Sample records for family structure economic

  1. Genetics, family structure, and economic growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Zak

    2002-01-01

    .   Recent biomedical research shows that roughly three-quarters of cognitive abilities are attributable to genetics and family\\u000a environment. This paper presents a growth model that characterizes the role of the intergenerational transmission of genes\\u000a and the effect of family environment on growth trajectories. If the average human or physical capital stocks are sufficiently\\u000a low, the model shows that the economy

  2. When Forever is No-More: Economic Implications of Changing Family Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ermisch

    The purpose of this paper is to review the salient demographic trends affecting the structure of famil ies in Britain and to consider the main economic implications of these. A rise in families in which the parents live in separate households is identified as the most important change in family structure. The second section of the paper argues that there

  3. Families under Economic Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from two-parent families in midwestern rural county revealed that adverse economic change increased economic pressures and hardship adaptations in ways that matched effect of income level and exceeded influence of unstable work. Pressures and adaptations mediated negative effects of economic adversity on emotional health and family

  4. Families under Economic Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

    The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

  5. Changing aspects of economic and family structures in Kal?rdasht, a district in Northern Iran, up to 1978

    E-print Network

    Mir-Hosseini, Ziba

    1980-12-02

    through­ out my course of study in Cambridge and from Professor Andre Beteille during his visits to Cambridge. M~ sincere thanks and appreciation go to Dr. Lucy ~arroll Stout, who read several drafts of the thesis with utmost patience and whose... CHANGING ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC AND FAMILY STRUCTURES IN KALARDASHT, A DISTRICT IN NORTHERN IRAN, UP TO 1918. Ziba Mir-Hosseini Lucy Cavendish College D 4- \\ \\ ~l '""l ( t' 2.. A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy...

  6. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  7. Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

    Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

  8. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  9. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  10. Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Manijeh Sabi

    Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

  11. Social Structure and Family Homicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

    2010-01-01

    To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

  12. How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and…

  13. Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bobbye

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

  14. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  15. Predictors of Family Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maxine Atkinson

    This activity is used in an sociology class class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of households/families, income and race to understand how family structure and demographic information predict trends in family structure. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990 and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

  16. Social and economic incentives for family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Amy; Shindelman, Lois W.

    1983-01-01

    The recent emphasis on developing programs and policies to support families who care for aged relatives makes it important to understand the families' receptivity to the specific social and economic incentives under consideration. The research reported in this paper draws on the experiences of 203 individuals identified as the primary caregiver to an aged frail relative currently receiving home care or day care services in New York City. As part of a larger study of caregiving behavior, respondents were asked to rank their preferences for various service and economic support programs. Findings indicate that family caregivers perceive service and social supports, specifically medical care and homemaker service, as more crucial than both direct and indirect financial incentives. Furthermore, the issue of economic incentives elicited an extremely negative reaction from a significant minority who refused to consider such support in their personal family situations. The analysis indicated that the caregiver's background characteristics were not critical in differentiating caregivers who select either a service or an economic incentive. Among the set of variables defining the current caregiving situation, only sex of the aged relative and utilization of home care services were significantly related to choice of program. Respondents caring for females and high service utilizers were more likely to prefer service supports. Relevance of findings to current policy initiatives regarding financial incentives to families are presented. PMID:10310526

  17. Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

  18. The Family Relationships Grid: Measuring Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; And Others

    This study examined the Family Relationships Grid (FRG), a new measure of family structure that evaluates alliances, identification, isolation, and the relative strength of sibling and marital relationships. Subjects were 52 female and 35 male adolescents who were recruited through a university course and who each had at least one sibling.…

  19. Economic Impact of Advanced Pediatric Cancer on Families

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Kira; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Russ; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. Objectives To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent or non-responsive cancer at three children’s hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. Results Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child’s illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child’s illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses due to work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P=0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously non-poor families fell from above to below the 200% FPL. Conclusion The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:23870843

  20. Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2010-01-01

    Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family

  1. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  2. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic

  3. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  4. Children's mental health in times of economic recession: replication and extension of the family economic stress model in Finland.

    PubMed

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation models showed that the FESM fit the data well, indicating its generalizability in Finnish society. The results confirmed that a reduction in disposable family income constitutes a risk for child mental health through increased economic pressure and negative changes in parental mental health, marital interaction, and parenting quality. Controlling the children's prerecession mental health substantiated that economic hardship can lead to deterioration in children's mental health. Alternative models based on fully recursive analyses revealed reciprocal influences between parents and their children over time: Children's prerecession mental health problems predicted compromised parenting, which in turn contributed to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms during the recession. PMID:15122967

  5. Family economic resources in the post-reform era.

    PubMed

    Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

  6. Income Tax Cuts: The Promises and Pitfalls for Families across the Economic Spectrum. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that recent economic news and slowed economic growth statistics are bad news for American families. Examines President Bush's efforts to implement tax cuts and finds that the proposed tax cut is skewed to the top of the income spectrum, not to the low- and middle-income families it is purported to assist most. (SD)

  7. Economic models of the family and the relationship between economic status and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Tipper

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence strongly suggests that there is a positive relationship between economic status and health, and that married persons are healthier than their single counterparts. There are, however, a number of economic explanations for why economic status is related to health in the family context that are often overlooked in empirical studies. This paper provides a comparative introduction to three

  8. Essays in population and family economics

    E-print Network

    León, Alexis, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) observed in several Western countries. Finally, the third chapter evaluates the labor market effects of public subsidies to families with children. Using variation in the level of benefits provided by a policy ...

  9. Progress in measuring family spillover effects for economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tilford, J Mick; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-04-01

    Despite considerable progress in measuring family spillover effects for economic evaluations, much work remains. This editorial describes recent advances in the field and identifies areas for future research. In particular, we point out the need to clarify the potential for double-counting from including spillover effects related to caregiver time and spillover effects related to family quality of life outcomes in Reference Case analyses. We believe that research on family spillover effects has the potential to increase interest in the field of economic evaluation and its use as a tool for decision making. PMID:25544021

  10. Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.

    PubMed

    Chang, K S

    1991-07-01

    Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

  11. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  12. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  13. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple family dwelling for upstate New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laquatra, J., Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple family dwelling in three upstate New York cities, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse was studied. Specifically, two passive solar applications, a Trombe wall and direct gain system, for a nine unit structure were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. city specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  14. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  15. Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

  16. Drug Use, Culture, and Welfare Incentives: Correlates of Family Structure and Out-of-Wedlock Birth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Kaestner

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, I test whether a variety of social and economic factors are significantly related to an individuals family structure. I focus on the relationship between one particular type of family structure, a never married parent, and three variables: drug use, the generosity of welfare payments, and local area economic conditions. Two types of empirical analyses are used to

  17. Ecological Structural Family Therapy with Cuban Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.; And Others

    Research and clinical practice at the Spanish Family Guidance Clinic (Miami, Florida) has suggested that ecological structural family therapy might be a treatment of choice for Cuban immigrants. Such a treatment approach was found to be consistent with the values of this population and was particularly helpful in addressing special problems…

  18. Families of Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds and Children's School Performance: Challenges and Opportunities. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Argues that economic and social disadvantage experienced very early is more damaging than poverty experienced later in life. Asserts that poor children will perform better in school if the condition of their education and families is improved and questions whether the political will exists to change public policies to improve the circumstances of…

  19. Coos teens’ view of family economic stress is tied to quality of relationships at home

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinna Tucker; Genevieve R. Cox

    2011-01-01

    Family economic hardship during adolescence affects family relationships and the social, emotional, and behavioral development of a substantial number of American youth. The authors of this brief use data from the Coos County Youth Study, conducted by the Carsey Institute, to explore adolescents’ perceptions of family economic pressure in 2008 and determine whether these views are linked to their family

  20. Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-05-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

  1. Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    HOFFERTH, SANDRA L.; GOLDSCHEIDER, FRANCES

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men’s transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call “fragile families.” The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

  2. Discrimination, Sex Roles, and Changing Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giele, Janet Zollinger

    The problem of discrimination against families within the context of changing sex roles and the growing diversity of family structure is discussed in this paper. It begins with an analysis of underlying social trends, then focuses on sex discrimination and discrimination against different family types and concludes with an interpretation of…

  3. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  4. Compulsive gambling: Structured family intervention.

    PubMed

    Heineman, M

    1994-03-01

    Family intervention has been an effective procedure for getting alcoholics into treatment for more than twenty years. Now this technique is being used with compulsive gamblers. Because the gambling disorder is so easy to hide, the patient seems to be further into the illness by the time the family seeks help. Furthermore, because the gambling offers intermittent rewards, the denial in both the patient and family appears to be stronger than found with most alcoholics.During the intervention it is important to tell the compulsive gambler why the help of a professional was sought; what changes have been observed by family members and friends as a result of his/her gambling; how family relationships have been affected; what is feared will happen if he/she doesn't get help; and what each family member hopes will happen once the gambler is in recovery.Most concerned persons enter family interventions with the sole purpose of getting the gambler into treatment. However, since this is a family disease, ethically the primary goal of family intervention needs to be to getsomeone into treatment, if not the individual suffering with the disease then one or more of those concerned persons suffering from it. PMID:24234783

  5. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  6. Compulsive gambling: Structured family intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Heineman

    1994-01-01

    Family intervention has been an effective procedure for getting alcoholics into treatment for more than twenty years. Now this technique is being used with compulsive gamblers. Because the gambling disorder is so easy to hide, the patient seems to be further into the illness by the time the family seeks help. Furthermore, because the gambling offers intermittent rewards, the denial

  7. The Network Structure of Economic Output

    E-print Network

    Hidalgo, Cesar A.

    Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

  8. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  9. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Families of Children with Down Syndrome and the Economic Impacts of Child Disability on Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Grosse

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the research examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of families of children with Down syndrome as well as how Down syndrome and other disabilities impact the economic situations of families. Two consistent demographic patterns are found. First, parents of children with Down syndrome on average are older than parents of other children. Second, families of children with

  10. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  11. Family Structure and Youths' Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.

    2000-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…

  12. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All transient and dominant structures are mapped to our new alignments introduced here. PMID:25751035

  13. Financial Development and Dual Economic Structural Transformation: Experience from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xiu-hua; Wan Ying

    2006-01-01

    Dual economic structure is not only a typical feature of developing countries in their initial economic development, but also its transformation is the main task of economic development in these countries. Finance is the core of modern economy, and financial development would exert crucial influences on dual economic structure transformation. However, neither financial development theory, nor dual economic structure theory

  14. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  15. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  16. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

    1992-01-01

    KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

  17. For Love "and" Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and…

  18. The Future Information Structure in Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Goffe, William L.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to "start a debate in our profession," William L. Goffe and Robert P. Parks have recently uploaded "The Future Information Structure in Economics" to the Economics Working Paper Archive at Washington University at St. Louis. Although the paper uses the Economics profession as an example, the points it raises can be applied to almost any academic subject. The paper discusses the possible effects of networking on future scholarly publishing, imagining how scholars will share not only their research, but also data sets that served as the raw material for the research, enabling other researchers to verify theories "on the fly." Several possibilities for future research publishing are discussed, from electronic journals that charge for access to completely free electronic publishing. The paper is divided into sections discussing: academic principles that are independent of technology; the impact of networks on working papers, journals and libraries; the implications of increased access to data; new opportunities for scholarly publishing in a networked environment; and a "roadmap" to a possible future of scholarly publishing. "Future Information" is available in .pdf, postscript, and TeX formats, is twenty pages long, contains little economics jargon, and has over 40 references to other electronic and non-electronic sources of interest. Goffe is a Professor in the Department of Economics and International Business at the University of Southern Mississippi, and is the author of "Resources for Economists on the Internet," one of the best Internet subject guides available. Parks is the maintainer of the Economics Working Paper Archive, a large and well organized electronic working paper archive.

  19. Structured Families of Models with Commutative Orthogonal Block Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Mexia, João T.; Covas, Ricardo

    2010-09-01

    Orthogonal Block Structure models are a well know class of models. In this paper we will work with a special class of such models, the ones with Commutative Orthogonal Block Structure, COBS. In this models the orthogonal projection matrix on the space spanned by the mean vector commutes with variance-covariance matrix. The algebraic structure of such models will be studied and we will carry out inference for structured families of COBS where the models in these families correspond to the treatment of a base design.

  20. Family Boundary Ambiguity and the Measurement of Family Structure: The Significance of Cohabitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Brown; Wendy D. Manning

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine family boundary ambiguity in adolescent and mother reports of family structure and found that the greater the family complexity, the more likely adolescent and mother reports of family structure were discrepant. This boundary ambiguity in reporting was most pronounced for cohabiting stepfamilies. Among

  1. Family Structure, Family Stability, and Outcomes of Five-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study exploits data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of a diverse sample of children from twenty U.S. cities (N = 3,676), to examine how cognitive, behavioural, and health outcomes of five-year old children differ according to their family structure and family stability. We define three models: one that measures family structure at birth only, a second that measures current family structure at year five conditional on family structure at birth, and a third that measures changes in family structure from birth to age five. We find that while family structure has persistent links to child outcomes, the effects are significantly altered by stability of the family structure over time. These findings remain robust even after addressing selection. PMID:24163735

  2. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  3. Population and Family Planning in the Economic Development of Rhodesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Clarke

    The effects of population growth on economic development are hotly debated by rival schools of economists, and with the notable exception of Colin Clark,1 there are basically two camps. First- ly, the Marxist School believes that the problems of the less developed countries can be solved by socio-economic development alone; development, they claim, will outstrip population growth pro- vided that

  4. Quantum structure in economics: The Ellsberg paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    The expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions, as shown by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. The popular explanation in terms of ambiguity aversion is not completely accepted. As a consequence, uncertainty is still problematical in economics. To overcome these difficulties a distinction between risk and ambiguity has been introduced which depends on the existence of a Kolmogorovian probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainties. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that context plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian framework admitting a quantum-like representation. For this reason, we have recently introduced a notion of contextual risk to mathematically capture situations in which ambiguity occurs. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a sphere model within our hidden measurement formalism which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a quantum conceptual layer in human thought which is superposed to the usually assumed classical logical layer, and conceptually supports the thesis of several authors suggesting the presence of quantum structure in economics and decision theory.

  5. The Economics of Land Consolidation in Family Farms of Moldova

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragos Cimpoies; Zvi Lerman; Anatol Racul

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the current situation with fragmentation of family farms in Moldova and its effects on family well-being and farm productivity. A key hypothesis is that consolidation of agricultural land in Moldova has beneficial effects in terms of productivity and is desirable in the long run. We examine the case for market-driven land consolidation using data from several recent

  6. The economics of family planning and underage conceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Paton

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on

  7. Income, economic satisfaction, and stress in two-generational farm families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona Marotz-Baden

    1988-01-01

    This descriptive research study explores the relationship between income, economic satisfaction and stress in two-generation farm and ranch families. The sample is composed of 102 fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters-in-law in 25 Montana farm and ranch families. According to the data collected in a mailed questionnaire in the spring of 1984, economic satisfaction is negatively correlated with general stress for

  8. Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Hofferth; Frances Goldscheider

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure

  9. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the association between family structure and problem behaviors. A community context model also suggests

  10. IMPACTS OF FAMILY BUSINESSES ON ECONOMIC STABILITY AND GROWTH - AN OPTIMIZATION APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Haber

    Family businesses are an important factor for technological progress and high economic efficiency, determining a significant part of economic strength. At present, inside the European Monetary Union (EMU), there are efforts to reduce public debt to fulfill the criteria imposed by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), which are mandatory for members of the Euro zone. Due to these constraints,

  11. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

  12. Adult Roles & Responsibilities. Home Economics Family Life Course. Grades 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for developing a home economics family life course to assist students in improving the quality of individual and family life. The course contains 12 units that cover the following topics: self-awareness, wheel of life, dating, mate selection, engagement, marriage, money management, parenting, crisis…

  13. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  14. Family policy, family structure, and children's educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the interface between policy, the family, and educational outcomes. More specifically, this research examined how the association between single motherhood and children's literacy achievement is affected by a country's family policy environment. Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and national level comparative policy data, the results from the 2-level hierarchical linear models indicate that in those countries that have policies that favor low-income single-parent families, the literacy gap decreases in size between students who reside in single-mother households and their counterparts who reside in two-parent families. PMID:23521996

  15. Concepts of Family Among Children and Adolescents: Effect of Cognitive Level, Gender, and Family Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith L. Newman; Laura R. Roberts; Christine R. Syré

    1993-01-01

    We assessed the effects of age, cognitive level, gender, and family structure on 120 Ss' definitions of family, divorce, and adoption and their acceptance or nonacceptance as instances of family each of 21 human groupings that varied on biological, legal, and spatial relatedness. Affect was the most frequently mentioned criterion in definitions of family, especially among Ss who were older

  16. Designing for dynamic family structures: divorced families and interactive systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Odom; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi

    2010-01-01

    While the HCI community has long investigated issues of designing for family and the home, very little attention has focused on the lives of divorced families and the ways in which interactive systems might be better designed to address the very real and growing issues they face. In this paper we present an overview of related research on divorce and

  17. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade

    1977-01-01

    States that if the wife is to work, it is important that her occupation reflect favorably on the family's socioeconomic position. This need for status offsets the need for her occupation to be of a nonthreatening status. It is suggested that the amount of disruptive competition which would occur if both the husband and wife worked has been…

  18. The relationship between body structure and the socio-economic status in Hungarian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2014-06-01

    Among the numerous factors that influence the pattern of children's growth and development there are factors of the changeable socio-economic environment. The inequalities among the socio-economic strata in the Hungarian society have increased during last decades. The main objective of the study was to examine the body structure of children and adolescents living in different socio-economic backgrounds. The subjects of the present paper (9479 boys, 9304 girls) were examined in the 2nd Hungarian National Growth Study 2003-2006. Body structure was assessed by some absolute body dimensions, BMI, body composition and body shape indices. Children were grouped into relatively good, average and poor socio-economic subgroups by considering the education and occupation of the parents as well as the number of children in the family. Significant differences were found in the body structure of children varying in the socio-economic background: the better the socio-economic conditions the higher stature in both genders, while the lower relative fatness was found only in pubertal girls. The prevalence of unhealthy nutritional statuses (both underweight and overweight/ obese) was significantly lower in children living in better socio-economic conditions in both genders. Differences that were found in the body structure of children living in different socio-economic backgrounds emphasize the importance of using reference growth values layered also to socio-economic strata for screening nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25144976

  19. Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

  20. Family boundary ambiguity and the measurement of family structure: the significance of cohabitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Brown; Wendy D. Manning

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine family boundary ambiguity\\u000a in adolescent and mother reports of family structure and found that the greater the family complexity, the more likely adolescent\\u000a and mother reports of family structure were discrepant. This boundary ambiguity in reporting was most pronounced for cohabiting\\u000a stepfamilies. Among

  1. Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

  2. Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

    2010-01-01

    The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

  3. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

  4. The Role of Family Functioning in the Stress Process of Dementia Caregivers: A Structural Family Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Lewis, John E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Czaja, Sara J.; Eisdorfer, Carl; Schulz, Richard; Szapocznik, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of family functioning in the stress process in a sample of caregivers of dementia patients by using a structural family framework. The stress-process model of caregiver distress included family functioning as an intervening variable in the relationship between objective burden and…

  5. Entry Number: 1 GB DAILY DIARY LINKS AMONG FAMILY STRUCTURE, FAMILY CONTEXTUAL

    E-print Network

    Entry Number: 1 GB DAILY DIARY LINKS AMONG FAMILY STRUCTURE, FAMILY CONTEXTUAL PROCESSES within a family. Paradoxically, this role-reversal, referred to as parentification, has also been linked for such divergent outcomes. The current study will test the link between retrospective parentification

  6. Economic Structure and Local Growth: France, 1984–1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Philippe Combes

    2000-01-01

    For 52 industry sectors and 42 services sectors, this paper tests how the local economic structure (local sectoral specialization and diversity, competition, average size of plants, and total employment density) affects the 1984–1993 employment growth of 341 local areas. These areas entirely and continuously cover the French territory. The impact of the local economic structure differs in industry and services.

  7. Associations between family structure change and child behavior problems: the moderating effect of family income.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated conditions under which family structure matters most for child well-being. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 3,936), a national sample of U.S. families, it was estimated how changes in family structure related to changes in children's behavior between age 3 and 12 separately by household income level to determine whether associations depended on families' resources. Early changes in family structure, particularly from a two-biological-parent to single-parent family, predicted increases in behavior problems more than later changes, and movements into single and stepparent families mattered more for children of higher versus lower income parents. Results suggest that for children of higher income parents, moving into a stepfamily may improve, not undermine, behavior. PMID:25209138

  8. How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities?

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    · How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities? · How does renewable energy revitalize agricultural communities, provide energy self-sufficiency & protect the environment? · How do renewable energy & sustainable food create

  9. Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations

    Cancer.gov

    Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations Scott D. Ramsey, M.D., Ph.D. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA) Wylie Burke, M.D.., Ph.D.

  10. Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

    The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

  11. Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Joel

    This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

  12. The Social Ecology of Race and Ethnicity School Achievement Gaps: Economic, Neighborhood, School, and Family Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor; Michael E. Woolley

    2010-01-01

    This study used a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students to examine the degree to which economic, neighborhood, school, and family factors contributed to three points on a proposed school outcome continuum: (1)avoidance of problem behavior, (2)sense of school coherence, and (3)grades. Multilevel models were employed to account for the clustering of students inside schools. Results suggested

  13. Families at the Century's Turn: The Troubling Economic Trends. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Discusses U.S. economic trends for the past century. Notes that distribution of wealth is more concentrated at top than is distribution of income, with income inequality growing worse in the 1990s. Maintains that wealth disparity explains achievement test score gaps between white and minority students. Presents proposals for asset-building,…

  14. Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

    1975-01-01

    The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

  15. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  16. Structural Boundaries of Single-Parent Families and Children's Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Rosenberg; Joseph Guttmann

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigates the structural boundaries of the divorced single-parent family system and subsystems and the relationships between these and children's emotional, social, and academic functioning. The subjects were 189 children (95 of intact and 94 of divorced families) and their mothers (60 married and 58 divorced). Three tests were used to assess family boundaries: Boundary Ambiguity Scale (BAS),

  17. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being Among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Walton; David T. Takeuchi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on psychological distress. The only effects of family composition are

  18. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  19. Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1996-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

  20. Changing Sex Roles and Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giele, Janet Zollinger

    1979-01-01

    In the last decade, a number of variant family forms have arisen. One contention is that these experiments are a sign of strain in the traditional nuclear family and an indication of changes it must undergo in order to adapt to contemporary society. (Author/WI)

  1. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l<2000 is bigger than that with l>2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  2. New Zealand's economic reforms and changes in production structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Claus

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand’s reforms beginning in 1984 markedly improved the country’s economic prospects. They were one of the most radical and comprehensive programmes of structural change among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co?operation and Development (OECD). This paper examines how New Zealand’s production structure was transformed using input output analysis. The results show that the reforms rapidly affected the economy

  3. Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

  4. The impact of urbanization on family structure: the experience of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hew Cheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that women and men encounter the processes of migration and urbanization in very gendered ways. It examines state development policies and their role in accelerating the pace of urbanization, Using material from a recently concluded study on single mothers in the lower socio-economic strata, this paper explores the impact of these wider processes on the structure of the family and women from this strata specifically. PMID:21853623

  5. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

  6. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  7. BLACK CLIENTS: FAMILY STRUCTURES, THERAPEUTIC ISSUES, AND STRENGTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Burhard Thomas; Pearl Gore Dansby

    1985-01-01

    Providing effective therapeutic services to black clients has been a dilemma to therapists and agencies of the predominantly white culture. The overriding influence of the heterogeneity of family structures in the black community creates diverse perceptions on the parts of black clients depending upon the childhood family patterns in which they were raised. Alternative modes of therapeutic treatment are presented

  8. Effect of Family Structure on School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Telia Y.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of living in dual parent or single parent families on the school readiness of preschool children. The subjects were 40 prekindergarten children attending a program for at-risk children in a suburban school district. The results of an annual preschool screening test were utilized to determine…

  9. Family Structure and Attitudes Toward the Family for Negroes and Whites From Lower-Class and Working-Class Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosow, Sigmund

    This study is concerned with attitudes of family members, and whether such attitudes indeed vary with different family structures. The increasing sociological and psychiatric evidence seems to support the existence of family strengths in families which have been defined as unstable because of structural attributes. Given the historical character…

  10. Selection of process control structure based on linear dynamic economics

    SciTech Connect

    Narraway, L.T.; Perkins, J.D. (Imperial Coll. of Science, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    It is recognized widely that the choice of measured and manipulated variables employed in a control system (the control structure) can have a strong effect on the performance of the process control system. This paper outlines a systematic method that can be used to select the economically optimal control structure of a process without designing the process controller, while maintaining good controllability characteristics. This requires examination of the effects of process dynamics on process economics and how changes in the control structure alter these economics. The scope of the problem is limited to selecting economically optimal square regulatory feedback control structures for processes whose operation is dominated by steady-state aspects. As the problem is combinatorial in nature, the method addresses systematic generation and efficient search of the space of potential structures through the use of integer programming techniques. Application of this approach to two case studies demonstrates that the technique leads to an improved understanding of the effects of the control structure on process economics and process controller performance.

