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1

Economics in a Family Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an advertisement for some facts and ideas that I think likely to lead to a richer theory of the economics of the family. The discussion references many papers from anthropology and biology. Because of the intimate connection between the family and reproduction, it should not be surprising that there is much to be learned about the economics

Theodore C. Bergstrom

1995-01-01

2

Economic in a Family Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an advertisement for some facts and ideas that I think likely to lead to a richer theory of the economics of the family. The discussion references many papers from anthropology and biology. Because of the intimate connection between the family and reproduction, it should not be surprising that there is much to be learned about the economics

Ted Bergstrom

1995-01-01

3

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment.

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

4

Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

5

Telecommunication, Economics, and Black Families in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The complex set of economic problems facing Black families can best be understood from a communication perspective. Corporate America historically has taken advantage of its access to information and use of communication media to control the economic conditions of Black families. Through research and communication technology Black families can…

Redd, Lawrence N.

1988-01-01

6

Disability Among Ethnic and Racial Minorities in the United StatesA Summary of Economic Status and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation describes the relationship of disability prevalence, low-income status, and family structure among ethnic and racial minorities in the United States. Analyses were based on the 1992 and 1993 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the 1993 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Estimates were congruent with previous reports indicating highest overall rates for disability among Native Americans,

Glenn T. Fujiura; Kiyoshi Yamaki; Susan Czechowicz

1998-01-01

7

Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

8

Work and Family Balance: An Economic View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which people balance their work and family responsibilities is becoming increasingly prominent on the policy agenda. This paper uses an economic framework to explore the rationale for government policies to improve work\\/family balance. It finds that strongest economic grounds for government intervention are the effects that maternal work may have on children. The evidence, however, is not

Lindy Fursman; Veronica Jacobsen; Jason Varuhas

2003-01-01

9

Social Structure and Family Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

2010-01-01

10

How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and…

Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

2010-01-01

11

How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and…

Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

2010-01-01

12

[Economics of the family: patriarchy in China].  

PubMed

"The inward and outward directed behaviour of a patriarchal family is analyzed by assuming self-interested behaviour of the patriarch, subject to the constraints imposed by the members of the family and by the budget. Hypotheses are derived concerning (1) the allocation of labour within the family, (2) family size, (3) the length of time in office and (4) the consumption standard after retirement of the patriarch, and (5) the redistribution (taxation) among the family members. They are confronted with 'sociological' antitheses based on role and tradition. The evidence from the literature on China tends to support the economic hypotheses." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12269197

Krug, B; Frey, B S

1987-01-01

13

Examination of the family structures of families in lower and higher socio-economical levels with children attending first and third grades of primary schools and preschools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family, which is the smallest unit of the society, has an important place in human life. Relations and experiences within the family are determining factors of the relations with other individuals. Positive inter-family relationships and democratic attitude of parents are important particularly for the development of a basic feeling of being secure and psychological development of the child. In the

Gürcü Koç Erdamar; Fatma Tezel ?ahin; Esra Ömero?lu

2009-01-01

14

[Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].  

PubMed

This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

Hou, W

1985-07-29

15

Management and Family Economics Student Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 73 performance-based modules for student use in high school home management and family economics courses. Each module is composed of an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a student self-check, recommended references, and an evaluator's final…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

16

Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

2004-01-01

17

The Economics of Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant literature in demography and demographic history documents clear relationships between the supply of men with stable earnings and marriage rates among women. Wilson (1987) reasons that because single motherhood is an alternative to traditional marriage, circumstances that impede marriage should also encourage single motherhood. However, few studies provide evidence that the supply of marriageable men affects single parenting

Derek Neal

2001-01-01

18

Vanishing Dreams: The Growing Economic Plight of America's Young Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1986 with that of the preceding generation in 1973. An analysis of the widening gaps between young families with and without children, between young families headed by persons with…

Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

19

Vanishing Dreams: The Growing Economic Plight of America's Young Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1986 with that of the preceding generation in 1973. An analysis of the widening gaps between young families with and without children, between young families headed by persons…

Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

20

The Evolution of the American Family: An Economic Interpretation 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades, political, social, economic, and technological changes have im- pacted the shape of families, rendering the traditional nuclear family with a stay-at-home mom and a male breadwinner a minority. The widening scope of the configuration of families has brought new and, often challenging, legal issues, both for family law and beyond. The approach of American adults to intimate

Betsey Stevenson

21

Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family

Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

2010-01-01

22

Family structure and dependency: Early transitions to female household headship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the intergenerational effects of family structure on family formation and economic dependency. Three\\u000a explanations are examined: thee conomic-deprivation, socialization, and family-stress hypotheses. Daughters living in single\\u000a parent families at some point during adolescence are more likely to be come household heads and to go on welfare than offspring\\u000a of two-parent families. Differences in the incomes of

Sara S. McLanahan

1988-01-01

23

Income Transfers and Family Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of the effect of income transfers on family structure is based on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a national sample of 5000 families, and the New Jersey Income Maintenance Experiment data. The conclusion is that the current welfare system...

I. V. Sawhill G. E. Peabody C. A. Jones S. B. Caldwell

1975-01-01

24

Energy Conservation via Solar Energy Application to Multi-Family and Commercial Structures. Volume III. An Energy, Engineering and Economic Analysis of Heating and Cooling Systems for Multi-Family Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy analysis was made for a multi-family apartment model involving the heating, cooling, lumination and miscellaneous equipments energy consumption. The analysis compares various heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with and with...

W. S. Fleming T. Bender T. Jagusztyn P. Parkman D. Sweetser

1977-01-01

25

Family structure and children's achievements  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we estimate the relationships between several outcomes in early adulthood (educational attainment, economic\\u000a inactivity, early childbearing, distress and smoking) and experience of life in a single-parent family during childhood. The\\u000a analysis is performed using a special sample of young adults, who are selected from the first five waves of the British Household\\u000a Panel Survey (1991–95) and

John F. Ermisch; Marco Francesconi

2001-01-01

26

Income Tax Cuts: The Promises and Pitfalls for Families across the Economic Spectrum. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asserts that recent economic news and slowed economic growth statistics are bad news for American families. Examines President Bush's efforts to implement tax cuts and finds that the proposed tax cut is skewed to the top of the income spectrum, not to the low- and middle-income families it is purported to assist most. (SD)|

Lindjord, Denise

2001-01-01

27

The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.  

PubMed

Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

28

Family structure and child abuse.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of family structure may be helpful to the pediatrician for predicting child abuse. During the past several decades progressive shifts from the classic family unit of two biological parents and their children to a variety of parental living arrangements have occurred. Most notable are the increases in teenage pregnancies, unmarried motherhood, divorce rates approximating 50% of marriage rates, and frequency of unrelated surrogate parents, most often male, cohabitating in the home. In these settings, identifiable characteristics of the mother, the father or surrogate, the child, the family history, and the immediate neighborhood of the family have been associated with a greater likelihood of child and/or spousal abuse. The accumulated information may be used for preventative intervention. PMID:16528430

Oliver, William J; Kuhns, Lawrence R; Pomeranz, Elaine S

2006-03-01

29

Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume III: Analyses of the First Six Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume focuses on the main issues to which the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was directed--the determinants of the changing economic fortunes of black and white families. The economic status of the families studied, patterns of transition, and changes in the structure of the families and their relationship to changes in economic activity are…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

30

FAMILY STRUCTURE AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN FRAGILE FAMILIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic changes in family demography in the United States have led to increasing numbers of children living in “non-traditional” households. A large body of literature documents the association between living in a non-traditional family structure\\/familial instability and children’s cognitive and behavioral outcomes. In contrast, relatively little research has focused on the relationship between family structure and instability and children’s physical

Sharon Bzostek; Audrey Beck

2008-01-01

31

Bad Economic News: Worried American Families Face Uncertain Future. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses the uncertain economic future facing American families. Specific issues examined include: (1) the weakening economy's impact on low- to middle-wage families; (2) federal income tax rebate checks; (3) shrinking federal budget surplus and shifting of funding from child care for younger children to care for older children; and (4) ways to…

Lindjord, Denise

2001-01-01

32

Management and Family Economics Student Modules. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructor's guide was designed to help teachers present a performance-based course in family management and economics to high school students. The guide contains a listing of the modules contained in the student modules with suggested levels and courses for teaching; additional learning experiences; lists of supplemental resources and…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

33

Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

Scholl, Jan

34

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking*  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the 1994-95 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to conduct logistic regression analyses that revealed adolescents in two biological married parent families were least likely to smoke or drink, whereas adolescents in cohabiting stepfamilies were most likely. Those in single-mother families and married stepfamilies were in between. Maternal socialization was related to reduced odds of smoking and drinking. Maternal modeling was positively associated with smoking and drinking. Family structure is indicative of distinct family processes that are linked to risky behaviors among adolescents.

Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

2010-01-01

35

Family structure, family organization, and quality of family life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how family organization is associated with the quality of family life for parents in first marriages,\\u000a remarriages with biological children, and several types of stepfamilies. Data are drawn from the 1987–1988 National Survey\\u000a of Families and Households; only married couples in which both spouses participated in the survey and who had children under\\u000a age 19 in the

Patricia Voydanoff; Mark A. Fine; Brena W. Donnelly

1994-01-01

36

Three Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4,898), this study investigates how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of three generation households vary by mother’s relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17 % of cohabiting, and 45% of single mothers live in a three generation family household at the birth of the child. Incidence over time is much higher and most common among single mother households, 60% live in a three generation family household in at least one wave. Economic need, culture, and generational needs are associated with living in a three generation household and correlates vary by mother’s relationship status. Three generation family households are short lived and transitions are frequent. Kin support through coresidence is an important source of support for families with young children and in particular families that are unwed at the birth of their child.

Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

2013-01-01

37

Family Structure, Policy Shocks, and Family Business Adjustment Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used survey data collected between 2005 and 2006 in rural Kentucky to empirically investigate how different\\u000a types of rural households in Kentucky cope with the changes in economic environment during the post-tobacco buyout by employing\\u000a two different family business models, the Agricultural Household Model and the Sustainable Family Business Model. Data were\\u000a analyzed using a multinomial probit model.

Helen Pushkarskaya; Maria I. Marshall

2010-01-01

38

Drug Use, Culture, and Welfare Incentives: Correlates of Family Structure and Out-of-Wedlock Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I test whether a variety of social and economic factors are significantly related to an individuals family structure. I focus on the relationship between one particular type of family structure, a never married parent, and three variables: drug use, the generosity of welfare payments, and local area economic conditions. Two types of empirical analyses are used to

Robert Kaestner

1998-01-01

39

The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.  

PubMed

Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PMID:23421837

Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

2013-02-01

40

Women in the workforce and family structure in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to set out some of the changes that have taken place in the economic status of women in Australia\\u000a and to discuss the relationship between economic factors and family structure. I look at the position of women in the workforce\\u000a and examine some of the possible explanations for the increase in female participation. These

Anne Daly

1990-01-01

41

Income, family structure, and child maltreatment risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the effects of income, family structure, and public policies on several indicators of child maltreatment. Results suggest that income and family structure affect a family's overall risk of child maltreatment, and that these factors differentially affect various outcome measures. In particular, income impacts routine medical and dental

Lawrence M. Berger

2004-01-01

42

Life satisfaction and family structure among adolescents in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional\\u000a Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among\\u000a 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed that economic status was not a\\u000a significant risk factor, but gender, level of

Ying-Keung Kwan

2008-01-01

43

Homeless and housed families in Los Angeles: a study comparing demographic, economic, and family function characteristics.  

PubMed Central

We studied 196 homeless and 194 housed poor families in Los Angeles, California to gain an understanding of events that precipitate family homelessness. Both homeless and housed poor mothers averaged 29 years old and were accompanied by two or three children. Three-fourths of both the homeless and housed families had income below the poverty level, and both groups expended almost two-thirds of their income on housing. Mothers in homeless families more commonly reported spousal abuse (35 vs 16 percent), child abuse (28 vs 10 percent), drug use (43 vs. 30 percent), or mental health problems (14 vs 6 percent) and weaker support networks. Homeless mothers more commonly came from homes where their parents abused drugs or alcohol (49 vs 34 percent) or more commonly lived outside the home or in foster care (35 vs 25 percent). Homelessness was reported as due primarily to economic pressures of housing costs, but personal and family problems frequently played a contributing role, especially for single parent families. Burdens of increasing housing costs and family dysfunction among housed poor families place many at risk for homelessness.

Wood, D; Valdez, R B; Hayashi, T; Shen, A

1990-01-01

44

The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.  

PubMed

We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

2012-07-10

45

Family Structure, Materialism, and Compulsive Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid and dramatic changes in the structure of the American family over the past thirty years (e.g., divorce, single parenting), consumer researchers have largely neglected the issue of how alternative family forms influence consumer behavior. The authors' initial inquiry into this area finds that young adults reared in disrupted families are more materialistic and exhibit higher levels of

Aric Rindfleisch; James E. Burroughs; Frank Denton

1997-01-01

46

Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood  

PubMed Central

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men’s transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call “fragile families.” The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations.

HOFFERTH, SANDRA L.; GOLDSCHEIDER, FRANCES

2010-01-01

47

How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

2008-01-01

48

Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

2008-01-01

49

Family Economic Stress and Academic Well-Being Among Chinese-American Youth: The Influence of Adolescents’ Perceptions of Economic Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the pathways by which family economic stress influenced youth’s educational outcomes in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (Mages = 13.0, 17.1 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). Using latent variable structural equation modeling, results across two waves of data, spanning early to late adolescence, demonstrated that the influence of parent report of economic stress

Rashmita S. Mistry; Aprile D. Benner; Connie S. Tan; Su Yeong Kim

2009-01-01

50

Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.  

