray, R H

1991-12-01

239

A thirty-month clinical experience in natural family planning.  

PubMed Central

A Natural Family Planning service was evaluated at the end of a 30-month developmental phase. There were 444 women taught and 322 method acceptor of which 248 intended to avoid pregnancy. NFP clients were older (mean age 26.9 vs 22.4 and 23.7 for comparison groups), and a larger percentage were married (83.1 per cent vs 23.0 per cent for the comparison group). After one year of use, the unplanned pregnancy rate was 14.4 per cent and the total dropout rate was 37.6 per cent by life table analysis. PMID:7294271

Kambic, R; Kambic, M; Brixius, A M; Miller, S

1981-01-01

240

The Billings method of family planning: an assessment.  

PubMed

The Billings/ovulation method is a periodic abstinence method of regulating births based on the client's interpretation of changing patterns in secretions of cervical mucus monitored by external self-examination. It was developed in Australia and is now widely promoted overseas. This paper outlines the method's recent history and goes on to discuss its physiological basis, its use-effectiveness as measured in a number of major trials, and some evidence concerning its general acceptability and applicability in family planning programs. PMID:6515667

Betts, K

1984-01-01

241

Family planning performance at a major hospital in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

862 men attending the family health clinic, General Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka for sterilization over the October 1, 1982-March 1983 period were interviewed to study the characteristics of the men attending the clinic and to assess the popularity of vasectomy over other methods of family planning. For the study to be more comprehensive, the figures of the family planning activities of the hospital from 1977-82 also were examined. 438 (55.5%) of the study subjects were paddy cultivators. 71 of the men were in the 16-25 age group, 422 in the 26-35 age group, 272 in the 36-45 age group, and 97 in the 46 and older age group. 725 (85%) of the men were literate. Middle income groups comprised the major segment of men in this series. In 544 (63.1%) the vasectomy was motivated by friends and relatives; only 15 (2.0%) were motivated by health staff. 821 of the men (95.3%) belonged to the 16-39 age group. A table summarizes the relationship between age of the last living child and vasectomy performance. For 279 of the men, the age of their last living child was less than 1 year; it was 1-2 years for 218 men, 2-3 years for 180 men, and 3 or more years for 185 men. Study observations indicate that a consensus is becoming established about the role played by the male partner in family planning. The incentive scheme, acceptability and safety of the method, and a change in life styles should be considered. In the 862 vasectomies performed, there were no major complications or failures in contraception. Some pertinent factors for the favorable trend in vasectomy at this clinic are: health education talks delivered by a trained staff nurse at this clinic, outpatient department, and wards of the hospital; motivation activities of the community development social workers in the field; this clinic being the leading clinic of the limited number of institutions in Kurunegala conducting regular male sterilization clinics, and personality characteristics of the medical officer, staff, and the facilities available at the clinic. The middle months and the latter part of the year were the most popular periods at this clinic. These months represent the nonharvesting season. The study shows that the small family norm has been preferred by the majority; only 111 had more than 3 living children. Better education, better communication, and better approach methods may improve vasectomy acceptance rates. PMID:6680335

Tennakoon, S

1983-12-01

242

Integrated Project Teams - An Essential Element of Project Management during Project Planning and Execution - 12155  

SciTech Connect

Managing complex projects requires a capable, effective project manager to be in place, who is assisted by a team of competent assistants in various relevant disciplines. This team of assistants is known as the Integrated Project Team (IPT). he IPT is composed of a multidisciplinary group of people who are collectively responsible for delivering a defined project outcome and who plan, execute, and implement over the entire life-cycle of a project, which can be a facility being constructed or a system being acquired. An ideal IPT includes empowered representatives from all functional areas involved with a project-such as engineering design, technology, manufacturing, test and evaluation, contracts, legal, logistics, and especially, the customer. Effective IPTs are an essential element of scope, cost, and schedule control for any complex, large construction project, whether funded by DOE or another organization. By recently assessing a number of major, on-going DOE waste management projects, the characteristics of high performing IPTs have been defined as well as the reasons for potential IPT failure. Project managers should use IPTs to plan and execute projects, but the IPTs must be properly constituted and the members capable and empowered. For them to be effective, the project manager must select the right team, and provide them with the training and guidance for them to be effective. IPT members must treat their IPT assignment as a primary duty, not some ancillary function. All team members must have an understanding of the factors associated with successful IPTs, and the reasons that some IPTs fail. Integrated Project Teams should be used by both government and industry. (authors)

Burritt, James G.; Berkey, Edgar [Longenecker and Associates, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

2012-07-01

243

Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites. Final [report  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC`s acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information.

Not Available

1993-09-01

244

Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study  

SciTech Connect

The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

1991-09-01

245

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Case Management  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall only; fulfills THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management for Individuals

Sheridan, Scott

246

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Case Management  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management HDFS 44192 Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall below #12;SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management

Sheridan, Scott

247

Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya.  

PubMed

This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services. PMID:9216034

Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T

1997-06-01

248

The quality of family planning services in rural China.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary analysis of three aspects of service quality in four rural counties in China--the availability of contraceptive methods, information given to users, and provider knowledge about methods. Contraceptive choice and characteristics of contraceptive use by women in the study areas are also examined. The data are derived from a survey carried out by the authors during 1987, under the auspices of China's State Family Planning Commission. The survey was conducted in four rural counties located in Fujian and Heilongjiang provinces. A total of 318 married women of reproductive age were randomly selected and interviewed. All family planning service sites serving the women were visited and a sample of service providers was interviewed. No shortage of contraceptives existed in any of the counties, but variations in community wealth and local procurement practices have resulted in the acquisition of an IUD with high failure rates. Although providers believe they inform women about method choices and side effects, women were poorly informed about the methods they selected. Not all providers who insert IUDs and distribute pills were knowledgeable about contraindications and side effects of the methods. Ever-use of contraception was nearly 100 percent, but most women, especially in Heilongjiang, have only used one method: the IUD or sterilization. Improvements in quality, especially in method mix, providers' level of knowledge, and the quality and quantity of information provided to users will likely improve contraceptive continuation, client satisfaction, and women's health. PMID:1604461

Kaufman, J; Zhang, Z; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y

1992-01-01

249

Family planning requirements in the adult congenital heart disease clinic.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether women with congenital heart disease were receiving appropriate advice on contraception. SETTING: Adult congenital heart disease clinic in a tertiary cardiac referral centre. DESIGN: Questionnaire administered to 35 consecutive female patients attending the adult congenital clinic. The cardiologist assessed what the risk would be if each patient used an oestrogen containing contraceptive pill (OCP). RESULTS: Of the 33 patients admitted to the study 6 patients thought their heart condition precluded them from taking an OCP when in fact it did not and 3 incorrectly said that an OCP would be suitable for them. Three women with relatively minor lesions had been incorrectly denied the OCP and 2 further patients were using inappropriate methods. There had been 6 unwanted pregnancies in the total group. CONCLUSIONS: Many women with congenital heart disease do not know the most appropriate method of contraception for them or have received incorrect advice. It is often patients with less severe lesions who receive the most inappropriate advice. It is clear that the family planning needs of this population are currently poorly catered for. Each unit must ensure that the information necessary in making informed decisions on contraception is available to the doctor advising on family planning. PMID:8774329

Leonard, H.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; Hunter, S.

1996-01-01

250

Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Results Data were obtained from 39 585 women, with a total of 73

Qu Jian Ding; Therese Hesketh

2006-01-01

251

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project: Project plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) [Public Law (PL) 95-604, 42 United States Code (USC) 7901], hereinafter referred to as the ``Act,`` authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination. To fulfill this mission, the DOE has established two projects under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office. The Ground Water Project was established in April 1991 as a major project and a separate project plan will be prepared for that portion of the mission. This project plan covers the UMTRA Surface Project, a major system acquisition (MSA).

Not Available

1993-08-11

252

Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI), a 6-year comprehensive family planning program (2009–2015) in 4 cities, intentionally applies communication theories to all program elements, not just the demand generation ones, relying mainly on a theory called ideation—the concept that contraceptive use is influenced by people's beliefs, ideas, and feelings and that changing these ideational factors can change people's behavior. Program Description: The project used multiple communication channels to foster dialogue about family planning, increase social approval for it, and improve accurate knowledge about contraceptives. Mobile service delivery was started in the third year to improve access to clinical methods in slums. Methods: Data from representative baseline (2010–11) and midterm (2012) surveys of women of reproductive age in the project cities were analyzed. We also used propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent control group of women not exposed to project activities, and we examined service delivery data from NURHI-supported clinics (January 2011–May 2013) to determine the contribution of mobile services to total family planning services. Results: Three years into the initiative, analysis of longitudinal data shows that use of modern contraceptives has increased in each city, varying from 2.3 to 15.5 percentage points, and that the observed increases were predicted by exposure to NURHI activities. Of note is that modern method use increased substantially among the poorest wealth quintiles in project cities, on average, by 8.4 percentage points. The more project activities women were exposed to, the greater their contraceptive use. For example, among women not using a modern method at baseline, contraceptive prevalence among those with no exposure by midterm was 19.1% vs. 43.4% among those with high exposure. Project exposure had a positive dose-response relationship with ideation, as did ideation and contraceptive use. By the end of the observation period, mobile services were contributing nearly 50% of total family planning services provided through NURHI-supported clinics. Propensity score matching found that the increase in contraceptive use in the 4 cities attributable to project exposure was 9.9 percentage points. Intention to use family planning in the next 12 months also increased by 7.5 to 10.2 percentage points across the 4 cities. Conclusion: Demand-led family planning programs, in which demand generation is the driving force behind the design rather than the conventional, service delivery-oriented approach, may be more suitable in places where expressed demand for contraceptives is low. PMID:25611477

Krenn, Susan; Cobb, Lisa; Babalola, Stella; Odeku, Mojisola; Kusemiju, Bola

2014-01-01

253

7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan...Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan...plans are prepared at the project area/management unit level,...