  11. Structural adjustment, governance, economic growth and social progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manmohan Agarwal; Sayan Samanta

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the interconnection between social achievement, structural adjustment, governance and economic performance. It does this by developing indices to measure social progress, measured by achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and structural adjustment, measured by achieving the goals specified in the Washington consensus. These indices are constructed using the technique pioneered by Nagar & Basu, which uses the

  12. Family structure and variation in reproductive success in blackbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Forbes

    2010-01-01

    In avian families, some offspring are rendered unequal by parental fiat. By imposing phenotypic handicaps (e.g., via asynchronous\\u000a hatching) upon certain of their offspring and not others, parents structure the sibship into castes of advantaged “core” offspring\\u000a and disadvantaged “marginal” offspring that results in an asymmetric sibling rivalry. Here, I show how this family structure\\u000a scales up to population level

  13. Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family

    PubMed Central

    Gaweska, Helena; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, polyamines, amino acids, and methylated lysine side chains in proteins. The enzymes have similar overall structures, with conserved FAD-binding domains and varied substrate-binding sites. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the catalytic reactions of these enzymes. The present review compares the structures of different members of the family and the various mechanistic proposals. PMID:22022344

  14. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  15. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  16. Berkeley Center on Health, Economic & Family Security|Cutting Child Care Out from Under Californians EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    #12;i Berkeley Center on Health, Economic & Family Security|Cutting Child Care Out from Under.2 billion in child care funds, a move that would eliminate most subsidized child care for low-income families. He also proposed to terminate California's welfare program, CalWORKs, which serves 1.4 million

  17. Integrating Individual and Family Therapies: A Structural-Developmental Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Melito

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a theoretical integration of individual and family therapies. It is based on a structural-developmental perspective that reveals structural and adaptational similarities across diverse levels of organization—transactional, interpersonal, and intrapsychic. The common use of structural-developmental principles in a number of diverse theories provides a basis for integrating those theories. In addition, structural-developmental goals provide a basis for meaningfully

  18. Polygynous Contexts, Family Structure, and Infant Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features, and has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared to monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny among 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in non-polygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child wellbeing. PMID:24402794

  19. Family structure and long-term care insurance purchase.

    PubMed

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B; Konetzka, R Tamara

    2015-03-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as the presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one's own generation, particularly about one's spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that long-term care planning has not occurred yet or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25760583

  20. A family of MMA approximations for structural optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bruyneel; P. Duysinx; C. Fleury

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new first-order approximation scheme used for solving structural optimization problems. It is based on approximations of the MMA family (MMA and GCMMA), but it utilizes the gradients and\\/or the function values at two successive design points to improve the quality of the approximation. In addition, this scheme can consider simultaneously monotonous and nonmonotonous structural behaviour. According

  1. RICE UNIVERSITY Mapping the Structural Landscape of Protein Families

    E-print Network

    Kavraki, Lydia E.

    members, segregation by ligation state, and orga- nization by ancestry among convergent protein lineagesRICE UNIVERSITY Mapping the Structural Landscape of Protein Families with Geometric Feature Vectors and Cell Biology Houston, Texas December, 2009 #12;ABSTRACT Mapping the Structural Landscape of Protein

  2. Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families. PMID:25505808

  3. Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

  4. An exploration of health, family and economic experiences of leprosy patients, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Heidarali; Javadi, Akbar; Naji, Sayedali

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to explore the life experiences of Iranian leprosy patients in health, family and economic dimensions. Mycobacterium leprae is responsible for leprosy, a type of chronic inflammatory disease that existed from ancient times, still hearing the name of leprosy creates an awful imagination of cutting the organ, blindness and isolation and it has still remained as a serious social problem. The patients are confronted with particular problems physically and mentally. The phenomenological tradition was used to gain knowledge of the leprosy patients lived experiences. Data analysis method was based on Colaizzi's approach. This is a qualitative research using purposeful sampling, interviewing the leprosy patients referring to a contagious diseases department of the Health Network of Nourabad Lorestan City. Data were collected by interviews those were analyzed in Colaizzi's Methods to extract the conceptual codes. Some concepts obtained from the analysis of data in the study such as physical, psychological, social, family, economic experiences, cultural beliefs of society, the context for tendency toward defect and disability and social stigma. These findings suggest that health care professionals should pay attention not only to leprosy patients to reduce their physical and psychological but also to the community and public culture to reduce the leprosy patients suffering from social stigma. The results of the present study can help us in a better understanding of all aspects of patients' lived experiences. PMID:24502149

  5. The inter-alpha-inhibitor family: from structure to regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Daveau, M

    1996-01-01

    Inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and related molecules, collectively referred to as the IalphaI family, are a group of plasma protease inhibitors. They display attractive features such as precursor polypeptides that give rise to mature chains with quite distinct fates and functions, and inter-chain glycosaminoglycan bonds within the various molecules. The discovery of an ever growing number of such molecules has raised pertinent questions about their pathophysiological functions. The knowledge of this family has long been structure-oriented, whereas the structure/function and structure/regulation relationships of the family members and their genes have been largely ignored. These relationships are now being elucidated in events such as gene transcription, precursor processing, changes in plasma protein levels in health and disease and binding capacities that involve hyaluronan as well as other plasma proteins as ligands. This review presents some recent progress made in these fields that paves the way for an understanding of the functions of IalphaI family members in vivo. Finally, given the wealth of heterogeneous, complicated and sometimes contradictory nomenclatures and acronyms currently in use for this family, a new, uniform, nomenclature is proposed for IalphaI family genes, precursor polypeptides and assembled proteins. PMID:8670091

  6. Economic geography and regional production structure: An empirical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Davis; David E. Weinstein

    1999-01-01

    There are two principal theories of why countries or regions trade: comparative advantage and increasing returns to scale. Yet there is virtually no empirical work that assesses the relative importance of these two theories in accounting for production structure and trade. We use a framework that nests an increasing returns model of economic geography featuring `home market effects' with that

  7. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Granovetter

    1985-01-01

    How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

  8. Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

  9. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  10. Family structure and the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A

    2012-01-01

    I examine whether the effect of parents' education on children's educational achievement and attainment varies by family structure and, if so, whether this can be explained by differential parenting practices. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that as parents' education increases, children in single mother families experience a lower boost in their achievement test scores, likelihood of attending any post-secondary schooling, likelihood of completing a 4-year college degree, and years of completed schooling relative to children living with both biological parents. Differences in parents' educational expectations, intergenerational closure, and children's involvement in structured leisure activities partially explain these status transmission differences by family structure. The findings imply that, among children with highly educated parents, children of single mothers are less likely to be highly educated themselves relative to children who grow up with both biological parents. PMID:23017695

  11. Genome Pool Strategy for Structural Coverage of Protein Families

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszewski, L.; Slabinski, L.; Wooley, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Lesley, S.A.; Wilson, I.A.; Godzik, A.

    2009-05-18

    Even closely homologous proteins often have different crystallization properties and propensities. This observation can be used to introduce an additional dimension into crystallization trials by simultaneous targeting multiple homologs in what we call a 'genome pool' strategy. We show that this strategy works because protein physicochemical properties correlated with crystallization success have a surprisingly broad distribution within most protein families. There are also easy and difficult families where this distribution is tilted in one direction. This leads to uneven structural coverage of protein families, with more easy ones solved. Increasing the size of the genome pool can improve chances of solving the difficult ones. In contrast, our analysis does not indicate that any specific genomes are easy or difficult. Finally, we show that the group of proteins with known 3D structures is systematically different from the general pool of known proteins and we assess the structural consequences of these differences.

  12. ECONOMIC RISK AND THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM BUSINESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Barry; Cesar L. Escalante; Sharon K. Bard

    2000-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel farm-level data, this study finds that income variability may be materially influenced by farm size. Econometric results suggest that policy analyses and other considerations of the distributional effects of, and response to, income variability for commercial scale family farms may concentrate on farm size and other structural variables.

  13. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an example of a poor country moving along a path toward strong sustainability. To this end, a sincere intervention at the social and natural capital along with economic growth is necessary. Poverty alleviation efforts should target the socio-economically deprived households by enriching their human capital. Since community based social structures, such as the forest user groups, are already setting an example of strong sustainability, such community based social capital initiatives should be encouraged by granting rights and other resources to augment further economic activities like harnessing hydropower that may eventually transform the socio-ecological-economic system.

  14. Family Structure and Children's Socioeconomic Attainment: A Canadian Sample.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2015-02-01

    With the proliferation of different family forms in many western countries over the last few decades, research investigating the influence of family structure on children's socioeconomic status attainment has expanded dramatically, especially in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative influence of family structure, maternal resources, and family mental health on predicting socioeconomic attainment in young adulthood. Data for this study were derived from a case-comparison, three-wave panel study of single-parent, and two-parent families living in London, Ontario, with interviews conducted in 1993 (wave 1), 1994 (wave 2), and between 2005 and 2008 (wave 3). There were virtually no differences in status attainment by family structure. Unexpectedly, however, we found that children raised in temporally stable single-parent families, and those whose mothers transitioned from a single-parent family to a two-parent family had higher socioeconomic status occupations for their longest job held than did children raised in temporally stable two-parent families. Maternal education was positively related to the likelihood that children would graduate from college/university. For those concerned with social policy, this implies that greater attention ought to be paid to addressing disparities in education and family income than to concerns with the kinds of families in which children grow up. Avec la prolifération de différentes formes de familles dans plusieurs pays occidentaux depuis quelques décennies, la recherche sur l'influence de la structure da la famille sur l'acquisition de statu socioéconomique des enfants s'est dramatiquement élargie, surtout aux Etats-Unis. L'intention de cette étude était d'estimer l'influence relative de la structure de famille, les ressources maternelles et la santé mentale de la famille sur la prédiction d'acquisition socioéconomique d'un jeune adulte. Les données de cette étude résultent d'une comparaison de cas, sur un échantillonnage de 3 séries de familles monoparentales et de familles à 2 parents vivant à London, Ontario, avec des entrevues réalisées en 1993 (série 1), 1994 (série 2) et entre 2005 et 2008 (série 3). Il n'y a avait virtuellement pas de différence d'acquisition de statu par structure de famille. De manière inattendue, cependant, nous avons établis que les enfants élevés de par des familles monoparentales stables dans le temps, ainsi que ceux dont la mère avait opéré une transition d'une structure monoparentale vers une structure à 2 parents, occupaient des fonctions d'un statu socioéconomique plus élevé durant leur période d'emploi la plus longue comparés aux enfants élevés dans des familles à 2 parents stables dans le temps. L'éducation maternelle était positivement liée à la probabilité que les enfants obtiendraient un diplôme d'un niveau post-secondaire (collège / université). Pour ceux concernés par les politiques sociales, cela induit qu'une plus grande attention devrait être accordée à la disparité entre l'éducation et les revenus de la famille plutôt que de s'attarder sur les types de famille dans lesquelles les enfants grandissent. PMID:25737465

  15. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  16. Family structure, neonatal infection, and hay fever in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Strachan; E M Taylor; R G Carpenter

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased numbers of siblings and infection in early life protect against allergic sensitisation. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Sheffield, UK. SUBJECTS: 11,765 children aged 11-16 years for whom a history of neonatal infectious illness had been recorded systematically at 1 month of age. METHODS: A history of hay fever and family structure was obtained by postal

  17. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  18. Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and…

  19. Electronic structure contributions to reactivity in xanthine oxidase family enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin W; Kirk, Martin L

    2015-03-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the two-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

  20. Migration and father absence: shifting family structure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Jenna

    2013-08-01

    Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico-declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility-Mexican children's family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father's migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children's living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children's family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

  1. The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2005-01-01

    The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740

  2. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  3. Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ching Man

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

  4. Female genital structures in several families of Centropagoidea (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Barthélémy, R.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The female genital structures of 21 calanoid species belonging to the families Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae and Tortanidae were studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy). Except the monotypic Sulcanidae, their organization conforms to a common pattern characterized by egg-laying ducts opening through paired adjacent gonopores into a small cavity, the genital atrium, covered by a genital operculum and opening to the outside through a distal atrial slit. No seminal receptacle is present and the seminal products must be stored for a brief period in the genital atrium.The genital structures occupy a well delimited genital area, the main changes in which concern their position on the ventral face of the genital double-somite, and operculum morphology. Their organization and possible mode of operation are compared with those of other calanoid families. A possible correlation between absence of seminal receptacles and mating behaviour is discussed.

  5. Functional and structural diversity of the human Dickkopf gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery E. Krupnik; John D. Sharp; Chian Jiang; Keith Robison; Troy W. Chickering; Lakshmi Amaravadi; Diane E. Brown; Deborah Guyot; Gail Mays; Kevin Leiby; Belle Chang; Thao Duong; Andrew D. J. Goodearl; David P. Gearing; Sergei Y. Sokol; Sean A. McCarthy

    1999-01-01

    Wnt proteins influence many aspects of embryonic development, and their activity is regulated by several secreted antagonists, including the Xenopus Dickkopf-1 (xDkk-1) protein. xDkk-1 inhibits Wnt activities in Xenopus embryos and may play a role in induction of head structures. Here, we characterize a family of human Dkk-related genes composed of Dkk-1, Dkk-2, Dkk-3, and Dkk-4, together with a unique

  6. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  7. Engaging families in the child welfare process utilizing the Family-Directed Structural Assesment Tool.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Dickerson, Pamela S; Lyons, Jane K; Tapp, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Effectively engaging parents in the provision of child welfare services is a crucial component of the helping process; however, it has proven to be an ongoing challenge for workers in this service area. The literature indicates that outcomes are improved for children and families when parents are actively involved in service provision. This article presents a literature review specific to parental engagement in child welfare services, identifies gaps in service provision, and introduces the Family-Directed Structural Assessment Tool, which addresses several challenges of engaging parents in this process. The pilot utilization of this assessment tool by two Bachelor of Social Work students is also presented. Finally, implications for child welfare practice are described. PMID:24843948

  8. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2004-02-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation. PMID:15074125

  9. Economic insecurity and access to the social safety net among Latino farmworker families.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Yolanda C; Scott, Jennifer L; Lopez, Olivia

    2014-04-01

    Farmworkers experience pervasive economic insecurity in part because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work and limited employment protections. Yet little is known about the adequacy of the social safety net in responding to farmworker needs. Using data from the 2005-2009 National Agricultural Workers Survey (N = 10,469), the current study analyzed predictors of social welfare participation among Latinos, who represent approximately 80 percent of all farmworkers. Nearly 95 percent are immigrants, although almost half of them have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Descriptive analyses showed that, even among farmworker households whose income fell below the poverty line or that were headed by legally documented individuals, social services use was very low. Logistic regression analyses revealed that degree of social integration influenced social welfare participation, controlling for education, poverty status, family composition, and employment characteristics. Latino farmworkers who were recent immigrants (that is, in the United States for less than five years) had significantly lower odds of access to social insurance and public assistance programs relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Low self-reported English ability significantly decreased access to most social insurance programs but not public assistance receipt. The findings indicate the need for social workers to engage in outreach efforts and policy advocacy to improve farmworkers access to social welfare. PMID:24855865

  10. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating ...

  11. Structural and functional insight into the universal stress protein family

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Karolina L; A Shumilin, Igor; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2013-01-01

    We present the crystal structures of two universal stress proteins (USP) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Nitrosomonas europaea in both apo- and ligand-bound forms. This work is the first complete synthesis of the structural properties of 26 USP available in the Protein Data Bank, over 75% of which were determined by structure genomics centers with no additional information provided. The results of bioinformatic analyses of all available USP structures and their sequence homologs revealed that these two new USP structures share overall structural similarity with structures of USPs previously determined. Clustering and cladogram analyses, however, show how they diverge from other members of the USP superfamily and show greater similarity to USPs from organisms inhabiting extreme environments. We compared them with other archaeal and bacterial USPs and discuss their similarities and differences in context of structure, sequential motifs, and potential function. We also attempted to group all analyzed USPs into families, so that assignment of the potential function to those with no experimental data available would be possible by extrapolation. PMID:23745136

  12. The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vishwajeet

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

  13. Mathematical Models for Tubular Structures in the Papilloma-Polyoma family of viruses

    E-print Network

    Mathematical Models for Tubular Structures in the Papilloma-Polyoma family of viruses R. Twarock The surface lattices of all possible tubular structures in the papilloma- polyoma family of viruses-polyoma family of viruses contains tumour causing viruses, and mathematical models for the structure

  14. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

  15. Temporal Influences of Family Structure and Family Risk Factors on Drug Use Initiation in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescent Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres G. Gil; William A. Vega; Frank Biafora

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family structure and family environments on the initiation of illicit drug use among a sample of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic\\/Latino, African American, and White non-Hispanic adolescent boys (N = 3413). Bivariate and multivariate analyses with longitudinal data, three years, were used to assess transitional\\/temporal influences of family variables on the initiation of illicit drug

  16. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

  17. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

  18. Structural features of compounds of the sillenite family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikova, T. I.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Bolotina, N. B.; Rybakov, V. B.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Mar'ina, E. A.

    2014-05-01

    It is shown that the real composition and structure of phases belonging to the sillenite family can be determined using a complex of techniques (diffraction methods, vibrational and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis) with a subsequent crystal-chemical analysis of the data. Refined compositions are presented for phases of nominal composition Bi24 M 2O40 with M = Zn2+, Al3+, Ga3+, Fe3+, Si4+, Ti4+, Mn4+, and P5+, which demonstrate types and concentrations of point defects as functions of the M type.

  19. Positron Excess, Luminous-Dark Matter Unification and Family Structure

    E-print Network

    Paul H. Frampton; Pham Q. Hung

    2009-04-16

    It is commonly assumed that dark matter may be composed of one or at most a few elementary particles. PAMELA data present a window of opportunity into a possible relationship between luminous and dark matter. Along with ATIC data the two positron excesses are interpreted as a reflection of dark matter family structure. In a unified model it is predicted that at least a third enhancement might show up at a different energy. The strength of the enhancements however depends on interfamily mixing angles.

  20. The ideal love object: Structural and family sources.

    PubMed

    Kemper, T D; Bologh, R W

    1980-02-01

    We obtained preferences from 227 college students about the characteristics of their ideal love objects. We factor analyzed these separately for males and females and obtained both common and sex-specific factors. We then examined the relative contributions of a set of structural and family factors to the explanation of variance in each of the characteristics of the ideal love object. Results show that about one-third of the 58 characteristics have significant, though not high, amounts of variance explained by the predictors. The most important predictors were sex, religion, mother's marital happiness, and father's education. PMID:24317923

  1. Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and Methods: The families of 177 Cuban American and White non-Hispanic American caregivers of dementia patients were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Structural family theory and clinical experience were used to identify family interaction patterns believed to be related to caregiver emotional functioning. Factor analysis was used to refine subscales and develop a multiscale measure. Results: Six reliable subscales were related to caregiver distress and included in the SFSR-DC. There were two second-order factors. The SFSR-DC was provisionally cross-validated and showed invariance across the two ethnic groups. Implications: The SFSR-DC provides a method for examining specific and multiple interaction patterns in caregiver families and thus can advance knowledge regarding the role of the family in the stress processes of caregiving. These findings support the relevance of family interactions in caregiver distress and suggest that a treatment approach aimed at supporting family closeness and conflict resolution and reducing negativity might enhance caregiver well-being. PMID:16051907

  2. Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex

    E-print Network

    Dykhuis, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an ($e_\\text{P},a_\\text{P}$) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ~180 degrees with ejecta velocity $v_\\text{ej} \\sim 285$ m/s. The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of $\\delta a_{ej} = 0.005 \\pm 0.008$ AU, which constitutes only a small fraction (7\\%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to...

  3. Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J.D.; Nwachukwu, J.C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K.W.; LoGrasso, P.V.

    2012-12-05

    c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

  4. Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

  5. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  6. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  7. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  8. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  9. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  10. Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure and Economic Activities

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure, 87 031 Limoges Cedex, France This paper examines the link between banking industry structure. Keywords: financial development, regional economic development, banking industry structure

  11. Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

    1979-01-01

    The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

  12. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  13. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load uses different current and future as well as alternative price and energy policy scenarios, four years of 15-minute interval data on system and renewable load as well as an unpreceded degree of detail on plant cost structures and technical characteristics. I find that the costs of electricity generation of cleaner, flexible thermal plants are positively effected by the transition. The competitiveness of inflexible baseload plants falls as they become more expensive than renewables. Lignite and nuclear power turns out to be unsuited to supplement renewable energy: a future exit reduces the average costs of electricity generation from conventional plants.

  14. Working-class fathers and childcare: the economic and family contexts of fathering in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Braun; Carol Vincent; Stephen J. Ball

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a UK-based study that explored the ways in which working-class families living in the inner city negotiate and resolve childcare and domestic responsibilities between mothers and fathers and how men balance employment and family demands. Drawing on interviews with 70 families with pre-school children, including interviews with 16 men, we explore how the respondents practice fathering

  15. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  16. The National Forum on Family Security: Social Economic Factors and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, D.; Mustard, J. Fraser

    Social and economic influences significantly affect the development of competence, health, and well-being in modern society. During periods of profound social and economic change, such as the present, some sectors of society are often at very high risk of encountering a decline of social support and hence inadequate nurturance of developmental…

  17. The Impact and Countermeasure Study of the World Economic Crisis on Chinese Family Business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Jun; Hu Shaolong

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2007, subprime mortgage crisis broke out in America, and then it gradually evolved into global economic crisis and spread to other countries. The international financial situation has been deteriorating sharply and has rapidly evolved into the most serious international economic crisis since the \\

  18. The Role of Home Economics: Population and Family Life Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpore, Bessie A.

    2005-01-01

    Home economics is a dynamic field that imparts knowledge intended to help people adapt to their environment by making effective use of human and material resources. Hence, the profession values global concerns for the environment, human rights, health, and well-being. In Nigeria, home economics teachers must also consider the role they play in…

  19. A Guide for Planning Performance-Based Family Life Education in Home Economics Education Programs. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide, an augmented and updated version of a guide developed at a June 1980 workshop, consists of materials for teaching a performance-based course in family life education. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: establishing an independent family unit, managing interpersonal relationships,…

  20. Identification of Tasks in Home Economics Related Occupations: Family and Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    The study of task identification in family and community services presents statistical correlations of task frequencies obtained by questionnaire for the occupations of visiting homemaker or homemaker home/health aide, family planning health aide, counselor on alcoholism, management aide in low-income housing projects, deputy juvenile probation…

  1. Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

  2. The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

  3. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the expectation that developmental idealism has been disseminated to ordinary people and affects family behavior. Developmental idealism is a belief and value system that endorses societal and family development, views societal and family development as occurring together, and suggests that modern families are causes and consequences of societal development. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to examine the understandings of ordinary people and show that Nepalis can discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Nepal. Developmental idealism is related in predictable ways to education, work experience, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although research ascertaining the influence of developmental idealism on demographic decision-making and behavior would be valuable, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time crossectional data, but our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  4. Comprehensive Family-Centered Training Programs: Five Comparative Case Studies. Evaluation of the Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Richard L.; Sprague, C. Fremont

    The Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, which exemplifies the comprehensive, residential family-centered approach to serving the economically disadvantaged, was compared to four similar programs in the United States: Arizona Job Colleges (AJC) in Arizona; Madera Employment Training Center (METC) in California; Manpower,…

  5. The CATH database: an extended protein family resource for structural and functional genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances M. G. Pearl; C. F. Bennett; James E. Bray; Andrew P. Harrison; Nigel J. Martin; Adrian J. Shepherd; Ian Sillitoe; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

    2003-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath_new) cur- rently contains 34 287 domain structures classified into 1383 superfamilies and 3285 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with domain sequence relatives recruited from GenBank using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended resource, known as the CATH-protein family database (CATH-PFDB) contains a total of

  6. The Association Between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent–Child Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Ann Levin; Lorenza Dallago; Candace Currie

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people’s life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the\\u000a 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-,\\u000a 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The study found there to be\\u000a a relationship between family structure

  7. Adoptees' Portrayal of the Development of Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Young adult adoptees (n=48) and nonadoptees (n=72) provided retrospective accounts of family relationships that portrayed adoptive families as more cohesive and adaptable, with greater closeness before adolescence. Results are considered in terms of discontinuities of observations of adoptive families and adoptees' personal reflections. (SLD)

  8. Family Dynamic and Structural Correlates of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty M. Malkus

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between family factors and adolescents substance abuse by comparing the families of adolescents who do not abuse drugs or alcohol with the families of those who do. The subjects were 89 white adolescent males, with a mean age of 16 years, primarily from the rural areas of a Mid-Atlantic state. The relationship between each of

  9. The Determinants of Family Structure in Rural South India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the circumstances leading to the formation and incidence of families of different types in nine villages of south India. Found that the society had long been characterized by both stem and nuclear families and that there was still little evidence of transition in family type. (LLL)

  10. The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically

  11. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-11-01

    Developmental idealism (DI) is a system of beliefs and values that endorses modern societies and families and sees them as occurring together, with modern families as causes and consequences of societal development. This study was motivated by the belief that the population of Nepal has absorbed these ideas and that the ideas affect their family behaviour. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to show that Nepalis discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that DI has been widely accepted. It is related in predictable ways to education, paid employment, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although it would be useful to know its influence on demographic decision-making and behaviour, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time cross-sectional survey. Our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  12. Do Tax Structures Affect Aggregate Economic Growth?: Empirical Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Arnold

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between tax structures and economic growth by entering indicators of the tax structure into a set of panel growth regressions for 21 OECD countries, in which both the accumulation of physical and human capital are accounted for. The results of the analysis suggest that income taxes are generally associated with lower economic growth than taxes

  13. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  14. Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-

    E-print Network

    Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Expectations for Children from Different Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grymes, Joanna M.; And Others

    Previous research, conducted when divorce was still relatively atypical, indicated that teachers have lower expectations for children from divorced families than for children from intact families. The purpose of this study was to identify current attitudes of preservice teachers toward children from different family structures. Student teachers…

  16. Letter knowledge in parent–child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  17. Family Benefits: the New Legal Structures of Subsidizing the FamilyA Comparison of Australian, British and German Social Security Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Jürgen Bieback

    1992-01-01

    By family benefits this paper understands those cash benefits given to the family on behalf of specific family functions such as raising children and caring for the disabled. The object of the paper is to analyze (a) how different systems of social security are dealing with the problems of subsidising families and (b) how the legal structures of these new

  18. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes introduced by the participants. We will conduct within-case and cross-case analyses of the data. Discussion The question of the role of economic evaluation in FPs' decision-making is of great interest to scientists, health care practitioners, managers and policy-makers, as well as to consultants, industry, and society. It is believed that the proposed research approach will make an original contribution to the development of knowledge, both empirical and theoretical. PMID:19210787

  19. The factor structure of the Chinese family assessment instrument adapted for parent report.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wong, Jessica; Richardson, Ben

    2014-02-01

    This article reports on a confirmatory factor analytic study of an adapted version of an instrument designed to assess family functioning of Chinese families. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, originally designed for completion by adolescents, was adapted for completion by parents. A sample of 700 parent dyads of elementary school children (382 girls and 318 boys) completed the adapted questionnaire. Initial factor analyses showed that the existing five-factor structure used for adolescents' responses was not a good fit for these data. Instead, a four-factor solution emerged where the factors were positive family functioning, negative family functioning, tolerance for family members, and parental understanding. This structure was the same for both mothers and fathers. Further studies of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument parent adaptation are required to test the factor structure that emerged. Following such studies, validation studies will be required. PMID:22070890

  20. The Family Strain Index (FSI). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of a brief questionnaire for families of children with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne W. Riley; Lisa M. Lyman; Georg Spiel; Manfred Döpfner; Maria J. Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background\\u000a   Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children affects every member of the family. Practical tools are needed\\u000a to assess the effects of ADHD on families to better understand and address the level of stress, strain and burden that families\\u000a experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To provide the preliminary reliability, validity and factor structure of the Family Strain Index (FSI), a 6-item parent-report\\u000a questionnaire.