PubMed

Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty. PMID:21606751

Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

2011-06-01

51

America's Diverse Family Farms: Structure and Finances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types. A farm classification system developed by USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) categorizes farms into homogeneous groupings for reporting and evaluation purposes. ...

2006-01-01

52

Nutrition and Family Planning: Concepts and Approaches for Home Economics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article's three focal points are: the role nutrition can play in enhancing family planning goals; nutrition, family planning, and the adolescent; and potential approaches for home economics educators. (Author)

Rand, Catherine

1976-01-01

53

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

54

TELTA Family II Balloon Nose Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report presents the basic evolution, testing and analysis of the Family IID Balloon nose structure from original cone and beam structure to the present spoke and beam configuration. As a result of testing and operational use of the present ...

R. E. Smith H. Masch

1973-01-01

55

The Family Economic Strain Scale: Development and Evaluation of the Instrument with Single and Two-Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure economic strain in single-parent and two-parent families. The Family Economic Strain Scale (FESS) originally contains 25 items. Thirteen items is adapted from previous research and 12 are developed for the study. The FESS is pilot tested using data from a sample of 59 single-mother, 12 single-father, and 164

Jeanne M. Hilton; Esther L. Devall

1997-01-01

56

Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

2012-01-01

57

What Is the Role of Home Economics in Teaching Family Housing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that the traditional skills courses are only marginally representative of the broad meaning of home economics, such as individual and family improvement. Discusses housing from a home economics perspective, emphasizing concern with home and family life, social perspective, and housing as a dimension of life style. (MF)|

Murray, Eloise

1979-01-01

58

Effects of Economic Hardship on Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Family Mediation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of 387 Midwestern families. Results showed that economic hardship negatively affected adolescent self-esteem and that this effect was primarily mediated through the parent-adolescent relationship. Supports other findings that…

Ho, Camilla S.; And Others

1995-01-01

59

Social and economic implications of family connections to prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research about incarceration has moved beyond studies of the individual prisoner to examine how incarceration impacts prisoners' families and neighborhoods. Much of the family-centered work highlights the potential benefits for the prisoner of maintaining ties to family during the incarceration period, and particularly after release. Less thoroughly considered is the potential benefits and costs to families of maintaining a relationship

Johnna Christian; Jeff Mellow; Shenique Thomas

2006-01-01

60

Quantum structure in economics: The Ellsberg paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions, as shown by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. The popular explanation in terms of ambiguity aversion is not completely accepted. As a consequence, uncertainty is still problematical in economics. To overcome these difficulties a distinction between risk and ambiguity has been introduced which depends on the existence of a Kolmogorovian probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainties. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that context plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian framework admitting a quantum-like representation. For this reason, we have recently introduced a notion of contextual risk to mathematically capture situations in which ambiguity occurs. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a sphere model within our hidden measurement formalism which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a quantum conceptual layer in human thought which is superposed to the usually assumed classical logical layer, and conceptually supports the thesis of several authors suggesting the presence of quantum structure in economics and decision theory.

Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro

2012-03-01

61

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

62

Consumer-Directed Supports: Economic, Health, and Social Outcomes for Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses,…

Caldwell, Joe

2006-01-01

63

The Effect of Economic Stability on Family Stability among Welfare Recipients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main rationale for defining two-parent families eligible for welfare was to keep families intact by eliminating an incentive for union dissolution. But there are other reasons for family instability, most notably women's reduced economic gain from marriage associated with having a chronically unemployed husband. This article explores the…

Lewin, Alisa C.

2005-01-01

64

Family firms versus leveraged buyouts: a conceptual comparison of distinctive governance structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the governance structures of two distinctive governance forms: the family firm and the leveraged buyout (LBO). The paper also explores the relative performance of these two organizational forms over the course of the economic business cycle. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a theoretical treatment of the family firm and the

Michael Braun; Larry Zacharias; Scott Latham

2011-01-01

65

The Effects of Race and Family Structure on Women's Spatial Relationship to the Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the intersection of race, family structure, and economic inequality through women's spatial relationships to the labor market. Using survey data from three major metro labor markets, we operationalize spatial relationships in two ways: first, using a conventional measure of commute time, and second, using an indicator of neighborhood job contacts to obtain employment. Results indicate that family

James R. Elliott; Marilyn S. Joyce

2004-01-01

66

Structural analysis of a family in therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements based on a structural analytic model of social behavior are presented to describe the 3-yr long psychotherapy of a single family. The model is built on 2 axes, affiliation and interdependence, and appears in 3 planes referring to parentlike, childlike, and introjected behaviors. The model specifies logical opposites, complements, and antidotes and is supported by extensive between-S analyses. The

Lorna S. Benjamin

1977-01-01

67

Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

2008-01-01

68

Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational household (two biological parents) and how experiencing cohabitation dissolution influence children's behaviors, comparing these

Zheng Wu; Feng Hou; Christoph M. Schimmele

2008-01-01

69

Resonant Structure of the THEMIS Asteroid Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of resonant structure associated with low-order Jovian mean-motion commensurabilities within the main asteroid belt is already well established. However, previous studies have also suggested evidence for gaps within individual asteroid families. Whereas the Kirkwood gaps in the main asteroid belt are known to result from the actual removal of asteroids from resonant locations, it is not clear if

T. J. J. Kehoe; C. D. Murray

1996-01-01

70

Family Structure and Rejection of Teacher Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of this investigation is to assess the impact of one and two parent family structures upon the consonance and dissonance of children's attitudes toward authority figures in other institutions; i.e. teachers. A random sample of 200 seventh and eighth grade pupils drawn from two of five public junior high schools in a midwestern…

Lamberts, Martha Bullock; And Others

71

Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

Cavanagh, Shannon E.

2008-01-01

72

The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.  

PubMed Central

The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds.

Flower, D R

1996-01-01

73

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

74

Family structure and income inequality in families with children, 1976 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 24 years of data from the March supplements to the Current Population Survey and detailed categories of family structure,\\u000a including cohabiting unions, I assess the contribution of changes in family structure to the dramatic rise in family income\\u000a inequality. Between 1976 and 2000, family structure shifts explain 41% of the increase in inequality, but the influence of\\u000a family structure

Molly A. Martin

2006-01-01

75

Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on national rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economics may be more effective tha...

L. D. Bender B. L. Green T. F. Hady J. A. Kuehn M. K. Nelson

1985-01-01

76

The effects of gender and family structure on family functioning and problem-solving skills of African American college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This researcher investigated the effects of gender and family structure on family functioning and problem-solving skills of African American college students. The Independent Variables in this research project were family structure, and sociodemographic variables (age, classification, gender). The specific family structures of interest are Dual Intact Families, Single-Parent Families, and Extended Families. The two dependent variables of family functioning and

Fernelle Lekoyne Warren

2000-01-01

77

Frequency, Causes, Social and Economic Consequences, and Prevention of Alcoholism in Families with Low Incomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project studied the social, economic and psychological consequences of alcoholism in families with low income in which the father was an alcoholic. Screening was done to determine who were alcoholics and then to study the factors precipitating their d...

1969-01-01

78

Family Instability and the Problem Behaviors of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed relationship between family instability and problem behaviors at ages 5 and 7 years. Found direct, concurrent relations between family instability and preschool children's externalizing behavior in the context of other family process variables, relations between subsequent family instability and first-grade children's internalizing…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Kogos, Jen; Youngstrom, Eric; Schoff, Kristen; Izard, Carroll

1999-01-01

79

Family Structure, Family Stability, and Outcomes of Five-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

This study exploits data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of a diverse sample of children from twenty U.S. cities (N = 3,676), to examine how cognitive, behavioural, and health outcomes of five-year old children differ according to their family structure and family stability. We define three models: one that measures family structure at birth only, a second that measures current family structure at year five conditional on family structure at birth, and a third that measures changes in family structure from birth to age five. We find that while family structure has persistent links to child outcomes, the effects are significantly altered by stability of the family structure over time. These findings remain robust even after addressing selection.

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

80

Coparenting, Family Process, and Family Structure: Implications for Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how aspects of triadic-level family interaction relate to preschoolers' externalizing behavior problems. The quality of coparenting, family affective processes, and family structure was assessed at 3 years, and mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior problems at 4 years. High levels of supportive coparenting and more adaptive family structures were associated with fewer externalizing behavior

Sarah J. Schoppe; Sarah C. Mangelsdorf; Cynthia A. Frosch

2001-01-01

81

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation…

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

82

Inter-relationships between the economic and emotional consequences of colorectal cancer for patients and their families: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background While the evidence-base concerning the economic impact of cancer for patients and their families/carers has grown in recent years, there is little known about how emotional responses to cancer influence this economic impact. We investigated the economic costs of cancer in the context of patients’ emotions and how these both shaped the patient and family burden. Methods Health professionals from six hospitals invited patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (ICD10 C18-C20) within the previous year to take part in the study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients and, where available, a family member. Interviews covered medical and non-medical costs incurred as a result of cancer and the impact of these on the lives of the patient and their family. Interviews were audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and these data were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis. Results Twenty-two patients with colorectal cancer (17 colon and 5 rectal; 14 women and 8 men) were interviewed; 6 were accompanied by a family member. Important cancer-related financial outlays included: travel and parking associated with hospital appointments; costs of procedures; increased household bills; and new clothing. Cancer impacted on employed individuals’ ability to work and depressed their income. The opportunity cost of informal care for carers/family members, especially immediately post-diagnosis, was a strong theme. All patients spoke of the emotional burden of colorectal cancer and described how this burden could lead to further costs for themselves and their families by limiting work and hindering their ability to efficiently manage their expenses. Some patients also spoke of how economic and emotional burdens could interact with each other. Support from employers, family/carers and the state/health services and patients’ own attitudes influenced this inter-relationship. Conclusions The economic impact of colorectal cancer on patients and their families is complex. This study suggests that the economic costs and the emotional impact of cancer are often related and can exacerbate each other, but that various factors can meditate this inter-relationship.

2012-01-01

83

The Economics of Supportive Services for Families with Disabled and Aging Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the rapid growth of the frail elderly, high cost of institutionalization, and scarcity of programs to assist caring families. Suggests federal efforts need to provide greater support, economic and otherwise, for families which increasingly are becoming the major caretakers of their elderly. (Author/JAC)|

Montgomery, James E.

1982-01-01

84

Future Families in a Nation At Risk: The Promise and Potential of Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss problems of the present in families: functional illiteracy; violence and abuse; adolescent pregnancy; dual earner, single parent, and blended families; alcohol and drug abuse; ethnic diversity; and the aging of America. How high school home economics programs can help with these issues is explored. (CT)

Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Haley, Elizabeth G.

1985-01-01

85

Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

2004-01-01

86

A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

87

Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure

Sandra L. Hofferth; Frances Goldscheider

2010-01-01

88

Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

:With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure

Sandra L. Hofferth; Frances Goldscheider

2010-01-01

89

Factor Structure Within and Across Three Family-Assessment Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher order factor structures within and across the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Assessment Measure (FAM), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III were examined. A sample of 138 families was obtained; separate analyses were conducted for mothers, fathers, and their adolescent children. Factor structures were assessed with exploratory and confirmatory procedures. The FES exhibited 3 factors consistent with

Dawn M. Gondoli; Theodore Jacob

1993-01-01

90

Understanding racial differences in the economic costs of growing up in a single-parent family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether the economic consequences of growing up in a single-parent family differ for black children\\u000a and white children. It is important to understand whether the costs differ across racial groups because although much of the\\u000a rhetoric about poor single-parent families focuses on inner-city blacks, most children who live in such families are white.\\u000a If the costs of

Marianne E. Page; Ann Huff Stevens

2005-01-01

91

Family Medicine and Geriatric Medicine: Economic and Ideological Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the supports and impediments inherent in the provision of geriatric medical care by family physicians. Addresses providing a good educational program for medical students and residents who will be caring for the elderly and developing uniform access to quality care for the elderly, the community, and community institutions.…

Zweig, Steven; Ingman, Stanley

1986-01-01

92

Structural Features of the Glutamate Transporter Family  

PubMed Central

Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning ?-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Recent data from analysis of site-directed mutants and studies on the mechanism and pharmacology of the transporters are discussed in relation to the structural model.

Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Konings, Wil N.; Lolkema, Juke S.

1999-01-01

93

Structure and change: Douglass North's economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglass North is a pivotal figure in the development of the ‘new’ economic history as well as the ‘new’ institutional economics. However, the relationship between these two aspects of his thinking remains undeveloped in previous critical assessments of North's work. The relationship is clarified here. The evidence presented indicates that three distinct phases can be distinguished in his writings between

Graham A. Brownlow

2010-01-01

94

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly

Robert Townsend

2010-01-01

95

Assessing the Importance of Family Structure in Understanding Birth Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of family structure on adequacy of prenatal care and birth outcomes using data for 18,594 women who experienced either live birth, fetal death, or infant death in 1988. Found major differences in effect of family structure across racial/ethnic groups. Effect of family structure was less important for black or white women than for…

Albrecht, Stan L.; And Others

1994-01-01

96

Structural approaches of the mitochondrial carrier family.  