2010-01-01

254

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...

2014-10-01

255

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...

2013-10-01

256

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...

2011-10-01

257

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...

2010-10-01

258

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...

2012-10-01

259

Field Experiences Integrating Family Planning into Programs to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews field experiences with provision of family planning services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in ten countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Family planning is a standard component of most antenatal care and maternal-child health programs within which PMTCT programs are offered. Yet PMTCT sites often miss opportunities to provide HIV-positive clients with family planning

Naomi Rutenberg; Carolyn Baek

2005-01-01

260

Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being.  

PubMed

As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and should involve nongovernment groups in advocacy efforts. They should help individuals achieve their reproductive goals in a voluntary, informed manner. Governments should attempt to set up programs to meet unmet needs and programs should be evaluated periodically. FP programs should respond to community needs and incorporate the user's perspective in the broadest range of services possible. The special needs of adolescents should be served through special confidential programs. Social marketing of contraception should be encouraged to create demand. The involvement and responsibility of men should be encouraged. Information, education, and communication activities should be supported, and population and family life education should be extended and strengthened in formal settings. Nongovernmental organizations should receive support from governments and the international community and should coordinate activities at these levels. Barriers to private sector involvement in FP should be removed, and public/private partnerships should be encouraged. Forecasting of contraceptive requirements should be improved, and the role of the commercial sector in meeting needs should be strengthened. Funding for programs should be increased, and costs should be made as effective as possible. Technical and social service research should receive funding. Utilization of data for program planning should be given higher priority. PMID:12287717

1993-01-01

261

Family planning method change and dropouts in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Continuation rates among family planning acceptors in the Philippines were studied through data collected in 1971-1972. More than 1/2 the respondents were continuing with the original method. Coitus-independent methods were found to be more effective than coitus-dependent methods in preventing pregnancy. Health-related side effects accounted for nearly 1/2 the dropouts among women using a coitus-independent method; failure resulting in pregnancy was the reason cited for the majority of dropouts using coitus-dependent methods. Changes from 1 method to another tend in the direction of coitus-independent methods. Findings that 1/4 of the women dropped out of the program and 1/5 changed method indicate a high level of dissatisfaction with available methods. PMID:12308791

Ballweg, J A; Maccorquodale, D W

1977-01-01

262

CSMRI Site Remediation Quality Assurance Project Plan March 30, 2004 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-print Network

CSMRI Site Remediation Quality Assurance Project Plan March 30, 2004 TASK PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 project work plans. The Task Plan also will be part of the Site Decommissioning Plan. The 6-acre Site...........................................................................................................................1 2.0 Project Work Plans

263

Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

2012-01-01

264

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and

2000-01-01

265

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Plan for NSTX Upgrade Project Tasks in the NSTX Test Cell PRINCETON PLASMA....~_____...L....,L....q..l:::::.......:.J Larry Dudek, NSTX Center Stack Manager Reviewed by: I( Jer evine, Environment, Safety, Health and S This document describes the structure and implementation of the Health and Safety Plan for the NSTX Upgrade

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

266

Psychology as vital as technology in natural family planning.  

PubMed

Proponents of natural family planning (NFP) were interviewed to update thinking about these methods. People in general think that NFP means only the Rhythm method, and that it is ineffective. NFP teachers counter that there are many different ways of determining ovulation: basal temperature, cervical mucus, luteinizing hormone assays, salivary estrogen/progesterone level, oral/vaginal electrical resistance among others. Each of these techniques has its own effectiveness rate, which should be determined separately, and not lumped together. It is not valid to combined barrier methods with NFP to derive efficacy statistics, because perfect abstinence during the fertile period is absolutely effective, while all barrier methods are subject to failure. Furthermore, during the learning phase, abstinence should be practiced, so that the presence of vaginal secretions or semen does not obscure cervical symptoms. Good psychological rapport is the key to mastering NFP. Proponents believe that NFP is the best method for both sophisticated western couples and those in developing countries who are concerned about a highly effective and completely safe contraceptive method. The International Federation for Family Life Promotion has produced a 100-page guide for teaching NFP in developing countries. PMID:12341794

1987-07-01

267

23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming...

2010-04-01

268

23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming...

2012-04-01

269

23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming...

2014-04-01

270

23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming...

2014-04-01

271

23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming...

2013-04-01

272

23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming...

2010-04-01

273

23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming...

2011-04-01

274

23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming...

2012-04-01

275

23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming...

2013-04-01

276

23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH ...AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming...

2011-04-01

277

Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

2008-01-01

278

Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

2009-01-01

279

Comprehensive Cost Planning Yields Successful Tech Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author calls for librarians to find ways to implement technology projects with very limited budgets and to consider all the cost components of a technology project amidst the economic pressures. The author offers some perspective on what is involved in trying to accomplish important work with limited resources while…

Breeding, Marshall

2006-01-01

280

The RNA WikiProject: Community annotation of RNA families  

PubMed Central

The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become one of the most important online references in the world and has a substantial and growing scientific content. A search of Google with many RNA-related keywords identifies a Wikipedia article as the top hit. We believe that the RNA community has an important and timely opportunity to maximize the content and quality of RNA information in Wikipedia. To this end, we have formed the RNA WikiProject (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_RNA) as part of the larger Molecular and Cellular Biology WikiProject. We have created over 600 new Wikipedia articles describing families of noncoding RNAs based on the Rfam database, and invite the community to update, edit, and correct these articles. The Rfam database now redistributes this Wikipedia content as the primary textual annotation of its RNA families. Users can, therefore, for the first time, directly edit the content of one of the major RNA databases. We believe that this Wikipedia/Rfam link acts as a functioning model for incorporating community annotation into molecular biology databases. PMID:18945806

Daub, Jennifer; Gardner, Paul P.; Tate, John; Ramsköld, Daniel; Manske, Magnus; Scott, William G.; Weinberg, Zasha; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Bateman, Alex

2008-01-01

281

Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects," is for all professionals that are or wish to be enrolled in the development of intergenerational activities. This "Guide" is the main product of the Project MATES--Mainstreaming Intergenerational Solidarity, co-financed by the Lifelong Learning Programme from the…

Pinto, Teresa Almeida; Marreel, Iris; Hatton-Yeo, Alan

2009-01-01

282

QUEST2: Release 1: Project plan deliverable set  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan combines the project management deliverables from the P+ methodology which are applicable to Release 1 of the QUEST2 work. This consolidation reflects discussions with WHC QA regarding an appropriate method for ensuring that P+ deliverables fulfill the intent of WHC-CM-3-10 and QR-19.

Braaten, F.D.

1995-02-10

283

Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

1998-12-31

284

Pathfinder Project: Five-Year Strategic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 5-year strategic plan (prepared in 1994) from Pellissippi State Technical Community College in Tennessee examines macro environmental factors (including social, government, economic and technological trends); internal and external market share trends and opportunities; micro environmental factors (including organizational structure, financial…

Pellissippi State Technical Community Coll., Knoxville, TN.

285

Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

Not Available

1994-09-01

286

Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

287

Non-Participation in a Public Family Planning Program After a Commitment to Participate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to ascertain reasons for non-participation in a public family planning program following a commitment to participate. A sample of 650 women who had made appointments at a public family planning clinic were divided into four groups: Post-Partum Kept (PPK), Post-Partum Missed (PPM), Supply Kept (SK), and Supply Missed…

Greer, Candyce D.; Cole, Steven G.

288

Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning

Maine, Deborah

289

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

290

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

291

Integrated monitoring plan for the Hanford groundwater monitoring project  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project (groundwater project), which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project does not include all of the monitoring to assess performance of groundwater remediation or all monitoring associated with active facilities. This document is the first integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Mercer, R.B.; Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.

1998-09-01

292

Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

2004-01-01

293

Lesbian mothers with planned families: a comparative study of internalized homophobia and social support.  

PubMed

This study compared the perception of social support and the degree of internalized homophobia for two demographically similar groups: lesbians with planned families and lesbians who did not have children. Results found that lesbians with planned families perceived significantly less social support from friends overall, from gay men and lesbian friends specifically, and more support from their families-of-origin than lesbians who did not have children. Lesbians with planned families also reported significantly higher internalized homophobia specific to disclosure of sexual identification. The authors suggest that selective disclosure may be an adaptive response rather than a true measure of internalized homophobia. PMID:17352597

DeMino, Kathleen A; Appleby, George; Fisk, Deborah

2007-01-01

294

Terminology and core curricula in natural family planning.  