  1. Socio-Economic Analysis of Neighborhood Issues Facing Milwaukee Public Schools Students and Their Families

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Introduction As a planning supplement to the annual count of school children in the city of Milwaukee interrelationships at the neighborhood level between earnings of Milwaukee parents; job availability; the economic; incarceration and prisoner release rates; traffic dangers; and the housing foreclosure and eviction crises

  2. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  3. The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

  4. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Nebraska. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 230 Nebraska farm operators (a 23% response rate) and 222 spouses (a 22% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

  5. Lone-Parent Families. The Economic Challenge. OECD Social Policy Studies No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duskin, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This volume is based on papers presented at a conference of social policy experts that looked at the growth in lone-parent families, the problems that have emerged, and their policy implications. Chapter 1 is an "Overview" (Duskin). Three chapters look at demographic trends over time and over the life-cycle; they are: "Demographic Aspects of the…

  6. Social and Economic Change and Family Formation: Results of a Micro-Demographic Study from Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendra P. Shrestha

    Context The timing of marriage and first birth are the two important aspect of family formation. Most of the Asian countries are experiencing in recent years a general rise and virtually universal delay of first marriage. This phenomenon of increasing delay in the timing of first marriage is true in Nepal. What is equally true is the shortening of the

  7. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  8. The Extinction of Home Economics: A Study of Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antuna, Amber JoRie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on Family and Consumer Science (FACS) program sustainment in the state of Arizona. FACS programs were not addressed in the NCLB mandates, but are part of the Arizona secondary education programming. FACS programs had seen a decrease in the number of…

  9. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

  10. A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

  11. Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate-Binding Module: Evidence for Significant

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate- Binding Module: Evidence for Significant generally contain non- catalytic, carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that function by attaching the enzyme: carbohydrate-binding module; NMR structure; mannan; binding specificity; decorated oligosaccharides

  12. Comparative structural analysis of the caspase family with other clan CD cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    McLuskey, Karen; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    Clan CD forms a structural group of cysteine peptidases, containing seven individual families and two subfamilies of structurally related enzymes. Historically, it is most notable for containing the mammalian caspases, on which the structures of the clan were founded. Interestingly, the caspase family is split into two subfamilies: the caspases, and a second subfamily containing both the paracaspases and the metacaspases. Structural data are now available for both the paracaspases and the metacaspases, allowing a comprehensive structural analysis of the entire caspase family. In addition, a relative plethora of structural data has recently become available for many of the other families in the clan, allowing both the structures and the structure–function relationships of clan CD to be fully explored. The present review compares the enzymes in the caspase subfamilies with each other, together with a comprehensive comparison of all the structural families in clan CD. This reveals a diverse group of structures with highly conserved structural elements that provide the peptidases with a variety of substrate specificities and activation mechanisms. It also reveals conserved structural elements involved in substrate binding, and potential autoinhibitory functions, throughout the clan, and confirms that the metacaspases are structurally diverse from the caspases (and paracaspases), suggesting that they should form a distinct family of clan CD peptidases. PMID:25697094

  13. Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

  14. The Long-Term Effects of Family Structure on Gender-Role Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Acock, Alan C.

    1988-01-01

    Using 1972-1986 General Social Surveys data, investigated effect of family structure during adolescence on adult gender-role attitudes. Found family structure to selectively affect gender-role attitudes. Adults who grew up in single-parent household with divorced mother favored greater political power for women. Adults from intact and nonintact…

  15. The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilino, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Estimated influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on likelihood of parents having coresident adult child, based on national sample of 4,893 parents. Results indicated most parents maintained own households and most parents and adult children who coresided lived in parents' home. Family structure was found to exert strong…

  16. Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

  17. Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

  18. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  19. Parental Discord vs. Family Structure: Effects of Divorce on the Self-Esteem of Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Barbara H.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of family structure and parental discord on the self-esteem of 199 female undergraduates were investigated. Family structure and happiness ratings were substantially related, with those separated rated as less happy. Parental discord appeared to lower the self-esteem of daughters, whereas separation of parents did not. (Author/LMO)

  20. Effects of Family Structure on the Adolescent Separation-Individuation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Susan J.; Scherman, Avraham

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effects of college students' (n=90) family structures on the separation-individuation process. Family structure groups investigated were intact; divorced, mother-custody, no remarriage; and divorced, mother-custody, remarried. The components of the separation-individuation process examined were attachment to parents, conflictual…

  1. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  2. Classification of Plant Lectins in Families Of Structurally and Evolutionary Related Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willy J. Peumansl; J. M. Damme; Annick Barre; Pierre Rougé

    \\u000a The majority of plant lectins can be classified in seven families of structurally and lutionary related proteins. Within a\\u000a given lectin family most but not necessarily all mbers are built up of protomers with a similar primary structure and overall\\u000a 3-D fold. The rall structure of the native lectins is not only determined by the structure of the protomers depends

  3. Meaning and Structure in the Work and Family Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Ba

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the work and family life of dual-earner parents, how they manage these commitments and how they respond to competing demands on their daily life. The analysis of qualitative data suggests that parents manage the work-family boundaries according to the specific meaning that they attach to these spheres of daily life, but it also points out at employment

  4. The Relations of Maternal Social Support and Family Structure With Maternal Responsiveness and Child Outcomes Among African American Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret R. Burchinal; Andrea Follmer; Donna M. Bryant

    1996-01-01

    The social support networks and family structure of 62 low-income African American mothers were related to proximal and distal measures of the mother's parenting style and to the children's social and cognitive development. Women with larger support networks tended to be more responsive in interactions with their infants and to provide more stimulating home environments than mothers with smaller social

  5. The Effects of Family Structure, Family Responsibilities, and Family Closeness on the College Decisions of Hispanic High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Joanna Louise

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the differences between Hispanic high school graduates, both male and female, who chose not to attend college, who chose to initially enroll into a two-year college, or who chose to initially enroll into a four-year college or university. The 1994-1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to determine how family

  6. Family Economic Strengthening and Parenting Stress Among Caregivers of AIDS-Orphaned Children: Results from a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M; Ilic, Vilma

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the impact of a family economic strengthening intervention on parenting stress among caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda. The study uses data from a 4-year (2008-2012) NIMH randomized clinical trial for AIDS-orphaned children known as Suubi-Maka (N=346 dyads). Child-caregiver dyads from 10 comparable primary schools were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=167 dyads) receiving usual care for school-going orphaned children (such as food aid and scholastic materials) or the treatment group (n=179 dyads) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention (focused on a matched savings account), financial planning and management workshops over and above the usual care. Interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 months and 24 months follow-up. This study uses data from baseline and 24 months post-intervention. We use multivariate regression methods, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. At 24 months, caregivers in the treatment group reported significantly lower levels of parenting stress compared to caregivers in the control group. Findings from this study point to the potential of a family economic strengthening intervention to improve caregiver's psychosocial wellbeing and that of their families. We conclude that programs and policies aimed at improving the psychosocial wellbeing of families caring for AIDS-orphaned children may consider incorporating economic strengthening components in their programming to help support these kinds of families, caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children especially those residing in developing countries. PMID:25136142

  7. Early maternal employment and childhood obesity among economically disadvantaged families in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah Levine Coley; Caitlin McPherran Lombardi

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in low-income urban communities in the USA (n?=?322). Logistic regression and propensity

  8. BEYOND GATEWAY CITIES: ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING AND POVERTY AMONG MEXICAN IMMIGRANT FAMILIES AND CHILDREN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha L. Crowley; Daniel T. Lichter; Zhenchao Qian

    2005-01-01

    Our main objective is to better understand how new residential patterns have reshaped patterns of poverty among America's growing Mexican-origin population. We use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples (IPUMS) to document recent changes in poverty rates among native-born and foreign-born Mexicans living in the Southwest and in new regions where many Mexican families have resettled. Our analysis

  9. Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from a social accounting Vietnam started a wide-ranging process of economic reform in 1986 and is presently opening up its economy of resources and the determination of prices. An ongoing shift from an economy dominated by the state and co

  10. The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

  11. Family Mechanisms of Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive Women in Drug Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; McCabe, Brian E.; Burns, Myron J.; Feaster, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examined the effects of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family intervention for women living with HIV or AIDS, compared to a psycho-educational health group (HG) intervention, and reciprocal relationships between women and family members. Method Women (n = 126) and their family members (n = 269) were randomized to one of two conditions and assessed every 4 months for 12 months. Family functioning, drug use, and psychological distress was reported by multiple family members. Results Multilevel growth curve modeling showed a different family functioning trajectory between SET and HG, B = ?0.05, SE = 0.02, p < .01. There was no intervention effect on the trajectory of family-level drug abstinence or psychological distress, but there was a significant difference in the trajectory of psychological distress after controlling for change in family functioning, B = ?0.28, SE = 0.13, p < .05. There was an indirect effect from treatment through change in family functioning to change in psychological distress, B = 0.29, SE = 0.12, p < .05. With respect to reciprocal effects, family drug abstinence significantly predicted women’s abstinence 4 months later, B = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p < .001. Conclusion Findings demonstrated the interdependence of family members and the impact of family in relapse prevention and partially supported SET’s potential for maintaining family functioning and well-being for women living with HIV or AIDS in drug recovery. PMID:22708519

  12. Teaching Economics to Undergraduates in Europe: Volume, Structure, and Contents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Examines how much time is spent in economics and management sciences programs; how much time is allocated among different courses within programs; what common thematic denominators exist; and whether and in what way content in microeconomics and macroeconomics courses differs. (RLH)

  13. Financial Structure and Aggregate Economic Activity: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Gertler

    1988-01-01

    This paper surveys literature which explores the possible links between the financial system and aggregate economic behavior. The survey is in two parts: The first reviews the traditional work and the second discusses new research.

    Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at

  14. Determinants of Role Structure in Family Financial Management

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Dennis L.; Granbois, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Variables determining the role of husband and wife in family financial management are explored based on in-home, personal interviews. Financial tasks reflecting implementation activities and two groupings of decision ...

  15. The Structure of Families who Adopt Children from Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

    2009-01-01

    The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) gave incentives to states to expedite the adoption of children from foster care. Administrative data describe the changes in adoptive families from 1996 to 2003 in terms of the marital status and sex of the household head and in terms of the relationship of the parents to the child prior to adoption. Patterns in the way children with special needs were matched with different kinds of families are described. The data show that agencies have tapped the resources of families headed by single parents to provide permanency for older children and that older children adopted by fathers have spent more time as legal orphans than children adopted by single mothers. PMID:19890459

  16. Forecasting future economic growth : the term structure of interest rates, volatility and inflation as leading indicators

    E-print Network

    Khait, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The broad literature documents the empirical regularity that slope of the term structure of interest rates is a reliable predictor of future real economic activity. Steeper slopes presage increasing growth, and downward ...

  17. Good Things Come in Threes: Single-Parent Multigenerational Family Structure and Adolescent Adjustment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    This research used data from the 1998 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the development of outcomes for adolescents living with single mothers in multigenerational families compared with adolescents living in married families (as well as a disaggregated set of other family structures). The study measured family structure when…

  18. SCOP database in 2004: refinements integrate structure and sequence family data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonina Andreeva; Dave Howorth; Steven E. Brenner; Tim J. P. Hubbard; Cyrus Chothia; Alexey G. Murzin

    2004-01-01

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. Protein domains in SCOP are hierarchically classified into families, superfamilies, folds and classes. The con- tinual accumulation of sequence and structural data allows more rigorous analysis and provides import- ant information for understanding the protein world

  19. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  20. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  1. "Breaking the chain of poverty": family planning, community involvement, and the Population Council-Office of Economic Opportunity alliance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Economic Opportunity-Population Council program is an example of a mid-twentieth-century federal government/private foundation cooperative effort to place family planning and maternal health at the center of a fight against entrenched poverty. These joint efforts were the trend in family planning and maternal health provision by the 1960s and had two overlapping but also contradictory goals. The first was to provide contraceptive services to poor women to reduce the numbers of poor children, thus relieving the poor of added mouths to feed. Popular fears of a population explosion, mounting welfare rolls, and an increase in the numbers of African Americans receiving welfare fueled this goal. The second aim, however, was to expand comprehensive maternal health services to help reduce poverty by increasing poor women's involvement in and control over the health institutions that could have significant impact on their lives. While the first goal pivoted on encouraging poor women to bear fewer children, the second sought to integrate poor women into community healthcare delivery systems. PMID:22700715

  2. Family Structure and Substance Use Among American Indian Youth: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather S. Lonczak; Anne Fernandez; Lisette Austin; G. Alan Marlatt; Dennis M. Donovan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines relationships between both family structure and living with extended family, and substance use among 97 American Indian\\/Alaska Native (AI\\/AN) adolescents. Findings demonstrate an increased likelihood of alcohol initiation and regular tobacco use among those in single-parent versus original two-parent homes; and an increased likelihood of marijuana initiation among those in both single parent and nonparent family member

  3. Structural family therapy in a multidisciplinary facial pain center: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela G. Boll; Margaret L. DuVall; Louis G. Mercuri

    1983-01-01

    To date structural family therapy has not been reported in the evaluation and multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain patients. This article describes the three-session treatment of a 28-year-old woman with degenerative joint disease and the medical, psychological, and family therapy interventions with this patient. The pain symptom is examined within the family system to determine the function of the symptom,

  4. The Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases: substrates, structures, and search for damage.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Doublié, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    During the initial stages of the base excision DNA repair pathway, DNA glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of endogenous oxidative base lesions. The bifunctional formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of the Fpg/Nei family, one of the two families of glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases, the other being the HhH/GPD (or Nth) superfamily. Structural and biochemical developments over the past decades have led to novel insights into the mechanism of damage recognition by the Fpg/Nei family of enzymes. Despite the overall structural similarity among members of this family, these enzymes exhibit distinct features that make them unique. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge of the Fpg/Nei family members, emphasizes their substrate specificities, and describes how these enzymes search for lesions. PMID:22749143

  5. Engaging Adolescent Drug Abusers and Their Families in Treatment: A Strategic Structural Systems Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Szapocznik; Angel Perez-Vidal; Andrew L. Brickman; Franklin H. Foote; Daniel Santisteban; Olga Hervis; William M. Kurtines

    1988-01-01

    This article presents evidence for the effectiveness of a strategy for engaging adolescent drug users and their families in therapy. The intervention method is based on strategic, structural, and systems concepts. To overcome resistance, the identified pattern of interactions that interferes with entry into treatment is restructured. Subjects were 108 Hispanic families in which an adolescent was suspected of, or

  6. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like)

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors. adrenergic receptor

  7. The impact of family structure and disruption on intergenerational emotional exchange in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nienke; Komter, Aafke

    2012-06-01

    Demographic trends across Europe involve a decrease in fertility and mortality rates, and an increase in divorce and stepfamily formation. Life courses and living arrangements have become less standardized and the structure of families has changed. In this article, we examine to what extent contemporary family structure and composition resulting from demographic changes affect emotional exchange between children and their parents, both from adult child to parent and from parent to child. Because the general level of well-being has been shown to be lower in Eastern Europe, thereby potentially affecting emotional exchange within families, we focus our research on Eastern Europe. We use the "conservation of resources theory" to derive hypotheses on how family structure may affect intergenerational emotional exchange. Family ties are assumed to be important resources of affection that people want to obtain and retain throughout their lives. Data from the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) are used to test our hypotheses. In general, our data offer more support for the idea that families are resilient than for the often heard assumption that families are in decline as a consequence of the changed family structure and composition. PMID:22707927

  8. Family Structure and Fathers' Well-Being: Trajectories of Mental Health and Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on…

  9. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  10. Associations of Childhood Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and Nonmarital Fertility across Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Christopher; Percheski, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article considers associations among childhood family structure, childhood religious service attendance, and the probability of having a nonmarital first birth before age 30 for non-Hispanic White women born 1944 to 1964 using data from the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 5,995). We found that attending…

  11. Family structures as environmental risk to children's development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl

    2007-01-01

    Demographic developments – birth rates are sharply declining in most European countries – have the effect that in very many families children are growing up without brothers or sisters, often with one parent only. This may lead to a lack of social experiences and skills in the next generation.

  12. Family Structure & Social Change: A Preparation for Further Study Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Cathy

    This instructional unit, which is intended for Australians working toward a Certificate in General Education for Adults, contains activities to help learners develop the skills and knowledge to read and write complex texts while examining human relationships and the family. Aimed at both native and nonnative English speakers, the unit contains…

  13. African American Men, Inequality and Family Structure: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuberi, Tukufu

    Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…

  14. Structural insight into the evolution of a new chemokine family from zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Deepa; Fan, Chengpeng; Meng, Wuyi; Pflugrath, James W; Lolis, Elias J

    2014-05-01

    The mammalian chemokine family is segregated into four families - CC, CXC, CX3C, and XC-based on the arrangement of cysteines and the corresponding disulfides. Sequencing of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome has identified more than double the amount of human chemokines with the absence of the CX3C family and the presence of a new family, CX. The only other family with a single cysteine in the N-terminal region is the XC family. Human lymphotactin (XCL1) has two interconverting structures due to dynamic changes that occur in the protein. Similar to an experiment with XCL1 that identified the two structural forms, we probed for multiple forms of zCXL1 using heparin affinity. The results suggest only a single form of CXL1 is present. We used sulfur-SAD phasing to determine the three-dimensional structure CXL1. Zebrafish CXL1 (zCXL1) has three disulfides that appear to be important for a stable structure. One disulfide is common to all chemokines except those that belong to the XC family, another is similar to a subset of CC chemokines containing three disulfides, but the third disulfide is unique to the CX family. We analyzed the electrostatic potential of the zCXL1 structure and identified the likely heparin-binding site for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). zCXL1 has a similar sequence identity with human CCL5 and CXCL12, but the structure is more related to CCL5. Our structural analysis supports the phylogenetic and genomic studies on the evolution of the CXL family. PMID:23900850

  15. Structural insight into the evolution of a new chemokine family from zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Deepa; Fan, Chengpeng; Meng, Wuyi; Pflugrath, James W.; Lolis, Elias J.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian chemokine family is segregated into four families – CC, CXC, CX3C, and XC—based on the arrangement of cysteines and the corresponding disulfides. Sequencing of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome has identified more than double the amount of human chemokines with the absence of the CX3C family and the presence of a new family, CX. The only other family with a single cysteine in the N-terminal region is the XC family. Human lymphotactin (XCL1) has two interconverting structures due to dynamic changes that occur in the protein. Similar to an experiment with XCL1 that identified the two structural forms, we probed for multiple forms of zCXL1 using heparin affinity. The results suggest only a single form of CXL1 is present. We used sulfur-SAD phasing to determine the three-dimensional structure CXL1. Zebrafish CXL1 (zCXL1) has three disulfides that appear to be important for a stable structure. One disulfide is common to all chemokines except those that belong to the XC family, another is similar to a subset of CC chemokines containing three disulfides, but the third disulfide is unique to the CX family. We analyzed the electrostatic potential of the zCXL1 structure and identified the likely heparin-binding site for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). zCXL1 has a similar sequence identity with human CCL5 and CXCL12, but the structure is more related to CCL5. Our structural analysis supports the phylogenetic and genomic studies on the evolution of the CXL family. PMID:23900850

  16. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF WOMEN AND DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND FAMILY ROLES BETWEEN THE SEXES IN HUNGARY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Molnar

    1975-01-01

    In our century revolutionary changes took place in the social situation of women in developed and semideveloped countries, especially in the European socialist societies. From the sociological point of view female emancipation means ensuring equal possibilities for women in attaining equal status in the social structure with that of males. The realization of factual social equality requires political and legal

  17. Loss of quaternary structure is associated with rapid sequence divergence in the OSBS family

    PubMed Central

    Odokonyero, Denis; Sakai, Ayano; Patskovsky, Yury; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Toro, Rafael; Agarwal, Rakhi; Wang, Chenxi; Ozerova, Nicole D. S.; Yew, Wen Shan; Sauder, J. Michael; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Glasner, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of protein evolution is determined by a combination of selective pressure on protein function and biophysical constraints on protein folding and structure. Determining the relative contributions of these properties is an unsolved problem in molecular evolution with broad implications for protein engineering and function prediction. As a case study, we examined the structural divergence of the rapidly evolving o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) family, which catalyzes a step in menaquinone synthesis in diverse microorganisms and plants. On average, the OSBS family is much more divergent than other protein families from the same set of species, with the most divergent family members sharing <15% sequence identity. Comparing 11 representative structures revealed that loss of quaternary structure and large deletions or insertions are associated with the family’s rapid evolution. Neither of these properties has been investigated in previous studies to identify factors that affect the rate of protein evolution. Intriguingly, one subfamily retained a multimeric quaternary structure and has small insertions and deletions compared with related enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. Many proteins in this subfamily catalyze both OSBS and N-succinylamino acid racemization (NSAR). Retention of ancestral structural characteristics in the NSAR/OSBS subfamily suggests that the rate of protein evolution is not proportional to the capacity to evolve new protein functions. Instead, structural features that are conserved among proteins with diverse functions might contribute to the evolution of new functions. PMID:24872444

  18. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  19. Economic risk and the structural characteristics of farm businesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Barry; Cesar L. Escalante; Sharon K. Bard

    2001-01-01

    This study uses farm-level data from the Illinois Farm Business Farm Management Association to determine whether the variability of net farm income is significantly influenced by farm size, financial structure, and other structural characteristics of farm businesses. The econometric results indicate that under a cross-sectional model the relative variability of real net farm income is not significantly influenced by farm

  20. Structural and Strategic Family Therapy: A Basis for Marriage, or Grounds for Divorce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, J. Scott

    1982-01-01

    Examines the structural and strategic schools of family therapy. Presents both a conceptual and practical framework for relating these two, often contradictory, schools to one another. Discusses the therapist's dilemma in trying to integrate these two approaches. (Author)