PubMed

The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is highly selective and necessitates membrane proteins mainly from the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). These carriers are required for the transport of a variety of metabolites implicated in all the important processes occurring within the mitochondrial matrix. Due to its high abundance, the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is the member of the family that was studied most. It is the first mitochondrial carrier for which a high-resolution X-ray structure is known. The carrier was crystallized in the presence of a strong inhibitor, the carboxyatractyloside (CATR). The structure gives an insight not only into the overall fold of mitochondrial carriers in general but also into atomic details of the AAC in a conformation that is open toward the intermembrane space (IMS). Molecular dynamics simulations indicate the first events occurring to the carrier after the binding of ADP. A careful analysis of the primary sequences of all the carriers in light with the structure highlights properties of the protein that are related to the substrate. PMID:20665263

Nury, Hugues; Blesneac, Iulia; Ravaud, Stephanie; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva

2010-01-01

97

Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.  

PubMed

This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PMID:23750526

Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

2013-06-01

98

Economic Structure and Local Growth: France, 1984–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 52 industry sectors and 42 services sectors, this paper tests how the local economic structure (local sectoral specialization and diversity, competition, average size of plants, and total employment density) affects the 1984–1993 employment growth of 341 local areas. These areas entirely and continuously cover the French territory. The impact of the local economic structure differs in industry and services.

Pierre-Philippe Combes

2000-01-01

99

INVESTMENT STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this article is the evolution analysis of net investment in Romania between economic growth and international economic crisis. The analysis captures both the evolution of net investment by structure elements (buildings, outfits, other investments) and the structure and evolution of investments by sources of financing. Also there is an analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI) share

CODAU CIPRIAN-CRACIUN

2011-01-01

100

For Love and Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to af- fect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and cohabiting households, for example, can benefit from economies of scale

Adam Thomas; Isabel V. Sawhill

2005-01-01

101

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics  

PubMed Central

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

Townsend, Robert

2010-01-01

102

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.  

PubMed

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

Townsend, Robert

2010-09-01

103

Coparenting, family process, and family structure: implications for preschoolers' externalizing behavior problems.  

PubMed

This study examined how aspects of triadic-level family interaction relate to preschoolers' externalizing behavior problems. The quality of coparenting, family affective processes, and family structure was assessed at 3 years, and mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior problems at 4 years. High levels of supportive coparenting and more adaptive family structures were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas high levels of undermining coparenting and negative affect and less adaptive family structures were associated with more externalizing behavior problems. Moreover, the quality of family affectivity and family structure interacted with coparenting and appeared to influence its effects on the family. This study highlights the importance of focusing on triadic, family-level variables for understanding children's behavior problems. PMID:11584800

Schoppe, S J; Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

2001-09-01

104

The Role of Family Functioning in the Stress Process of Dementia Caregivers: A Structural Family Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of family functioning in the stress process in a sample of caregivers of dementia patients by using a structural family framework. The stress-process model of caregiver distress included family function- ing as an intervening variable in the relationship between objective burden and distress. We theorized family functioning to partially

Victoria B. Mitrani; John E. Lewis; Daniel J. Feaster; Sara J. Czaja; Carl Eisdorfer; Richard Schulz; Jose Szapocznik

2006-01-01

105

Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent families with an adolescent

Laura M. Padilla-Walker; James M. Harper; Roy A. Bean

2011-01-01

106

Goal structures in family firms: empirical evidence on the relationship between firm and family goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal structures in family firms seems of particular interest to the field as the overall orientation and the objectives of family firms are determined in an area of potential conflict between the two subsystems of firm and family. We asked shareholders of German family firms to rate the importance of certain goals in the organization's management. By doing a principal

Ann-Kristin Achleitner; Reiner Braun; Stephanie Schraml; Juliane Welter

2009-01-01

107

A Comparative Analysis of Family Structure in an Urban Family Practice Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban families are diverse in structure. Standard health care registration data used by family physicians may be inaccurate, and the means by which the data are gathered may be inappropriate. The panel of patients seen by a family physician may not be representative of the community served nor consist solely of family households.

Richard B. Birrer; Max Weiner; Isabel Barata; Jeanmarie Prunty; Aimee Roschelle

1990-01-01

108

Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.  

PubMed

Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

Cherry, Mark J

2012-11-22

109

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

PubMed Central

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading.

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

110

The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

Lindjord, Denise

2000-01-01

111

Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

2001-01-01

112

Maternal Employment After a Birth: Examining Variations by Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employment rates for married and unmarried mothers in the United States crossed over in the early 1990s, leading to questions about how marital status and family structure affect contemporary maternal employment. A mother's family structure whether she is married, cohabiting or living without a partner may affect her employment through her family's income needs, the instrumental and social support she

Christine Percheski

2008-01-01

113

America's Diverse Family Farms: Structure and Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

American farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, but farming is still an industry of family businesses. Ninety-eight percent of farms are family farms, and they account for 86 percent of farm production. Very small farms are growing in number, and small family farms continue to own most farmland. But production is shifting toward very large family farms. Because

Robert A. Hoppe; James M. MacDonald; David E. Banker

2006-01-01

114

Themes and Trends of Journal of Family and Economic Issues : A Review of Twenty Years (1988–2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article examines the progress and impact of the Journal of Family and Economic Issues (JFEI) between 1988–2007. Over the past 20 years, JFEI has become a major journal publishing articles on the relationship between families and economic systems. JFEI contributed to both the economic and family studies disciplines by publishing articles that explore the interface of these\\u000a two disciplines.

Jeffrey Dew

2008-01-01

115

Family boundary ambiguity and the measurement of family structure: the significance of cohabitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine family boundary ambiguity\\u000a in adolescent and mother reports of family structure and found that the greater the family complexity, the more likely adolescent\\u000a and mother reports of family structure were discrepant. This boundary ambiguity in reporting was most pronounced for cohabiting\\u000a stepfamilies. Among

Susan L. Brown; Wendy D. Manning

2009-01-01

116

The growth report and new structural economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its heavy human, financial, and economic cost, the recent global recession provides a unique opportunity to reflect on the knowledge from several decades of growth research, draw policy lessons from the experience of successful countries, and explore new approaches going forward. In an increasingly globalized world where fighting poverty is not only a moral responsibility but also a strategy

Justin Yifu Lin; Celestin Monga

2010-01-01

117

Family structure and child outcomes in the USA and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research shows that living in a non-intact family is associated with educational disadvantages. This paper compares\\u000a the relationships between childhood family structure, schooling, and earnings in Sweden and the USA. This comparison is interesting\\u000a because both family structure and public policies differ significantly. We find a negative relationship between living in\\u000a a non-intact family and child outcomes, and the

Anders Björklund; Donna K. Ginther; Marianne Sundström

2007-01-01

118

Family structure and the transition to early parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion\\u000a of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood\\u000a family structure for men’s transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure

Sandra L. Hofferth; Frances Goldscheider

2010-01-01

119

Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance…

Blau, Joel

120

Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

2007-01-01

121

Racial Differences in Family Living Arrangements and Economic Well-Being: An Analysis of Recent Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among both races, there has been a shift away from traditional living arrangements. Changes have been more significant among Blacks and, thus, racial differences are now greater than at the time of the Moynihan report. Economic consequences are described by analyzing trends in per capita income for types of families. (Author)|

Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Farley, Reynolds

1979-01-01

122

Family Variables and Children's Physical Activity: Influence of Parental Exercise and Socio?economic Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated how specific social factors, associated with family life, related to children's volitional participation in physical activity. Of primary interest was an examination of whether differences in children's physical activity could be attributed to either parental participation in regular exercise or to social economic status. Information was collected from a sample of Year 6 primary school children

Julia Shropshire; Bob Carroll

1997-01-01

123

Microcredit and the socio-economic wellbeing of women and their families in Cairo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcredit has become one of the most important tools used to combat poverty and to enhance families’ wellbeing. This research aims at testing the following hypothesis: microcredit is positively linked to women's socio-economic wellbeing in Cairo. It is of special interest because it is a leader in evaluating this kind of intervention in Cairo; it uses primary source data and

Yasmine F. Nader

2008-01-01

124

The economic impact of dengue hemorrhagic fever on family level in Southern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti). WHO estimates that 40% of the world's population live in areas endemic for dengue fever, and that there are approximately 50 million cases of dengue in- fection worldwide every year. This study aims to measure the economic consequences of dengue hemor- rhagic fever in Southern Vietnam on family level.

Mette Lønstrup Harving; Ho Chi

125

Economic Well-Being Following an Exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to trace poverty status and welfare use in five years following an exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Results show substantial diversity in economic well-being. Women who were working when they exited from AFDC do better, and, to a lesser extent so do those who were…

Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria

1998-01-01

126

Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts

D. L. ONeal; J. L. Jones

1981-01-01

127

Beyond family structure: The family in domestic comedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inquiry examined the portrayal of family relationships in domestic comedy. Participants were randomly assigned to view and evaluate samples of thirteen programs, selected for the study on the basis of their popularity during the period 1950?1990. Separate discriminant function analyses of spousal and parent?child relations showed that spousal relations were defined in terms of receptiveness and expressiveness while parent?child

William Douglas; Beth M. Olson

1995-01-01

128

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expansion of offender\\/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender\\/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample

Rori V. Rohlfs; Stephanie Malia Fullerton; Bruce S. Weir

2012-01-01

129

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

2007-01-01

130

The Role of Family Functioning in the Stress Process of Dementia Caregivers: A Structural Family Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of family functioning in the stress process in a sample of caregivers of dementia patients by using a structural family framework. The stress-process model of caregiver distress included family functioning as an intervening variable in the relationship between objective burden and…

Mitrani, Victoria B.; Lewis, John E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Czaja, Sara J.; Eisdorfer, Carl; Schulz, Richard; Szapocznik, Jose

2006-01-01

131

Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

2011-01-01

132

Family structure and housing consumption: A study of Chinese families in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on variations in types of family structure and patterns of housing consumption in a rapidly developing society. Extended families in Taiwan, in comparison with single-person households and nuclear families, tend to increase aggregate household income, foster homeownership, and consume more housing space.

Peter S. K. Chi

1988-01-01

133

Structural Family Therapy in Adolescent Drug AbuseA Hong Kong Chinese Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the favorable outcomes of family therapy in adolescent drug treatment overseas, there has been an urgent call recently to use family-based approaches in view of the sharp rise of adolescent drug abuse in Hong Kong. This article discusses the application of structural family therapy (SFT) to an adolescent with a drug problem in Hong Kong. Implementation of SFT is

Timothy Sim

2007-01-01

134

Family Structure Effects on Parenting Stress and Practices in the African-American Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant approach to African-American parenting research focuses on disadvantages associated with single parenthood to the exclusion of other issues. The current research suggests that this does not represent the diversity in family structure configurations among African-American families, nor does it give voice to the parenting resilience of single mothers. We argue that rather than marital status or family configuration,

Daphne S. Cain; Terri Combs-Orme

2005-01-01

135

Family Structure and Mental Health: The Mediating Effects of Socioeconomic Status, Family Process, and Social Stress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies reveal differences in mental health by the structure of one's family of origin, there remains debate regarding the processes generating these patterns. Using a sample of young adults (19–21 years) in Miami-Dade County in Florida, this study examines the explanatory significance of three presumed correlates of family type: socioeconomic status, family processes, and level of social stress.

Anne E. Barrett; R. Jay Turner

2005-01-01

136

Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

137

Core Family Process Measures in the NLSY97: Variation by Gender, Race, Income, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses data from the NLSY97 to provide a descriptive portrait of core family process measures—family routines, parent–youth relationship, parental monitoring, control and autonomy in parenting adolescents, parenting style, and the parents' marital relationship. This research contributes to our understanding of how family processes vary by gender, race, household income, and family structure. The comparisons were performed using analysis

Hinckley A. Jones-Sanpei; Randal D. Day; Erin K. Holmes

2009-01-01

138

Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

Hoffman, John P.

2006-01-01

139

Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

1975-01-01

140

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being Among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on psychological distress. The only effects of family composition are

Emily Walton; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

141

The X family portrait: Structural insights into biological functions of X family polymerases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian family X DNA polymerases (DNA polymerases ?, ?, ?, and TdT) contribute to base excision repair and double-strand break repair by virtue of their ability to fill short gaps in DNA. Structural information now exists for all four of these enzymes, making this the first mammalian polymerase family whose structural portrait is complete. Here we consider how distinctive

Andrea F. Moon; Miguel Garcia-Diaz; Vinod K. Batra; William A. Beard; Katarzyna Bebenek; Thomas A. Kunkel; Samuel H. Wilson; Lars C. Pedersen

2007-01-01

142

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on…

Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.

2010-01-01

143

Changes in family socio-economic status as predictors of self-efficacy in 13-year-old Polish adolescents.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the impact that raised mother's education and a relative change in family affluence might have on adolescent general self-efficacy (GSE). METHODS: Data on 600 children born in Poland in January 1995 and their families were used. Data from early childhood and adolescence (2008) were considered and the change between these two periods was determined. RESULTS: Family affluence increased in 37.3 % of families with mothers, who had raised their education level (12.6 % of the sample), in comparison to 26.8 % in the group with no change, p < 0.001. The average GSE scores in those groups were 73.4 and 68.1, respectively, p < 0.001. In the best linear regression model adjusted for gender, the independent predictors of GSE turned out to be mother's education change and the family's current affluence. CONCLUSIONS: Raised mother's education level may encourage building up developmental assets in older children. Based on the structural model, where self-efficacy is the mediator of the relationship between socio-economic status change and the quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10) these results may be of importance in further research. PMID:23546391

Mazur, Joanna; Malkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Tabak, Izabela

2013-04-01

144

Polar Structures, the NCEL Family of Wanigans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for portable shelters for trail operations, transient field camps, and remote construction areas in polar regions led to the development and evaluation of a family of wanigans. The basic wanigan in this family is the Standard NCEL Sled Wanigan, w...