PubMed

22 physician-providers who serve natural family planning (NFP) programs, mostly in the private sector, gathered to formulate a standard terminology for the field. The Billings and sympto-thermal methods are the 2 methods taught by this group. The sypto-thermal method helps a woman predict ovulation by detecting changes in her cervical mucus and in the cervix itself. Ovulation is confirmed by monitoring the temperature shift as well as by observing the cessation of mucus buildup, closing of the cervix, and firmness of the os. Those women using the Billings ovulation method predict fertility by the appearance of the cervical mucus, its sensation, color, and elasticity. Sperm will only survive if the cervical mucus is of the fertile type. It is also helpful to recognize mucus patterns of anovulation during breastfeeding, weaning, and premenopause. Use-effective rates which only reflect pregnancy are inadequate in evaluating NFP. A series of definitions are presented which in the future will help to analyze NFP data to accurately reflect NFP effectiveness. The terms included are: total pregnancies, planned pregnancy rate, pregnancy avoidance, method effectiveness rate, method-related pregnancies, informed choice pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies, and unresolved pregnancies. All NPF teaching programs include instruction in basic reproductive physiology and in the recognition of the fertile phase. The cervical mucus factor is emphasized in ovulation method groups while thermal and other parameters are given equal weight in the sympto-thermal groups. It is the intent of NPF to teach couples to distinguish the fertile phase by using the fertility markers and to have them integrate this information into their sexual decision making. Success is dependent on teacher skill and the ability to inspire confidence in the method. Recognition of the mucus patterns of ovulation and anovulation are crucial in assessing infertility. All family providers under Title 10 must by law offer either NFP instruction or referrals to sites which do. A directory of non-Title 10 providers of NFP Services is available for $4.00 from the Human Life and NFP Foundation, 205 South Patrick Street, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314. PMID:7095160

Brennan, J J; Klaus, H

1982-07-01

295

Developing an integrated project plan for the preparation of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of project planning is to develop a formalized baseline project plan that is used during project execution to track and monitor project performance. The baseline project plan developed under the guidelines presented in this paper integrates the technical scope, schedule, and budget so that the objectives of the project can be accomplished. During project execution, performance data are collected and measured against this baseline project plan. When performance varies from the plan, timely actions can be taken to alleviate potential problems. Thus, effective performance measurement is ultimately a function of the quality of the baseline project plan. When viewed in this light, the importance of a quality baseline project plan cannot be overemphasized.

Swanston, B.

1994-04-01

296

Final Report for the Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Planning Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2011 the Tribe was awarded funds from the Department of Energy to formulate the Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan. This will be a guiding document used throughout the planning of projects focused on energy reduction on the Reservation. The Soboba Strategic Tribal Energy Plan's goal is to create a Five Year Energy Plan for the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians in San Jacinto, California. This plan will guide the decision making process towards consistent progress leading to the Tribal goal of a 25% reduction in energy consumption in the next five years. It will additionally outline energy usage/patterns and will edentify areas the Tribe can decrease energy use and increase efficiency. The report documents activities undertaken under the grant, as well as incldues the Tribe's strategif energy plan.

Miller, Kim [EPA Specialist] [EPA Specialist

2013-09-17

297

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27

298

The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.  

PubMed

In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning participants, who will in turn, help to draw nonacceptors into the program. Social marketing is being used to 1) reach those as yet uninformed about family planning, 2) promote the quality of various information and motivation activities so that they will become behaviorally oriented, and 3) provide an opportunity for the private sector to participate in the program professionally. PMID:12342240

Suyono, H

1988-12-01

299

Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

2012-01-01

300

Planning for Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families: The Evidence from IFSP/IEPs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the goals statements on Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) or Individual Education Programs (IEPs) of 72 families in nine communities. The sample was drawn from communities of varying sizes in three states (Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania). Families were chosen to include children in 1-year age groupings and…

Gallagher, James J.

301

Community Involvement in Early Intervention. A Report on the Planning and Development of "Families First": An Early Intervention Program for Coordinated Family Support Services for Marin City Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the planning and development of Families First, an early intervention program to be implemented in Marin City, California. The program has been designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children from the third trimester of pregnancy to the age of 8 years who live in a…

Lally, J. Ronald

302

Tailoring Small IT Projects in the Project Planning Phase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) are essential skills in information technology (IT). There is an abundance of information available detailing the comprehensive bodies of knowledge, standards, and best practices. Despite the volume of information, there is surprisingly little information about how to tailor PM and SE tasks for…

Mulhearn, Michael F.

2011-01-01

303

ENVIRONMENTAL METHODS TESTING SITE PROJECT: PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Methods Testing Site Project is being conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency with the cooperation of the state of Georgia, the state of Tennessee, Hamilton County, Tennessee, and the city of Chattanooga. The concept is to establish one well-characteriz...

304

Project ARISTOTLE. Submission. Training Improvement Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the Automated Retrieval Information System to Track and Optimize the Training and Learning Environment (ARISTOTLE) project is to develop a computer-based training model to link program standards, tests, resources, curriculum, and operational and student placement procedures of the Canada Manpower Centers, the Ministry of Colleges and…

Sinnett, William E.

305

Pyramid Project: An Exemplary Staff Development Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ardmore, Oklahoma, School District developed the 3-year Pyramid Project to implement the following recommendations of the Sid W. Richardson Foundation Study of exemplary programs for high ability students: (1) broaden the process for assessing student abilities, (2) adopt continuous progress and appropriate pacing, (3) cultivate students'…

Ardmore City Schools, OK.

306

ENTO 489 Field Entomology Field Project Plan  

E-print Network

and Fall Butterflies in Brazos County, and Their Habitat Preferences and Nectar Plant Relationships Project of late summer and fall butterflies recorded in Brazos County · To determine the habitat preferences of the butterflies recorded · To learn about nectar plant relationships of the butterflies recorded Specific

Behmer, Spencer T.

307

Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings…

Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

2011-01-01

308

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

LEROY, P.G.

2000-11-03

309

Regulations on family planning management of the floating population.  

PubMed

This document reprints China's "Regulations on Family Planning (FP) Management of the Floating Population" that went into effect on January 1, 1999. The regulations, which apply to married labor migrants of reproductive age, call on all levels of the government to include FP management of this group in the target population of each administrative area. In addition to assigning governmental responsibilities, the regulations require adults to acquire certificates of marriage and childbearing at their local FP departments before they migrate. The adults should present these certificates to the proper authorities upon arrival at their destination. Efforts should be made to educate migrants about population and FP requirements; reach migrants with contraceptive services; and link approval of temporary residence permits, business licenses, and work permits with proper certification of marriage and childbearing. Employers will be responsible for the FP management of labor migrants, and landlords should assist local officials in this FP management. Incentives for adhering to the one child policy will be awarded by the migrants' place of household registration, but the cost of contraceptive operations will be born by employers if applicable or by the place of household registration. Penalties for violating the FP regulations will be meted out by the government of the place of current residence or of household registration (with only one penalty given for a single violation). Fines will be instituted for fabricating, selling, or acquiring fake certificates of marriage and childbearing or for failing to follow these regulations. PMID:12321927

1998-12-01

310

An overview on the effectiveness of natural family planning.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed important developments in natural family planning (NFP), which is based on the observation of fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle, so that the couple is able to know when sexual intercourse may lead to a pregnancy. A review of the main studies regarding the effectiveness of NFP showed a decrease in the Pearl Index and life table values from the early 1980s to date, indicating that progress both in the teaching and in the application of these contraception, methods has been achieved. The main cause of lack of success seems to be the misapplication of NFP rules, whereas the errors due to the method itself are few. Furthermore, it seems that the symptothermal method might give better results than the ovulation method, even though no comparative study has been carried out, and that the first studies on the lactational amenorrhea method show encouraging results. Finally, it seems that NFP is best suited for 'spacers' of pregnancies, rather than for 'limiters'. Indeed, the former are more likely to show good compliance, since the sexual abstinence periods are limited and an unwanted pregnancy is not regarded as a completely negative event. PMID:9209901

Guida, M; Tommaselli, G A; Pellicano, M; Palomba, S; Nappi, C

1997-06-01

311

25 CFR 170.436 - How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded? 170.436 Section... INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian...436 How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded? (a)...

2010-04-01

312

7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Growth management and housing planning projects. 1948.78 Section 1948...Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be...

2010-01-01

313

Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

2007-01-01

314

2012-2013 Strategic plan for Parent and Family Relations (06/12/2012) Parent and Family Relations is dedicated to student success by engaging parents and  

E-print Network

and involvement opportunities for family members and students, Parent and Family Relations seeks to support2012-2013 Strategic plan for Parent and Family Relations (06/12/2012) MISSION Parent and Family Relations is dedicated to student success by engaging parents and family members as active partners

Rock, Chris

315

Project X at Fermilab: Prospects and Plans  

SciTech Connect

As the Fermilab Tevatron Collider program draws to a close, a strategy has emerged of an experimental program built around the high intensity frontier. The centerpiece of this program will be a new 8 GeV superconducting H{sup -} linac that will support world leading programs in long baseline neutrino experimentation and the study of rare processes. Based on technology shared with the International Linear Collider, Project X will provide multi-MW beams at 60-120 GeV from the Main Injector, simultaneous with several hundred kilowatt beams at 8 GeV. Project X will support the possibility of a future energy frontier facility based its utilization as the front end of a muon storage ring based facility.