  1. Family structure and income during the stages of childhood and subsequent prosocial behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior - charitable giving and volunteering - were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative sample of 1011 American young adults. In the full sample, family structure transition during adolescence was negatively associated with subsequent charitable giving in young adulthood. Low income during adolescence was negatively associated with both giving and volunteering in young adulthood. European-American young men also exhibited a negative association between family structure transition during adolescence and subsequent volunteering. The results did not seem to describe African-American young adults. Keeping this qualification in mind, the results suggest that adolescence is a sensitive stage in the development of charitable giving and volunteering. PMID:22414561

  2. FISH--family identification of sequence homologues using structure anchored hidden Markov models

    E-print Network

    Kågström, Bo

    `twilight zone' curve, pI (5). METHOD Construction of structure anchored hidden Markov models FISH, whichFISH--family identification of sequence homologues using structure anchored hidden Markov models to existing annotation methods. One can compare a query sequence with all structure anchored hidden Markov

  3. The interaction between family structure and child gender on behavior problems in urban ethnic minority children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathariya Mokrue; Yung Y. Chen; Maurice Elias

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys and girls. This study examined the relationship between family structures and behavior problems among 515 predominantly ethnic

  4. The first crystal structures of a family 19 class IV chitinase: the enzyme from Norway spruce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wimal Ubhayasekera; Reetika Rawat; Sharon Wing Tak Ho; Malgorzata Wiweger; Sara Von Arnold; Mee-Len Chye; Sherry L. Mowbray

    2009-01-01

    Chitinases help plants defend themselves against fungal attack, and play roles in other processes, including development.\\u000a The catalytic modules of most plant chitinases belong to glycoside hydrolase family 19. We report here x-ray structures of\\u000a such a module from a Norway spruce enzyme, the first for any family 19 class IV chitinase. The bi-lobed structure has a wide\\u000a cleft lined

  5. Community economic structure and individual well-being: a look behind the statistics.

    PubMed

    Sclar, E D

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the community economic development process with an emphasis on its implications for individual well-being. It is intended as a social epidemiology which can help explain empirical findings demonstrating a connection between indicators of individual and social dysfunction and indicators of economic change. The model is one of economic development in a market-oriented, profit-maximizing society. The underlying hypothesis is that changes in economic activity brought about by increases in the size of firms and scale of production place new demands upon local resources and labor markets. In response, families and social networks begin to change the ways they relate to individual members, changes that cause individuals to become more directly vulnerable to the stresses and strains generated by economic activity. The result is that dysfunction, as manifest in the incidence and prevalence of various pathologies, increases with both ups and downs in the economy. The paper discusses the ways in which these changes become manifest in the statistical series used for purposes of empirical analysis and suggests the limits of this approach to social research. It ends by presenting a policy prescription for economic development which places emphasis on social cost minimization rather than output maximization. PMID:7429690

  6. Behavioral Economics and Social Policy: Designing Innovative Solutions for Programs Supported by the Administration for Children and Families. OPRE Report No. 2014-16a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Anzelone, Caitlin; Dechausay, Nadine; Datta, Saugato; Fiorillo, Alexandra; Potok, Louis; Darling, Matthew; Balz, John

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) project is the first major opportunity to use a behavioral economics lens to look at programs that serve poor and vulnerable people in the United States. Sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S.…

  7. Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    EXTENSION Agriculture and Natural Resources · Family and Consumer Sciences · 4-H Youth Development · Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE · UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 AnIPMScoutingGuideforCommonProblemsof SweetCorninKentucky ID-184 #12

  8. Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    EXTENSION Agriculture and Natural Resources · Family and Consumer Sciences · 4-H Youth Development · Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE · UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 AEN-112 ANewConceptin On-FarmBiofuelProduction Tim Stombaugh, Mike Montross

  9. Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    EXTENSION Agriculture and Natural Resources · Family and Consumer Sciences · 4-H Youth Development · Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE · UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 AEN-111 Butanol:TheNewBiofuel Tim Stombaugh, Mike Montross, Sue Nokes

  10. The monocarboxylate transporter family--Structure and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halestrap, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) catalyze the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates such as L-lactate, pyruvate, and the ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. There are four isoforms, MCTs 1-4, which are known to perform this function in mammals, each with distinct substrate and inhibitor affinities. They are part of the larger SLC16 family of solute carriers, also known as the MCT family, which has 14 members in total, all sharing conserved sequence motifs. The family includes a high-affinity thyroid hormone transporter (MCT8), an aromatic amino acid transporter (T-type amino acid transporter 1/MCT10), and eight orphan members yet to be characterized. MCTs were predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMs) with intracellular C- and N-termini and a large intracellular loop between TMs 6 and 7, and this was confirmed by labeling studies and proteolytic digestion. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified key residues required for catalysis and inhibitor binding and enabled the development of a molecular model of MCT1 in both inward and outward facing conformations. This suggests a likely mechanism for the translocation cycle. Although MCT family members are not themselves glycosylated, MCTs1-4 require association with a glycosylated ancillary protein, either basigin or embigin, for their correct translocation to the plasma membrane. These ancillary proteins have a single transmembrane domain and two to three extracellular immunoglobulin domains. They must remain closely associated with MCTs1-4 to maintain transporter activity. MCT1, MCT3, and MCT4 bind preferentially to basigin and MCT2 to embigin. The choice of binding partner does not affect substrate specificity or kinetics but can influence inhibitor specificity. PMID:22131303

  11. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Gundersen; James Patrick Ziliak

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using\\u000a state-level panel data from the 1981–2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both\\u000a the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of

  12. Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers

    E-print Network

    Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

  13. Manganese oxide minerals: Crystal structures and economic and environmental significance

    PubMed Central

    Post, Jeffrey E.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese oxide minerals have been used for thousands of years—by the ancients for pigments and to clarify glass, and today as ores of Mn metal, catalysts, and battery material. More than 30 Mn oxide minerals occur in a wide variety of geological settings. They are major components of Mn nodules that pave huge areas of the ocean floor and bottoms of many fresh-water lakes. Mn oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and participate in a variety of chemical reactions that affect groundwater and bulk soil composition. Their typical occurrence as fine-grained mixtures makes it difficult to study their atomic structures and crystal chemistries. In recent years, however, investigations using transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray and neutron diffraction methods have provided important new insights into the structures and properties of these materials. The crystal structures for todorokite and birnessite, two of the more common Mn oxide minerals in terrestrial deposits and ocean nodules, were determined by using powder x-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement method. Because of the large tunnels in todorokite and related structures there is considerable interest in the use of these materials and synthetic analogues as catalysts and cation exchange agents. Birnessite-group minerals have layer structures and readily undergo oxidation reduction and cation-exchange reactions and play a major role in controlling groundwater chemistry. PMID:10097056

  14. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  15. Changes in Young Children’s Family Structures and Child Care Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Prickett, Kate Chambers; Smith, Chelsea; Cavanagh, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Family structure change can disrupt the settings of children’s daily lives. Most scholarship focuses on disruption in the home environment. Moving beyond the home, this study explores the association between changes in family structure and changes in several dimensions of early child care. With longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1,298), first-difference models reveal that family structure transitions are associated with changes in the type and quantity of early care as well as the number of care arrangements used, especially during the latter part of infancy. Given prior evidence linking these child care dimensions to behavioral and cognitive outcomes, these results suggest a policy-relevant mechanism by which family change may create inequalities among children. PMID:24243268

  16. Structure-based analysis of catalysis and substrate definition in the HIT protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, C.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Klein, M.G. [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States)] [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States); Hendrickson, W.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1997-10-10

    The histidine triad (HIT) protein family is among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved in nature, but a biological activity has not yet been identified for any member of the HIT family. Fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) and protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCL) were used in a structure-based approach to elucidate characteristics of in vivo ligands and reactions. Crystallographic structures of apo, substrate analog, pentacovalent transition-state analog, and product states of both enzymes reveal a catalytic mechanism and define substrate characteristics required for catalysis, thus unifying the HIT family as nucleotidyl hydrolases, transferases, or both. The approach described here may be useful in identifying structure-function relations between protein families identified through genomics. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Career Education: Learning with a Purpose. Secondary Guide-Vol. 4. Home Economics, Family/Community Relations, Home Management, Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Field Trip Sites and Guest Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Marilyn; And Others

    The guide offers a compilation of teacher-developed career education materials which may be integrated with secondary level curriculum in home economics. Suggested activities and ideas are presented as unit plans in the following areas of home economics: family relations/family living, home management, child development, foods and nutrition,…

  18. Immigrants, their children, and theories of assimilation: family structure in the United States, 1880–1970

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron P.; Skop, Emily

    2007-01-01

    This research employs United States census data from 1880 to 1970 to assess the influence of ethnicity and generation on the family structure of Mexican, Irish, Swedish, Italian, Polish, and native white children. Using evidence for three generations, it tests two theories, linear assimilation and segmented assimilation. Assimilation theory makes no special claims for ethnic effects, but segmented assimilation proposes that ethnicity influences the incorporation of immigrant-origin children into American society. We find few consistent ethnic effects on the probability of family type. Our principal finding is that migration itself, common to all groups, has similar consequences for all; these are revealed in generational changes in family structure. The historical periods of open immigration do differ from the contemporary period, which implies that immigration policy affects family structure. The results disconfirm segmented assimilation theory’s emphasis on ethnicity in family structure, and confirm aspects of linear assimilation theory. They point to the salience of structural factors resulting from migration experience and policy, rather than ethnicity, in the evolution of family form among immigrant-origin persons. PMID:18193098

  19. The Economics of Structured Continuing Education in Selected Professional Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasmor, James C.

    A study determined what business administration considerations were elements in the managerial decision making process to include structured continuing education in a professional journal and what the positive or negative results have been in terms of operating benefits and profits. An initial literature review showed the need for exploratory…

  20. Structural-ceramic research program: a preliminary economic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Johnson; A. P. S. Teotia; L. G. Hill

    1983-01-01

    Advanced power systems for vehicles can potentially produce fuel efficiencies that greatly exceed those of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Recent work has focused on adiabatic diesel engines, gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and electric vehicle batteries. The heat engine technologies, however, are limited by problems involving mechanical strength at high temperatures. Structural ceramics, if they can be reliably mass-produced,

  1. Does financial structure matter for economic growth? A corporate finance perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René M. Stulz

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how a country’sfinancial structure affects economic growth through its impact on how corporations raise and manage,funds. We define a country’sfinancial structure to consist of the institutions, financial technology, and rules of the game that define how financial activity is organized at a point in time. We emphasize that the aspects of financial structure that encourage entrepreneurshipare

  2. Emerging Models for Mobilizing Family Support for Chronic Disease Management: A Structured Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We identify recent models for programs aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Methods Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches, and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease, and rheumatologic disease. Results Programs with three separate foci were identified: 1) Programs that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviors have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. 2) Programs that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviors. 3) Programs that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. Discussion The next generation of programs to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programs, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programs into comprehensive models of chronic disease care. PMID:20308347

  3. Economics of harvesting age-structured fish populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olli Tahvonen

    2009-01-01

    A generic age-structured model is developed to derive analytical results on optimal harvesting. Given two age classes, knife-edge selectivity, and no stock-dependent harvesting cost, the steady state is a unique saddle point. Adding harvesting cost does not alter the uniqueness, given that the utility is linear. Under specific conditions such as nonselective gear, optimal harvesting is proved to be a

  4. Crystal Structure and Characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 62 ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces coelicolor*

    PubMed Central

    Maehara, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Zui; Ichinose, Hitomi; Michikawa, Mari; Harazono, Koichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62), hydrolyzes arabinoxylan but not arabinan or arabinogalactan. The crystal structures of several ?-l-arabinofuranosidases have been determined, although the structures, catalytic mechanisms, and substrate specificities of GH62 enzymes remain unclear. To evaluate the substrate specificity of a GH62 enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, which comprises a carbohydrate-binding module family 13 domain at its N terminus and a catalytic domain at its C terminus, from Streptomyces coelicolor. The catalytic domain was a five-bladed ?-propeller consisting of five radially oriented anti-parallel ?-sheets. Sugar complex structures with l-arabinose, xylotriose, and xylohexaose revealed five subsites in the catalytic cleft and an l-arabinose-binding pocket at the bottom of the cleft. The entire structure of this GH62 family enzyme was very similar to that of glycoside hydrolase 43 family enzymes, and the catalytically important acidic residues found in family 43 enzymes were conserved in GH62. Mutagenesis studies revealed that Asp202 and Glu361 were catalytic residues, and Trp270, Tyr461, and Asn462 were involved in the substrate-binding site for discriminating the substrate structures. In particular, hydrogen bonding between Asn462 and xylose at the nonreducing end subsite +2 was important for the higher activity of substituted arabinofuranosyl residues than that for terminal arabinofuranoses. PMID:24482228

  5. Crystal structure and characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Zui; Ichinose, Hitomi; Michikawa, Mari; Harazono, Koichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2014-03-14

    ?-L-arabinofuranosidase, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62), hydrolyzes arabinoxylan but not arabinan or arabinogalactan. The crystal structures of several ?-L-arabinofuranosidases have been determined, although the structures, catalytic mechanisms, and substrate specificities of GH62 enzymes remain unclear. To evaluate the substrate specificity of a GH62 enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of ?-L-arabinofuranosidase, which comprises a carbohydrate-binding module family 13 domain at its N terminus and a catalytic domain at its C terminus, from Streptomyces coelicolor. The catalytic domain was a five-bladed ?-propeller consisting of five radially oriented anti-parallel ?-sheets. Sugar complex structures with l-arabinose, xylotriose, and xylohexaose revealed five subsites in the catalytic cleft and an l-arabinose-binding pocket at the bottom of the cleft. The entire structure of this GH62 family enzyme was very similar to that of glycoside hydrolase 43 family enzymes, and the catalytically important acidic residues found in family 43 enzymes were conserved in GH62. Mutagenesis studies revealed that Asp(202) and Glu(361) were catalytic residues, and Trp(270), Tyr(461), and Asn(462) were involved in the substrate-binding site for discriminating the substrate structures. In particular, hydrogen bonding between Asn(462) and xylose at the nonreducing end subsite +2 was important for the higher activity of substituted arabinofuranosyl residues than that for terminal arabinofuranoses. PMID:24482228

  6. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  7. Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

  8. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  9. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Examining the Role of Administrative Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…

  10. Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Saenz, Delia S; Baham, Melinda E; Parke, Ross D; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers' behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers' positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families. PMID:24855327

  11. The family B1 GPCR: structural aspects and interaction with accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in physiology and pathophysiology in humans. Beside the large family A (rhodopsin-like receptors) and family C GPCR (metabotropic glutamate receptors), the small family B1 GPCR (secretin-like receptors) includes important receptors such as vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VPAC), pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide receptor (PAC1R), secretin receptor (SECR), growth hormone releasing factor receptor (GRFR), glucagon receptor (GCGR), glucagon like-peptide 1 and 2 receptors (GLPR), gastric inhibitory peptide receptor (GIPR), parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR), calcitonin receptors (CTR) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFR). They represent very promising targets for the development of drugs having therapeutical impact on many diseases such as chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes, stress and osteoporosis. Over the past decade, structure-function relationship studies have demonstrated that the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of family B1 receptors plays a pivotal role in natural ligand recognition. Structural analysis of some family B1 GPCR N-teds revealed the existence of a Sushi domain fold consisting of two antiparallel ? sheets stabilized by three disulfide bonds and a salt bridge. The family B1 GPCRs promote cellular responses through a signaling pathway including predominantly the Gsadenylyl cyclase-cAMP pathway activation. Family B1 GPCRs also interact with a few accessory proteins which play a role in cell signaling, receptor expression and/or pharmacological profiles of receptors. These accessory proteins may represent new targets for the design of new drugs. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding: i) the structure of family B1 GPCR binding domain for natural ligands and ii) the interaction of family B1 GPCRs with accessory proteins. PMID:21777182

  12. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-01-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

  13. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-10-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

  14. Two Pfam protein families characterized by a crystal structure of protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every genome contains a large number of uncharacterized proteins that may encode entirely novel biological systems. Many of these uncharacterized proteins fall into related sequence families. By applying sequence and structural analysis we hope to provide insight into novel biology. Results We analyze a previously uncharacterized Pfam protein family called DUF4424 [Pfam:PF14415]. The recently solved three-dimensional structure of the protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila provides the first structural information pertaining to this family. This protein additionally includes the first representative structure of another Pfam family called the YARHG domain [Pfam:PF13308]. The Pfam family DUF4424 adopts a 19-stranded beta-sandwich fold that shows similarity to the N-terminal domain of leukotriene A-4 hydrolase. The YARHG domain forms an all-helical domain at the C-terminus. Structure analysis allows us to recognize distant similarities between the DUF4424 domain and individual domains of M1 aminopeptidases and tricorn proteases, which form massive proteasome-like capsids in both archaea and bacteria. Conclusions Based on our analyses we hypothesize that the DUF4424 domain may have a role in forming large, multi-component enzyme complexes. We suggest that the YARGH domain may play a role in binding a moiety in proximity with peptidoglycan, such as a hydrophobic outer membrane lipid or lipopolysaccharide. PMID:24004689

  15. The Complete Genome Sequence of J Virus Reveals a Unique Genome Structure in the Family Paramyxoviridae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippa J. M. Jack; David B. Boyle; Bryan T. Eaton; Lin-Fa Wang

    2005-01-01

    J virus (J-V) was isolated from feral mice (Mus musculus) trapped in Queensland, Australia, during the early 1970s. Although studies undertaken at the time revealed that J-V was a new paramyxovirus, it remained unclassified beyond the family level. The complete genome sequence of J-V has now been determined, revealing a genome structure unique within the family Paramyxoviridae. At 18,954 nucleotides

  16. Accessibility of Family Planning Services: Impact of Structural and Organizational Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine V. Klerman; Kay A. Johnson; Chiang-hua Chang; Phyllis Wright-Slaughter; David C. Goodman

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to determine whether selected structural and organizational characteristics of publicly available family\\u000a planning facilities are associated with greater availability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A survey was sent to 726 publicly available family planning facilities in four states. These included local health departments,\\u000a federally qualified health centers (FQHC), Planned Parenthood sites, hospital outpatient departments, and freestanding women’s\\u000a health centers. Usable

  17. Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; G Neil Thomas; C Mary Schooling; Sarah M McGhee; Tai-Hing Lam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US) Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain

  18. Atypical Structural Features of Two MAP P60 Family Members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of Map gene products have no known function. In order to better understand the pathobiology of this mycobacterium, we have begun to study the structure-function relationship of a subset of Map proteins. We have selected a number of gene products unique to Map, which are either predict...

  19. Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    institutions. #12;2 1. Introduction The advent of globalization and market reforms in many countries has1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques of Copenhagen and RDRC ABSTRACT Globalization poses special challenges for economies in transition, particularly

  20. Structural Uncertainty and the Value of Statistical Life in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Weitzman

    2007-01-01

    Using climate change as a prototype motivating example, this paper analyzes the implications of structural uncertainty for the economics of low-probability high-impact catastrophes. The paper shows that having an uncertain multiplicative parameter, which scales or amplifies exogenous shocks and is updated by Bayesian learning, induces a critical \\

  1. Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?

    PubMed

    Tumwine, J K

    1992-12-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm. PMID:1469676

  2. High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Rutkowski

    1996-01-01

    Economic transition turns the inherited wage structure upside down. Changes are rapid and dramatic. The Polish example shows that even in the first year of market-oriented reforms, there was a marked increase in earnings inequality, a dramatic rise in the wage premium for white-collar skills, and a significant jump in the returns to education. In contrast, skills acquired under the

  3. Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

  4. A Self-Ethnographic Investigation of Continuing Education Program in Engineering Arising from Economic Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…

  5. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  6. A Family of Novel Graph Kernels for Structural Pattern Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Bunke; Kaspar Riesen

    2007-01-01

    Recently, an emerging trend of representing objects by graphs can be observed. As a matter of fact, graphs offer a versatile\\u000a alternative to feature vectors in pattern recognition, machine learning and data mining. However, the space of graphs contains\\u000a almost no mathematical structure, and consequently, there is a lack of suitable methods for graph classification. Graph kernels,\\u000a a novel class

  7. The apolipoprotein multigene family: Structure, expression, evolution, and molecular genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Chan

    1989-01-01

    Summary The plasma apolipoproteins can be classified into two subgroups: the soluble apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E, and the apoBs including apoB-100 and apoB-48. The soluble apolipoproteins have very similar genomic structures, each having a total of three introns at the same locations; apoA-IV is an exception in that it has lost its

  8. The Farmer Looks at His Economic Security: A Study of Provisions Made for Old Age by Farm Families in Wharton County, Texas.

    E-print Network

    Motheral, Joe R.; Adkins, William G.

    1954-01-01

    of Farm Operotor , Families, Wharton County, Texas, 1952, Progress Report 1529 ; Retirement Plans of Farm Ope~a- tors, Wharton County, Texas, 1952, Progress Re- port 1565 ; and Attitudes Toward the Old-Age culri Survivors Insurance Program, Wharton... of old-age protection and economic security against misfortunes. The farm opera- , tor, however, to meet the financial adjustments associated with death, disability, unemployment and old age, must rely primarily upon his indiv- idual efforts...

  9. A novel family of structurally stable double stranded DNA catenanes.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Finn; Valero, Julián; Famulok, Michael

    2014-06-11

    Here we describe the design, assembly and characterisation of different structurally stable and highly polyvalent DNA catenanes. We synthesized a series of different catenated DNA nanostructures, among them symmetric ones containing two 126 or 168 base-pair rings, non-symmetric ones with a 126 and a 168 base-pair ring, and a [3]catenane containing three 126 base-pair rings. Reversible and quantitative on/off switching of the mobility of the rings was demonstrated as a proof-of-concept for the employment of these catenanes as dynamic DNA-nanostructures. PMID:24777123

  10. The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing. PMID:25473135

  11. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

  12. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

  13. Family structure, marital discord and offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-11-01

    With marital breakdown and discord relatively common, we examined whether family structure and the quality of marital relationship have a long-term impact on offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of family structure and marital discord in the family with a wide range of offspring's mental health and problem behaviours at 21 years. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population based birth cohort study, which commenced in Brisbane, Australia in 1981. Mothers and children were followed up at birth, 6 months and 5, 14 and 21 years after the initial interview. Marital status and marital quality were assessed at the 14 year follow-up. Young Adult Self-Report sub-scales of mental health and problem behaviours were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Type of family structure and the quality of marital relationship (at the 14-year follow-up) predicted offspring's psychopathology at 21 years. When a selected group of confounding factors were included in the multivariate analyses, children who lived with a step-father, un-partnered mother, or in families where parents had conflict in marital relationship reported higher symptoms of psychopathology at 21 years. The association between marital problems and young adult psychopathology does not appear to be confounded by a wide range of confounding variables. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of these associations to develop preventive programmes. PMID:23949103

  14. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  15. Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-02-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  16. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…

  17. Sibling similarity in family formation.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

    2014-12-01

    Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality. PMID:25367282

  18. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  19. Abstract Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGP) comprise a super-family of extracellular structural

    E-print Network

    Chen, Liwei

    Abstract Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGP) comprise a super-family of extracellular structural glycoproteins whose precise roles in plant cell wall assembly and functioning remain for site-directed assembly of nanomaterials. Keywords Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein Æ Carbon nanotube Æ

  20. The Structure of Family and Romantic Ties in the Soap Opera: An Ethnographic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebes, Tamar; Livingstone, Sonia

    1994-01-01

    Offers a new approach for the study of soap opera, aimed at discovering the social boundaries within which a particular culture negotiates its primordial relationships. Reveals the interaction between culture, power, genre, and gender by tracing the complex kinship structures of family and romance among soap opera characters and by observing how…

  1. A Demographic Analysis of the Family Structure Experiences of Children in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Blau; Wilbert van der Klaauw

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive demographic analysis of the family structure experiences of children in the U.S. Childbearing and transitions among co-residential union states defined by single, cohabiting, and married are analyzed jointly. A novel contribution is to distinguish men by their relationship to children: biological father or stepfather. This distinction is rarely made when analyzing union formation, but it

  2. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  3. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  4. Adult Daughters' Family Structure and the Association between Reciprocity and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Beate

    2006-01-01

    The study explores whether family structure is a moderator of the associations between help exchange, reciprocity of this exchange, and the quality of the mother and adult daughter relationship. A total of 183 daughters (mean age = 42.13; SD = 4.91) are either in first marriage (n = 87), living with a new partner after divorce (n = 77), or…

  5. Crystal Structure of a pol ? Family Replication DNA Polymerase from Bacteriophage RB69

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wang; A. K. M. A. Sattar; C. C. Wang; J. D. Karam; W. H. Konigsberg; T. A. Steitz

    1997-01-01

    The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the bacteriophage RB69 gp43, a member of the eukaryotic pol ? family of replicative DNA polymerases, shares some similarities with other polymerases but shows many differences. Although its palm domain has the same topology as other polymerases, except rat DNA polymerase ?, one of the three carboxylates required for nucleotidyl transfer is located

  6. Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

  7. The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules*

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules* Received involved in the protein-carbohydrate interaction is rotated by 90° compared with its position in CBM2a recognition of the absence or presence of functional groups. The molecular recognition of carbohydrates

  8. Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fields, Jason M.