J. E. Dykins G. E. Sherwood C. R. Hoffman

1964-01-01

145

Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

Stevens, P.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1996-06-01

146

Minuchin's structural therapy for Vietnamese Chinese families: A systems perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural therapy is a popular approach to working with families, but there are both assets and liabilities in applying it when working with various cultures. An illustration of this is presented in a case study of an Indo-Chinese family. The use of specific techniques of structural therapy, as advocated by Minuchin, is examined in the context of the clients' own

1986-01-01

147

Porcine KLF gene family: Structure, mapping, and phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to the family of zinc finger-containing transcription factors that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we reported the structure, mapping and phylogenetic analysis of KLF gene family in pigs. Comparative analyses revealed strong conservation between pig and human KLFs at the genomic and protein structure levels. Porcine

Zhilong Chen; Ting Lei; Xiaodong Chen; Jian Zhang; An Yu; Qinqiang Long; Huan Long; Dan Jin; Li Gan; Zaiqing Yang

2010-01-01

148

PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space  

PubMed Central

Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space.

Dessailly, Benoit H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

2010-01-01

149

Anthropological and economic perspectives on small family size on the Island of Pantelleria, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-level model is used to analyse socio-economic determinants of fertility at the community level. The survey and ethnographic data analysed were collected on the Island of Pantelleria, Sicily, during 1968–69 and 1974. Anthropological insights are used to account for cultural patterns as responses to specific historical and environmental circumstances which influence the central tendency of the distribution of family

A. H. Galt; L. J. Smith

1979-01-01

150

The Economics of the Family and Its Policy Implications: Why Should We Care About Fertility Outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews potential explanations of the continued fertility decline in devel- oped countries that are provided by the economic theory of the family and discusses their implications regarding the appropriateness of public interventions. Theoretical approaches covered are the quantity-quality interaction in parental fertility deci- sions; time-allocation models with rising opportunity costs of domestic child care; models of intra-household bargaining

Martin Werding

151

Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context\\u000a of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren’s preferences regarding intimate personal\\u000a contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study ‘Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005\\/2006’\\u000a (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13

Algi Samm; Liina-Mai Tooding; Merike Sisask; Kairi Kõlves; Katrin Aasvee; Airi Värnik

2010-01-01

152

Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families.  

PubMed

Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively. PMID:23097505

Royle, Nick J; Pike, Thomas W; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

2012-10-24

153

Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

2008-01-01

154

Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that compared with children raised in single-mother families created by death of the father, children raised in divorced single-mother families have significantly lower levels of education, occupational status, and happiness as adults. Speculates that the contrasting positions in the social structure of different types of single-mother…

Biblarz, Timothy J.; Gottainer, Greg

2000-01-01

155

Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both…

Wen, Ming

2008-01-01

156

Family Structure, Educational Attainment, and Socioeconomic Success: Rethinking the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alternative family structures on children's educational and occupational success has been constant over the past 30 years. Higher rates of unemployment and lower-status occupational posi- tions could account for the negative effect of single-mother families on children's attainment throughout the period. Children from single-father families and stepfamilies have consistently had lower attainments than children from both two-biological-parent

Timothy J. Biblarz; Adrian E. Raftery

1999-01-01

157

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

Mark Granovetter

1985-01-01

158

Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

2011-01-01

159

Social Power Index for Hierarchically Structured Populations of Economic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a model of a finite collection of socially related economic agents. The authors assume that an agent in an economy is part of some social structure in which he might dominate some agents while he himself is dominated by other agents. Th...

R. van den Brink R. P. Gilles

1990-01-01

160

Mobile industry and levels of integration in subregional economic structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lever W. F. (1975) Mobile industry and levels of integration in subregional economic structures, Reg. Studies9, 265–278. The paper seeks to assess the impact of interregional industrial movement on the subregions which supply the mobile firms hypothesizing that the impact is most severe where these subregional economies are highly integrated. Using Census of Production data and graph theory an empirical

W. F. Lever

1975-01-01

161

Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

2011-01-01

162

FAMILY THERAPY FOR ASIAN AMERICANS: A STRATEGIC-STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategic-structural family therapy framework is proposed as a viable model for working with Asian American families. A Western-based conceptual model\\/framework is presented that represents a good cultural fit. Also examined is the basis of \\

Sung C. Kim

1985-01-01

163

The lipocalin protein family: structural and sequence overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipocalins are remarkably diverse at the sequence level yet have highly conserved structures. Most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs – the kernel lipocalins – while others are more divergent family members – the outlier lipocalins – typically sharing only one or two. This classification is a useful tool for analysing the family, and within these large sets are

Darren R. Flower; Anthony C. T. North; Clare E. Sansom

2000-01-01

164

Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses…

Kwan, Ying-Keung

2008-01-01

165

Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

2011-01-01

166

Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

2011-01-01

167

Education Delayed: Family Structure and Postnatal Educational Attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise in cohabitation and the concentration of single parenthood among the lower educated warrants an examination of postnatal educational attainment that considers differences by family structure. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, I examine the prevalence of obtaining additional education (N=3812) in the five years after a birth. Controlling for mothers? background and resources, married

Carol Ann MacGregor

2009-01-01

168

BREAKING THE NET: FAMILY STRUCTURE AND STREET CHILDREN IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on original fieldwork in the slums of Ndola in Northern Zambia we study the role of family structure in caring for vulnerable children. We try to isolate those features of a child’s nuclear and extended family that put him most at risk of ending up on the streets. We find that older, male children and particularly orphaned children are

Claudia Olivetti; Francesco Strobbe; Mireille Jacobson

2011-01-01

169

Family structure and joint purchase decisions: two products analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Addresses the impact of family structure on joint purchase decisions of Malaysian spouses for the following products: furniture, vacation, and aggregate or overall products (a combination of furniture and vacation). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 103 couples responded to the survey conducted in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, to understand the impact of family typing namely, strong vs weak cohesive

Nelson Oly Ndubisi; Jenny Koo

2006-01-01

170

BLACK CLIENTS: FAMILY STRUCTURES, THERAPEUTIC ISSUES, AND STRENGTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing effective therapeutic services to black clients has been a dilemma to therapists and agencies of the predominantly white culture. The overriding influence of the heterogeneity of family structures in the black community creates diverse perceptions on the parts of black clients depending upon the childhood family patterns in which they were raised. Alternative modes of therapeutic treatment are presented

Michele Burhard Thomas; Pearl Gore Dansby

1985-01-01

171

Family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the reproduction of poverty: Evidence for increasing polarization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research has demonstrated links between poverty and family structure from one generation to the next,\\u000a but has left open key questions about the implications of these associations for aggregate-level change. To what extent does\\u000a intergenerational inheritance affect trends in poverty and single parenthood over time and, in particular, trends in the relative\\u000a economic positions of single-parent

Kelly A. Musick; Robert D. Mare

2004-01-01

172

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14

173

Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single-Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of utilizing solar energy to meet domestic space heating and hot water loads for single family residences and light commercial applications has been clearly demonstrated. However, the economic feasibility is a complex problem req...

J. A. Forney D. Walker M. Lanier

1979-01-01

174

ECONOMIC RISK AND THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM BUSINESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal panel farm-level data, this study finds that income variability may be materially influenced by farm size. Econometric results suggest that policy analyses and other considerations of the distributional effects of, and response to, income variability for commercial scale family farms may concentrate on farm size and other structural variables.

Peter J. Barry; Cesar L. Escalante; Sharon K. Bard

2000-01-01

175

Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family  

PubMed Central

Members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, polyamines, amino acids, and methylated lysine side chains in proteins. The enzymes have similar overall structures, with conserved FAD-binding domains and varied substrate-binding sites. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the catalytic reactions of these enzymes. The present review compares the structures of different members of the family and the various mechanistic proposals.

Gaweska, Helena; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

2011-01-01

176

Family structure and academic skills among Finnish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis.\\u000a The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N?=?171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was\\u000a gathered via a questionnaire sent to their homes. The findings of the study revealed that adolescents from other than two-parent\\u000a intact

Piia Maria Björn; Minna Kyttälä

177

Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

2008-11-01

178

A typology of kinship foster families: Latent class and exploratory analyses of kinship family structure and household composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of survey and administrative data describing 458 public kinship foster family placements in Illinois, this study uses latent class analysis to develop a typology of kinship foster families based on indicators of family structure and household composition. Kinship family types are then compared on other kinship family characteristics. Results of the latent class analysis suggest that the

Andrew Zinn

2010-01-01

179

Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

180

Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

181

Impact of Family Structure on the Structure of Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research supported by this contract investigated the interfaces between dual-earner couples' work and family behaviors by looking simultaneously at intra-spouse relations (same person work and family issues) and cross-spouse issues (his work and her f...

S. Yogev J. Brett

1987-01-01

182

The Importance of Family Structure and Family Income on Family's Educational Expenditure and Children's College AttendanceEmpirical Evidence from Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 1991-1998 Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, we analyzed the determinants of college attendance rates and educational expenditure among families with children in Taiwan, paying particular attention to the effects of family structure and family income. The findings indicate that higher family income is consistently associated with higher college attendance rates and spending on education. Children in single-parent

Wen-Jui Han; Chien-Chung Huang; Irwin Garfinkel

2003-01-01

183

Social insurance and children: The relationship between Social Security, economic well-being, and family context among child recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social insurance, which provides families protection against certain risks, and child economic security is understudied. Using the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration benefit records, this article investigates the economic welfare effects of the child component of the US Social Security program. We examine how the poverty rate of child

Christopher R. Tamborini; Emily Cupito

2012-01-01

184

The Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education. A Curriculum Guide. Life: Learning for Independence, Family, and Employment Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide, which was designed for an exploration/orientation course in home economics, introduces students to the field of home economics. It is designed to develop the total well-being of students to empower them to become healthy, well-adjusted, self-confident, productive persons, family members, and workers. The guide contains the…

Illinois State Univ., Normal. Dept. of Home Economics.

185

Family Disruption and Economic Hardship: The Short-Run Picture for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because of the high incidence of divorce and increase in the proportion of births to unmarried women, more children are spending at least a portion of childhood living with only one parent. This study uses data from the 1984 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), to address the relationship between family structure and…

Bianchi, Suzanne; McArthur, Edith

1991-01-01

186

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

187

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

188

Exploring structurally conserved solvent sites in protein families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-bound water molecules are important components of protein structure, and therefore, protein function and energetics. Al- though structural conservation of solvent has been studied in a few protein families, a lack of suitable computational tools has hindered more comprehen- sive analyses. Herein we present a semiautomated computational approach for identifying solvent sites that are conserved among proteins sharing a com-

Christopher A. Bottoms; Tommi A. White; John J. Tanner

2006-01-01

189

Structured Enrichment (SE) with Couples and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes and reviews the past decade of work to develop Structured Enrichment (SE) programs. Discusses four major representative functions to indicate the testability of SE. Considers further research on its comparative usefulness, expansion to clinical populations, and the testing of component skills. (NRB)|

L'Abate, Luciano

1985-01-01

190

Economic consequences of injury and resulting family coping strategies in Ghana.  

PubMed

The toll of human suffering from illness and injury is usually measured by mortality and disability rates. Economic consequences, such as treatment costs and lost productivity, are often considered as well. Lately, increasing attention has been paid to the economic effects of illness on a household level. In this study, we sought to assess the economic consequences of injuries in Ghana by looking at the effects on households and the coping mechanisms these households employed. Using cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. We sought information on any injury that occurred to a household member during the prior year and that resulted in one or more days of disability time.A total of 1609 injuries were reported for the prior year. Treatment costs and disability days were higher in the urban area than in the rural. Coping strategies were different between the two areas. Rural households were more likely to utilize intra-family labor reallocation (90%) than were urban households (75%). Rural households were also more likely to borrow money (24%) than were urban (19%). Households in both areas were equally likely to sell belongings, although the nature of the belongings sold were different. Although injuries in the urban area had more severe primary effects (treatment cost and disability time), the ultimate effect on rural households appeared more severe. A greater percentage of rural households (28%) reported a decline in food consumption than did urban households (19%). These findings result in several policy implications, including measures that could be used to assist family coping strategies and measures directed toward injuries themselves. PMID:12479899

Mock, Charles N; Gloyd, Stephen; Adjei, Samuel; Acheampong, Frederick; Gish, Oscar

2003-01-01

191

Family values: Ownership structure, performance and capital structure of Canadian firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how family ownership affects the performance and capital structure of 613 Canadian firms from 1998 to 2005. In particular, we distinguish the effect of family ownership from the use of control-enhancing mechanisms. We find that freestanding family owned firms with a single share class have similar market performance than other firms based on Tobin’s q ratios, superior

Michael R. King; Eric Santor

2008-01-01

192

Childhood family structure and schooling outcomes: evidence for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the impact on schooling outcomes of growing up in a non-intact family in Germany. We find that this experience\\u000a is associated with worse outcomes according to estimates from models that do not control for possible correlations between\\u000a common unobserved determinants of family structure and educational performance. Evidence of adverse effects emerges also when\\u000a endogeneity is accounted for. In

Marco Francesconi; Stephen P. Jenkins; Thomas Siedler

2010-01-01

193

Family Structure and Mothers’ Caregiving of Children With Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation is to examine differences in the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis who are in diverse family structures (first-marriage families, stepfamily households, single-parent households). In particular, mothers’ perceptions of children’s health, adherence to prescribed treatments, and help received from others were compared and predictors of treatment adherence were examined. Children’s health and adherence