Holmes, S.D.; /Fermilab

2009-04-01

316

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

317

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01

318

The RHIC project -- Status and plans  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Project is in the 4th year of an estimated 8 year construction cycle at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The accelerator complex is designed to collide a variety of ion species at center-of-mass energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon in a two ring superconducting structure. Industrial magnet production is in progress as well as the other accelerator systems. This presentation will outline the status of the construction effort, near and long term goals.

Harrison, M.

1995-05-01

319

42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section...SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An...

2010-10-01

320

Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Palisades Project: Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho and Wyoming to mitigate the losses of wildlife habitat and annual production due to the development and operation of the Palisades Project. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the preferred mitigation plan to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost with inundation of the reservoir area as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering needs of wildlife in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. A total of 37,068 HU's were estimated to be lost as a result of the inundation of the Palisades Reservoir area. Through a series of protection/enhancement projects, the preferred mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 37,066 HU's. Target species to be benefited by this mitigation plan include bald eagle, mule deer, elk, mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, and peregrine falcon.

Meuleman, G. Allyn

1986-11-01

321

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton

2009-10-01

322

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

2010-03-01

323

Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

2009-12-01

324

49 CFR 633.25 - Contents of a project management plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Contents of a project management plan. 633.25 Section 633.25 Transportation...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.25 Contents of a...

2010-10-01

325

49 CFR 633.27 - Implementation of a project management plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Implementation of a project management plan. 633.27 Section 633.27 Transportation...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Plans § 633.27 Implementation of...

2010-10-01

326

Expanded State-Funded Family Planning Services: Estimating Pregnancies Averted by the Family PACT Program in California, 1997–1998  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The California Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program was implemented in 1997 to provide family planning services for uninsured, low-income women and men. We estimated the impact on fertility of providing 500 000 women with contraceptives. Methods. Paid claims and medical record review data were used to estimate pregnancies averted. Pregnancies women experienced while enrolled in the program and pregnancies they would have experienced given methods used before enrollment were modeled as a Markov process. Results. One year of Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment services averted an estimated 108 000 unintended pregnancies that would have resulted in 50 000 unintended births and 41 000 induced abortions. Conclusions. Providing contraceptives to low income, medically indigent women significantly reduced the number of unintended pregnancies in California. PMID:15284041

Foster, Diana Greene; Klaisle, Cynthia M.; Blum, Maya; Bradsberry, Mary E.; Brindis, Claire D.; Stewart, Felicia H.

2004-01-01

327

[The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects].  

PubMed

Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. Obstacles still affecting Rwanda's family planning program include the pronatalist cultural orientation, which is being confronted by a vigorous IEC program. The reluctance of Catholic-affiliated health services to offer modern family planning methods, the shortage of trained family planning workers, contraceptive supply problems, and geographic inaccessibility of family planning services are other serious problems. To confront these problems, ONAPO plans to begin social marketing program, create more secondary health planning posts, promote integration of family planning services into the vaccination program, strengthen efforts to motivate postpartum women, and undertake a community distribution program for condoms and spermicides. PMID:12283850

Munyakazi, A

1990-12-01

328

12. DETAILS NO. 1. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAILS NO. 1. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Tank Elevation, Foundation Plan, Framing Plan, all at 1:50, and a Section at 1:5. Drawing no. SD701, submitted by Biggs Cardosa Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SD701. Stamped by Roy. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

329

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

330

Work plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944, with descriptions of uncertainties inherent in such estimates. The secondary objective is to make project records--information that HEDR staff members used to estimate radiation doses--available to the public. Preliminary dose estimates for a limited geographic area and time period, certain radionuclides, and certain populations are planned to be available in 1990; complete results are planned to be reported in 1993. Project reports and references used in the reports are available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room in Richland, Washington. Project progress is documented in monthly reports, which are also available to the public in the DOE Public Reading Room.

Not Available

1989-12-01

331

Invisible and visible language planning: ideological factors in the family language policy of Chinese immigrant families in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families\\u000a in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children’s language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and\\u000a French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages are linked to particular\\u000a linguistic markets. The parental ideology

Xiao Lan Curdt-Christiansen

2009-01-01

332

Evolution of China's family planning policy and fertility transition.  

PubMed

This article points out the important role of family planning (FP) in controlling population growth in China. The impact of development on fertility decline is much slower. China's current FP policy promotes deferred marriage and deferred childbearing and fewer, but healthier, births. The policy promotes one child per couple. Rural couples in certain circumstances, such as if the first birth is a girl, are allowed to have a second child that is properly spaced. FP should be promoted in ethnic inhabited areas. Under this policy, fertility declined from 2.59 to 2 children/woman during the period 1987-92. In more developed areas, fertility has declined below replacement level to 1.6. FP was first promoted in the National Program for Agricultural Development in the 1950s. Birth control was promoted in densely populated areas without high minority concentrations. Fertility hovered around 6.1 during 1950-57. The Cultural Revolution halted fertility decline. The 1974 FP policy emphasized deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, and spaced (by 4-5 years) but fewer births. Fertility declined from 4.2 to 2.3 during 1974-80, in response to the government directive. Rural population declined from 4.6 to 2.5, and urban population declined from 2.0 to 1.15. The one-child policy was promoted in 1980 and became official state policy. FP became an obligation to the state. Rural areas were less compliant with the one-child policy, which led to the 1984 allowances for a second child. PMID:12293912

Lin, F

1998-06-01

333

[Psychobiology of human fertility in Mexico. I. Educational aspects of the universitary campaign on family planning].  

PubMed

In view of the scarce information about family planning among the Mexican population, audiovisual material was prepared to promote the mehtods and benefits of family planning. The material consists of 22 slides, recorded explanation, and music. Psychological factors, such as sensory perception, image symbiolism, language, education, sex, attention span, motivation, and identification, and social factors, such as status and recognition, were taken into consideration. The program is presently shown to an average of 120 persons daily, including outpatients and hospital patients. Its use led to a considerable increase in the number of patients who voluntarily attend the family planning clinic for medical advice on fertility control. PMID:56290

García Flores, R F; Ita Cruz, R A

1976-01-01

334

DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA  

PubMed Central

This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

2014-01-01

335

The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical

M. Temmerman; N. Kidula; M. Tyndall; R. Rukaria-Kaumbutho; L. Muchiri; J. O. Ndinya-Achola

1998-01-01

336

[Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].  

PubMed

The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122

Wohlschlagl, H

1991-01-01

337

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

338

The Impact of Project Planning Team Experience on Software Project Cost Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 135 teams that have participated in a software project planning exercise are analyzed to determine the relationship between team experience and each teams estimate of total project cost. The analysis shows that cost estimates are dependent upon two kinds of team experience: (1) the average experience for the members of each team and (2) whether or not any

James Mcdonald

2005-01-01

339

Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

Field, S. M.

2007-04-01

340

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

341

PROCESS PLANNING METHOD FOR MASK PROJECTION STEREOLITHOGRAPHY UNDER PARAMETER UNCERTAINTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mask Projection Stereolithography (MPSLA) is a high resolution, additive manufacturing process, which has potential applications in a number of areas like MEMS packaging, tissue scaffolding, micro fluidics, etc. The MPSLA technology is only about a decade old and so, most research in this field has been experimental in nature. In this proposal, a plan to analytically model the MPSLA

AMEYA LIMAYE

342

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the first of a series of manuals that present environmental guidelines for planning and implementing ecologically sustainable projects. Attention is particularly directed to the agricultural situation and needs of developing nations. Subject areas discussed include: (1) users and uses (identifying the major purposes of the…

Mohonk Trust, New Paltz, NY.

343

WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR 1986-1989  

EPA Science Inventory

The Field Implementation Plan (FIP) of the Watershed Manipulation Project (WMP) has been developed for the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). This document provides details on field activities for site and task groups for the period 1986 to October 1989. pecific objectives of ...

344

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

345

Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements. While the SNFP can use some work done Sitewide and by projects such as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), they will still need to make some IM investments of their own.

Main, G.C.