    1998-01-01

    The Census Bureau has recently posted Population Division Working Paper No. 23, on its website. This paper, Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP, by Jason M. Fields and Kristin E. Smith, examines the efficacy of SIPP as a measure of child well-being.

  9. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  10. Family Structure Variables as Predictors of Educational and Vocational Aspirations of High School Seniors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS D. HANSEN; WALTER G. McINTIRE

    This paper reports the results of an examination of educational and vocational aspirations of high school studentsby family structure variables. The data is from the High School and Beyond (NCES) data set. Differences are described and the implications for further research are discussed. The exrsting research on student aspirations has examined a broad array of variables. Many of the studies

  11. Magnetic Properties and Reactivity Studies of Families of Trigonal Bipyramidal Cyanide Clusters and Their Extended Structures

    E-print Network

    Funck, Kristen Elise

    2012-02-14

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY STUDIES OF FAMILIES OF TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CYANIDE CLUSTERS AND THEIR EXTENDED STRUCTURES A Dissertation by KRISTEN ELISE FUNCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND THEIR EXTENDED STRUCTURES A Dissertation by KRISTEN ELISE FUNCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  12. The effect of incarceration rates on mate availability and its effect on the formation and structure of the African American family: a theoretical and empirical analysis

    E-print Network

    McGruder, Patricia Hollis

    1995-01-01

    Incarceration 45 Mate Availability 46 Family Formation and Family Structure 49 vii Page CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS-DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES IN INCARCERATION AND MATE AVAILABILITY 50 Incarceration 50 Trends in Sex Ratios 54 Age-Specific Sex Ratios 60 Labor... Force Sex Ratio Including School Enrollment 70 VII ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF INCARCERATION ON FAMILY FORMATION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE... 72 Direct Effects of Incarceration on Family Structure 73 Indirect Effects of Incarceration on Family Formation...

  13. Family Structure and Adolescent Physical Health, Behavior, and Emotional Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821

  14. School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: A study of moderation effects.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

    2015-03-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111464

  15. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  16. Scholastic Achievement and Family Marital Structure: Bedouin-Arab Adolescents from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scholastic achievement in Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics of 240 Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Negev (Israel). Reveals that adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families demonstrate equivalent levels of scholastic achievement, although boys in polygamous families and girls in…

  17. The origin and evolution of human ampliconic gene families and ampliconic structure.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Bejon Kumar; Satta, Yoko; Takahata, Naoyuki

    2007-04-01

    Out of the nine male-specific gene families in the human Y chromosome amplicons, we investigate the origin and evolution of seven families for which gametologous and orthologous sequences are available. Proto-X/Y gene pairs in the original mammalian sex chromosomes played major roles in origins and gave rise to five gene families: XKRY, VCY, HSFY, RBMY, and TSPY. The divergence times between gametologous X- and Y-linked copies in these families are well correlated with the former X-chromosomal locations. The CDY and DAZ families originated exceptionally by retroposition and transposition of autosomal copies, respectively, but CDY possesses an X-linked copy of enigmatic origin. We also investigate the evolutionary relatedness among Y-linked copies of a gene family in light of their ampliconic locations (palindromes, inverted repeats, and the TSPY array). Although any pair of copies located at the same arm positions within a palindrome is identical or nearly so by frequent gene conversion, copies located at different arm positions are distinctively different. Since these and other distinct copies in various gene families were amplified almost simultaneously in the stem lineage of Catarrhini, we take these simultaneous amplifications as evidence for the elaborate formation of Y ampliconic structure. Curiously, some copies in a gene family located at different palindromes exhibit high sequence similarity, and in most cases, such similarity greatly extends to repeat units that harbor these copies. It appears that such palindromic repeat units have evolved by and large en bloc, but they have undergone frequent exchanges between palindromes. PMID:17185645

  18. Effects of Population Change on Family Life and the Child: Implications for Home Economics Programs in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon

    1981-01-01

    Outlines some of the population-related factors and effects upon the family and child. Because of their vested interests and wealth of experience in family life, home economists are challenged to take the lead in planning and providing curriculum materials, and to promote population education in the schools. (Author)

  19. Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Nancy K.

    This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

  20. Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

  1. Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

    2006-12-01

    Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

  2. Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

    2010-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  3. Structural vibration passive control and economic analysis of a high-rise building in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqi; Cao, Tiezhu; Ma, Liangzhe; Luo, Chaoying

    2009-12-01

    Performance analysis of the Pangu Plaza under earthquake and wind loads is described in this paper. The plaza is a 39-story steel high-rise building, 191 m high, located in Beijing close to the 2008 Olympic main stadium. It has both fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) and buckling restrained braces or unbonded brace (BRB or UBB) installed. A repeated iteration procedure in its design and analysis was adopted for optimization. Results from the seismic response analysis in the horizontal and vertical directions show that the FVDs are highly effective in reducing the response of both the main structure and the secondary system. A comparative analysis of structural seismic performance and economic impact was conducted using traditional methods, i.e., increased size of steel columns and beams and/or use of an increased number of seismic braces versus using FVD. Both the structural response and economic analysis show that using FVD to absorb seismic energy not only satisfies the Chinese seismic design code for a “rare” earthquake, but is also the most economical way to improve seismic performance both for one-time direct investment and long term maintenance.

  4. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of

    E-print Network

    Bass, Hank W.

    Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN- domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants Murphy et al. Murphy et al. BMC Plant Biology Access Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence

  5. Family Structure and The Freshmen Year: Influence of Parental Marital Status and Custody Arrangement on First-Year College Adjustment

    E-print Network

    Parrish, Lauren Patricia

    2012-05-31

    The purpose of this study is to examine how first-year college adjustment is impacted by family structure. More specifically, the study aims to determine if the current definition of family structure needs to be revised to account for different...

  6. Associations between Family Structure Changes and Children's Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effects of Timing and Marital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Claessens, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal…

  7. Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei

    2015-01-21

    Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed. PMID:25427222

  8. Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase.

    PubMed

    Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

    2013-08-01

    RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

  10. Family-wide chemical profiling and structural analysis of PARP and tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Elisabet; Karlberg, Tobias; Kouznetsova, Ekaterina; Markova, Natalia; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Pol, Ewa; Frostell, Åsa; Ekblad, Torun; Öncü, Delal; Kull, Björn; Robertson, Graeme Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Schüler, Herwig; Weigelt, Johan

    2012-03-01

    Inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family proteins are currently in clinical trials as cancer therapeutics, yet the specificity of many of these compounds is unknown. Here we evaluated a series of 185 small-molecule inhibitors, including research reagents and compounds being tested clinically, for the ability to bind to the catalytic domains of 13 of the 17 human PARP family members including the tankyrases, TNKS1 and TNKS2. Many of the best-known inhibitors, including TIQ-A, 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, olaparib, ABT-888 and rucaparib, bound to several PARP family members, suggesting that these molecules lack specificity and have promiscuous inhibitory activity. We also determined X-ray crystal structures for five TNKS2 ligand complexes and four PARP14 ligand complexes. In addition to showing that the majority of PARP inhibitors bind multiple targets, these results provide insight into the design of new inhibitors. PMID:22343925

  11. Mutational patterns in RNA secondary structure evolution examined in three RNA families.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anuj; Cai, Liming; Mrázek, Jan; Malmberg, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study mutational patterns in the evolution of RNA secondary structure. We analyzed bacterial tmRNA, RNaseP and eukaryotic telomerase RNA secondary structures, mapping structural variability onto phylogenetic trees constructed primarily from rRNA sequences. We found that secondary structures evolve both by whole stem insertion/deletion, and by mutations that create or disrupt stem base pairing. We analyzed the evolution of stem lengths and constructed substitution matrices describing the changes responsible for the variation in the RNA stem length. In addition, we used principal component analysis of the stem length data to determine the most variable stems in different families of RNA. This data provides new insights into the evolution of RNA secondary structures and patterns of variation in the lengths of double helical regions of RNA molecules. Our findings will facilitate design of improved mutational models for RNA structure evolution. PMID:21698102

  12. The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1–67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I–IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1–3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

  13. Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.; Walker, D.; Lanier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Computer program, SHCOST, was used to perform economic analyses of operational test sites. The program allows consideration of the economic parameters which are important to the solar system user. A life cycle cost and cash flow comparison is made between a solar heating system and a conventional system. The program assists in sizing the solar heating system. A sensitivity study and plot capability allow the user to select the most cost effective system configuration.

  14. Structural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Meiying; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Burdette, Alexander J.; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Janczyk, Pawe; #322; ; #321; .; Derewenda, Urszula; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Caldwell, Kim A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (UV); (UAT)

    2012-05-25

    The NudC family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. The archetypal nudC gene from Aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. This family also includes nudF, whose human orthologue, Lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. Three paralogues of NudC are known in vertebrates: NudC, NudC-like (NudCL), and NudC-like 2 (NudCL2). The fourth distantly related member of the family, CML66, contains a NudC-like domain. The three principal NudC proteins have no catalytic activity but appear to play as yet poorly defined roles in proliferating and dividing cells. We present crystallographic and NMR studies of the human NudC protein and discuss the results in the context of structures recently deposited by structural genomics centers (i.e., NudCL and mouse NudCL2). All proteins share the same core CS domain characteristic of proteins acting either as cochaperones of Hsp90 or as independent small heat shock proteins. However, while NudC and NudCL dimerize via an N-terminally located coiled coil, the smaller NudCL2 lacks this motif and instead dimerizes as a result of unique domain swapping. We show that NudC and NudCL, but not NudCL2, inhibit the aggregation of several target proteins, consistent with an Hsp90-independent heat shock protein function. Importantly, and in contrast to several previous reports, none of the three proteins is able to form binary complexes with Lis1. The availability of structural information will be of help in further studies on the cellular functions of the NudC family.

  15. Female-Headed Families and Poverty in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; McLaughlin, Diane K.

    2004-01-01

    Employing data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 March supplements of the Current Population Surveys, this study examines changing household and family structure in metro and nonmetro areas and corresponding changes in poverty, emphasizing female-headed families with children under age 18. We also pay particular attention to the structure and economic

  16. Economic Development and the Structure of the Demand for Commercial Energy Ruth A. Judson, Richard Schmalensee and Thomas M. Stoker*

    E-print Network

    Economic Development and the Structure of the Demand for Commercial Energy Ruth A. Judson, Richard development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption by an interest in the relationship between economic development and the consumption of commercial energy

  17. Structural features of B family chorion sequences in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Tsitilou, S G; Rodakis, G C; Alexopoulou, M; Kafatos, F C; Ito, K; Iatrou, K

    1983-01-01

    Partial protein sequences, and DNA sequences of corresponding cDNA and genomic clones were obtained and analyzed to reveal the primary structural features of major, developmentally middle or late components of the B chorion multigene family in Bombyx mori. Comparisons with other types of sequences confirm and clarify the tripartite domain structure of chorion proteins. Glycine-, leucine- and tyrosine-containing, tandemly repetitive peptides form the bulk of the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains ('arms'). Extensive sequence homologies suggest a common evolutionary origin for the amino-terminal arms of some B. mori B sequences and the corresponding portions of members of a different (A) chorion multigene family in Antheraea polyphemus, a distantly related silkmoth. PMID:6571700

  18. Does Adolescent Family Structure Predict Military Enlistment? A Comparison of Post-High School Activities

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Naomi J.; Henderson, Kathryn A.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between adolescent family structure and the likelihood of military enlistment in young adulthood, as compared to alternative post-high school activities. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multinomial logistic regression analyses to compare the odds of military enlistment with college attendance or labor force involvement. We find that alternative family structures predict enlistment relative to college attendance. Living in a single-parent household during adolescence increased odds of military enlistment, but the effect is accounted for by socioeconomic status and early feelings of social isolation. Living with a stepparent or with neither biological parent more than doubles the odds of enlistment, independent of socioeconomic status, characteristics of parent-child relationships, or feelings of social isolation. Although college attendance is widely promoted as a valued post-high school activity, military service may offer a route to independence and a greater sense of belonging. PMID:24000268

  19. Synthesis-Guided Structure Revision of the Sarcodonin, Sarcoviolin and Hydnellin Natural Product Family

    PubMed Central

    Lin, David W.; Masuda, Takeshi; Biskup, Moritz B.; Nelson, Jonathan D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2011-01-01

    A sweeping structural revision of the sarcodonin natural product family (published structures: 1a–13a) is proposed after extensive studies aimed at their chemical synthesis. Key features of revised structure 1b include replacement of the N,N-dioxide moiety with an oxime, ring opening of the central diketopiperazine, and transposition of the terphenyl wing from the 1?-2? position of 1a to the 2?-3? position of 1b. This structure revision arose from the serendipitous synthesis of a benzodioxane aminal (44) whose structure was unambiguously determined by X-Ray crystallography and whose spectral properties bore considerable resemblance to the published data for the sarcodonins. A versatile new method for O-arylation of hydroxamic acids is also reported herein, as well as a manganese(III)-mediated ?-oxidation of hydroxamic acids to aminals. PMID:21250718

  20. A structure-based classification and analysis of protein domain family binding sites and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghoorah, Anisah W; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Alborzi, Seyed Ziaeddin; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Ritchie, David W

    2015-01-01

    While the number of solved 3D protein structures continues to grow rapidly, the structural rules that distinguish protein-protein interactions between different structural families are still not clear. Here, we classify and analyse the secondary structural features and promiscuity of a comprehensive non-redundant set of domain family binding sites (DFBSs) and hetero domain-domain interactions (DDIs) extracted from our updated KBDOCK resource. We have partitioned 4001 DFBSs into five classes using their propensities for three types of secondary structural elements ("?" for helices, "?" for strands, and "?" for irregular structure) and we have analysed how frequently these classes occur in DDIs. Our results show that ? elements are not highly represented in DFBSs compared to ? and ? elements. At the DDI level, all classes of binding sites tend to preferentially bind to the same class of binding sites and ?/? contacts are significantly disfavored. Very few DFBSs are promiscuous: 80% of them interact with just one Pfam domain. About 50% of our Pfam domains bear only one single-partner DFBS and are therefore monogamous in their interactions with other domains. Conversely, promiscuous Pfam domains bear several DFBSs among which one or two are promiscuous, thereby multiplying the promiscuity of the concerned protein. PMID:25860777

  1. Family Structure, Mother–Daughter Relationship Quality, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Girls' Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Merten; Carolyn S. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,114 adolescent girls (4,269 White, 1,707 African American, and 1,138 Hispanic) and biological mothers from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined how family structure, girls' perceptions of mother–daughter relationship quality, and race and ethnicity related to girls' health risks. In general, results indicate heightened risk for both precocious events and

  2. The crystal structure of cricket paralysis virus: the first view of a new virus family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Tate; Lars Liljas; Paul Scotti; Peter Christian; Tianwei Lin; John E. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small, RNA-containing insect viruses are currently classified as picornaviruses, or as 'picorna-like', since they superficially resemble the true picornaviruses. Considerable evidence now suggests that several of these viruses are members of a distinct family. We have determined the gene sequence of the capsid proteins and the 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the cricket paralysis virus. While the genome

  3. Crystal chemistry of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , NZP or CTP, structure family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Alamo; Rustum Roy

    1986-01-01

    The NaZr2(PO4)3 type structure (abbreviated as NZP or CTP, CaTi4(PO4)6), has emerged as a new family, which has extraordinary technological utility in three fields: fast-ion conductors, radwaste solidification and zero expansion ceramics. NZP or CTP is formed by an extraordinary range of discrete compositions and crystalline solutions. In this paper these compositions are classified according to their crystal chemical substitution

  4. Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics

  5. "The Normal American Family" as an Interpretive Structure of Family Life among Grown Children of Korean and Vietnamese Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Based on analysis of interviews with young adults (N=73), this article examines the ways that children of Korean and Vietnamese immigrants describe growing up in their families. Findings suggest that narrow and ethnocentric images of the family promulgated throughout mainstream culture compose an ideological template that can shape the desires,…

  6. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  7. Structure of a PL17 family alginate lyase demonstrates functional similarities among exotype depolymerases.

    PubMed

    Park, David; Jagtap, Sujit; Nair, Satish K

    2014-03-21

    Brown macroalgae represent an ideal source for complex polysaccharides that can be utilized as precursors for cellulosic biofuels. The lack of recalcitrant lignin components in macroalgae polysaccharide reserves provides a facile route for depolymerization of constituent polysaccharides into simple monosaccharides. The most abundant sugars in macroalgae are alginate, mannitol, and glucan, and although several classes of enzymes that can catabolize the latter two have been characterized, studies of alginate-depolymerizing enzymes have lagged. Here, we present several crystal structures of Alg17c from marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans along with structure-function characterization of active site residues that are suggested to be involved in the exolytic mechanism of alginate depolymerization. This represents the first structural and biochemical characterization of a family 17 polysaccharide lyase enzyme. Despite the lack of appreciable sequence conservation, the structure and ?-elimination mechanism for glycolytic bond cleavage by Alg17c are similar to those observed for family 15 polysaccharide lyases and other lyases. This work illuminates the evolutionary relationships among enzymes within this unexplored class of polysaccharide lyases and reinforces the notion of a structure-based hierarchy in the classification of these enzymes. PMID:24478312

  8. Structure of a PL17 Family Alginate Lyase Demonstrates Functional Similarities among Exotype Depolymerases

    PubMed Central

    Park, David; Jagtap, Sujit; Nair, Satish K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown macroalgae represent an ideal source for complex polysaccharides that can be utilized as precursors for cellulosic biofuels. The lack of recalcitrant lignin components in macroalgae polysaccharide reserves provides a facile route for depolymerization of constituent polysaccharides into simple monosaccharides. The most abundant sugars in macroalgae are alginate, mannitol, and glucan, and although several classes of enzymes that can catabolize the latter two have been characterized, studies of alginate-depolymerizing enzymes have lagged. Here, we present several crystal structures of Alg17c from marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans along with structure-function characterization of active site residues that are suggested to be involved in the exolytic mechanism of alginate depolymerization. This represents the first structural and biochemical characterization of a family 17 polysaccharide lyase enzyme. Despite the lack of appreciable sequence conservation, the structure and ?-elimination mechanism for glycolytic bond cleavage by Alg17c are similar to those observed for family 15 polysaccharide lyases and other lyases. This work illuminates the evolutionary relationships among enzymes within this unexplored class of polysaccharide lyases and reinforces the notion of a structure-based hierarchy in the classification of these enzymes. PMID:24478312

  9. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. A taxonomy of model structures for economic evaluation of health technologies.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Chick, Stephen E; Davies, Ruth

    2006-12-01

    Models for the economic evaluation of health technologies provide valuable information to decision makers. The choice of model structure is rarely discussed in published studies and can affect the results produced. Many papers describe good modelling practice, but few describe how to choose from the many types of available models. This paper develops a new taxonomy of model structures. The horizontal axis of the taxonomy describes assumptions about the role of expected values, randomness, the heterogeneity of entities, and the degree of non-Markovian structure. Commonly used aggregate models, including decision trees and Markov models require large population numbers, homogeneous sub-groups and linear interactions. Individual models are more flexible, but may require replications with different random numbers to estimate expected values. The vertical axis of the taxonomy describes potential interactions between the individual actors, as well as how the interactions occur through time. Models using interactions, such as system dynamics, some Markov models, and discrete event simulation are fairly uncommon in the health economics but are necessary for modelling infectious diseases and systems with constrained resources. The paper provides guidance for choosing a model, based on key requirements, including output requirements, the population size, and system complexity. PMID:16941543

  11. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Toronto); (Colorado)

    2011-12-14

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity.

  12. Heterologous Quaternary Structure of CXCL12 and its Relationship to the CC Chemokine Family

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Yuan, H; Kong, Y; Xiong, Y; Lolis, E

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that CXCL12 is able to form multiple dimer types, a traditional CXC dimer and a 'CC-like' form. Phylogenetic analysis of all known human chemokines demonstrates CXCL12 is more closely related to the CC chemokine class than other CXC chemokines. These observations indicate that CXCL12 contains genomic and structural elements characteristic of both CXC and CC chemokines.Chemokines are members of a superfamily of proteins involved in the migration of cells to the proper anatomical position during embryonic development or in response to infection or stress during an immune response. There are two major (CC and CXC) and two minor (CX3C and XC) families based on the sequence around the first conserved cysteine. The topology of all structures is essentially identical with a flexible N-terminal region of 3-8 amino acids, a 10-20 residue N-terminal loop, a short 3{sub 10}-helix, three {beta}-strands, and a {alpha}-helix. The major consequence of the subtle difference between the families occurs at the oligomeric level. Monomers of the CC, CXC, and CX3C families form dimers in a family-specific manner. The XCL1 chemokine is a monomer that can interconvert between two folded states. All chemokines activate GPCRs according to family-specificity, however there are a few examples of chemokines crossing the family boundary to function as antagonists. A two-stage mechanism for chemokine activation of GPCRs has been proposed. The N-terminal region of the receptor interacts with the chemokine, followed by receptor activation by the chemokine N-terminal region. Monomeric chemokines have been demonstrated to be the active form for receptor function. There are numerous examples of both chemokines and their receptors forming dimers. While family-specific dimerization may be an attractive explanation for why specific chemokines only activate GPCRs within their own family, the role of dimers in the function of chemokines has not been resolved. Given that CXCL12 is in the CXC family, the CXC dimer is considered the physiologic dimer in all previous studies based on crystallographic evidence. NMR and mutational studies agree with the CXC dimer form in solution. The CXC form of the dimer is seen in recent structures of CXCL12 bound to a heparin disaccharide and several CXCR4 peptides. In one case, crystals of the CXC-type dimer were soaked in a heparin disaccharide solution to determine the interactions between this dimer and bound disaccharide. In another case, in order to overcome NMR chemical shift line broadening when CXCR4 peptides are added, a 'locked' dimer was constructed by introducing a cysteine mutant that linked subunits as a CXC dimer through an inter-subunit disulfide bond. The solution structures of the locked CXC dimer with CXCR4 peptides were determined. The locked CXC dimer retained Ca{sup 2+} mobilization yet lost chemotaxis activity, presumably because the monomer is the active form. In addition to existing as a monomer and CXC dimer, CXCL12 is now demonstrated to have the capacity to form CC type dimers in the presence of a CXCR4 peptide.

  13. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

  14. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  15. State of Australia's Young People: A Report on the Social, Economic, Health and Family Lives of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Kristy; Mullan, Killian; Powell, Abigail; Flaxman, Saul; Thompson, Denise; Griffiths, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive picture of how young Australians are faring by bringing together data from a variety of sources and drawing on the comments of young people themselves. Overall the report presents a positive picture, showing how important young people are to this country and why it makes good economic and social sense for…

  16. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

    This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

  17. Shared structural features of the 9aaTAD family in complex with CBP.

    PubMed

    Piskacek, Martin; Vasku, Anna; Hajek, Roman; Knight, Andrea

    2015-03-17

    A number of transactivation domains for transcription factors including p53, E2A/HEB, MLL, cMyb, CREB, FOXO3, Gcn4, Oaf1 and Pdr1 have been reported to interact with the KIX domain of general transcriptional mediators CBP, p300 or MED15. Most of those factors belong to the already established Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain (9aaTAD) family. By using available structural data, we found binding analogy for the 9aaTAD in the MLL-KIX and also E2A/HEB-KIX complexes. We recognized two distinct TAD formations in the KIX complex. In the E2A/HEB-KIX complex, the leucine position is determined by the prolonged helical structure including the 9aaTAD and the leucine (long-helical TAD). However in the MLL-KIX complex, the equal position of 9aaTAD and proximal leucine is achieved differently by leucine-turn-helix structural architecture. Furthermore, the FOXO3-KIX complex shares structural analogy with the E2A-KIX complex in respect of both 9aaTAD and proximal leucine. Next, from (i) sequence alignment of the identified 9aaTADs in p53, E2A/HEB and MLL proteins and (ii) the resolved structure of the MLL-KIX and E2A/HEB-KIX complexes, we generated a plausible structural model for p53 that could be used also for other members of the 9aaTAD family. The position of 9aaTADs in Oaf1-, Pdr1- and Gcn4-MED15 KIX complexes and 9aaTAD composition are in good agreement with E2A, MLL, FOXO3 and p53. Analyses of structural data in this study define fundamental structural requirements and shed more light on the ambiguous 9aaTAD domain. PMID:25564305

  18. Chlorite dismutases, DyPs, and EfeB: 3 microbial heme enzyme families comprise the CDE structural superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Goblirsch, Brandon; Kurker, Richard C.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Heme proteins are extremely diverse, widespread, and versatile biocatalysts, sensors, and molecular transporters. The chlorite dismutase family of hemoproteins received its name due to the ability of the first-isolated members to detoxify anthropogenic ClO2?, a function believed to have evolved only in the last few decades. Family members have since been found in fifteen bacterial and archaeal genera, suggesting ancient roots. A structure- and sequence-based examination of the family is presented, in which key sequence and structural motifs are identified and possible functions for family proteins are proposed. Newly identified structural homologies moreover demonstrate clear connections to two other large, ancient, and functionally mysterious protein families. We propose calling them collectively the CDE superfamily of heme proteins. PMID:21354424

  19. Differential Effects of Economic Factors on Specialist and Family Physician Distribution in Illinois: A County-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Uneven distribution of physicians across geographic areas of the United States remains a significant problem that may have implications for health. Purpose: To develop a statistical model of physician distribution in Illinois counties that predicts where specialists and family physicians practice, and to suggest policy strategies for…

  20. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  1. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. PMID:24627645

  2. PFDB: a generic protein family database integrating the CATH domain structure database with sequence based protein family resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian J. Shepherd; Nigel J. Martin; Roger G. Johnson; Paul Kellam; Christine A. Orengo

    2002-01-01

    Motivation: The PFDB (Protein Family Database) is a new database designed to integrate protein family-related data with relevant functional and genomic data. It currently manages biological data for three projects—the CATH protein domain database (Orengo et al., 1997; Pearl et al., 2001), the VIDA virus domains database (Alb` a et al., 2001) and the Gene3D database (Buchan et al., 2001).