Debra Gayer; Lawrence Ganong

2006-01-01

194

Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

195

Economic Well-Being and Children's Social Adjustment: The Role of Family Process in an Ethnically Diverse Low-Income Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being among African American and Hispanic children from low-income families, mostly headed by single mothers. Found that lower economic well-being adversely impacted parent's psychological well-being; these parents felt less effective in disciplinary interactions…

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Huston, Aletha C.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

2002-01-01

196

Comparative effects of high energy cost on black and white families at four economic income levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

For both black and white families in Peach County and Fort Valley, Georgia, electrical energy consumption increased as the family income increased. White families consumed 23% more electrical energy than black families at the $23,500 income level. At the lowest income ($4500) level, black families consumed 55% more electrical energy than white families. Black families also used 5% more electrical

Crumbly

1983-01-01

197

The Effect of Family Structure and Family Functioning on Adolescents' Perceptions of Intimate Time Spent with Parents, Siblings, and Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, family structure variables have been operationalized as family size, birth order, sibling spacing, and sibling density. These structure variables have been linked to parental strictness, reasonableness, and supportiveness [J. S. Kidwell (1981), “Number of Siblings, Sibling Spacing, and Birth Order: Their Effects on Perceived Parent–Adolescent Relationships,” Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 43, pp. 315–333]. Other

Barry J. Fallon; Terry V. Bowles

1997-01-01

198

The Method of Module Partition for Product Family Structure with Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A product family structure for mass customization is so complicated due to the diverse needs of customers. Module partition of product family structure is the principal problem for product family structure programming. This paper presents a method of module partition for product family structure based on the relativities of components. Firstly, the paper identifies the relativity from the view of

Yuqing Xu; Lihua Xiong; Yunfeng Wang

2006-01-01

199

Economic Limit of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico—Descriptive Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the operating costs of a structure exceed the gross revenues of production, the structure is no longer considered an asset and is said to have achieved its economic limit. The economic limit of a structure is unique to the field and the economic conditions at the time of operation, and depends upon unobservable characteristics such as the strategic objectives

M. J. Kaiser

2008-01-01

200

Family Structure and Children's Health and BehaviorData From the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies and intact families are advantageous relative to single-parent families. Family socioeconomic

Ming Wen

2008-01-01

201

Associations Between Family Structure, Family Functioning, and Substance Use Among Hispanic/Latino Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the role of family structure and functioning in predicting substance use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents, surveyed in 9th and 10th grade. The sample (N=1433) was half female, mostly of Mexican descent, and the majority was born in the U.S. Living with a single father was associated with less parental monitoring and less family cohesion (? = ?0.07, ?0.06, respectively). Living with a single mother was associated with less parental monitoring (? = ?0.10). Living with neither parent was associated with less communication (? = ?0.08), less parental monitoring (? = ?0.09), more family conflict (? = 0.06), and less family cohesion (? = ?0.06). Less monitoring was associated with substance use at follow-up (? = ?0.17). Low rates of parental monitoring appear to mediate the association between parental family structure and substance use. Results suggest that improving basic parenting skills, and offering additional social support and resources to assist parents in monitoring adolescents may help prevent substance use. These interventions may be particularly beneficial for single parents.

Wagner, Karla D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pokhrel, Pallav; Duan, Lei; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

2010-01-01

202

Family Structure: Its Effects on Adolescent Attachment and Identity Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the association between family structure, attachment, and identity formation. Results partially support the hypotheses and indicate that unresolved spouse conflict is associated with low levels of attachment in adolescents and attachment to father is linked to identity achieved and the diffused identity status. Findings support a link…

Faber, Anthony J.; Edwards, Anne E.; Bauer, Karlin S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.

2003-01-01

203

Family structure, neonatal infection, and hay fever in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased numbers of siblings and infection in early life protect against allergic sensitisation. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Sheffield, UK. SUBJECTS: 11,765 children aged 11-16 years for whom a history of neonatal infectious illness had been recorded systematically at 1 month of age. METHODS: A history of hay fever and family structure was obtained by postal

D P Strachan; E M Taylor; R G Carpenter

1996-01-01

204

Family Structure, Schoolmates, and Racial Inequalities in School Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam data, this study examines the influence of schoolmate family structure, racial concentration, and socioeconomic status on the academic achievement of individual African-American and White students. It finds that many educational disadvantages of segregated minority schools are related to the predominance of…

Bankston III, Carl L.; Caldas, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

205

Encopresis: A Structural/Strategic Approach to Family Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports treatment of a 9-year-old boy with primary encopresis combining structural and strategic approaches. Describes organizational features of the family, the contextual approach to therapy, individual and collective responses to therapy, and follow-up at 3 months and 1 1/2 years. Discusses effects of therapy on encopresis and on other…

McColgan, Edgar B.; And Others

1985-01-01

206

Crystal structure of a phospholipase D family member  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first crystal structure of a phospholipase D (PLD) family member has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The PLD superfamily is defined by a common sequence motif, HxK(x)4D(x)6GSxN, and includes enzymes involved in signal transduction, lipid biosynthesis, endonucleases and open reading frames in pathogenic viruses and bacteria. The crystal structure suggests that residues from two sequence motifs form a

Jeanne A. Stuckey; Jack E. Dixon

1999-01-01

207

Disrupted by violence: children's well-being and families' economic, social, and cultural capital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.  

PubMed

Since 2008, Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been undergoing a wave of violence due to a drug war, making the city a difficult environment in which to raise a family. This study uses qualitative methodology that incorporates 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children ages 0-5 years and 9 sets of photos from a subset of interviewed parents. The study explores how families' economic, social, and cultural capital has been disrupted by the violence and how it affects children's well-being. Social and economic capital declined significantly because of the violence as families experienced crime, had increased difficulty finding and maintaining employment, and decreased their interactions outside the home. Interviews also suggested that opportunities to gain cultural capital decreased because of this isolation. Understanding the detrimental effects of violence on families' capital can contribute to understanding children's well-being in violence-stricken communities. PMID:22767037

Hernandez, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

2012-05-01

208

The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

Rana, Vishwajeet

209

Cross-Cultural Family Structure among Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon Communities in Rasulpur, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare family structure patterns among Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon communities in rural Bangladesh. For this we hypothesized that family structure patterns—marriage, family type and size, residence, role sharing, authority, communication, and property distribution—were not only significantly different but that these patterns of the family structure were also significantly interrelated among the ethnic

2012-01-01

210

A Nation Divided: Study Highlights the Economic and Racial Gap among Families is Wide and Growing Wider. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Eisenhower Foundation study finds that minorities suffer disproportionately from the widening gap between rich and poor but that, despite poorer schools, earnings and educational attainment of African Americans have improved. The study calls for expansion of proven programs to narrow racial and economic gaps, repudiating supply-side economics

Lindjord, Denise

1998-01-01

211

The effects of age structure on economic growth: An application of probabilistic forecasting to India  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the explanatory power of population age structure variables in economic growth regressions. We estimate a new cross-country regression model of the effects of age structure change on economic growth. We use the new model and recent probabilistic demographic forecasts for India to derive the uncertainty of predicted economic growth rates

Alexia Prskawetz; T. Kögel; Warren C. Sanderson; Sergei Scherbov

2007-01-01

212

The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters.

Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

2005-01-01

213

Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

1999-01-01

214

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

Lam, Ching Man

2011-01-01

215

Residual structure, backbone dynamics, and interactions within the synuclein family  

PubMed Central

Summary The human synuclein family includes the protein ?-synuclein, which has been linked to both familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease, as well as the highly homologous proteins ?- and ?-synuclein. Mutations in ?-synuclein cause autosomal dominant early onset Parkinson’s, and the protein is found deposited in a fibrillar form in both hereditary and idiopathic forms of the disease. No genetic links between ?- and ?-synuclein and any neurodegenerative diseases have been established, and it is generally considered that these two family members are not highly pathogenic. In addition, both ?- and ?-synuclein are reported to aggregate less readily than ?-synuclein in vitro. Indeed, ?-synuclein has been reported to protect against ?-synuclein aggregation in vitro, as well as ?-synuclein mediated toxicity in vivo. We have previously compared the structural properties of the highly helical states adopted by all three synucleins in association with detergent micelles in an attempt to delineate the basis for functional differences between the three proteins. Here we report a comparison of the structural and dynamic properties of the free states of all three proteins in order to shed light on differences that may help to explain their different propensities to aggregate, which in turn may underlie their differing contributions to the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. We find that ?-synuclein closely resembles ?-synuclein in its free state residual secondary structure, consistent with the more similar propensities of the two proteins to aggregate in vitro. ?-synuclein, however, differs significantly from ?-synuclein, exhibiting a lower predisposition towards helical structure in the second half of its lipid-binding domain, and a higher preference for extended structures in its C-terminal tail. Both ?- and ?-synuclein also show less extensive transient long-range structure than that observed in ?-synuclein. These results raise questions regarding the role of secondary structure propensities and transient long-range contacts in directing synuclein aggregation reactions.

Sung, Yoon-hui; Eliezer, David

2007-01-01

216

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.  

PubMed

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-09

217

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

218

Parental meta-emotion structure predicts family and child outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six families with a preschool child whose parents varied widely in parental marital satisfaction were studied at two time points: at time-I when the children were 5 years old and again at time-2 when the children were 8 years old. At time-1 each parent was separately interviewed about their “meta-emotion structure”, that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and

Carole Hooven; John Mordechai Gottman; Lynn Fainsilber Katz

1995-01-01

219

Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five men and 98 women enrolled in a course on adolescents responded to 1 of 9 paragraphs describing a male adolescent meeting with his school counselor. The adolescent’s family structure (nuclear, single mother, stepfather) and recent behavior (good, bad, neutral) were varied. Respondents completed the Predicted Behavior of an Adolescent Questionnaire (PBAQ), the First Impressions Questionnaire (FIQ), and an open-ended

Lawrence Ganong; Marilyn Coleman; Grant Jones

1990-01-01

220

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

221

Sequence, structure, and evolution of cellulases in glycoside hydrolase family 48.  

PubMed

Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels. Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for "true" cellulases. PMID:23055526

Sukharnikov, Leonid O; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V; Zhulin, Igor B

2012-10-10

222

Coparenting Conflict and Parenting Behavior in Economically Disadvantaged Single Parent African American Families: The Role of Maternal Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial research has focused on the negative associations between coparenting conflict, parental psychological functioning,\\u000a and parenting behavior in European American, middle-income, families. However, less attention has been given to ethnic minority\\u000a families and to families that are nontraditionally structured. In an effort to address this gap, the current longitudinal\\u000a study examines the relation between conflict with the mother-identified primary co-caregiver

Shannon Dorsey; Rex Forehand; Gene Brody

2007-01-01

223

Singlehood, Marriage, and RemarriageThe Effects of Family Structure and Family Relationships on Mothers' Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines three dimensions of mothers' well-being (personal happiness, self-esteem, and depression) across four diverse family structures (first-married, remarried, divorced, and continuously single-parent families). Using a nationally representative sample of 2,781 mothers, the results indicate small but statistically significant differences across family structures. Mothers in their first marriage enjoy the highest well-being, mothers in stepfamilies fare nearly as well,

DAVID H. DEMO; ALAN C. ACOCK

1996-01-01

224

How Do Family Ownership and Control Affect Board Structure, Dividends and Debt? Australian Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether family controlled firms use dividends, debt and board structure to exacerbate or mitigate agency problems between controlling and minority shareholders. We find that family firms pay higher dividends and employ higher debt levels compared to non-family firms. Family firm boards also have significantly lower levels of independence. The relationships between family ownership and dividends, debt and

Lukas Setia-Atmaja; George A. Tanewski; Michael Skully

225

Comparative Effects of High Energy Cost on Black and White Families at Four Economic Income Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For both black and white families in Peach County and Fort Valley, Georgia, electrical energy consumption increased as the family income increased. White families consumed 23% more electrical energy than black families at the $23,500 income level. At the ...

I. J. Crumbly

1983-01-01

226

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior Among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child’s\\u000a life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation.\\u000a A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was conducted to comprehend needs and

Ching Man Lam

2011-01-01

227

Family structure, neonatal infection, and hay fever in adolescence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased numbers of siblings and infection in early life protect against allergic sensitisation. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Sheffield, UK. SUBJECTS: 11,765 children aged 11-16 years for whom a history of neonatal infectious illness had been recorded systematically at 1 month of age. METHODS: A history of hay fever and family structure was obtained by postal questionnaire; neonatal illness history was ascertained from health visitor records; 723 children underwent skin prick testing with mixed grass pollen extract. RESULTS: The prevalence of hay fever was reduced (p < 0.0001) among children of younger mothers, and those from larger families. The number of older siblings exerted a stronger independent effect than the number of younger siblings (p < 0.001). Infants breast fed exclusively during the first month were at higher risk (p < 0.05) of subsequent hay fever, independent of demographic factors. Adolescents at high risk of hay fever by virtue of their family structure were more likely to be sensitised to grass pollen (p < 0.002). No significant relations emerged between hay fever and infection in the first month of life, even among children born in June. CONCLUSIONS: The association of hay fever with family structure is not due to reporting bias and reflects an environmental influence on allergic sensitisation. The effects of sibship size, birth order, and infant feeding are consistent with a protective influence of postnatal infection. The first month of life and the first postnatal exposure to allergen are not the critical periods during which this protective effect is determined.