1996-09-13

346

Germany’s First Young Carers Project’s Impact on the Children: Relieving the Entire Family. A Qualitative Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2009, the first German young carers project “SupaKids” was implemented in a large German city. The project’s concept was mainly based on findings of a prior Grounded Theory study, and the concept’s aim was to focus on supporting enrolled families (especially the children) in order to prevent negative effects. Quantitative as well as qualitative data have been assessed for the project’s evaluation. In this paper, first results on the mainly qualitative evaluation concerning the project’s impact are presented. Results: The project has an impact on the entire family. Both parents and children perceive the project as a kind of shelter, where they a) are allowed to be as they are, b) don’t have to explain themselves, c) meet others in similar situations, d) may deposit their sorrows, e) have a first port of call for any problem, f) experience a hiatus from the domestic situation, and g) find friends and peers. All enrolled families value this shelter as a copious relief. Conclusions: The project’s concept has delivered an optimal performance in practice: the family-orientation seems to be appropriate, the concept’s modules seem to be all-embracing, and the modular body of the concept has been confirmed. The project relieves the entire family. Trial Registration Number: NCT00734942. PMID:22135716

Schlarmann, Jörg große; Metzing, Sabine; Schoppmann, Susanne; Schnepp, Wilfried

2011-01-01

347

Reflection Library for Eiffel PROJECT PLAN  

E-print Network

State of the art programming languages like Java or C # provide a reflection API. Reflection means to discover properties of programs at runtime. This includes [5]: • Determine the class of an object • Get information about a class’s modifiers, fields, methods, constructors, and superclasses • Find out what constants and method declarations belong to an interface • Create an instance of a class whose name is not known until runtime • Get and set the value of an object’s field, even if the field name is unknown to your program until runtime • Invoke a method on an object, even if the method is not known until runtime • Create a new array, whose size and component type are not known until runtime, and then modify the array’s components The first obvious application area of reflection is certainly a debugger. But monitoring and modifying programms during runtime is as meaningfull, unless even more. In fact Eiffel does not feature a full reflection library. There exists an Eiffel class INTERNAL, which supports getting information about the fields of an object and modifying them, but as mentioned above this is only a part of a full reflection API. 1.2 Eiffel object model The special interest of this master thesis is to map a very sophisticated object model into a reflection library. Eiffel, compared to state of the art object-oriented programming languages, supports programmers with lots of specialities to increase software quality in large software systems. To show what specialities are meant, here is a small choice: • Differentiation of class and type (genericity) • Renaming or redefinition of features to reduce the complexity of multiple inheritence • Feature export to only a set of classes 1.3 Scope of the work The master project is composed of tree parts:

unknown authors

348

Private developer expands pumped-storage project plans  

SciTech Connect

A developer investigating the feasibility of a pumped-storage project on Grant Brook in Essex County, N.Y., is expanding its plans for the venture. Vineyard Road Associates, which already holds a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission preliminary permit for a 75-MW project at that site, has gone back to FERC and asked that the permit be amended to boost the project's capacity to 450 MW. In its application to amend the preliminary permit, Vineyard Road Associates said it wants to increase capacity and change the project's boundaries to encompass greater reservoir sizes. It noted that engineering studies determined the site has greater potential than originally thought. The larger project would produce an average annual generation of 1.3 gigawatt-hours. The closed-loop system will feature a lower pool made from a kettle-hole, left by a retreating glacier, that initially will be filled with ground water or water from Lake Champlain. The project also will include two upper reservoirs, a powerhouse, and a 115-kilovolt transmission line. The developer plans to build the project in stages, with the first stage to generate 200 MW.

Not Available

1993-02-01

349

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references.

Vollmer, A.T.

1993-10-01

350

Family planning: knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in Zigone, Myanmar.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most important finding of this Zigone KAP survey was that about 50.3% (95% CI 46.2-54.2) of the married women of reproductive age were currently practicing modern methods of contraception. For a country like Myanmar, where the government has until recently favored a pronatalist population policy, this is indeed surprising. This 30 cluster survey, designed to determine the prevalence of various family planning methods adopted, as well as knowledge and attitudes, among villagers in rural Myanmar, covered a sample of 600 married women of reproductive age in Zigone township which has a population of 70,000. The survey results showed a high awareness of specific contraceptive methods among the target group and the ever-use rate of birth spacing methods was about 54% (95% CI 50.7-58.7). The most used method was oral contraceptives (64.6% of all users), followed by injectable contraceptives (32.3%). There was a small number of IUD users (1.1%), use of a permanent method (sterilization) was extremely low (0.3%). Seven out of ten married women of reproductive age did not want more children and one out of two women in this group were current users of contraception. Therefore a certain proportion of user was probably using these (mainly temporary) methods to terminate fertility rather than for birth spacing purposes. Moreover, only 63% of those wanting children, but not in the next 12 months, were using a contraceptive method. These findings demonstrated that there was a large group of potential contraceptive users who were currently not using a method. In an attempt to investigate the factor hindering the non-use of contraceptives when needed, the women were divided, according to their contraceptive practice, into two groups. Logistic regression was employed to compare the characteristics of women in the user and nonuser groups. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that economic group and number of living children had a positive effective effect on contraceptive use, while age and number of children under three years of age had a negative effect. The survey also found that about 48% of the contraceptive users were obtaining their supplies from the private sector and another 40% received supplies from government health officers. The reference by respondents to "health staff", as the source of supply, was assumed to be health staff working in their private practice, since the government's current health program does not cover the provision of contraceptives. PMID:7939933

Panitchpakdi, P; Podhipak, A; Sein, U K; Kywe, B

1993-12-01

351

The Psychological Well-Being of Women of Menoufiya, Egypt: Relationships With Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for

Lawrence J. Severy; Cynthia Waszak; Isis Badawi; Laila Kafafi

2003-01-01

352

Unmet Need for Family Planning in Nepal during the First Two Years Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

Dariang, Maureen

2014-01-01

353

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Family Life Education-  

E-print Network

14027, 24011 and 24012 to declare the Human Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child electives Semester Four: [16 Credit Hours] HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 HDFS 44022 Changing Roles Development and Family Studies 3 HDFS 44028 Parent/Child Relationships 3 HDFS 44023 Building Family

Sheridan, Scott

354

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) (DOE, 1993a), which was developed using US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C quality assurance (QA) criteria. The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. All QA issues in the QAIP shall comply with requirements contained in the TAC QAPP (DOE, 1933a). Because industry standards for data acquisition and data control are not addressed in DOE Order 5700.6C, the QAIP has been formatted to the 14 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) QA requirements. DOE Order 5700.6C criteria that are not contained in the CERCLA requirements are added to the QAIP as additional requirements in Sections 15.0 through 18.0. Project documents that contain CERCLA requirements and 5700.6 criteria shall be referenced in this document to avoid duplication. Referenced documents are not included in this QAIP but are available through the UMTRA Project Document Control Center.

Not Available

1994-03-01

355

Project management plan for Contract Management Information System (CONTRACT)  

SciTech Connect

The office of the Vice President of A/E Construction for ICF Kaiser has requested that OSHA compliance statistics be made available to management for companies subcontracting to the ICF Kaiser Company. In addition, a need to better manage contract administrative data for the Contracts Administration and the Construction Management Projects organizations has been identified. The Contract Management Information System is being developed to achieve these objectives. This document provides a Project Management Plan for development of the Contract Management Administration System (CONTRACT) by Design Services DAD/CAE Support. The Project Management Plan describes the project work breakdown structure, safety and quality considerations, with associated cost, schedule and project management information. The CONTRACT System is intended to aid the ICF Kaiser divisions with tracking of A/E subcontractor information to include general contract administration information used by the Contracts Administration organization, contract and safety performance data used by the Construction Management Projects and office of the organization and Vice President of A/E Construction.

Severud, K.J.

1995-01-27

356

Name: Intended quarter of entry: Academic Planning Worksheet for Early Childhood & Family Studies  

E-print Network

Name: Intended quarter of entry: Academic Planning Worksheet for Early Childhood & Family Studies personal statement reflecting an interest in the early childhood and family studies major and a commitment) College Example: MATH 124 ­ Calculus I MATH& 151 AUT 08 5 A- BC One course in Biological Science

Queitsch, Christine

357

Family Planning for Migrant Farmworkers of Mexican Culture: A Framework for Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, written for health managers and clinicians, provides information to meet the family planning needs of migrant farmworkers of Mexican culture. The promotion of maternal and child health for migrant farmworker families has brought attention to the incidence of high risk pregnancies among this population. Research indicates that a need…

Littlefield, Carla N.; And Others

358

Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

Henry, Kathleen

359

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies -Gerontology -  

E-print Network

24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512 Management of Family Resources 3 Major Cultural Diversity: Implications for the Helping Professions 3 HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 SOCSUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies - Gerontology - Bachelor

Sheridan, Scott

360

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512 Credit Hours] HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 HDFS 44035 Assessment and Strategies in Case

Sheridan, Scott

361

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

362

Service Family Support -- A Small-Scale Project of Educational Psychologists Working with Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being in a Service family can be a difficult position for children and parents alike due to high levels of mobility, parental separation, and the remaining parent's stress and emotional well-being. A Service family is defined as a family with one or both parents employed by the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The current project looked at the…

Hogg, Jane; Hart, Anne; Collins, Zoe V.

2014-01-01

363

The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

2007-01-01

364

[The risks of the natural family planning methods].  