  3. PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties, and evolution by gene duplication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties-type lectin-like domain but possess additional highly conserved amino acids. By studying human databases and FII families, respectively. REG I and PAP IB share 50% sequence identity. After cloning PAP IB

  4. Crystal structure of Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) GH family 11 xylanase.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Misumi; Akita, Fusamichi; Maeno, Yuka; Inoue, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) is one of the mesophilic fungi that can produce high levels of cellulose-related enzymes and are expected to be used for the degradation of polysaccharide biomass. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus detected seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to xylanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. The gene encoding the GH11 xylanase C (TcXylC) with the highest activity was used for overproduction and purification of the recombinant enzyme, permitting solving of the crystal structure to a resolution of 1.98 Å. In the asymmetric unit, two kinds of the crystal structures of the xylanase were identified. The main structure of the protein showed a ?-jelly roll structure. We hypothesize that one of the two structures represents the open form and the other shows the close form. The changing of the flexible region between the two structures is presumed to induce and accelerate the enzyme reaction. The specificity of xylanase toward the branched xylan is discussed in the context of this structural data and by comparison with the other published structures of xylanases. PMID:25138599

  5. User's manual for SMACS: a family of codes for probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S; Shukla, S N; O'Connell, W J; Gerhard, M A

    1982-03-01

    SMACS is a code which links the seismic input, soil-structure interaction and structural response calculations to obtain response vectors, which in turn are used as input for risk analysis. Inherently, there are uncertainties involved in various links of the seismic methodology chain. SMACS incorporates the uncertainty in the seismic input by using a suite of possible earthquakes. Uncertainties in the soil-structure interaction (SSI) are incorporated by using a range of values of soil shear modulus and soil material damping at a given site. Similarly a range of probable values of modal frequency and damping of the structure are used to account for uncertainties in structural modelling. The following pre-processor codes are available, as a package, to create necessary input files for the SMACS program: SIMQ (for generating seimic input); GLAY and CLAF (for soil-structure interaction analysis); and SAP4 (for modal analysis of the structures). The post-processor codes available are: PRESTO (to plot probability distributions for the response vectors or basic events); and CHANGO (to plot comparisons of basic events from different analyses). The code, SMACS, and the nature of the problem it solves are discussed. The way that SMACS is executed is explained. Manuals are provided that explain how to create the necessary input files for different subprograms of the SMACS family. An example problem illustrating an SSI analysis for a containment structure is presented.

  6. Structure and dynamics of [gamma]-SNAP: Insight into flexibility of proteins from the SNAP family

    SciTech Connect

    Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Kondrashov, Dmitry A.; McCoy, Jason G.; Bannen, Ryan M.; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2010-02-19

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein gamma ({gamma}-SNAP) is a member of an eukaryotic protein family involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. The X-ray structure of Brachydanio rerio {gamma}-SNAP was determined to 2.6 {angstrom} and revealed an all-helical protein comprised of an extended twisted-sheet of helical hairpins with a helical-bundle domain on its carboxy-terminal end. Structural and conformational differences between multiple observed {gamma}-SNAP molecules and Sec17, a SNAP family protein from yeast, are analyzed. Conformational variation in {gamma}-SNAP molecules is matched with great precision by the two lowest frequency normal modes of the structure. Comparison of the lowest-frequency modes from {gamma}-SNAP and Sec17 indicated that the structures share preferred directions of flexibility, corresponding to bending and twisting of the twisted sheet motif. We discuss possible consequences related to the flexibility of the SNAP proteins for the mechanism of the 20S complex disassembly during the SNAP receptors recycling.

  7. Evolutionary relationship and structural characterization of the EPF/EPFL gene family.

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Ohki, Shinya; Mori, Masashi; Taniguchi, Toru; Kurita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that AtEPF1/EPF2-like peptides form an additional disulfide bond in their loop regions and show greater flexibility in these regions than AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like peptides. This study uncovered the evolutionary relationship and the conformational divergence of proteins encoded by the EPF/EPFL family genes. PMID:23755192

  8. Specificity mapping of cellulolytic enzymes: classification into families of structurally related proteins confirmed by biochemical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Claeyssens, M.; Henrissat, B.

    1992-01-01

    The specificities of 15 cellulolytic enzymes have been examined using chromophoric glycosides derived from D-glucose, cellobiose, higher cellooligosaccharides, lactose, D-xylose, and beta-(1,4)-xylobiose. Coinciding with a classification based on hydrophobic cluster analysis of amino acid sequences, six families each showing a characteristic specificity pattern were observed. Furthermore, in these cases where the anomeric forms of reaction products were determined, results seem to indicate conservation of intrinsic reaction mechanism (single or double displacement) within each family. On the other hand, the low molecular weight substrates do not discriminate exo- from endocellulases. This functional differentiation is speculated to originate from the presence, in exoenzymes, of a tunnel-shaped active site formed by extra loops in their structure. PMID:1303748

  9. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure

  10. Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

  11. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 Phosphorylation of Familial Prion Protein Mutants Exacerbates Conversion into Amyloid Structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from ?-helical structures into ?-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion. PMID:25572400

  12. Keeping It in the Family: Diverse Histone Recognition by Conserved Structural Folds

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Kyoko L.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene transcription relies on an array of recurring structural domains that have evolved to recognize post-translational modifications on histones. The roles of bromodomains, PHD fingers, and the Royal family domains in the recognition of histone modifications to direct transcription have been well characterized. However, only through recent structural studies it has been realized that these basic folds are capable of interacting with increasingly more complex histone modification landscapes, illuminating how nature has concocted a way to accomplish more with less. Here we review the recent biochemical and structural studies of several conserved folds that recognize modified as well as unmodified histone sequences and discuss their implications on gene expression. PMID:20923397

  13. Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed TA; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

    2014-01-01

    An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

  14. Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

    2014-08-01

    An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

  15. Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

    2013-01-31

    The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

  16. Flexibility and Structure May Enhance Implementation of Family-Focused Therapy in Community Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Mikesell, Lisa; Miklowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    This study elicited provider and administrator preferences in implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) for bipolar disorder or psychosis, family-focused therapy (FFT). Providers (n=35) and administrators (n= 5) from three community mental health centers took part in FFT training and participated in pre- and post-training focus groups. Transcripts were examined using conventional content analysis. Providers and administrators discussed barriers to implementing EBPs. Successful EBPs were described as incorporating flexibility and close supervision to maximize provider adherence. Providers expressed preferences for structured EBPs like FFT that have both explicit implementation steps and built-in flexibility. PMID:24810982

  17. New molecular structure offers first picture of a protein family vital to human health

    Cancer.gov

    The 20 proteins in the Wnt family are some of the most important proteins in controlling how an organism develops and grows, but for 30 years scientists have not known what these vital proteins actually look like. The proteins have eluded standard visualization techniques, in large part because they do not dissolve well in the water-based liquids normally used for biochemical studies. But once a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and colleagues in his Stanford University School of Medicine lab thought of an approach to make the proteins behave better, they succeeded in solving the first structure of a Wnt protein.

  18. Families of solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation and structural transitions between them

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N., E-mail: ovc@itp.ac.ru [Max-Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for superconductors are obtained for a Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa} close to unity. The families of solutions with arbitrary number n of flux quanta in a unit cell are analyzed. It is shown that under certain conditions, a cascade of phase transitions between different structures in a magnetic field appears near T{sub c}. Algebraic equations are derived for determining the boundaries of coexistence of different phases on the (T, H{sub 0}) plane.

  19. Flexibility and structure may enhance implementation of family-focused therapy in community mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Mikesell, Lisa; Miklowitz, David

    2014-10-01

    This study elicited provider and administrator preferences in implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) for bipolar disorder or psychosis, family-focused therapy (FFT). Providers (n = 35) and administrators (n = 5) from three community mental health centers took part in FFT training and participated in pre- and post-training focus groups. Transcripts were examined using conventional content analysis. Providers and administrators discussed barriers to implementing EBPs. Successful EBPs were described as incorporating flexibility and close supervision to maximize provider adherence. Providers expressed preferences for structured EBPs like FFT that have both explicit implementation steps and built-in flexibility. PMID:24810982

  20. The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

  1. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2014-11-10

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

  2. Family Structure Transitions and Changes in Maternal Resources and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.; Magnuson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether family instability is associated with changes in perceived social support, material hardship, maternal depression, and parenting stress among mothers of young children. In addition to accounting for the number of transitions a mother experiences over the first five years of her child’s life, we pay close attention to the type and timing of these transitions. We find that mothers who transition to cohabitation or marriage with their child’s biological father experience declines in material hardship and that those who transition to cohabitation or marriage with another man exhibit modest declines in both material hardship and depression. Mothers who exit cohabiting or marital relationships encounter decreases in perceived social support and increases in material hardship, depression, and parenting stress. Overall, our results suggest that both the type and, to a much lesser degree, the timing of family structure transitions may influence maternal well-being. PMID:22215507

  3. Structural and functional relationships of the XPF/MUS81 family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ciccia, Alberto; McDonald, Neil; West, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the XPF/MUS81 family play important roles in the repair of DNA lesions caused by UV-light or DNA cross-linking agents. Most eukaryotes have four family members that assemble into two distinct heterodimeric complexes, XPF-ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1. Each complex contains one catalytic and one noncatalytic subunit and exhibits endonuclease activity with a variety of 3'-flap or fork DNA structures. The catalytic subunits share a characteristic core containing an excision repair cross complementation group 4 (ERCC4) nuclease domain and a tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH)(2) domain. Diverged domains are present in the noncatalytic subunits and may be required for substrate targeting. Vertebrates possess two additional family members, FANCM and Fanconi anemia-associated protein 24 kDa (FAAP24), which possess inactive nuclease domains. Instead, FANCM contains a functional Superfamily 2 (SF2) helicase domain that is required for DNA translocation. Determining how these enzymes recognize specific DNA substrates and promote key repair reactions is an important challenge for the future. PMID:18518821

  4. Functional and Structural Divergence of an Unusual LTR Retrotransposon Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Aiko; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTRs) more than 3 kb are not frequent in most eukaryotic genomes. Rice LTR retrotransposon, Retrosat2, has LTRs greater than 3.2 kb and two open reading frames (ORF): ORF1 encodes enzymes for retrotransposition whereas no function can be assigned to ORF0 as it is not found in any other organism. A variety of experimental and in silico approaches were used to determine the origin of Retrosat2 and putative function of ORF0. Our data show that not only is Retrosat2 highly abundant in the Oryza genus, it may yet be active in rice. Homologs of Retrosat2 were identified in maize, sorghum, Arabidopsis and other plant genomes suggesting that the Retrosat2 family is of ancient origin. Several putatively cis-acting elements, some multicopy, that regulate retrotransposon replication or responsiveness to environmental factors were found in the LTRs of Retrosat2. Unlike the ORF1, the ORF0 sequences from Retrosat2 and homologs are divergent at the sequence level, 3D-structures and predicted biological functions. In contrast to other retrotransposon families, Retrosat2 and its homologs are dispersed throughout genomes and not concentrated in the specific chromosomal regions, such as centromeres. The genomic distribution of Retrosat2 homologs varies across species which likely reflects the differing evolutionary trajectories of this retrotransposon family across diverse species. PMID:23119066

  5. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  6. Families and family structure in a Neo-Hellenic city: Hermoupolis in the mid-19th century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Loukos

    2004-01-01

    This article begins with the creation and development of the city of Hermoupolis and stresses its prominent economic role during the 19th century in the Greek state. It points out the problems of the official censuses and emphasizes the importance of the original source of the 1861 census of Hermoupolis, which was found in the city's municipal archives. It analyzes

  7. The structure and enzymatic properties of a novel RNase II family enzyme from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Schmier, Brad J; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Deutscher, Murray P; Hunt, John F; Malhotra, Arun

    2012-01-20

    Exoribonucleases are vital in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA maturation, end-turnover, and degradation. RNase II and RNase R are paralogous members of the RNR superfamily of nonspecific, 3'?5', processive exoribonucleases. In Escherichia coli, RNase II plays a primary role in mRNA decay and has a preference for unstructured RNA. RNase R, in contrast, is capable of digesting structured RNA and plays a role in the degradation of both mRNA and stable RNA. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, contains two RNR family members. The shorter of these, DrR63, includes a sequence signature typical of RNase R, but we show here that this enzyme is an RNase II-type exonuclease and cannot degrade structured RNA. We also report the crystal structure of this protein, now termed DrII. The DrII structure reveals a truncated RNA binding region in which the N-terminal cold shock domains, typical of most RNR family nucleases, are replaced by an unusual winged helix-turn-helix domain, where the "wing" is contributed by the C-terminal S1 domain. Consistent with its truncated RNA binding region, DrII is able to remove 3' overhangs from RNA molecules closer to duplexes than do other RNase II-type enzymes. DrII also displays distinct sensitivity to pyrimidine-rich regions of single-stranded RNA and is able to process tRNA precursors with adenosine-rich 3' extensions in vitro. These data indicate that DrII is the RNase II of D. radiodurans and that its structure and catalytic properties are distinct from those of other related enzymes. PMID:22133431

  8. Variation of spectral, structural, and vibrational properties within the intrinsically fluorescent proteins family: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Nifosí, Riccardo; Amat, Pietro; Tozzini, Valentina

    2007-11-15

    We report an extensive (time-dependent) density functional study of the whole series of the chromophores within the Intrinsically Fluorescent Protein family, in the relevant conformations and protonation states. Over 30 structures are considered, including three newly discovered chromophores (zFP, Kaede, and the Orange variant of DsRed). Ab initio calculations on selected structures are also performed in order to assess the performances of TDDFT along the family. The use of a uniform scheme for all structures allows to establish relationships between the absorption energy and electrostatic, structural or vibrational properties of the chromophores. PMID:17600852

  9. Health care-seeking behaviors of African American ADHD patients and their families: overcoming economic and cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Rostain, Anthony L

    2015-02-01

    Many African Americans are not receiving mental health care for conditions like depression and ADHD, which can hinder their social and occupational functioning. Many disparities in the receipt of health care by African Americans stem from lack of finances or health insurance. Other barriers include access to care, concerns about treatment, and stigma toward mental illness. Clinicians can help overcome these barriers by providing education on mental illness and treatment, by gaining support from family members and community leaders and organizations, and by focusing on prevention and early intervention. PMID:25742219

  10. The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

  11. Genomic structures and chromosomal location of p91, a novel murine regulatory receptor family.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Fukuta, D; Tsuji, A; Nagabukuro, A; Matsuda, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ohyama, Y; Ohmori, H; Ono, M; Takai, T

    1998-02-01

    Recently, we found a novel murine cell-surface glycoprotein, designated as p91, expressed mainly in myeloid cells such as macrophages and mast cells. The molecule has six immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail containing four immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) or ITIM-like sequences, resembling the structural features of human killer-cell inhibitory receptors (KIR). Here we show that p91 comprises a polymorphic gene family, harboring one potent inhibitory-type p91 and at least two other p91 genes. Tyrosine-phosphorylated, but not nonphosphorylated, synthetic peptides matching the third ITIM and the fourth ITIM-like sequences, respectively, found in the cytoplasmic portion of p91A, the sole inhibitory-type p91, were associated with the tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. In addition, the phosphotyrosyl peptide matching the third ITIM sequence also bound the inositol 5-phosphatase, SHIP. These results support the notion that p91A may function as an inhibitory cell-surface molecule against cell activation. The p91 genes were shown to be clustered in the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7, a syntenic position of human chromosome 19 where the genes for the KIR family are found. A human cDNA clone cross-hybridizing to a murine p91 probe was isolated from a human spleen cDNA library, and was found to code for a molecule quite similar to members of the immunoglobulin-like transcript (or ILT) family. The gene was found to be located on human chromosome 19q13.3-13.4. These results establish the existence of a novel set of potent regulatory receptors in mouse and man, similar but different from the KIR family. PMID:9538215

  12. A class 2 weight assessment for the implementation of commonality and preliminary structural designs for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Tom; Dragush, George; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Oxendine, Charles; Remen, John; Robinson, Terry; Russell, Mark; Swift, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of commonality objectives are determined. Commonality is discussed in terms of weight penalties that increase the take-off weight of several members of the family of airplanes. Preliminary designs of fuselage structural members and a discussion of weight penalties due to implementation of common fuselage structure throughout the family is examined. Wing torque box designs are discussed along with structural weight penalties incurred. A landing gear design study is contained along with the weight penalties that a common gear system will impose. Implementation of common power plants throughout the family and the weight penalties that occur are discussed. The weight penalties imposed by commonality on all the airplanes in the family are summarized. Class 2 breakdowns are also presented. The feasibility of commonality based on a percentage of take-off weight increase over the Class 2 baseline weights is then assessed.

  13. Family grief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Michler Detmer; Joseph W. Lamberti

    1991-01-01

    Grief traditionally has been described from the individual perspective. In contrast, this article presents a family systems perspective on death and grieving. A group of interconnected individuals forming a system, defined as a “family,” reciprocally affect one another in response to internal or external events. Minuchin's structural theory emphasizes the importance of subsystems within a family; boundaries between subsystems are

  14. The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burden???1% of annual household income). Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n?=?1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years old) seeking treatment for diarrhea in six Bolivian hospitals. Caregivers were surveyed on demographics, clinical symptoms, direct (e.g. medication, consult fees), and indirect (e.g. lost wages) costs. Multivariate regression models (n?=?551) were used to assess relationships of covariates to the outcomes of cost burden (linear model) and catastrophic cost (logistic model). Results We determined that cost burden and catastrophic cost shared the same significant (p?economic impact of pediatric diarrhea from the familial perspective and provides insight into potential areas of intervention to reduce associated economic burden. PMID:24962128

  15. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  16. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  17. The UDP-Glucuronate Decarboxylase Gene Family in Populus: Structure, Expression, and Association Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-01-01

    In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7) encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7), consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp) and nucleotide diversity (?T?=?0.01033, ?w?=?0.01280). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10) and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals), with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10) were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23613749

  18. Family Interventions for Schizophrenia: A Review of Long-term Benefits of International Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. H. Falloon; Tilo Held; John H. Coverdale; Rita Roncone; Tannis M. Laidlaw

    1999-01-01

    Clinical, social, family and economic benefits are achieved by adding psychosocial family interventions, based on the vulnerability\\/stress model of mental disorders, to pharmacotherapy and case management for schizophrenic disorders. Twenty-two controlled studies with treatment extending for at least 6 months (including 14 randomized, controlled comparisons with good quality methodology) have documented the benefits of structured types of family approaches. A

  19. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2714, a representative of a duplicated gene family in Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Graña, Martin; Bellinzoni, Marco; Miras, Isabelle; Fiez-Vandal, Cedric; Haouz, Ahmed; Shepard, William; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2009-01-01

    The gene Rv2714 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a representative member of a gene family that is largely confined to the order Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of two paralogous genes in most mycobacterial genomes and suggests that gene duplication was an ancient event in bacterial evolution. The crystal structure of Rv2714 has been determined at 2.6?Å resolution, revealing a trimer in which the topology of the protomer core is similar to that observed in a functionally diverse set of enzymes, including purine nucleoside phosphorylases, some carboxypeptidases, bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases and even the plastidic form of an intron splicing factor. However, some structural elements, such as a ?-hairpin insertion involved in protein oligomerization and a C-terminal ?-helical domain that serves as a lid to the putative substrate-binding (or ligand-binding) site, are only found in Rv2714 bacterial homologues and represent specific signatures of this protein family. PMID:19851001

  20. Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages

    PubMed Central

    Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the “stability profiles” of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world. PMID:23028843

  1. Comparative Study on Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship of the Human Short-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nu Thi Ngoc; Le, Ly

    2014-01-01

    Human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) protein family has been the subject of recent studies for its critical role in human metabolism. Studies also found that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SDR protein family were responsible for a variety of genetic diseases, including type II diabetes. This study reports the effect of sequence variation on the structural and functional integrities of human SDR protein family using phylogenetics and correlated mutation analysis tools. Our results indicated that (i) tyrosine, serine, and lysine are signature protein residues that have direct contribution to the structural and functional stabilities of the SDR protein family, (ii) subgroups of SDR protein family have their own signature protein combination that represent their unique functionality, and (iii) mutations of the human SDR protein family showed high correlation in terms of evolutionary history. In combination, the results inferred that over evolutionary history, the SDR protein family was able to diverge itself in order to adapt with the changes in human nutritional demands. Our study reveals understanding of structural and functional scaffolds of specific SDR subgroups that may facilitate the design of specific inhibitor. PMID:25374450

  2. A spatiotemporal structure: common to subatomic systems, biological processes, and economic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, Ken

    2012-03-01

    A theoretical model derived based on a quasi-stability concept applied to momentum conservation (Naitoh, JJIAM, 2001, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008, 2010) has revealed the spatial structure of various systems. This model explains the reason why particles such as biological cells, nitrogenous bases, and liquid droplets have bimodal size ratios of about 2:3 and 1:1. This paper shows that the same theory holds true for several levels of parcels from baryons to stars in the cosmos: specifically, at the levels of nuclear force, van der Waals force, surface tension, and the force of gravity. A higher order of analysis clarifies other asymmetric ratios related to the halo structure seen in atoms and amino acids. We will also show that our minimum hypercycle theory for explaining the morphogenetic cycle (Naitoh, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008) reveals other temporal cycles such as those of economic systems and the circadian clock as well as the fundamental neural network pattern (topological pattern). Finally, a universal equation describing the spatiotemporal structure of several systems will be derived, which also leads to a general concept of quasi-stability.

  3. Intra-population variation in anemia status and its relationship to economic status and self-perceived health in the Mexican Family Life Survey: implications for bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Hubbe, Mark; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2014-10-01

    Recently scholars have advocated for the use of a critical biocultural approach in bioarchaeology, where osteological and dental markers of stress are used to understand the broader biosocial context of past populations. However, the ability to accomplish this task rests on the assumption that ultimate-level environmental stressors and well-being in the past can be reconstructed from the prevalence of pathologies in skeletal collections. Here we test this assumption using anemia prevalence in the Mexican Family Life Survey. Specifically we test three hypotheses: (1) that individuals sharing the same household are more likely to share anemia status; (2) anemia status is a predictor of economic status (a common proxy for broader environmental context); and (3) anemia status is related to self-rated health. Results demonstrate that: anemia status was not commonly shared between household members; there was a significant overlap in economic status between anemic and nonanemic individuals (i.e., anemia poorly predicted economic status) and; while anemia status was associated with self-perceived health, the majority of those who reported poor health were nonanemic while a significant number of those who reported very good health were anemic. We argue that these findings are likely related to variation in individual frailty, which is shaped by biological and cultural risk factors. Therefore, we advocate for greater incorporation of individual frailty into bioarchaeological investigations, and, in effort to overcome some of the difficulties associated with this task, increased use of data from living populations and greater collaboration between bioarchaeologists and human biologists. PMID:24862211

  4. Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979-2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the…

  5. Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Sim

    2008-01-01

    As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979–2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database.