Strachan, D P; Taylor, E M; Carpenter, R G

1996-01-01

228

Investigating the age effects of family structure on adolescent Marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines differences among older and younger adolescents in the influence of family structure, family relations, and peer relations on marijuana use. Data from a longitudinal sample of adolescents from the United States were stratified by age and used to assess these potential differences. Precise measures of family structure were constructed to account for the various manifestations of family

John P. Hoffmann

1994-01-01

229

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

230

Structured approach to patients with memory difficulties in family practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a structured approach to patients presenting with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Memory Clinic in partnership with the Ontario College of Family Physicians. Main message Use of a structured clinical reasoning approach can assist physicians in achieving an accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with memory difficulties. Delirium, depression, and reversible causes need to be excluded, followed by differentiation among normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Obtaining collateral history and accurate functional assessment are critical. Common forms of dementia can be clinically differentiated by the order in which symptoms appear and by how cognitive deficits evolve over time. Typically, early signs of Alzheimer dementia involve impairment in episodic memory, whereas dementia involving predominantly vascular causes might present with early loss of executive function and relatively preserved episodic memory. Frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body spectrum disorders might have early loss of executive function and visuospatial function, as well as characteristic clinical features. Conclusion A clinical reasoning approach can help physicians achieve early, accurate diagnoses that can guide appropriate management and improve care for patients with memory difficulties.

Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Heckman, George; Gagnon, Micheline; Lee, F. Joseph; Sloka, Scott

2013-01-01

231

Sorghum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family: structure, function and molecular evolution.  

PubMed

Although housekeeping functions have been shown for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31, PEPC) in plants and in prokaryotes, PEPC is mainly known for its specific role in the primary photosynthetic CO2 fixation in C4 and CAM plants. We have shown that in Sorghum, a monocotyledonous C4 plant, the enzyme is encoded in the nucleus by a small multigene family. Here we report the entire nucleotide sequence (7.5 kb) of the third member (CP21) that completes the structure of the Sorghum PEPC gene family. Nucleotide composition, CpG islands and GC content of the three Sorghum PEPC genes are analysed with respect to their possible implications in the regulation of expression. A study of structure/function and phylogenetic relationships based on the compilation of all PEPC sequences known so far is presented. Data demonstrated that: (1) the different forms of plant PEPC have very similar primary structures, functional and regulatory properties, (2) neither apparent amino acid sequences nor phylogenetic relationships are specific for the C4 and CAM PEPCs and (3) expression of the different genes coding for the Sorghum PEPC isoenzymes is differently regulated (i.e. by light, nitrogen source) in a spatial and temporal manner. These results suggest that the main distinguishing feature between plant PEPCs is to be found at the level of genes expression rather than in their primary structure. PMID:8443342

Lepiniec, L; Keryer, E; Philippe, H; Gadal, P; Crétin, C

1993-02-01

232

Revisiting Burns and Stalker: Formal structure and new venture performance in emerging economic sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of formal structure on the performance of new ventures in the emergent Internet sector during the years 1996-2001. Burns and Stalker (1961) argued that in dynamic economic sectors, firms with organic structures are more effective than those with more mechanistic structures. We suggest this proposition does not hold for new ventures in turbulent, emergent economic

Wesley D. Sine; Hitoshi Mitsuhashi; David A. Kirsch

233

Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time.  

PubMed

Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry's most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness-poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible "path toward economic resilience" (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program's appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system's most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

Simon, Melissa A; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J; Foucar, Charles E; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M; Emanuel, Linda L

2013-04-30

234

Recombinant DNA studies on the structure, evolution, and developmental expression of structural gene families.  

PubMed

The structure of silkmoth chorion genes and their organization within the chromosomes are summarized. The multiple chorion genes are members of homologous gene families, and are physically linked. Their detailed structure and organization suggest mechanisms for their evolution and for the regulation of their expression. PMID:7435809

Kafatos, F C

1980-09-01

235

The Effects of Age Structure on Economic Growth: An Application of Probabilistic Forecasting in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the explanatory power of demographic variables in economic growth regressions. We estimate a new model of the effects of age structure change on economic growth. We use the new model and recent probabilistic demographic projections for India to derive the uncertainty of predicted economic growth rates caused by the uncertainty

Alexia Prskawetz; Thomas Kögel; Warren C. Sanderson; Sergei Scherbov

2009-01-01

236

The BCCT family of carriers: from physiology to crystal structure.  

PubMed

Increases in the environmental osmolarity are key determinants for the growth of microorganisms. To ensure a physiologically acceptable level of cellular hydration and turgor at high osmolarity, many bacteria accumulate compatible solutes. Osmotically controlled uptake systems allow the scavenging of these compounds from scarce environmental sources as effective osmoprotectants. A number of these systems belong to the BCCT family (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter), sodium- or proton-coupled transporters (e.g. BetP and BetT respectively) that are ubiquitous in microorganisms. The BCCT family also contains CaiT, an L-carnitine/?-butyrobetaine antiporter that is not involved in osmotic stress responses. The glycine betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a representative for osmoregulated symporters of the BCCT family and functions both as an osmosensor and osmoregulator. The crystal structure of BetP in an occluded conformation in complex with its substrate glycine betaine and two crystal structures of CaiT in an inward-facing open conformation in complex with L-carnitine and ?-butyrobetaine were reported recently. These structures and the wealth of biochemical data on the activity control of BetP in response to osmotic stress enable a correlation between the sensing of osmotic stress by a transporter protein with the ensuing regulation of transport activity. Molecular determinants governing the high-affinity binding of the compatible solutes by BetP and CaiT, the coupling in symporters and antiporters, and the osmoregulatory properties are discussed in detail for BetP and various BCCT carriers. PMID:20923416

Ziegler, Christine; Bremer, Erhard; Krämer, Reinhard

2010-10-01

237

LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

MANN, OPAL H.

238

LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

MANN, OPAL H.

239

A structured review of the recent literature on the economic consequences of preterm birth.  

PubMed

Although survival rates for preterm infants have greatly improved over the last three to four decades, these infants remain at risk of developing a broad range of short-term and long-term complications. Despite the large body of work on the clinical sequelae of preterm birth, relatively little is known about its economic consequences. This paper represents a structured review of the recent scientific literature on the economic consequences of preterm birth for the health services, for other sectors of the economy, for families and carers and, more broadly, for society. A total of 2497 studies were identified by a pretested literature search strategy, 52 of which were included in the final review. Of these 52 studies, 19 reported the costs associated with the initial period of hospitalisation, 35 reported costs incurred following the initial hospital discharge (without providing costs for the entire remaining period of childhood), four of which also reported costs associated with the initial period of hospitalisation, while two reported costs incurred throughout childhood. The paper highlights the variable methodological quality of this body of literature. The results of the studies included in the review are summarised and critically appraised. The paper also highlights gaps in our current knowledge of the topic and identifies requirements for further research in this area. PMID:20488863

Petrou, Stavros; Eddama, Oya; Mangham, Lindsay

2010-05-20

240

Structure of a Site-2 Protease Family Intramembrane Metalloprotease  

SciTech Connect

Regulated intramembrane proteolysis by members of the site-2 protease (S2P) family is an important signaling mechanism conserved from bacteria to humans. Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane core domain of an S2P metalloprotease from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The protease consists of six transmembrane segments, with the catalytic zinc atom coordinated by two histidine residues and one aspartate residue {approx}14 angstroms into the lipid membrane surface. The protease exhibits two distinct conformations in the crystals. In the closed conformation, the active site is surrounded by transmembrane helices and is impermeable to substrate peptide; water molecules gain access to zinc through a polar, central channel that opens to the cytosolic side. In the open conformation, transmembrane helices {alpha}1 and {alpha}6 separate from each other by 10 to 12 angstroms, exposing the active site to substrate entry. The structure reveals how zinc embedded in an integral membrane protein can catalyze peptide cleavage.

Feng,L.; Yan, H.; Wu, Z.; Yan, N.; Wang, Z.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.

2007-01-01

241

Structural basis for conservation in the CYP51 family  

PubMed Central

Sterol 14?-demethylases (14DM) comprise the CYP51 cytochrome P450 genome family. The 14DM reaction is essential for the biosynthesis of sterols which are necessary for production of cellular membranes. This is the most widely distributed P450, being present in all biological kingdoms. From one kingdom to another the primary amino acid sequence identity usually ranges between 30-20%. In this minireview we describe the conservation of specific amino acids and the various CYP51 orthologs and indicate the roles that they may play in the structure/function of this monooxygenase. The prediction of the roles of different amino acids in 14DM is based on high resolution tertiary structures of these enzymes which set the stage for detailed understanding of the 14?-demethylase reaction and its selective, phyla-specific inhibition which is crucial for the design of potent inhibitors for treatment of infection by pathogenic microbes.

Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Michael R.

2010-01-01

242

Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and Methods: The families of 177 Cuban American and White non-Hispanic American caregivers of dementia patients were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Structural family theory and clinical experience were used to identify family interaction patterns believed to be related to caregiver emotional functioning. Factor analysis was used to refine subscales and develop a multiscale measure. Results: Six reliable subscales were related to caregiver distress and included in the SFSR-DC. There were two second-order factors. The SFSR-DC was provisionally cross-validated and showed invariance across the two ethnic groups. Implications: The SFSR-DC provides a method for examining specific and multiple interaction patterns in caregiver families and thus can advance knowledge regarding the role of the family in the stress processes of caregiving. These findings support the relevance of family interactions in caregiver distress and suggest that a treatment approach aimed at supporting family closeness and conflict resolution and reducing negativity might enhance caregiver well-being.

Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

2008-01-01

243

Family Structure and Self-Rated Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the relationship between family structure and child well-being is well-established, little is known about the specific\\u000a impact of family structure on health in adolescence and young adulthood. Using data on 12,737 respondents from Waves I and\\u000a III of Add Health, we examine the association between family structure (two biological\\/adoptive, stepfather, and single mother\\u000a families at Wave I) and self-rated

Holly E. Heard; Bridget K. Gorman; Carolyn A. Kapinus

2008-01-01

244

Identification of Regional Fundamental Economic Structure (FES) of Chilean Economy: A Field of Influence Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the understanding of the regional structure of the Chilean economy utilizing the fundamental economic structure (FES) approach. The regional FES construct implies that selected characteristics of an economy will vary predictably with economic size, as measured by regional: domestic product, population, total value added, and total sector output. The overarching problem addressed in this research is

Sudhir K. Thakur; Jaime R. Alvayay

2012-01-01

245

Mexican American Referenda Voting on Urban Economic Development and Governmental Structure Issues: Research Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voting behavior of Mexican Americans is compared to that of Anglos on several referenda issues in one city. The referenda votes focus on several issues that theory suggests are central to understanding contemporaryAmerican urban politics: economic development and human services, and governmental structure. The analysis brings together issues of ethnicity, public policy, and governmental structure. The contention that economic

Rodney E. Hero

1989-01-01

246

The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

2005-01-01

247

Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

Humphrey, Laura Lynn

1989-01-01

248

The Influence of Family Structure Characteristics on the Child-Rearing Behaviors of African American Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the diversity of African American families increases our understanding of the socialization within these families. Family characteristics that influence socialization includefamily structure variables such as number of adult and child family members and amount offamily income. More likely than not, because the earliest primary caretaker of a child is the mother, socialization begins through maternal caretaking. Mothers'perceived performance

Melvin N. Wilson; Laura P. Kohn; Judith Curry-El; Ivora D. Hinton

1995-01-01

249

Working-class fathers and childcare: the economic and family contexts of fathering in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a UK-based study that explored the ways in which working-class families living in the inner city negotiate and resolve childcare and domestic responsibilities between mothers and fathers and how men balance employment and family demands. Drawing on interviews with 70 families with pre-school children, including interviews with 16 men, we explore how the respondents practice fathering

Annette Braun; Carol Vincent; Stephen J. Ball

2011-01-01

250

Strengthening the Family to Participate in Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on an extensive review of the social change, economic, psychological, and development assistance literature on the family, along with analysis of data from Indonesia and Nigeria, the report describes the characteristics of healthy families. Structur...

M. F. Zeitlin R. Megawangi E. M. Kramer N. D. Colletta E. D. Babatunde

1993-01-01

251

Comparative effects of high energy cost on black and white families at four economic income levels  

SciTech Connect

For both black and white families in Peach County and Fort Valley, Georgia, electrical energy consumption increased as the family income increased. White families consumed 23% more electrical energy than black families at the $23,500 income level. At the lowest income ($4500) level, black families consumed 55% more electrical energy than white families. Black families also used 5% more electrical energy than white families at both the $9,000 and $16,000 income levels. More electrical energy was consumed during the summer months than during the winter months. The greater consumption of electrical energy during the summer is associated with air conditioning. Although both black and white families consumed the greatest amount of gas energy at the highest income level, gas consumption was not as closely correlated with increase in income levels as electrical energy. For both black and white families, gas energy consumption was several times greater during the winter than during the summer months. In regards to the total cost of energy among black households, the $9000, $16,000 and $23,500 income levels spent 2%, 23% and 35% more money for the total cost of energy than the $4500 income level. Similarly, white households at the $9000, $16,000 and $23,500 income levels spent 33%, 30% and 101% more money for the total cost of energy, respectively, than the $4500 income level. One dollar out of every 6.4 dollars (or 15.6% of total income) was spent on energy at the $4500 income level in black households compared to one out of every 8.3 dollars (12.1% of total income) spent on energy at the same income level for white households. The lowest percentage of income spent on energy by black households was 4% at the $23,500 income level. For white families, the lowest percentage of income spent on energy was 4.4% at the $16,000 income level.

Crumbly, I.J.