PubMed

Risks of 5 natural family planning (NFP) methods are compared. The main risk of these methods is the risk of pregnancy stemming from method failure, errors in instruction, error in application of the method, and failure to observe abstinence during the entire fertile period. The calendar rhythm method, the oldest NFP method, is based on calculation of likely fertile days in the preceding 6-12 menstrual cycles. The method is seldom taught at present because of its high failure rate, but it continues to be used, often by individuals with an incomplete understanding of the calculations. The principle of the basal body temperature method is well known. The thermal shift affirms the beginning of the infertile period but does not allow prediction of ovulation. Instructions provided by different organizations to identify the third day of the hyperthermal plateau are not standardized; the various interpretations applied to the same cycle do not necessarily lead to identification of the same day as the start of the infertile period. Comparisons of efficacy between methods are therefore difficult. Well-conducted prospective studies have demonstrated high theoretical efficacy, but failure rates in practice appear to be higher. Women often do not know how to interpret a temperature curve correctly, and the curve may be influenced by illness, sleeping late, a change of life style or thermometer. Some authors have reported that 3-20% of ovulatory cycles have monophasic temperature curves. The temperature method requires lengthy abstinence lasting until the third day of higher temperature, which may create conflicts in some couples. To ease the difficulties of interpretation of the temperature method, a Swiss architect developed an electronic thermometer programmed according to rules of the calendar rhythm method for cycles of 19-39 days. The woman's 6 most recent cycle lengths remain in the memory to indicate probable infertile days. Although no formal evaluations have appeared in the literature on the Bioself thermometer, the method appears to entail risks including registration of incorrect temperature due to humidity or rundown batteries, and inadequate programming to identify the safe period. The Billings or cervical mucus method is based on observation by the woman of the thickness, wetness, and other characteristics of mucus secretions in the vulva to predict ovulation. Various studies have shown high theoretical efficacy but practical efficacy is lower. Vaginal infections, some ovarian pathologies, and postpartum hormonal changes are among factors that can alter mucus patterns. The method does not confirm ovulation, and false "peak days" may occur. The symptothermal method is based on all the principles of the cervical mucus and temperature methods as well as autopalpation of the cervix and any other signs of ovulation. Effectiveness rates are high. In general pregnancy risks are the same as those for the cervical mucus and temperature methods. A theoretical heightened risk of abortion or fetal malformation common to all the methods due to fertilization of aging gametes has not been definitively evaluated. Another possible risk results from timing of abstinence at the phase of the menstrual cycle when the woman's sexual desire is likely to be greatest. PMID:3726778

Zufferey, M M

1986-05-01

365

Comparative Study of Optimization Techniques for Irrigation Project Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents three optimization techniques for on-farm irrigation scheduling in irrigation project planning: namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing and iterative improvement methods. The three techniques are applied to planning a 394.6 ha irrigation project in the town of Delta, Utah, for optimizing economic profits, simulating water demand, and estimating the crop area percentages with specific water supply and planted area constraints. The comparative optimization results for the 394.6 ha irrigated project from the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, and iterative improvement methods are as follows: (1) the seasonal maximum net benefits are 113,826, 111,494, and $105,444 per season, respectively; and (2) the seasonal water demands are 3.03*103 m3, 3.0*103 m3, and 2.92*103 m3 per season, respectively. This study also determined the most suitable four parameters of the genetic algorithm method for the Delta irrigated project to be: (1) the number of generations equals 800, (2) population size equals 50, (3) probability of crossover equals 0.6, and (4) probability of mutation equals 0.02. Meanwhile, the most suitable three parameters of simulated annealing method for the Delta irrigated project are: (1) initial temperature equals 1,000, (2) number of moves equal 90, and (3) cooling rate equals 0.95.

Kuo, Sheng-Feng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Chen, Shih-Kai

2003-02-01

366

Students in a School Environment: A Project Focused on Family Involvement of At-Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project examined family involvement of at risk students in mid-west communities. The purpose of this project was to study the affect of family involvement on at-risk student achievement. The redefining of the perception of America has resulted in a crisis of academic performance in the traditionally slow-changing education systems. This topic…

Denney, Pat

2011-01-01

367

Families Communicate Pilot Project. Austin Independent School District Publication 97.15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Families Communicate pilot project provides early intervention at the home campuses for students having discipline problems and their families. The interactive curriculum is presented in four sessions: (1) communication; (2) anger management; (3) conflict resolution; and (4) problem solving. Facilitators were trained, and the pilot project was…

Doolittle, Martha

368

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies.

Not Available

1994-10-01

369

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL PMEL-113 Strategic Implementation Plan for Tsunami Mitigation Projects  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL PMEL-113 Strategic Implementation Plan for Tsunami Mitigation Projects approved by the Mitigation Subcommittee of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, April Strategic Implementation Plan for Tsunami Mitigation Projects (approved by the Mitigation Subcommittee

370

Real-Time Projection to Verify Plan Success During Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Data System provides a framework for modeling complex systems in terms of system behaviors and goals that express intent. Complex activity plans can be represented as goal networks that express the coordination of goals on different state variables of the system. Real-time projection extends the ability of this system to verify plan achievability (all goals can be satisfied over the entire plan) into the execution domain so that the system is able to continuously re-verify a plan as it is executed, and as the states of the system change in response to goals and the environment. Previous versions were able to detect and respond to goal violations when they actually occur during execution. This new capability enables the prediction of future goal failures; specifically, goals that were previously found to be achievable but are no longer achievable due to unanticipated faults or environmental conditions. Early detection of such situations enables operators or an autonomous fault response capability to deal with the problem at a point that maximizes the available options. For example, this system has been applied to the problem of managing battery energy on a lunar rover as it is used to explore the Moon. Astronauts drive the rover to waypoints and conduct science observations according to a plan that is scheduled and verified to be achievable with the energy resources available. As the astronauts execute this plan, the system uses this new capability to continuously re-verify the plan as energy is consumed to ensure that the battery will never be depleted below safe levels across the entire plan.

Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Knight, Russell L.; Morris, John R.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Ingham, Michel D.

2012-01-01

371

Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig.

Harrison-Giesler, D.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Yucca Mountain Project Office; Morissette, R.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

1991-02-01

372

Computational methods for planning and evaluating geothermal energy projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planning, designing and evaluating a geothermal energy project, a number of technical, economic, social and environmental parameters should be considered. The use of computational methods provides a rigorous analysis improving the decision-making process. This article demonstrates the application of decision-making methods developed in operational research for the optimum exploitation of geothermal resources.Two characteristic problems are considered: (1)the economic evaluation

M. G. Goumas; V. A. Lygerou; L. E. Papayannakis

1999-01-01

373

13. DETAIL NO. 2. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL NO. 2. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Interior and Exterior Column Details, all at 1:5. Drawing no. SD702, submitted by Biggs Cardosa Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SD702. Stamped by Roy M. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

374

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

Not Available

1991-11-01

375

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan. Revised  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

Not Available

1991-11-01

376

Near Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards.

MCKINNEY, S.M.

2000-05-01

377

242-A evaporator quality assurance project plan: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is sampling and analytical services including, but not limited to, sample receipt, handling and storage, analytical measurements, submittal of data deliverables, archiving selected portions of samples, returning unneeded sample material to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and/or sample disposal associated with candidate feed samples and process condensate compliance samples. Sampling and shipping activities are also included within the scope. The purpose of this project is to provide planning, implementation, and assessment guidance for achieving established data quality objectives measurement parameters. This Plan requires onsite and offsite laboratories to conform to that guidance. Laboratory conformance will help ensure that quality data are being generated and therefore, that the 242-A evaporator is operating in a safe and compliant manner. The 242-A evaporator feed stream originates from double-shell tanks (DSTs) identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending it to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) storage basin before further treatment. The slurry product is returned to DSTs. Evaporation results in considerable savings by reducing the volume of mixed waste for disposal.

Tucker, B.J.

1994-11-04

378

Creating options in family planning for the private sector in Latin America.  

PubMed

The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are facing the gradual phase-out of international-donor support of contraceptive commodities and technical and management assistance, as well as an increased reliance on limited public sector resources and a limited private sector role in providing contraceptives to the public. Therefore, those nations must develop multisectoral strategies to achieve contraceptive security. The countries need to consider information about the market for family planning commodities and services in order to define and promote complementary roles for the public sector, the commercial sector, and the nongovernmental-organization sector, as well as to better identify which segments of the population each of those sectors should serve. While it is unable to mandate private sector participation, the public sector can create conditions that support and promote a greater role for the private sector in meeting the growing needs of family planning users. Taking steps to actively involve and expand the private sector's market share is a critical strategy for achieving a more equitable distribution of available resources, addressing unmet need, and creating a more sustainable future for family planning commodities and services. This paper also discusses in detail the experiences of two countries, Paraguay and Peru. Paraguay's family planning market illustrates a vibrant private sector, but with limited access to family planning commodities and services for those who cannot afford private sector prices. In Peru a 1995 policy change that sought to increase family planning coverage had the effect of restricting access for the poor and leaving the Ministry of Health unable to pay for the growing need for family planning commodities and services. PMID:16105325

Sharma, Suneeta; Gribble, James N; Menotti, Elaine P

2005-07-01

379

Integrated project management plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant stabilization and deactivation project  

SciTech Connect

This document sets forth the plans, organization, and control systems for managing the PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project, and includes the top level cost and schedule baselines. The project includes the stabilization of Pu-bearing materials, storage, packaging, and transport of these and other nuclear materials, surveillance and maintenance of facilities and systems relied upon for storage of the materials, and transition of the facilities in the PFP Complex.

SINCLAIR, J.C.