  6. The Rub Family of Ubiquitin-like Proteins CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ARABIDOPSIS RUB1 AND EXPRESSION OF MULTIPLE RUBS IN ARABIDOPSIS*

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    The Rub Family of Ubiquitin-like Proteins CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ARABIDOPSIS RUB1 AND EXPRESSION, a described function of one family of ubiquitin-related proteins, the Rub family, is to serve as a stable post are expressed in multiple organs. In addition, we report the crystal structure of higher plant RUB1 at 1.7-Å

  7. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Song, Weibo; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. To gain insight into the structural and functional evolution of the HIF family, we characterized the HIF? gene from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, and identified several alternatively spliced HIF? isoforms. Whereas HIF? Ia, the full-length isoform, contained a complete oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain, the isoforms Ib, Ic, and Id had 1 or 2 deletions in the ODD domain. When tagged with GFP and tested in mammalian cells, the amphioxus HIF? Ia protein level increased in response to hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment, whereas HIF? Ib, Ic, and Id showed reduced or no hypoxia regulation. Deletion of the ODD sequence in HIF? Ia up-regulated the HIF? Ia levels under normoxia. Gene expression analysis revealed HIF? Ic to be the predominant isoform in embryos and larvae, whereas isoform Ia was the most abundant form in the adult stage. The expression levels of Ib and Id were very low. Hypoxia treatment of adults had no effect on the mRNA levels of these HIF? isoforms. Functional analyses in mammalian cells showed all 4 HIF? isoforms capable of entering the nucleus and activating hypoxia response element–dependent reporter gene expression. The functional nuclear location signal (NLS) mapped to 3 clusters of basic residues. 775KKARL functioned as the primary NLS, but 737KRK and 754KK also contributed to the nuclear localization. All amphioxus HIF? isoforms had 2 functional transactivation domains (TADs). Its C-terminal transactivation (C-TAD) shared high sequence identity with the human HIF-1? and HIF-2? C-TAD. This domain contained a conserved asparagine, and its mutation resulted in an increase in transcriptional activity. These findings reveal many ancient features of the HIF? family and provide novel insights into the evolution of the HIF? family.—Gao, S., Lu, L., Bai, Y., Zhang, P., Song, W., Duan, C. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family. PMID:24174425

  8. Structure and activity of the Streptococcus pyogenes family GH1 6-phospho-?-glucosidase SPy1599.

    PubMed

    Stepper, Judith; Dabin, Jerome; Eklof, Jens M; Thongpoo, Preeyanuch; Kongsaeree, Prachumporn; Taylor, Edward J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Brumer, Harry; Davies, Gideon J

    2013-01-01

    The group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of a wide spectrum of invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome. In the context of its carbohydrate chemistry, it is interesting that S. pyogenes (in this work strain M1 GAS SF370) displays a spectrum of oligosaccharide-processing enzymes that are located in close proximity on the genome but that the in vivo function of these proteins remains unknown. These proteins include different sugar transporters (SPy1593 and SPy1595), both GH125 ?-1,6- and GH38 ?-1,3-mannosidases (SPy1603 and SPy1604), a GH84 ?-hexosaminidase (SPy1600) and a putative GH2 ?-galactosidase (SPy1586), as well as SPy1599, a family GH1 `putative ?-glucosidase'. Here, the solution of the three-dimensional structure of SPy1599 in a number of crystal forms complicated by unusual crystallographic twinning is reported. The structure is a classical (?/?)(8)-barrel, consistent with CAZy family GH1 and other members of the GH-A clan. SPy1599 has been annotated in sequence depositions as a ?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21), but no such activity could be found; instead, three-dimensional structural overlaps with other enzymes of known function suggested that SPy1599 contains a phosphate-binding pocket in the active site and has possible 6-phospho-?-glycosidase activity. Subsequent kinetic analysis indeed showed that SPy1599 has 6-phospho-?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.86) activity. These data suggest that SPy1599 is involved in the intracellular degradation of 6-phosphoglycosides, which are likely to originate from import through one of the organism's many phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransfer systems (PEP-PTSs). PMID:23275159

  9. Changing Family Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, M. Therese; Willetts, Marion C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the definition of family. Considers three facets of the contemporary family measured by U.S. Census statistics: (1) marriage and divorce trends; (2) declining fertility; and (3) the rise in single-headed families. Addresses the societal changes (economic, cultural, legal, and technological) that have influenced the changes in family

  10. The SLC16 gene family - structure, role and regulation in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Halestrap, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    The SLC16 gene family has fourteen members. Four (SLC16A1, SLC16A3, SLC16A7, and SLC16A8) encode monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1, MCT4, MCT2, and MCT3, respectively) catalysing the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates such as l-lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. SLC16A2 encodes a high affinity thyroid hormone transporter (MCT8) and SLC16A10 an aromatic amino acid transporter (TAT1). The substrates and roles of the remaining eight members are unknown. All family members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMs) with intracellular C- and N-termini and a large intracellular loop between TMs 6 and 7. This topology has been confirmed for MCT1 and a three-dimensional structure has been modelled that suggests a plausible molecular mechanism. For correct plasma membrane expression and activity MCTs1-4, but not MCT8, require association with basigin or embigin; these are glycoproteins with a single TM and 2-3 extracellular immunoglobulin domains. SLC16 family members are involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways including energy metabolism of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart and tumour cells, gluconeogenesis, T-lymphocyte activation, bowel metabolism, spermatogenesis, pancreatic ?-cell malfunction, thyroid hormone metabolism, and drug transport. MCTs 1-4 have distinct properties, tissue distribution and subcellular localisation that are appropriate for these metabolic roles. Their potential as pharmacological targets has been recognised with the discovery of potent and specific MCT1 inhibitors that act as immunosuppressant drugs by preventing proliferation of T-lymphocytes. It is suggested that the development of other drugs specifically targeting different MCT isoforms may provide a novel approach to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23506875

  11. The Vertebrate RCAN Gene Family: Novel Insights into Evolution, Structure and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Farré, Domènec; Aranguren-Ibáñez, Álvaro; Martínez-Høyer, Sergio; Pérez-Riba, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been much interest in the Regulators of Calcineurin (RCAN) proteins which are important endogenous modulators of the calcineurin-NFATc signalling pathway. They have been shown to have a crucial role in cellular programmes such as the immune response, muscle fibre remodelling and memory, but also in pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and neurodegenerative diseases. In vertebrates, the RCAN family form a functional subfamily of three members RCAN1, RCAN2 and RCAN3 whereas only one RCAN is present in the rest of Eukarya. In addition, RCAN genes have been shown to collocate with RUNX and CLIC genes in ACD clusters (ACD21, ACD6 and ACD1). How the RCAN genes and their clustering in ACDs evolved is still unknown. After analysing RCAN gene family evolution using bioinformatic tools, we propose that the three RCAN vertebrate genes within the ACD clusters, which evolved from single copy genes present in invertebrates and lower eukaryotes, are the result of two rounds of whole genome duplication, followed by a segmental duplication. This evolutionary scenario involves the loss or gain of some RCAN genes during evolution. In addition, we have analysed RCAN gene structure and identified the existence of several characteristic features that can be involved in RCAN evolution and gene expression regulation. These included: several transposable elements, CpG islands in the 5? region of the genes, the existence of antisense transcripts (NAT) associated with the three human genes, and considerable evidence for bidirectional promoters that regulate RCAN gene expression. Furthermore, we show that the CpG island associated with the RCAN3 gene promoter is unmethylated and transcriptionally active. All these results provide timely new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying RCAN function and a more in depth knowledge of this gene family whose members are obvious candidates for the development of future therapies. PMID:24465593

  12. Boxy/peanut "bulges": comparing the structure of galaxies with the underlying families of periodic orbits

    E-print Network

    P. A. Patsis; E. M. Xilouris

    2005-12-09

    The vertical profiles of disc galaxies are built by the material trapped around stable periodic orbits, which form their "skeletons". According to this, the knowledge of the stability of the main families of periodic orbits in appropriate 3D models, can predict possible morphologies for edge-on disc galaxies. In a pilot survey we compare the orbital structures which lead to the appearance of "peanuts" and "X"-like features with the edge-on profiles of three disc galaxies (IC 2531, NGC 4013 and UGC 2048). The subtraction from the images of a model representing the axisymmetric component of the galaxies reveals the contribution of the non-axisymmetric terms. We find a direct correspondence between the orbital profiles of 3D bars in models and the observed main morphological features of the residuals. We also apply a simple unsharp masking technique in order to study the sharpest features of the images. Our basic conclusion is that the morphology of the boxy "bulges" of these galaxies can be explained by considering disc material trapped around stable 3D periodic orbits. In most models these building-blocks periodic orbits are bifurcated from the planar central family of a non-axisymmetric component, usually a bar, at low order vertical resonances. In such a case the boxy "bulges" are parts of bars seen edge-on. For the three galaxies we study the families associated with the "peanut" or "X"-shape morphology are most probably bifurcations at the vertical 2/1 or 4/1 resonance.

  13. The SmtB\\/ArsR family of metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors: structural insights into prokaryotic metal resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura S. Busenlehner; Mario A. Pennella; David P. Giedroc

    2003-01-01

    The SmtB\\/ArsR family of prokaryotic metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors represses the expression of operons linked to stress-inducing concentrations of di- and multivalent heavy metal ions. Derepression results from direct binding of metal ions by these homodimeric ‘metal sensor’ proteins. An evolutionary analysis, coupled with comparative structural and spectroscopic studies of six SmtB\\/ArsR family members, suggests a unifying ‘theme and variations’ model,

  14. The CATH Domain Structure Database and related resources Gene3D and DHS provide comprehensive domain family information for genome analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances M. G. Pearl; Annabel E. Todd; Ian Sillitoe; Mark Dibley; Oliver Redfern; Tony E. Lewis; Christopher Bennett; Russell L. Marsden; Alastair Grant; David Lee; Adrian Akpor; Michael Maibaum; Andrew P. Harrison; Timothy Dallman; Gabrielle A. Reeves; Ilhem Diboun; Sarah Addou; Stefano Lise; Caroline Johnston; Antonio Sillero; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

    2005-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath\\/) currently contains 43229 domains classified into 1467 super- families and 5107 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with sequence relatives from GenBank and completed genomes, using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended CATH protein family data- base contains 616470 domain sequences classified into 23876 sequence

  15. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear ?-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  16. Family Structure of Leptons and Their Currents of an Axial Vector Nature

    E-print Network

    Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov

    2007-06-24

    Each of neutrinos has a non - zero mass and regardless of whether it is a Dirac or a Majorana mass, can possess both anapole and electric dipole moments. Between their form factors appears a connection, for example, at the longitudinal neutrinos scattering on spinless nuclei. We discuss a theory, in which a mass consists of vector and axial - vector components responsible for separateness of leptonic current into the vector and axial - vector parts of the same charge or dipole moment. Such a model can explain the absence of truly neutral neutrinos vector interactions and the availability of an axial - vector structure of a Majorana mass. Thereby it relates the two neutrinos of a different nature. We derive an equation which unites the masses to a ratio of the anapole and electric dipole form factors of any lepton and its neutrino as a consequence of their unification in families of doublets and singlets. This testifies in favor of the existence of the left (right) dileptons and paradileptons of the axial - vector currents. Each of them answers to conservation of an axial - vector charge and any lepton flavor. Therefore, an axial - vector mass, anapole and electric dipole moment of the neutrino become proportional respectively to an axial - vector mass, anapole and electric dipole moment of a particle of the same families.

  17. FAMILY STRUCTURE OF LEPTONS AND THEIR CURRENTS OF AN AXIAL-VECTOR NATURE

    E-print Network

    Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov

    2007-01-01

    All neutrinos have a non-zero mass and regardless of whether a neutrino is of the Dirac or Majorana type, it can possess both anapole and electric dipole moments. Between the corresponding form factors there appears a connection, for example, for neutrino scattering on spinless nuclei. We discuss a theory in which a mass consists of vector and axial-vector components responsible for separation of leptonic current into the vector and axial-vector parts of the same charge or dipole moment. Such a model can explain the absence of truly neutral neutrino vector interactions and the availability of an axial-vector structure of a Majorana mass. Thereby, it relates the two neutrinos of different nature. We derive an equation which relates the masses to a ratio of the anapole and electric dipole form factors of any lepton and its neutrino as a consequence of their unification in families of doublets and singlets. This testifies in favour of the existence of the left (right) dileptons and paradileptons of the axial-vector currents. Each of them answers to conservation of an axial-vector charge and any lepton flavour. Therefore, an axial-vector mass, anapole and electric dipole moment of the neutrino become proportional, respectively, to an axial-vector mass, anapole and electric dipole moment of a particle of the same family. 1

  18. Observations of families in structured interactions: Parenting therapists provide reliable ratings of mothers’ parenting

    PubMed Central

    Storå, Bent; Hagtvet, Knut A; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of observations of parenting by parenting therapists was assessed. An important predictor of externalizing behavior in children is quality of parenting. Data were videotapes of structured interactions in families with a child age 8–12 years referred to the evidence based Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) treatment program for child behavior problems. The therapists had clinical PMTO training but no training in systematic observation. PMTO observational coders with specific coder training were included as a reference for the therapists. Five therapists and two coders observed videotapes of 10 families and performed global evaluations of mothers’ parenting skills. They used the coder’s impression measure used in PMTO research. Scores were analyzed in a generalizability theory framework for the two groups of observers separately. Both observer types reliably rank-ordered the mothers and assessed the level of parenting skills. PMTO therapists without coder training provided reliable ratings of parenting constructs relevant to the clinical PMTO program in a manner comparable to that of the trained reference coders. PMID:24237459

  19. Organizational structure of the Croatian family practice: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Keglevi?, Mladenka Vrci?; Balint, Ines; Cvetkovi?, Ivica; Ga?ina, Ana

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken with the main aim of determining the trends in the number of family doctors' (FD), gender and educational structure, working status and the number of patients per FD between 1995 and 2013. As the main source of data collection served the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks and Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) databases on practices and FDs contracting in 2013. Obtained results indicated that the number of contracted FDs increased until 2007, then decreased, and again increased until 2350 in 2013. Average number of patients on FDs list was 1987 in 2012. Less than 50% FDs were specialist in family medicine, 70.3% of them were self-employed with the CHIF contract, and 81% were women. 123 practices planned by the Network did not have contracting FD in 2013. The lack of FDs, the huge number of patients over the standard number, and the location of the missing practices within the rural communities, together make Croatian FM practices less accessible. PMID:25643521

  20. Declining Fortunes of Children in Middle-Class Families: Economic Inequality and Child Well-Being in the 21st Century. FCD Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Policy Brief 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Americans are struggling through the greatest economic downturn since the Great Depression. In recent years, a significant body of research and analysis has documented the breakdown of the middle class and the impact of the current financial crisis on family income, housing, and jobs. But few reports have examined these impacts through the lens of…

  1. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  2. Structural features and biological properties of ellagitannins in some plant families of the order Myrtales.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Plant tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed varieties, are well known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits. Their diverse biological properties and potential for disease prevention have been demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo assays. A number of ellagitannins, the largest group of hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from dicotyledoneous angiosperms and characterized. This diverse class of tannins is sub-grouped into simple ellagitannins, C-glycosidic ellagitannins, complex tannins (condensates of C-glycosidic tannins with flavan-3-ol), and oligomers up to pentamers. This review outlines and describes the chemotaxonomic significance of structural features in various types of ellagitannins found in plants belonging to the Myrtaceae, Onagraceae, and Melastomataceae families, which are all included in the order Myrtales. Any biological activities that have been reported, including antitumor and antibacterial effects as well as enzyme inhibition, are also reviewed. PMID:20162003

  3. Structural Features and Biological Properties of Ellagitannins in Some Plant Families of the Order Myrtales

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Plant tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed varieties, are well known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits. Their diverse biological properties and potential for disease prevention have been demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo assays. A number of ellagitannins, the largest group of hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from dicotyledoneous angiosperms and characterized. This diverse class of tannins is sub-grouped into simple ellagitannins, C-glycosidic ellagitannins, complex tannins (condensates of C-glycosidic tannins with flavan-3-ol), and oligomers up to pentamers. This review outlines and describes the chemotaxonomic significance of structural features in various types of ellagitannins found in plants belonging to the Myrtaceae, Onagraceae, and Melastomataceae families, which are all included in the order Myrtales. Any biological activities that have been reported, including antitumor and antibacterial effects as well as enzyme inhibition, are also reviewed. PMID:20162003

  4. A New Branch in the Family: Structure of Aspartate-[beta]-semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

    2010-07-13

    The structure of aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) from Methanococcus jannaschii has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing of a selenomethionine-substituted derivative to define a new branch in the family of ASADHs. This new structure has a similar overall fold and domain organization despite less than 10% conserved sequence identity with the bacterial enzymes. However, the entire repertoire of functionally important active site amino acid residues is conserved, suggesting an identical catalytic mechanism but with lower catalytic efficiency. A new coenzyme-binding conformation and dual NAD/NADP coenzyme specificity further distinguish this archaeal branch from the bacterial ASADHs. Several structural differences are proposed to account for the dramatically enhanced thermostability of this archaeal enzyme. Finally, the intersubunit communication channel connecting the active sites in the bacterial enzyme dimer has been disrupted in the archaeal ASADHs by amino acid changes that likely prevent the alternating sites reactivity previously proposed for the bacterial ASADHs.

  5. New crystal structural families of lanthanide chloride alcohol/water complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of lanthanide chloride compounds as possible scintillation materials for gamma ray and neutron detection has led to the discovery of several new families of crystal structures with the general formula LnCl3(CH3OH)x(H2O)y. The specific crystal structure depends on the water/methanol content and lanthanide ion. The coordination of the light (large) lanthanides is the typical value of 8 and reduces to 7 for the heavier (small) lanthanides. The binding energy of water versus alcohol ligands is comparable, so that if water is present in the system, it is typically incorporated as a ligand in the crystal. In these crystals, the molecular adducts occur as monomers, dimers, and dichloro-bridged chains. These, in turn, form 3-D frameworks through H-bonds to the Cl atoms. Other distinct crystal structures are predicted, given the volume changes due to the lanthanide contraction, the water content of the crystal growth solutions, and the specific halide.

  6. A structural mechanism for bacterial autotransporter glycosylation by a dodecameric heptosyltransferase family

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qing; Lu, Qiuhe; Wan, Xiaobo; Song, Feng; Xu, Yue; Hu, Mo; Zamyatina, Alla; Liu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Niu; Zhu, Ping; Shao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A large group of bacterial virulence autotransporters including AIDA-I from diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and TibA from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) require hyperglycosylation for functioning. Here we demonstrate that TibC from ETEC harbors a heptosyltransferase activity on TibA and AIDA-I, defining a large family of bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferases (BAHTs). The crystal structure of TibC reveals a characteristic ring-shape dodecamer. The protomer features an N-terminal ?-barrel, a catalytic domain, a ?-hairpin thumb, and a unique iron-finger motif. The iron-finger motif contributes to back-to-back dimerization; six dimers form the ring through ?-hairpin thumb-mediated hand-in-hand contact. The structure of ADP-D-glycero-?-D-manno-heptose (ADP-D,D-heptose)-bound TibC reveals a sugar transfer mechanism and also the ligand stereoselectivity determinant. Electron-cryomicroscopy analyses uncover a TibC–TibA dodecamer/hexamer assembly with two enzyme molecules binding to one TibA substrate. The complex structure also highlights a high efficient hyperglycosylation of six autotransporter substrates simultaneously by the dodecamer enzyme complex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03714.001 PMID:25310236

  7. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 97 Enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron*

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Momoyo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Mori, Haruhide; Kitago, Yu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Atsuo; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2008-01-01

    SusB, an 84-kDa ?-glucoside hydrolase involved in the starch utilization system (sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 97. We have determined the enzymatic characteristics and the crystal structures in free and acarbose-bound form at 1.6Å resolution. SusB hydrolyzes the ?-glucosidic linkage, with inversion of anomeric configuration liberating the ?-anomer of glucose as the reaction product. The substrate specificity of SusB, hydrolyzing not only ?-1,4-glucosidic linkages but also ?-1,6-, ?-1,3-, and ?-1,2-glucosidic linkages, is clearly different from other well known glucoamylases belonging to GH15. The structure of SusB was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method with sulfur atoms as anomalous scatterers using an in-house x-ray source. SusB includes three domains as follows: the N-terminal, catalytic, and C-terminal domains. The structure of the SusB-acarbose complex shows a constellation of carboxyl groups at the catalytic center; Glu532 is positioned to provide protonic assistance to leaving group departure, with Glu439 and Glu508 both positioned to provide base-catalyzed assistance for inverting nucleophilic attack by water. A structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed significant similarity between the catalytic domain of SusB and those of ?-retaining glycoside hydrolases belonging to GH27, -36, and -31 despite the differences in catalytic mechanism. SusB and the other retaining enzymes appear to have diverged from a common ancestor and individually acquired the functional carboxyl groups during the process of evolution. Furthermore, sequence comparison of the active site based on the structure of SusB indicated that GH97 included both retaining and inverting enzymes. PMID:18981178

  8. A novel TctA citrate transporter from an activated sludge metagenome: structural and mechanistic predictions for the TTT family.

    PubMed

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixon; Millán-Pacheco, César; González-Zuñiga, Víctor Manuel; Juárez, Soledad; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Pastor, Nina

    2014-09-01

    We isolated a putative citrate transporter of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporter (TTT) class from a metagenomic library of activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. The transporter, dubbed TctA_ar, shares ?50% sequence identity with TctA of Comamonas testosteroni (TctA_ct) and other ?-Proteobacteria, and contains two 20-amino acid repeat signature sequences, considered a hallmark of this particular transporter class. The structures for both TctA_ar and TctA_ct were modeled with I-TASSER and two possible structures for this transporter family were proposed. Docking assays with citrate resulted in the corresponding sets of proposed critical residues for function. These models suggest functions for the 20-amino acid repeats in the context of the two different architectures. This constitutes the first attempt at structure modeling of the TTT family, to the best of our knowledge, and could aid functional understanding of this little-studied family. PMID:24493659

  9. Parental Division of Labor, Coordination, and the Effects of Family Structure on Parenting in Monogamous Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Hammock, Elizabeth A.D.; Young, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Family relationships help shape species-typical social and emotional development, but our understanding of how this shaping occurs is still relatively limited. Prairie voles are a socially monogamous and biparental species that is well situated to complement traditional animal models, such as rats and mice, in investigating the effects of family experience. In this series of studies, we aimed to test hypotheses relating to how prairie vole families function under undisturbed, standard laboratory conditions. In the first study, we compared the parental behavior of primiparous biparental (BP) and single-mother (SM) prairie vole family units for 12 postnatal days and then tested for sex differences, behavioral coordination, and family structure effects. Under BP conditions, nest attendance was coordinated and shared equally by both sexes, while pup-directed and partner-directed licking and grooming (LG) were coordinated in a sex and social-context-dependent manner. Contrary to our expectations, SMs showed no evidence of strong parental compensation in response to the lack of the father, indicating a minimal effect of family structure on maternal behavior but a large effect on pup care. In the second study, we examined the effects of these BP and SM rearing conditions on family dynamics in the next generation and found that SM-reared adult parents exhibited lower rates of pup-directed LG in comparison to BP-reared counterparts. Situated in the context of human family dynamics and psychology, these results suggest that the study in prairie voles may help improve our understanding of family systems and how perturbations to these systems can affect adults and offspring. PMID:20945408

  10. Economic Development, Structural Change and Women’s Labor Force Participation A Reexamination of the Feminization U Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isis Gaddis; Stephan Klasen

    2011-01-01

    A large literature claims that female labor force participation (FLFP) follows a U-shaped trend over the course of economic development. This feminization U hypothesis is motivated by secular patterns of structural change in combination with education and fertility dynamics. We show that empirical support for the hypothesis is rather feeble and hinges on the data used for the assessment. The

  11. Crystal structure of family 14 polysaccharide lyase with pH-dependent modes of action.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kohei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2009-12-18

    The Chlorella virus enzyme vAL-1 (38 kDa), a member of polysaccharide lyase family 14, degrades the Chlorella cell wall by cleaving the glycoside bond of the glucuronate residue (GlcA) through a beta-elimination reaction. The enzyme consists of an N-terminal cell wall-attaching domain (11 kDa) and a C-terminal catalytic module (27 kDa). Here, we show the enzyme characteristics of vAL-1, especially its pH-dependent modes of action, and determine the structure of the catalytic module. vAL-1 also exhibited alginate lyase activity at alkaline pH, and truncation of the N-terminal domain increased the lyase activity by 50-fold at pH 7.0. The truncated form vAL-1(S) released di- to hexasaccharides from alginate at pH 7.0, whereas disaccharides were preferentially generated at pH 10.0. This indicates that vAL-1(S) shows two pH-dependent modes of action: endo- and exotypes. The x-ray crystal structure of vAL-1(S) at 1.2 A resolution showed two antiparallel beta-sheets with a deep cleft showing a beta-jelly roll fold. The structure of GlcA-bound vAL-1(S) at pH 7.0 and 10.0 was determined: GlcA was found to be bound outside and inside the cleft at pH 7.0 and 10.0, respectively. This suggests that the electric charges at the active site greatly influence the binding mode of substrates and regulate endo/exo activity. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that vAL-1(S) has a specific amino acid arrangement distinct from other alginate lyases crucial for catalysis. This is, to our knowledge, the first study in which the structure of a family 14 polysaccharide lyase with two different modes of action has been determined. PMID:19846561

  12. Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation analysis and structure-function correlation in an Omani arab family with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zidi, Ward Al-Muna; Al-Abri, Abdul Rahim; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al-Tobi, Sheikha; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Zadjali, Fahad; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Banerjee, Yajnavalka

    2014-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder typified by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Previously, we reported a novel mutation in the exon-3 of LDLR gene, observed in a 9-year-old Omani Arab female. Here, we investigated the mode of inheritance of this mutation and confirmed that FH in this family is due to mutation only in the LDLR and not PCSK9 and ApoB genes. Further, the effect of the mutation has been appraised in silico on the tertiary structure of LDLR. A model of the mutant LDLR has been constructed using the coordinates of the wild-type LDLR extracellular domain. Based on the model, we present a mechanistic justification behind the observed detrimental effect of the mutation on LDL-C levels. PMID:24249837

  13. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

    2011-08-17

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

  14. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-­terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively. PMID:20944205

  15. Structure and function of the human Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme family

    E-print Network

    Rood, Jennifer E. (Jennifer Evelyn)

    2013-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of 17 proteins. PARP-1, the first member of the family, synthesizes a large, complex post-translational modification, poly(ADP-ribose). While ...

  16. Crystal Structures of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 20 Lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum *

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tasuku; Katayama, Takane; Hattie, Mitchell; Sakurama, Haruko; Wada, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ashida, Hisashi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Stubbs, Keith A.; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-? resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a ?2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near 4E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a 4C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed. PMID:23479733

  17. Structural consequences of the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis SOD1 mutant His46Arg

    PubMed Central

    Antonyuk, Svetlana; Elam, Jennifer Stine; Hough, Michael A.; Strange, Richard W.; Doucette, Peter A.; Rodriguez, Jorge A.; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Hart, P. John; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2005-01-01

    The His46Arg (H46R) mutant of human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is associated with an unusual, slowly progressing form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Here we describe in detail the crystal structures of pathogenic H46R SOD1 in the Zn-loaded (Zn-H46R) and metal-free (apo-H46R) forms. The Zn-H46R structure demonstrates a novel zinc coordination that involves only three of the usual four liganding residues, His 63, His 80, and Asp 83 together with a water molecule. In addition, the Asp 124 “secondary bridge” between the copper- and zinc-binding sites is disrupted, and the “electrostatic loop” and “zinc loop” elements are largely disordered. The apo-H46R structure exhibits partial disorder in the electrostatic and zinc loop elements in three of the four dimers in the asymmetric unit, while the fourth has ordered loops due to crystal packing interactions. In both structures, nonnative SOD1–SOD1 interactions lead to the formation of higher-order filamentous arrays. The disordered loop elements may increase the likelihood of protein aggregation in vivo, either with other H46R molecules or with other critical cellular components. Importantly, the binding of zinc is not sufficient to prevent the formation of nonnative interactions between pathogenic H46R molecules. The increased tendency to aggregate, even in the presence of Zn, arising from the loss of the secondary bridge is consistent with the observation of an increased abundance of hyaline inclusions in spinal motor neurons and supporting cells in H46R SOD1 transgenic rats. PMID:15840828

  18. Structural and functional diversification in the teleost S100 family of calcium-binding proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas M Kraemer; Luis R Saraiva; Sigrun I Korsching

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the EF-Hand calcium-binding proteins the subgroup of S100 proteins constitute a large family with numerous and diverse functions in calcium-mediated signaling. The evolutionary origin of this family is still uncertain and most studies have examined mammalian family members. RESULTS: We have performed an extensive search in several teleost genomes to establish the s100 gene family in fish. We

  19. The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

    2014-11-01

    Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

  20. Structure and function of a peptide pheromone family that stimulate the vomeronasal sensory system in mice.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takayuki; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-08-01

    Mammals use pheromones to communicate with other animals of the same species. In mice, the VNO (vomeronasal organ) has a pivotal role in pheromone detection. We discovered a 7 kDa peptide, ESP1 (exocrine-gland-secreting peptide 1), in tear fluids from male mice that enhances the sexual behaviour of female mice via the VNO. NMR studies demonstrate that ESP1 adopts a compact structure with a helical fold stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Functional analysis in combination with docking simulation indicates that ESP1 is recognized by a specific G-protein-coupled vomeronasal receptor, V2Rp5, via charge-charge interactions in the large extracellular region of the receptor. ESP1 is a member of the ESP family, which comprises 38 homologous genes in mice, and some of these genes are expressed in a sex- or age-dependent manner. Most recently, ESP22 was found to be released specifically in juvenile tear fluids and to inhibit the sexual behaviour of adult male mice. These studies demonstrate that peptide pheromones are used for chemical communication in mice, and they indicate a structural basis for the narrowly tuned perception of mammalian peptide pheromones by vomeronasal receptors. PMID:25109971

  1. Morphological variation of primary reproductive structures in males of five families of neotropical bats.

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cíntia C I; Martins, Fabiane F; Betoli, André H S; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bats present unique features among mammals with respect to reproduction, and although neotropical bats do not have a hibernation period, many of their reproductive characteristics vary seasonally and interspecifically. Thus, this work aimed to examine the reproductive structures of 18 species belonging to five families of Brazilian bats. The gross anatomy of the testes varied little; however, the epididymis of Emballonuridae and Vespertilionidae showed exceptional structures with a large elongation of the caudal region. We observed a wide variation in the positioning of the testes: Phyllostomidae and Noctilionidae presented external testes; Emballonuridae and Molossidae presented migratory testes that may be in intra-abdominal or external positions; and Vespertilionidae displayed scrotal testes. In the histological evaluation, we observed a different pattern in vespertilionid species, with testicular regression and sperm retention/storage in the cauda epididymis in the five species analyzed. Similar testicular regression was observed in Molossops temminckii; however, sperm retention/storage was not observed in this species. These data suggest that although the species analyzed are tropical species that do not present a prolonged period of torpor (hibernation), they still maintain a period of seminiferous tubule regression and sperm storage very similar to that observed in hibernating bats. PMID:23117997

  2. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development. PMID:22694895

  3. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  4. Family therapy.

    PubMed

    Altamash, Shaikh

    2013-10-01

    Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, 'insulin'. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the 'family'. Underestimating family's perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered. PMID:24251191

  5. Multiple Mating and Family Structure of the Western Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale: Impact on Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michelle T.; Ritland, Carol E.; Myers, Judith H.; Cory, Jenny S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Levels of genetic diversity can strongly influence the dynamics and evolutionary changes of natural populations. Survival and disease resistance have been linked to levels of genetic diversity in eusocial insects, yet these relationships remain untested in gregarious insects where disease transmission can be high and selection for resistance is likely to be strong. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we use 8 microsatellite loci to examine genetic variation in 12 families of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale from four different island populations to determine the relationship of genetic variability to survival and disease resistance. In addition these genetic markers were used to elucidate the population structure of western tent caterpillars. Multiple paternity was revealed by microsatellite markers, with the number of sires estimated to range from one to three per family (mean ± SE ?=?1.92±0.23). Observed heterozygosity (HO) of families was not associated to the resistance of families to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) (r?=?0.161, F1,12 ?=?0.271, P?=?0.614), a major cause of mortality in high-density populations, but was positively associated with larval survival (r?=?0.635, F1,10 ?=?5.412, P?=?0.048). Genetic differentiation among the families was high (FST?=?0.269, P<0.0001), and families from the same island were as differentiated as were families from other islands. Conclusion/Significance We have been able to describe and characterize 8 microsatellite loci, which demonstrate patterns of variation within and between families of western tent caterpillars. We have discovered an association between larval survival and family-level heterozygosity that may be relevant to the population dynamics of this cyclic forest lepidopteran, and this will be the topic of future work. PMID:22655050

  6. “Who Believes Most in Me and in My Recovery”: The Importance of Families for Persons With Serious Mental Illness Living in Structured Community Housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Piat; Judith Sabetti; Marie-Josée Fleury; Richard Boyer; Alain Lesage

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on qualitative findings on the role of family in supporting recovery for mental health consumers living in structured, community housing in a large Canadian city. Despite living separately from families and relying heavily on formal services, residents identified their families more often than mental health professionals, friends, and residential caregivers as those who most

  7. Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1

    SciTech Connect

    Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D. (Sinai); (MSKCC); (Emory)

    2010-07-20

    The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

  8. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of the FPOD/FAOD family revealed by fructosyl peptide oxidase from Eupenicillium terrenum.

    PubMed

    Gan, Weiqiong; Gao, Feng; Xing, Keke; Jia, Minze; Liu, Haiping; Gong, Weimin

    2015-04-01

    The FAOD/FPOD family of proteins has the potential to be useful for the longterm detection of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients. A bottleneck for this application is to find or engineer a FAOD/FPOD family enzyme that is specifically active towards ?-fructosyl peptides but is inactive towards other types of glycated peptides. Here, the crystal structure of fructosyl peptide oxidase from Eupenicillium terrenum (EtFPOX) is reported at 1.9?Å resolution. In contrast to the previously reported structure of amadoriase II, EtFPOX has an open substrate entrance to accommodate the large peptide substrate. The functions of residues critical for substrate selection are discussed based on structure comparison and sequence alignment. This study reveals the first structural details of group I FPODs that prefer ?-fructosyl substrates and could provide significant useful information for uncovering the mechanism of substrate specificity of FAOD/FPODs and guidance towards future enzyme engineering for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25849495

  9. Parent-Child Relations and Peer Associations as Mediators of the Family Structure--Substance Use Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988, the authors assess the extent to which adolescents' levels of parental attachment and opportunities for participating in delinquent activities mediate the family structure--substance use relationship. A series of hierarchical regressions supported the hypotheses that high levels…

  10. Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

  11. Mechanistic and Structural Analysis of a Family 31 -Glycosidase and Its Glycosyl-enzyme Intermediate*S

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Mechanistic and Structural Analysis of a Family 31 -Glycosidase and Its Glycosyl-enzyme and trapped as a 5-fluoroxylopyranosyl-enzyme in- termediate via reaction with 5-fluoro- -D from several monomers converging at each of the six active sites. Our kinetic and mass spectrometry

  12. lipids and lipid families likely play important structural and signaling roles in the cell division process, and indicate that

    E-print Network

    Shorter, James

    from Cell, 156, Jackrel, M. E., et al., Potentiated Hsp104 Variants Antagonize Diverse Proteotoxic Society. Eukaryotic cells modify proteins with a single or multiple copies of ubiquitin, providinglipids and lipid families likely play important structural and signaling roles in the cell division

  13. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 084513 (2011) Structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics of a family of potentials

    E-print Network

    Stillinger, Frank

    , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. the (12, 11) model, with the Kob-Andersen mixture falling in between, thermodynamics, and relaxation behavior of a family of (n, 6) Lennard-Jones-like glass-forming binary mixtures of structural relaxation in super- cooled liquids, and the laboratory glass transition to which this behavior

  14. Influence of Family Communication Structure and Vanity Trait on Consumption Behavior: A Case Study of Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wei-Lung; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Lin, Tai-An; Wen, Yung-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between family communication structure, vanity trait, and related consumption behavior. The study used an empirical method with adolescent students from the northern part of Taiwan as the subjects. Multiple statistical methods and the SEM model were used for testing the hypotheses. The…

  15. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  16. Substrate Specificity in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 10 STRUCTURAL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE STREPTOMYCES LIVIDANS XYLANASE 10A*

    E-print Network

    OF THE STREPTOMYCES LIVIDANS XYLANASE 10A* Received for publication, January 7, 2000, and in revised form, March 24. The Streptomyces lividans xylanase Xyl10A is a family 10 enzyme, the native structure of which has previously been according to Ref. 4) from Streptomyces lividans (5), the Cellulomonas fimi enzyme Cex (6), the Pseudomonas

  17. Fathers’ Involvement with their Preschool-age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Halme; Päivi Åstedt-Kurki; Marja-Terttu Tarkka

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered\\u000a by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time,\\u000a physical activities, fathers’ attitude towards interaction with children, time spent on other activities and

  18. Fabrication of photonic structures in crystals of the KTiOPO 4 family by ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golconda, Raj Kumar; Carvajal, Joan Josep; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Mateos, Xavier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Romero, Carolina; Méndez, Cruz; Moreno, Pablo; Roso, Luis

    We investigate the growth and fabrication of photonic structures by ultrafast laser ablation on nonlinear optical materials of the KTiOPO4 family. We studied how the ultrafast laser ablation process affected on the structure of the material by micro-Raman scattering and micro-X-ray diffraction. The modifications of the Raman frequencies and their intensities have been discussed and compared with those previously reported for unablated crystals.

  19. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

  20. Children’s Mental Health Task 11 FY 2007: Family-Directed Structural Therapy Training

    E-print Network

    McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Petr, Chris

    2007-07-01

    contracts, University of Kansas staff and Area Mental Health Center (AMHC) conducted an evaluation of a therapeutic wilderness family camping program facilitated by AMHC. In addition to adventure-based programming, the camps specifically utilized Family... supervision to service providers already trained in the model, as well as collecting outcome data from families with whom FDST was being utilized. At PMHS, this included continuing to supervise and train staff at the Manhattan CBS office. In addition...

  1. Boxy/peanut "bulges": comparing the structure of galaxies with the underlying families of periodic orbits

    E-print Network

    Patsis, P A

    2006-01-01

    The vertical profiles of disc galaxies are built by the material trapped around stable periodic orbits, which form their "skeletons". According to this, the knowledge of the stability of the main families of periodic orbits in appropriate 3D models, can predict possible morphologies for edge-on disc galaxies. In a pilot survey we compare the orbital structures which lead to the appearance of "peanuts" and "X"-like features with the edge-on profiles of three disc galaxies (IC 2531, NGC 4013 and UGC 2048). The subtraction from the images of a model representing the axisymmetric component of the galaxies reveals the contribution of the non-axisymmetric terms. We find a direct correspondence between the orbital profiles of 3D bars in models and the observed main morphological features of the residuals. We also apply a simple unsharp masking technique in order to study the sharpest features of the images. Our basic conclusion is that the morphology of the boxy "bulges" of these galaxies can be explained by conside...

  2. Genomic structure and expression of STM2, the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Lahad, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Kai; Fu, Ying Hui [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States)] [and others] [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States); and others

    1996-06-01

    Mutations in the gene STM2 result in autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer disease. To screen for mutations and to identify regulatory elements for this gene, the genomic DNA sequence and intron-exon structure were determined. Twelve exons including 10 coding exons were identified in a genomic region spanning 23, 737 bp. The first 2 exons encode the 5{prime}-untranslated region. Expression analysis of STM2 indicates that two transcripts of 2.4 and 2.8 kb are found in skeletal muscle, pancreas, and heart. In addition, a splice variant of the 2.4-kb transcript was identified that is the result of the use of an alternative splice acceptor site located in exon 10. The use of this site results in a transcript lacking a single glutamate. The promotor for this gene and the alternatively spliced exons leading to the 2.8-kb form of the gene remain to be identified. Expression of STM2 was high in skeletal muscle and pancreas, with comparatively low levels observed in brain. This expression pattern is intriguing since in Alzheimer disease, pathology and degeneration are observed only in the central nervous system. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Family Structure of Leptons and Their Currents of an Axial - Vector Nature

    E-print Network

    Sharafiddinov, R S

    2005-01-01

    Each of neutrinos has a non - zero mass and regardless of whether it is a Dirac or a Majorana mass, can possess both anapole and electric dipole moments. Between their form factors appears a connection, for example, at the longitudinal neutrinos scattering on spinless nuclei. We discuss a theory, in which a Dirac mass consists of vector and axial - vector components responsible for separateness of leptonic current into the vector and axial - vector parts of the same charge or dipole moment. Such a model can explain the absence of truly neutral neutrinos vector interactions and the availability of an axial - vector structure of a Majorana mass. Thereby it relates the two neutrinos of a different nature. We derive an equation which unites the masses to a ratio of the anapole and electric dipole form factors of any lepton and its neutrino as a consequence of their unification in families of doublets and singlets. This testifies in favor of the existence of the right - left dileptons and paradileptons of the axia...

  4. Structure and Promoter Characterization of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 B10 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwen; Zhong, Linlin; Krishack, Paulette A; Robbins, Sarah; Cao, Julia X; Zhao, Yupei; Chung, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

    2009-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5?-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from ?145 to ?140 bp and ?193 to ?190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4,091 bp of the 5?-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5?-deletions revealed that a ?255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity. PMID:19236911

  5. NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) and the CCN family of genes: structural and functional issues

    PubMed Central

    Perbal, B

    2001-01-01

    The CCN family of genes presently consists of six distinct members encoding proteins that participate in fundamental biological processes such as cell proliferation, attachment, migration, differentiation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and several pathologies including fibrosis and tumorigenesis. Whereas CYR61 and CTGF were reported to act as positive regulators of cell growth, NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) provided the first example of a CCN protein with negative regulatory properties and the first example of aberrant expression being associated with tumour development. The subsequent discovery of the ELM1, rCOP1, and WISP proteins has broadened the variety of functions attributed to the CCN proteins and has extended previous observations to other biological systems. This review discusses fundamental questions regarding the regulation of CCN gene expression in normal and pathological conditions, and the structural basis for their specific biological activity. After discussing the role of nov and other CCN proteins in the development of a variety of different tissues such as kidney, nervous system, muscle, cartilage, and bone, the altered expression of the CCN proteins in various pathologies is discussed, with an emphasis on the altered expression of nov in many different tumour types such as Wilms's tumour, renal cell carcinomas, prostate carcinomas, osteosarcomas, chondrosarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and neuroblastomas. The possible use of nov as a tool for molecular medicine is also discussed. The variety of biological functions attributed to the CCN proteins has led to the proposal of a model in which physical interactions between the amino and carboxy portions of the CCN proteins modulate their biological activity and ensure a proper balance of positive and negative signals through interactions with other partners. In this model, disruption of the secondary structure of the CCN proteins induced by deletions of either terminus is expected to confer on the truncated polypeptide constitutive positive or negative activities. PMID:11322167

  6. The human glutamate dehydrogenase gene family: Gene organization and structural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelidis, T.M.; Tzimagiorgis, G.; Moschonas, N.K. (Foundation for Research and Technology, Crete (Greece)); Papamatheakis, J. (Univ. of Crete (Greece))

    1993-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is a mitochondrially located, key metabolic enzyme. In addition to its general metabolic role, GLUD is important in neurotransmission. Significant alterations in GLUD enzymatic activity have been associated with certain neurodegenerative human disorders. Although a single species of human GLUD cDNA molecule has been identified so far, both genomic DNA Southern and cytogenetic analyses have indicated the presence of a GLUD gene family. Screening of a human genomic [lambda]-phage library with the GLUD cDNA, led us to the isolation of several clones divided into five structurally distinct contigs. The authors have confirmed the presence of all GLUD-specific sequences in the human genome by detailed genomic Southern analysis. This study allowed the identification of the entire functional GLUD gene, named GLUD1. The GLUD1 gene is about 45 kb long and it is organized into 13 exons. Its nucleotide sequence, exon-intron boundaries, and transcription start sites were determined. Potential binding sites for various regulatory factors such as Sp1, AP-1, and AP-2 were recognized at the promoter region of the gene. The members of the other contigs showed an organization clearly different from GLUD1. Two distinct GLUD-specific gene loci, termed GLUDP2 and GLUDP3, possibly represent truncated pseudogenes. Their high degree of similarity to GLUD1 is limited to the region surrounding exons 2, 3, and 4. Finally, two additional GLUD-specific genomic sequences, termed GLUDP4 and GLUDP5, are structurally similar with the 3[prime] part of the GLUD cDNA sequence. These loci probably represent truncated GLUD pseudogenes generated by retrotransposition. The data presented here suggest that all human GLUD pseudogenes have diverged recently in evolution. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Economic Burden of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The economic burden of cancer is the economic cost to the nation associated with expenditures on cancer preventive, screening and treatment services, the economic cost associated with time and effort spent by patients and their families undergoing cancer treatment and the economic cost associated with lost productivity due to cancer-related disability and premature death. One approach to estimating this burden is the Cost-of-Illness study, that uses various national level data sources to obtain estimates of these various components.

  8. Economic Activity and Climate Change in a Structural Framework: A First Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panayotis Michaelides; Kostas Theologou

    2008-01-01

    The considerable increases in greenhouse gases emissions and the subsequent climate changes are directly associated with the\\u000a current rates of economic growth. As a result, the increasing environmental problems should result in an effort to accurately\\u000a measure and control climate changes. In the present paper, we propose a theoretical inter-industry model for analyzing how\\u000a economic activity, by industrial sector, affects

  9. Impact of family structure and common environment on heritability estimation for neuroimaging genetics studies using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines

    PubMed Central

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Jahanshad, Neda; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E.; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodological field that combines genetic information with medical imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a reasonable phenotype in an imaging genetics study, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. The Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) imaging genetics software can estimate the heritability of a trait in complex pedigrees. We investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability and common environmental effects on simulated imaging phenotypes in various family structures. We found that heritability is reliably estimated with small family-based studies of 40 to 80 individuals, though subtle differences remain between the family structures. In an imaging application analysis, we found that with 80 subjects in any of the family structures, estimated heritability of white matter fractional anisotropy was biased by <10% for every region of interest. Results from these studies can be used when investigators are evaluating power in planning genetic analyzes. PMID:25558465

  10. A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.

    PubMed

    Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7 Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6 Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

  11. Crystal Structure of Proteus mirabilis Lipase, a Novel Lipase from the Proteus/Psychrophilic Subfamily of Lipase Family I.1

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Tyler P.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipases from family I.1 and I.2 catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol between 25–45°C and are used extensively as biocatalysts. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis belongs to the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1 and is a promising catalyst for biodiesel production because it can tolerate high amounts of water in the reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase, a member of the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of I.1lipases. The structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase was solved in the absence and presence of a bound phosphonate inhibitor. Unexpectedly, both the apo and inhibitor bound forms of P. mirabilis lipase were found to be in a closed conformation. The structure reveals a unique oxyanion hole and a wide active site that is solvent accessible even in the closed conformation. A distinct mechanism for Ca2+ coordination may explain how these lipases can fold without specific chaperones. PMID:23300806

  12. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J. (BMS)

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  13. Family Employability Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Adult Extended Learning Services.

    In the Family Employability Development Plan (FEDP) process, a facilitator works with the family to help its members acquire the skills to develop their own plan for economic independence. The facilitator helps coordinate the interagency effort and helps the family become empowered to carry out its own plan. Carried out as a pilot project in 13…

  14. [Return to the family].

    PubMed

    Ouaidou, N G

    1993-08-01

    Sahelian countries occupy an inglorious place in the global list of human development. The human development index is superior to the gross national product (GNP) at measuring the progress of a country in terms of development, because it includes income, longevity, and educational level. The highest ranked Sahelian country holds the 114th position out of a 173 countries. The low human development index scores for the Sahel reflects the socioeconomic crisis which has overcome these countries. In 1991, only 3 of 9 Sahelian countries had a mean GP equal or superior to US$500. Just 2 countries had a life expectancy greater than 50 years. In fact, the Sahel had a lower life expectancy than all of Africa (50 years) and much lower than Asia (64 years) and Latin America (67 years). The economic crisis is worse than the cold statistics show. It destabilizes the most disadvantaged populations. The pressure it exerts often leads public authorities to adopt unpopular measures. It depreciates some sociocultural values and disintegrates traditional social structures. It is accentuated by the effects of war and drought. Internal and external migration increases even as urban hope is uncertain. For most people, the family (the traditional framework of individual development) is ready to break apart, leaving only a disincarnate nuclear entity to subsist. Yet, African history is built around the extended family: the place of reproduction, production, distribution, formation, management, perpetuation of demographic behavior, and social control. Senegal and Mali have created ministries which invest in families. The Third African Conference on Population, in 1992, chose its theme to be the relationship between family, population, and sustainable development. It is important to return to the natural or primordial framework--family--as a refuge against the economic crisis. PMID:12318645

  15. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes (sands, steep slopes etc.), 0.51 M ha on heavily eroded lands and 0.49 M ha of liner stands (field protective and run off - protective shelterbelts). Such a development has a solid economic background within post Kyoto international policies. Suggested measures in the forest sector are considered as a first step in transition to sustainable forest management, implementation of urgent adaptation activities to climate change and would allow substantially intensified multi-service use of forests (including impacts on major biogeochemical cycles, increasing wood harvest at ~25% etc.). We present major indicators of the carbon budget of forest and agro-forest ecosystems for the last two decades and for the next 20 years in the framework of the two above scenarios. This research was supported by the European Community's Framework Programme (FP7) via GESAPU project (n°247645).

  16. Family History, Life Events and the Factorial Structure of Depression in a Nigerian Sample of Inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jude U. Ohaeri; David I. Otote

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine the frequency of a family history of depression among 96 patients with subtypes of ICD-10 depression, their life event scores, and compare the factors of depression with other studies. Subjects were assessed using the PSE-9, 23-item HDRS, BPRS and life event schedule. Family history was significantly commoner for psychotic depression. There were

  17. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE AND ROLES OF SPANISH-AMERICAN FAMILIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…

  18. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  19. Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2008-01-01

    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

  20. Evolution, structure, and activation mechanism of family 3\\/C G-protein-coupled receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Pin; Thierry Galvez; Laurent Prézeau

    2003-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest gene families in the animal genome. These receptors can be classified into several groups based on the sequence similarity of their common heptahelical domain. The family 3 (or C) GPCRs are receptors for the main neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid, for Ca2+, for sweet and amino acid taste compounds, and for some