1999-05-03

380

Teenagers Who Use Organized Family Planning Services: United States, 1978. Data on Health Resources Utilization Series 13, No. 57.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent childbearing is a major concern because of the associated negative health, social, and economic consequences. To determine whether teenagers are using organized family services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, the National Reporting System for Family Planning Services began in 1972 to collect information on family planning clinic…

Eckard, Eugenia

381

Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

1990-01-01

382

42 CFR 137.360 - Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared by the Self-Governance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared... Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared...least one opportunity to approve project planning and design documents...

2011-10-01

383

42 CFR 137.360 - Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared by the Self-Governance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared... Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared...least one opportunity to approve project planning and design documents...

2010-10-01

384

Safety Planning Guidance Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects  

E-print Network

..................................................................................6 4. Communications Plan..........................................................................7 Emergency Response

385

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A major mission of the US DOE is the permanent disposal of Hanford defense wastes by safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost effective methods which meet applicable regulations. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project was initiated to immobilize the Hanford high-level waste (HLW) and provide interim storage. The HWVP will vitrify the pre-treated HLW into borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters on site until they are shipped to a federal geologic repository. The HWVP project objective is to design, construct, and operate a facility for immobilizing defense high-level waste for storage. Technical objectives include using the Defense Waste Processing Facility designed plants systems or elements, where practical, and the exchange and review of information on plants in foreign countries. More definitive objectives for quality, reliability, environmental, and safety are provided in the HWVP Project Management Plan.

Brown, R.W.

1993-06-01

386

Toward a two-child norm: Changing family planning attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but

Robert Buckhout

1972-01-01

387

Up-Stream Dissolved Oxygen TMDL Project Quality Assurance ProjectPlan  

SciTech Connect

A quality assurance project plan (QAPP) for the execution of an ecosystem level monitoring and research program examining algal ecology in highly impaired rivers. Procedures for executing both field and laboratory surface water quality and flow analysis are described. The procedures described here are compatible with the California Surface Water Ambient Monitoring program (SWAMP).

Stringfellow, William T.

2005-05-13

388

FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229) project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan defines the cost, scope, schedule, organizational responsibilities, and work breakdown structure for the removal of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC).

Metcalf, I.L.

1997-05-16

389

Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. Method The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic. Results 55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage. Conclusion Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services. PMID:19146657

Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah; Saka, Gunay; Akdeniz, Nurten

2009-01-01

390

The role of family planning in elimination of new pediatric HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We reviewed recent literature on the role of family planning in eliminating new pediatric HIV infections. Recent findings Global commitments to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections recognize that preventing unintended pregnancies among women with HIV is essential to achieving this goal. However, substantial shortcomings exist in translating this policy support into widespread practice. Programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV continue to be implemented and evaluated as a narrow set of interventions that typically begins in antenatal care, after a woman is already pregnant. In addition, data suggest that women living with HIV experience high rates of unmet need for family planning and unintended pregnancies. Evidence is growing that integrating family planning and HIV services is an effective strategy for increasing access to contraception among women with HIV who do not wish to become pregnant. A number of health systems obstacles must be resolved to achieve effective, sustained delivery of integrated services at scale. Summary Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women with HIV must be elevated as a programmatic priority. By strengthening family planning programs for all women, and better integrating family planning and HIV services, progress toward ending new pediatric HIV infections will be accelerated. PMID:23743790

Wilcher, Rose; Petruney, Tricia; Cates, Willard

2014-01-01

391

[Adolescent pregnancy from a family perspective: sharing projects of life and care].  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed to apprehend the meaning of adolescents' pregnancy for their families, using semistructured interviews and collective subject discourse. Adolescent pregnancy is represented as a problem to be faced with family support. The families worry and are mobilized to solve adversities. Besides the shock about the news, impotence as to pregnancy prevention, conformism, happiness and improvement in family relationships due to the baby's arrival, participants evidenced frustration due to the interruption/change in the family life project in terms of the adolescent being pregnant without a stable relationship with the child's father. In valuing the family perspective on adolescent pregnancy, professional care to pregnant adolescents and their families can be delivered in partnership with the family and social context, making it easier to cope with conflicts and recognizing the family as an active subject in this process. PMID:16699693

Silva, Lucía; Tonete, Vera Lúcia Pamplona

2006-01-01

392

Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project  

SciTech Connect

This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium-containing ceramic forms within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2006 and be completed within 10 years.

Kan, T.

1998-07-01

393

Open Doors Project: An Innovative Family Literacy Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open Doors is a family literacy program that was developed to provide basic literacy training and basic skills remediation for homeless single mothers who have not completed high school and developmental enrichment services for their infants and toddlers. Open Doors was designed to provide interventions to 30 families. The program featured…

Harris Family Foundation, Inc., Huntsville, AL.

394

Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.  

PubMed

The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

Kagurusi, Patrick T

2013-09-01

395

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

Brouns, Thomas M.

2007-07-15

396

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

397

Family planning needs of women experiencing severe maternal morbidity in Accra, Ghana: another missed opportunity?  

PubMed

Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery experience at a tertiary teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana. Our results show that despite higher educational attainment, longer hospital stays and intention to limit or stop childbearing among women, there is a missed opportunity for family planning among women with severe maternal morbidity in this urban African hospital setting. Integrating postpartum family planning consultations by linking available services such as reproductive health clinics at the facilities rather than including additional tasks for the midwives and the doctors in the wards could be a sustainable solution in such urban, high-volume settings. PMID:25022138

Tunçalp, Ozge; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Adanu, Richard M; Hindin, Michelle J

2014-06-01

398

Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621

Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

1994-01-01

399

24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657...Assisted Housing Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8...

2010-04-01

400

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

401

24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Section 8 and Public Housing, and Other HUD Assisted Housing Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Section 8 Project-Based Assistance: Occupancy Requirements §...

2011-04-01

402

In-space propellant logistics. Volume 4: Project planning data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prephase A conceptual project planning data as it pertains to the development of the selected logistics module configuration transported into earth orbit by the space shuttle orbiter. The data represents the test, implementation, and supporting research and technology requirements for attaining the propellant transfer operational capability for early 1985. The plan is based on a propellant module designed to support the space-based tug with cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen propellants. A logical sequence of activities that is required to define, design, develop, fabricate, test, launch, and flight test the propellant logistics module is described. Included are the facility and ground support equipment requirements. The schedule of activities are based on the evolution and relationship between the R and T, the development issues, and the resultant test program.

1972-01-01

403

Health care policy and the Reagan administration: the case of family planning.  

PubMed

In 1970 the Public Health Service Act was passed and Title X had a provision to establish and fund a national network of family planning clinics through the Office of Family Planning (OFP). The Reagan administration's policy towards family planning suffers from dilemmas and shortcomings that had an influence on the programs put in place by Title X. The attempts to reshape the philosophy of Title X have for the most part failed, but these attempts have had some negative effects none the less. This article examines the history of Title X and the attempts by the Reagan administration to change it. For the years 1985-86, the OFP had a budget of $142 million of which $135 million went to fund the clinics and the rest went to training, educational materials, and research and development of newer and better ways of getting family planning to the people. Before 1987 the Reagan administration tried to change the strategy of family planning from sex education, contraception and abortion to advocating abstinence, adoption counseling, infertility counseling, and natural contraception. This tactic failed because the Reagan administration was only able to divert $5 million towards these new goals. Congress was the administration's primary obstacle. Another unsuccessful tactic was to change the method of funding by moving the money to block grants which all states received from the federal government to do with basically as they pleased. But Congress went ahead and funded Title X directly in the usual manner. After 1986 the Reagan administration found a new avenue to accomplish its policy change. The "Superbill" as it is called would restrict funding to any clinics that refer for abortion, counsel for abortion or are closely overlapping fiscally or physically with abortion services. The administration also rail-roaded through new regulations to this effect in case Congress did not pass the Superbill. As of the writing of this article, pro-family planning organizations have gotten court injunctions to block the new regulations. PMID:10105516

Crum, G

1990-01-01

404

Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

2013-01-01

405

Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580

Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

2014-01-01

406

Investigation of Project Management Planning Practices for Renovation of Historical Buildings in Urban Contexts Located in Texas  

E-print Network

This study investigated the relationship between Project Management Planning (PMP) practices and project success for preservation projects of historical significance located in an urban context. The planning for these projects was also emphasized...

Escamilla, Edelmiro

2012-07-16

407

Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts\\u000a to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family\\u000a planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised\\u000a as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers.

Elissa Kennedy; Natalie Gray; Peter Azzopardi; Mick Creati

2011-01-01

408

NASA Global Hawk: Project Overview and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawk's range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the first two science campaigns. In addition the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

Naftel, Chris

2011-01-01

409

GEWEX America Prediction Project (GAPP) Science and Implementation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this Science and Implementation Plan is to describe GAPP science objectives and the activities required to meet these objectives, both specifically for the near-term and more generally for the longer-term. The GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP) is part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) initiative that is aimed at observing, understanding and modeling the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes at various time and spatial scales. The mission of GAPP is to demonstrate skill in predicting changes in water resources over intraseasonal-to-interannual time scales, as an integral part of the climate system.

2004-01-01

410

A FAA Technical Center project transition plan: Mode S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision for two-way communications with aircraft, via a digital data link, has long been considered a means of providing significant enhancements for safe and efficient flight operations. The Mode Select Beacon System (Mode S) system currently under development will provide the mechanism to allow a digital data link function. The Mode S also offers improvements in surveillance processing, and range and azimuth accuracy. The Mode S Project Transition Plan presents those activities and the organizations that are responsible to effect the transition of the Mode S into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center.

Baker, Leonard H.; Barbagallo, Philip S.; Livings, Jeffrey G.

1990-09-01

411

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado for the upcoming year. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies. The WSAP bridges water quality characterization and data collection objectives for the surface remediation program (Subpart A) and the ground water compliance program (Subpart B) identified in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994).

Not Available

1994-08-01

412

NASA Global Hawk: Project Update and Future Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawk's range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the first two science campaigns. In addition the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

Naftel, Chris

2010-01-01

413

The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples’ desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Methods Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15–49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. Results The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. Conclusions These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children. PMID:24025670

2013-01-01

414

Gauging acceptance of a hepatitis C test by family planning clinic attendees in Glasgow, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the UK, pregnant women are not offered and recommended a hepatitis C virus (HCV) test because no effective intervention to prevent vertical transmission of HCV exists following conception. Mother-to-child transmission of HCV could, however, be reduced if infected women planning to have children underwent a course of therapy prior to conception.ObjectiveTo determine what proportion of female family planning clinic

Laura Sharp; Sharon J Hutchinson; David Goldberg; Avril Taylor; Susan Carr

2007-01-01

415

Group Action Planning as a Strategy for Providing Comprehensive Family Support.  

E-print Network

as a strategy for providing comprehensive family support. In L. K. Koegel, R L Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 99-114). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing... to beat the odds. Increasingly, there is a great deal being written about the importance of visions in future planning (see, e.g., Senge, 1990). In our own Group Action Planning, we found that great expectations grow in ever-increasing circles. It would...

Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford

1996-01-01

416

Transuranic waste projections at SRS for long range planning  

SciTech Connect

This report predicts 30 year receipts of solid transuranic (TRU) wastes from eventual plutonium facility deactivation and cleanup, and combines them with the existing TRU waste holdings to provide a technical and quantitative basis for interim and long range TRU waste management planning. The current TRU waste holdings have been characterized based on data from the Computerized Radioactive Waste Burial Records Analysis (COBRA) system. Six TRU waste disposition categories have been identified for existing TRU waste as shown in Table 1. An additional category has been quantified that includes projected waste volumes from the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of TRU waste generating facilities. These projections are based on COBRA data from D&D of the original plutonium finishing facilities in F and H Areas that were replaced in the 1970`s and 80`s.

Hootman, H.E.; Cook, J.R.

1994-05-01

417

The Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project: Experiences and future plans  

SciTech Connect

Fully operational in June of 1994, the Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project was started to gain insight into the costs and benefits of providing ISDN service to the homes of Fermilab researchers. Fourteen users were chosen from throughout Fermilab, but the number of Fermilab-employed spouses pushed the total user count to 20. Each home was equipped with a basic rate ISDN (BRI) line, a BRI Ethernet half-bridge, and an NT-1. An inter-departmental team coordinated the project. Usage at each home was tracked and frequent surveys were attempted. Lessons learned include: working with Ameritech can be difficult; careful monitoring is essential; and configuration of home computing equipment is very time consuming. Plans include moving entirely to primary rate ISDN hubs, support for different home ISDN equipment and better usage and performance tracking.

Martin, D.E.; Lego, A.J.; Clifford, A.E.

1995-12-31

418

The 1993 Family Day Care Licensing Study. Family Day Care Advocacy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contains the results of a nationwide survey of state regulatory agencies conducted to update family day care licensing information gathered in 1992. Following a list of definitions for terms used in the study and a brief overview of each state's regulatory requirements for small and large family day care providers, the main section…

Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

419

Context-specific, evidence-based planning for scale-up of family planning services to increase progress to MDG 5: health systems research  

PubMed Central

Background Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women’s empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. Methods To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH), the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply–demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. Results In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow-up cards. Modelling showed varying marginal impact and costs for each setting with potential for significant reductions in the maternal mortality rate; up to 28% (25.1-30.7) over five years, costing up to a marginal USD 1.34 (1.32-1.35) per capita in the first year. Conclusion Local health planners are in a prime position to devise feasible context-specific activities to overcome constraints and increase met need for family planning to accelerate progress towards MDG 5. PMID:23140196

2012-01-01

420

Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

Not Available

1994-06-14

421

Site characterization plan for the W-058 Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this preoperational study plan is to characterize the proposed pipeline route for the Cross-Site Transfer System (W-058). The purpose of this study is to meet the requirements set forth in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, Chapter 4, (DOE 1990). The W-058 pipeline is intended to replace the existing Cross-Site Transfer System (H-2-43056). The proposed route for the W-058 project will be reviewed to provide information on documented waste sites and potentially to identify any undocumented hazards that may currently exist along the proposed route. Historical records will be researched for pertinent information. Health Physics personnel will perform a ``walk-down`` radiological survey of the proposed path. A sampling plan will be generated and will consist of actual drilling of boreholes to allow field screening for radionuclides and/or chemical contamination and the collection of samples at selected sites for laboratory analyses. The information generated from this combined effort will establish existing/potential contamination levels, aid in developing personnel safety requirements, assist in determining the need for any changes in the proposed route prior to installation/construction of the new pipeline, and satisfy the requirements of a preoperational baseline for the project.

Rowley, C.A.

1993-09-01

422

River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

POHTO, R.E.

2000-03-09

423

Understanding the Role of Culture in Domestic Violence: The Ahimsa Project for Safe Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence affects women across all racial, national, social, and economic groups. In particular, immigrant and refugee\\u000a families are at risk for domestic violence because of their migration history and differences in cultural values and norms.\\u000a The Ahimsa for Safe Families Project is an innovative collaborative project that addresses domestic violence in immigrant\\u000a and refugee communities in San Diego. The

Amy Pan; Sandra Daley; Lourdes M. Rivera; Kara Williams; Danielle Lingle; Vivian Reznik

2006-01-01

424

Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".  

PubMed

Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

1994-08-24

425

Level of male involvement and associated factors in family planning services utilization among married men in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

BackgroundMen¿s participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women¿s empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs.ResultsOnly 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization.ConclusionsIn this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning services. The family planning programs should incorporate the responsibility and role of males in the uptake of family planning services. PMID:25439300

Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel; Gedefaw, Molla

2014-12-01

426

Solid waste information and tracking system server conversion project management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Project Management Plan governing the conversion of Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

MAY, D.L.

1999-04-12

427

Project responder: a national technology plan for emergency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency responders are the front line of defense against catastrophic terrorist attacks on US soil. Advanced systems and cutting-edge technologies can increase responders' capabilities, or make their resources go farther in time of crisis, but there is a disconnection of understanding between those who produce the systems and technologies, and those who need them at the local level. Local jurisdictions rarely have a budget to support or influence technology development and acquisition. The laboratories, agencies, universities, or industries that develop these emerging technologies are responding to requirements from different markets (usually larger) than individual local jurisdictions. Indeed, responders may not even know of new technology development, availability, or relevance to responders" needs. Consequently, technology developers have limited insight into what technologies responders need. Local, and even state, budgets by themselves are not sufficiently large or coordinated to influence technology development towards the needs of responders, without the assistance of federal direction and funding. If federal direction and funding of technology is to produce and deliver useful capabilities for local responders, federal technology planners must understand the needs of responders, and develop technology plans to meet those needs. Project Responder's National Technology Plan for Emergency Response provides a foundation and building blocks for technology planning, to focus federal research and development investments toward improving the capabilities of state and local emergency responders.

Pollard, Neal A.; Tuohy, Robert V.; Garwin, Thomas M.; Powell, Maria E.; Royal, Michelle; Singley, George T., III

2004-09-01

428

Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.

Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P Evan; Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

2000-10-18

429

Cost Reduction - Buzzwords and Their Real Use: Mission Families, Mission Planning, Mission Automation and Standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many missions, the European Space Agency ESA has followed a delta approach connected with excessive software reuse for the development of operational ground software for space missions. This approach of mission families is well proven and has already led to enormous cost savings regarding development and maintenance costs. Advances in mission planning and mission automation are an example how

Michael Koller; C. Schurig

2009-01-01

430

"Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.  

PubMed Central

During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

Ryder, R E

1993-01-01

431

"Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.  

PubMed

During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. PMID:8401097

Ryder, R E

1993-09-18

432

A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291

Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

2010-01-01

433

Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…

Bradley, Janet

1998-01-01

434

California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

435

Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2014-01-01

436

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-HDFS-CYD] College of Education, Health and Human Services School to ensure a timely graduation. Course Subject and Title Credit Hours Upper Div. Min. Grade Major GPA

Sheridan, Scott

437

Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning

Ana Laura CG Ferreira; Ariani I Souza; Raitza A Lima; Cynthia Braga

2010-01-01

438

Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Results: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31%). Conclusion: Drug shops can be a viable and convenient source of short-acting contraceptive methods, including DMPA, serving as a complement to government services. Family planning programs in Uganda and elsewhere should consider including drug shops in the network of community-based family planning providers. PMID:25611480

Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

2014-01-01

439

Reproductive Health Care and Family Planning Needs Among Incarcerated Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated women. Such interventions will benefit t