1983-12-01

252

Alternative Estimates of the Effect of Family Structure during Adolescence on High School Graduation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported significant empirical associations between family structure during childhood and children's outcomes later in life. It may be that living in a nonintact family has adverse consequences for children. On the other hand, it may be that some unobserved process jointly determines family structure and children's outcomes. How then should one interpret the empirical evidence on the

Charles F. Manski; Gary D. Sandefur; Sara McLanahan; Daniel Powers

1992-01-01

253

Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

Perosa, Linda

1996-01-01

254

The Family Structure Trajectory and Adolescent School Performance: Differential Effects by Race and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of whether family structure consequences on school achievement are the same across racial and ethnic groups is examined using longitudinal data on 10,606 teens from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Based on life course theory, this article uses indicators of the family structure trajectory, such as family

Heard, Holly E.

2007-01-01

255

The Family Structure Trajectory and Adolescent School Performance: Differential Effects by Race and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether family structure consequences on school achievement are the same across racial and ethnic groups is examined using longitudinal data on 10,606 teens from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Based on life course theory, this article uses indicators of the family structure trajectory, such as family

Heard, Holly E.

2007-01-01

256

Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Software product line practice is an effective strategy for developing families of software-intensive products. Business modeling is a fundamental practice that provides input into a number of decisions that are made by organizations using or considering ...

P. C. Clements J. D. McGregor S. G. Cohen

2005-01-01

257

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Education on Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 were analyzed to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and years of schooling on occupational status and earnings in maturity. Some of the findings follow: Data on brothers indicated that prior research has underestimated the effect of family

Jencks, Christopher; Rainwater, Lee

258

Introduction to the Thematic Issue on Health, Economics, and Family Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of health care costs challenges the health of individuals, families, and nations. In the United States, health care expenditure has risen by more than eight folds relative to that of 1980. This rise in health care expenditure has been much higher than the growth in family income during the last three decades. Given the inherent market failure in

Manouchehr Mokhtari

2011-01-01

259

Financing Chinese Capitalism: Principal Banks, Economic Crisis, and Chinese Family Firms in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a widely circulated myth that Chinese family firms rely exclusively on kinship ties and network capital to finance their domestic and international operations. In this empirical paper, I argue that large Chinese family firms are increasingly engaging with financial markets on a global scale. In order to finance their transnational business activities, these firms require financial services from

Henry W. Yeung

2003-01-01

260

The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper is motivated by the expectation that developmental idealism has been disseminated to ordinary people and affects family behavior. Developmental idealism is a belief and value system that endorses societal and family development, views societal and family development as occurring together, and suggests that modern families are causes and consequences of societal development. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to examine the understandings of ordinary people and show that Nepalis can discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Nepal. Developmental idealism is related in predictable ways to education, work experience, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although research ascertaining the influence of developmental idealism on demographic decision-making and behavior would be valuable, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time crossectional data, but our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial.

Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Mitchell, Colter

2012-01-01

261

Stability and Change in Family Structure and Maternal Health Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Recent increases in births to unmarried parents, and the instability surrounding these relationships, have raised concerns about the possible health effects associated with changes in family structure. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (N = 2,448), this article examines trajectories of maternal mental and physical health. We specifically focus on mothers’ transitions into and out of residential relationships with a child’s biological father during the first five years after birth. We find that continuously married mothers are in better mental and physical health than unmarried mothers one year after birth, but the disparity does not increase over time. This finding provides little support for the resource model. Consistent with the crisis model, exiting a marital or cohabiting union increases mental health problems and decreases self-rated health. These effects appear to be relatively short-lived, though, and they are stronger for mental health than for self-rated health. The results also suggest that union dissolution may be selective of less healthy mothers, whereas union formation does not appear to be selective of healthier mothers.

Meadows, Sarah O.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2010-01-01

262

TU elements: a heterogeneous family of modularly structured eucaryotic transposons.  

PubMed Central

We describe here a family of foldback transposons found in the genome of the higher eucaryote, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Two major classes of TU elements have been identified by analysis of genomic DNA and TU element clones. One class consists of largely similar elements with long terminal inverted repeats (IVRs) containing outer and inner domains and sharing a common middle segment that can undergo deletions. Some of these elements contain insertions. The second class is highly heterogeneous, with many different middle segments nonhomologous to those of the first-class and variable-sized inverted repeats that contain only an outer domain. The middle and insertion segments of both classes carry sequences that also are found unassociated from the inverted repeats at many other genomic locations. We conclude that the TU elements are modular structures composed of inverted repeats plus other sequence domains that are themselves members of different families of dispersed repetitive sequences. Such modular elements may have a role in the dispersion and rearrangement of genomic DNA segments. Images

Hoffman-Liebermann, B; Liebermann, D; Kedes, L H; Cohen, S N

1985-01-01

263

Health Insurance Coverage of Mexican American Families in the U.S.The Effect of Employment Context and Family Structure in Rural and Urban Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of the employment context and family structure on the health insurance status of Mexican families. Data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey were used to (a) examine the differences in the extent of family coverage among Latino families in the U.S., (b) determine whether differences in the residential distribution of these families is responsible

CHERYL AMEY; KAREN SECCOMBE; R. PAUL DUNCAN

1995-01-01

264

Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals  

SciTech Connect

The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

265

Counseling Strategies for the Single-Child Family: A Structural Family Therapy Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes strategies developed for counseling the single-child family which provide professionals with creative alternatives to achieve a healthy balance within this family system. Provides an illustrative case example. (MKA)|

Ryan, Carole A.

1997-01-01

266

Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. METHODS: We used case-sibling design, a variant of the

Jari K Haukka; Jaana Suvisaari; Jouko Lönnqvist

2004-01-01

267

Family structure and child outcomes: a high definition, wide angle “snapshot”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), this research investigates the relationships between a highly\\u000a defined set of family structures and a broad set of child outcomes at a particular point in time in a child’s life. A detailed\\u000a classification of family structures is constructed that clarifies key differences among various types of diverse families,\\u000a and facilitates

Karen Smith Conway; Minghua Li

268

Family structure and the reproduction of inequality: Parents' contribution to children's college costs.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of family structure in the financial support parents provide for their children's college education. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on aspects of family structure that affect parental support and estimate shared family variance in investments as well as within-family variation using a multilevel model. Family membership accounts for about 60% of the variance in payment of college costs. Small family size, living with both biological parents (compared to one biological parent and a stepparent), higher parental education, and having older parents are associated with greater parental expenditures. PMID:23017857

Henretta, John C; Wolf, Douglas A; Van Voorhis, Matthew F; Soldo, Beth J

2012-03-03

269

Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequality: Parents' Contribution to Children's College Costs  

PubMed Central

This article examines the role of family structure in the financial support parents provide for their children’s college education. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on aspects of family structure that affect parental support and estimate shared family variance in investments as well as within-family variation using a multilevel model. Family membership accounts for about 60% of the variance in payment of college costs. Small family size, living with both biological parents (compared to one biological parent and a stepparent), higher parental education, and having older parents are associated with greater parental expenditures.

Henretta, John C.; Wolf, Douglas A.; Van Voorhis, Matthew F.; Soldo, Beth J.

2012-01-01

270

Birth Order, Family Size, and Achievement: Family Structure and Wage Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do birth order and the size of one's childhood family influence environment, thereby potentially affecting future achievement? This article investigates the hypothesis that they do, presenting two major empirical findings. First, neither birth order nor childhood family size significantly influences the level or growth rate of wages, a result that is consistent with previous research. Second, family size is both

Daniel. Kessler

1991-01-01

271

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects…

Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

2004-01-01

272

The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal.  

PubMed

Developmental idealism (DI) is a system of beliefs and values that endorses modern societies and families and sees them as occurring together, with modern families as causes and consequences of societal development. This study was motivated by the belief that the population of Nepal has absorbed these ideas and that the ideas affect their family behaviour. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to show that Nepalis discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that DI has been widely accepted. It is related in predictable ways to education, paid employment, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although it would be useful to know its influence on demographic decision-making and behaviour, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time cross-sectional survey. Our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Mitchell, Colter

2012-09-10

273

Energy and Economic Evaluation of the Single-Family Residential Building Energy Performance Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standar...

D. L. O'Neal J. L. Jones

1981-01-01

274

Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents EcoIsland, which is a system persuading individuals and families to change their lifestyle patterns to reduce CO2 emissions. EcoIsland visualizes the user's current eco-friendly behavior as an island shared by his\\/her family members. Several persuasive techniques developed in behaviorism, social psychology, and economy are used to offer incentives to him\\/her to encourage eco-friendly behavior. We examine and

Miyuki Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Washio; Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima

2009-01-01

275

Structural differences in economic growth: an endogenous clustering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses heterogeneity in determinants of economic growth in a data-driven way. Instead of defining groups of countries with different growth characteristics a priori, based on, for example, geographical location, we use a finite mixture panel model and endogenous clustering to examine cross-country differences and similarities in the effects of growth determinants. Applying this approach to an annual unbalanced

Nalan Ba?türk; Richard Paap; Dick van Dijk

2011-01-01

276

Structural differences in economic growth: an endogenous clustering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses heterogeneity in determinants of economic growth in a data-driven way. Instead of defining groups of countries with different growth characteristics a priori, based on, for example, geographical location, we use a finite mixture panel model and endogenous clustering to examine cross-country differences and similarities in the effects of growth determinants. Applying this approach to an annual unbalanced

Nalan Ba?türk; Richard Paap; Dick van Dijk

2012-01-01

277

Socio-economic Health Differentials: From Structure to Experience.  

PubMed

A large and expanding literature demonstrates the existence and persistence of socio-economic differences in health. This literature is extensive, but very little of it examines the individual's experience of health. This article argues the need for research into socio-economic differentials in health from a qualitative perspective, and draws on research from this perspective to present and discuss several issues of relevance to health differentials. These include talking about health, contact with health professionals, views on modem medicine, the meaning of health, control and fatalism, smoking and health, diet and food, exercise and fitness and the healthy body. Findings illustrate considerable differences in the ways people from upper and lower socio-economic positions understand and experience health and illness, and also demonstrate how their health-related concerns are embedded in the fabric of everyday lives. Further research from this perspective has potential for improving our understanding of socio-economic differentials in health. In closing, the article offers some directions for future research, and identifies three issues: the type of qualitative approach adopted; the nature of linguistic accounts; and the need for a theoretical framework, to which future research should attend. PMID:22013029

Chamberlain, K

1997-07-01

278

Teaching Economics to Undergraduates in Europe: Volume, Structure, and Contents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how much time is spent in economics and management sciences programs; how much time is allocated among different courses within programs; what common thematic denominators exist; and whether and in what way content in microeconomics and macroeconomics courses differs. (RLH)

Gartner, Manfred

2001-01-01

279

Environmental behavior structure and socio-economic conditions of hillside farmers: A multiple-group structural equation modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using structural equation modeling and a health belief model within a conceptual economic framework, we examined the effects of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers on farmers' awareness of and attitudes towards environmental degradation. Perception of the severity of land degradation had a positive effect on individuals' awareness and attitude, regardless of socio-economic status. Farmers' perceived susceptibility to land degradation

Budry Bayard; Curtis Jolly

2007-01-01

280

Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: A research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the hypothesis that high levels of residential mobility among nonintact families account for part of the\\u000a well-known association between living in a nonintact family and dropping out of high school. Children from single-parent families\\u000a and stepfamilies are more likely than children from two-parent families to move during the school year. As much as 30% of\\u000a the difference

Nan Marie Astone; Sara S. McLanahan

1994-01-01

281

Five Thousand American Families: Patterns of Economic Progress, Volume I: An Analysis of the First Five Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report in three volumes is made on the social and economic status of five thousand U.S. families over time, examining data obtained during the period 1967 to 1972 and later, and discussing the economic changes for individuals and groups. Volume One cont...

J. N. Morgan K. Dickinson J. Dickinson J. Benus G. Duncan

1974-01-01

282

A Sunburnt Country: The Economic and Financial Impact of Drought on Rural and Regional Families in Australia in an Era of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is indeed a sunburnt country, and is arguably becoming increasingly sunburnt. If most climate predictions are correct, much of Australia will experience droughts even more often. This paper uses the Rural and Regional Families Survey to explore the economic and financial implications of drought in regional Australia. Drought has significant negative economic impacts, with large effects on the experience

Ben Edwards; Matthew Gray; Boyd Hunter

2009-01-01

283

Graphic Family Therapy: An Affective Alternative to Structure and Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic family therapy based on changing family dysfunctioning through self-discovery is described. The stages of this design are discussed and specific graphic excercises for eight categories of family dysfunction are described. Two illustrative cases are presented. Conclusions regarding results, future research, training and other clinical…

Schneider, Thomas; And Others

1981-01-01

284

Reanalysis of asteroid families structure through visible spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic properties of the main asteroid families are analyzed and discussed in the light of an updated definition of the families using a large proper elements database and the asteroids taxonomy derived from reflectance spectra recently obtained by two large visible spectroscopic surveys: the SMASS II and the S3OS2. Our analysis indicates that most families are quite homogeneous taxonomically

T. Mothé-Diniz; F. Roig; J. M. Carvano

2005-01-01

285

Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9  

PubMed Central

Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N?=?8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Conclusions/Significance Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based interventions are required.

Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

2012-01-01

286

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

287

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

288

Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=4,538), we examine the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigate: (a) first, whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation behaviors; (b) second, which dimensions of family structure history are most predictive of children's later relationship formation behaviors; and (c) third, if the association between family structure history and young adulthood relationship formation differs by gender. Our findings provide evidence of an intergenerational link between parent relationship histories and their offspring's own relationship formation behaviors in young adulthood, over and above confounding factors.

Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

2010-01-01

289

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

290

Culture, Rationality and Economic Institutions in East Asia: The Chinese Family Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanation of economic interactions within East Asia has long been split between those who view action as an outcome of rational decision-making by an autonomous state and those who view it as a result of cultural patterns ingrained in Confucianism and other elements of traditional culture. This paper shows how these two approaches can used in a complementary rather than

Sun-Ki Chai

2003-01-01

291

Child and Family Policy in an Anxious Society: Setting Feasible Goals for Social and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a time of economic crisis, Canadians are questioning their social institutions. Major welfare programs may be dismantled under political pressure. Canadians should be cautious, though, in accepting radical, new ideas. Long-term interests may be damaged by planners' reliance on short-term social indicators. Our perceptions of social phenomena…

Hepworth, H. Philip

292

Barriers to Work among Poor Families: Health Limitations, Family Structure, and Lack of Job Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that poor families work fewer hours than the non-poor families has been a motivation for the U.S. government to establish a work-based welfare system to fight welfare dependency and poverty. Using the Current Population Survey of 2004, this study compared families' annual work hours and the major reasons for working such hours by their income status. The results

Jeounghee Kim

2009-01-01

293

Selective mutism in children: A structural family therapy approach to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When children refuse to speak in some social settings, but can understand and speak in other settings, the diagnosis of selective mutism must be considered. A review of the literature describes the disorder, the various types of mutism, and related family dynamics. A family systems approach to treatment using structural family therapy is suggested. The case history presented illustrates one

Diane Wolf Tatem; Robert L. DelCampo

1995-01-01

294

Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

295

Recent Changes in the Demographic Structure of Urban and Rural Families. Working Paper No. 7706.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite pervasive and far-reaching changes in the institution of the family in this century, demographic data suggest not a breakdown of the American family; rather, significant change has occurred in its structure and function. Timing of family formation and childbearing, household size and living arrangements, marital stability (including racial…

Brown, David L.

296

An Analysis of Family Role Structures and Interactions in Commercial Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a study of family role structures and family role interaction patterns of U.S. television families appearing during prime time and Saturday morning programs for the 1976-1977 season. The content analysis constitutes a ...

M. Hines

1978-01-01

297

Poverty and family structure effects on children's mathematics achievement: Estimates from random and fixed effects models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children grow up, they may encounter changing family structures and poverty status. Any attempt to measure the effects of these statuses on children's school achievement runs the risk of spurious effects due to child- and family-heterogeneity. An analytic strategy for avoiding these spurious effects is to use longitudinal data on families, children, and their academic achievement to estimate random

Kristin Burnett; George Farkas

2009-01-01

298

Family Mechanisms of Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive Women in Drug Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Examined the effects of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family intervention for women living with HIV or AIDS, compared to a psycho-educational health group (HG) intervention, and reciprocal relationships between women and family members. Method: Women (n = 126) and their family members (n = 269) were randomized to one of two conditions and assessed every 4 months for

Victoria B. Mitrani; Brian E. McCabe; Myron J. Burns; Daniel J. Feaster

2012-01-01

299

Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

De Bruycker, Trees

2008-01-01

300

Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

301

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Regional Summary. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes data from a February 1989 survey of farm families in 12 North Central states and is a companion reference report for a series of state reports. The 12 states are subdivided into Corn Belt states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio); Plains states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska); and Lakes states…

Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

302

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Iowa. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 311 Iowa farm operators (a 31% response rate) and 288 spouses (a 29% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

303

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC ROLES WITHIN THE FAMILY: AMISH AND CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased influence of Marxian theory in contemporary sociology, no conflict theorist has developed a scientific historical methodology based on a materialist interpretation of historicalevents. In this paper I use a materialistic methodology to assess the origin of modern feminism. I first compare the role of women in traditional agrarian families, as exemplified by the Amish, with the position

RICHARD A. WRIGHT

1977-01-01

304

KOREAN IMMIGRANT WOMEN'S CHALLENGE TO GENDER INEQUALITY AT HOMEThe Interplay of Economic Resources, Gender, and Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on in-depth interviews with 18 Korean immigrant working couples, this study explores Korean immigrant working wives' ongoing challenge to male dominance at home and to the unequal division of family work. A main factor in wives' being less obedient to their husbands is their psychological resources such as pride, competence, and honor, which they gain from awareness of their

IN-SOOK LIM

1997-01-01

305

Lone-Parent Families. The Economic Challenge. OECD Social Policy Studies No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is based on papers presented at a conference of social policy experts that looked at the growth in lone-parent families, the problems that have emerged, and their policy implications. Chapter 1 is an "Overview" (Duskin). Three chapters look at demographic trends over time and over the life-cycle; they are: "Demographic Aspects of the…

Duskin, Elizabeth, Ed.

306

High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and Family Economic Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research evidence suggests that having a car is a worthwhile investment in better outcomes for low-income families. Recent reports quantify the additional money required to own and operate personal vehicles, as compared to the lower cost of traveling on public transit. However, this method of accounting fails to consider the fact that poor workers without a car may not be

Margy Waller; Isabel V. Sawhill; R. Kent Weaver; Ron Haskins; Andrea Kane; Rebecca Blank

307

Why is the Netherlands the best country? On country comparisons regarding the economics of the family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bevolkingseconomie gaat over het leven van het individu. Kwesties als: de optimale leeftijd om kinderen te krijgen, carrièreplanning, het huwelijk en de scheiding zijn vragen waar elk individu over moet beslissen. Al deze besluiten worden beïnvloed door de economische situatie, maar hebben ook economische gevolgen. Daarom draagt de economie van de familie bij aan zowel op microniveau van het individu

S. Gustafsson

2008-01-01

308

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

309

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Michigan. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 331 Michigan farm operators (a 33% response rate) and 319 spouses (a 31% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

Moser, Colletta H.; Vlasin, Raymond D.

310

THE IMPACT OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSITION ON FERTILITY AND FAMILY FORMATION IN MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolia has never been a member of the USSR, but the collapse of the Soviet Union deeply affected this country. While a growing body of literature documents the consequences of this collapse on fertility and family formation behaviour for the former socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltic countries, Russia and Ukraine, and more recently, countries in Central

Thomas Spoorenberg

2009-01-01

311

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

312

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

313

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

314

Family Structure, Gender, and the Work–Family Interface: Work-to-Family Conflict Among Single and Partnered Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether single parents experience greater reductions in work-to-family conflict from using resources than\\u000a partnered parents do. The question of whether single mothers, single fathers, partnered mothers, or partnered fathers experienced\\u000a differing levels of work-to-family conflict was also addressed. Data were from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce,\\u000a and only those respondents with at least one

Krista Lynn Minnotte

2012-01-01

315

[Structural, developmental and functional evaluation of the family of individuals with arterial hypertension].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the structure, development and functionality of the family that suffers from arterial hypertension. This is a qualitative study, developed with two families using the Calgary Model of Family Evaluation. It proposes the use of three categories of analysis: structural developmental and functional, and the use of a genogram and an ecomap. The two families are nuclear, however one is formed by the couple and their three sons who are married and reside in different homes. The other is a single-parent family established by the mother and children. The married son resides at another house in the same backyard with wife and daughter The application of the model of family evaluation allowed knowing the aspects related to the structure, operation and development of the two families that interfere impair or favor the development of the care in their quotidian. PMID:23781723

Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; Cecilio, Hellen Pollyanna Mantelo; Marcon, Sonia Silva

2013-03-01

316

Economics of Design in High-Strength Structural Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The steels considered in this report are 'Weldable Structural Steels' to BS 4360. In particular, those steels which most closely match those previously included in BS 15 (mild steel for general structural purposes) and BS 968 (high-yield-stress (welding q...

A. A. Doncaster M. W. Haxton

1971-01-01

317

Economic risk and the structural characteristics of farm businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses farm-level data from the Illinois Farm Business Farm Management Association to determine whether the variability of net farm income is significantly influenced by farm size, financial structure, and other structural characteristics of farm businesses. The econometric results indicate that under a cross-sectional model the relative variability of real net farm income is not significantly influenced by farm

Peter J. Barry; Cesar L. Escalante; Sharon K. Bard

2001-01-01

318

Studies in the Economic Structure of the State of Mississippi, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten industries, shown to be 'missing links' in the development of families of structurally related industries, are stressed for accelerated developmental efforts. The ten industries are: feed crops; commercial fishing; textile products; all other chemical...

J. G. D. Carden F. B. Whittington

1964-01-01

319

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

320

Emotional neglect and family structure: impact on student functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between retrospective reports of child neglect, family of origin functioning, and current psychological distress. It was hypothesized that experience of childhood emotional neglect would be associated with lower levels of cohesion and adaptability in participants’ family of origin and greater levels of current psychological distress. Gender effects were explored.Method:

Mary Jo Wark; Theresa Kruczek; Amanda Boley

2003-01-01

321

A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the distribution of drug use among adolescents 12 to 17 years in data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Results indicate that the risk of drug use is highest in father-custody families even after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Risk is lowest in mother-father families. (Author/EMK)

Hoffmann, John P.; Johnson, Robert A.

1998-01-01

322

Breaking the Net: Family Structure and Street Children in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety net provided by the African extended family has traditionally been the basis for the assertion that “there is no such thing as an orphan in Africa” (Foster 2000). The assumption is that even families lacking sufficient resources to properly care for existing members are predisposed to take in orphans. Chronic poverty, coupled with an increasing malaria burden and

Francesco Strobbe; Claudia Olivetti; Mireille Jacobson

2010-01-01

323

A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the distribution of drug use among adolescents 12 to 17 years in data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Results indicate that the risk of drug use is highest in father-custody families even after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Risk is lowest in mother-father families. (Author/EMK)|

Hoffmann, John P.; Johnson, Robert A.

1998-01-01

324

Economic Theoretical Structure of Cost-Benefit Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a general model of production structure, various Indirect Production Functions are defined and used to construct cost-return (benefit) relationships. When an ordinal utility function is used for valuation of output vectors, a cardinalization of the va...

R. W. Shephard

1974-01-01

325

A structural-alphabet-based strategy for finding structural motifs across protein families  

PubMed Central

Proteins with insignificant sequence and overall structure similarity may still share locally conserved contiguous structural segments; i.e. structural/3D motifs. Most methods for finding 3D motifs require a known motif to search for other similar structures or functionally/structurally crucial residues. Here, without requiring a query motif or essential residues, a fully automated method for discovering 3D motifs of various sizes across protein families with different folds based on a 16-letter structural alphabet is presented. It was applied to structurally non-redundant proteins bound to DNA, RNA, obligate/non-obligate proteins as well as free DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) and proteins with known structures but unknown function. Its usefulness was illustrated by analyzing the 3D motifs found in DBPs. A non-specific motif was found with a ‘corner’ architecture that confers a stable scaffold and enables diverse interactions, making it suitable for binding not only DNA but also RNA and proteins. Furthermore, DNA-specific motifs present ‘only’ in DBPs were discovered. The motifs found can provide useful guidelines in detecting binding sites and computational protein redesign.

Wu, Chih Yuan; Chen, Yao Chi; Lim, Carmay

2010-01-01

326

Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

1996-01-01

327

Influences of Family Structure and Parental Conflict on Children's Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relative effects of membership in two family structures (married-never divorced vs. divorced-not remarried) and interparental conflict on children's well-being. Findings support the hypothesis that parental conflict influences children's well-being regardless of family structure. Implications of results for theory, research, and…

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

1998-01-01

328

Ethnic and Marital Differences in Family Structure, Risk Behaviors, and Service Requests Among Young Minority Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and marital status differences in family structure, risk behaviors and service requests among African American and Hispanic adolescent fathers participating in a community-based fatherhood program. Demographic factors, risk behaviors, and service requests were gathered at program entry. The results indicated that each group demonstrated distinct patterns associated with family structure, sexual

Lucinda Nevarez; Maxine L. Weinman; Ruth S. Buzi; Peggy B. Smith

2009-01-01

329

The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2011-01-01

330

The Long-Term Effects of Family Structure on Gender-Role Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 1972-1986 General Social Surveys data, investigated effect of family structure during adolescence on adult gender-role attitudes. Found family structure to selectively affect gender-role attitudes. Adults who grew up in single-parent household with divorced mother favored greater political power for women. Adults from intact and nonintact…

Kiecolt, K. Jill; Acock, Alan C.

1988-01-01

331

Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

332

Family structural issues and chemical dependency: A review of the literature from 1985 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the literature summarizes publications from 1985 to 1991 that viewed the chemically dependent family from a structural perspective, focusing on boundaries, roles, rules, and communication patterns. The review will provide an overview of structural issues with implications for therapy and suggestions for further research. Seven journals were reviewed and are as follows: Family Process, Journal of Marriage

Gail Mackensen; R. Rocco Cottone

1992-01-01

333

Family Structure and Reproductive Health Decision Making among the Ogu of Southwestern Nigeria: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the structure of the Ogu family and its influence on reproductive health decision-making using a qualitative approach. Data were sourced through nine focus groups organized in the study area among married men and women. The data reveal that the family structure in the study area is changing, although the dominant pattern remains extended. The findings of the

Onipede Wusu; Uche C. Isiugo-Abanihe

334

Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

2011-01-01

335

Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women’s Paternal Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race\\/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants’ evaluations of their paternal relationships. Father absence because of divorce or separation produced

Edythe M. Krampe; Rae R. Newton

2012-01-01

336

Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations…

Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

2012-01-01

337

Classification of Plant Lectins in Families Of Structurally and Evolutionary Related Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The majority of plant lectins can be classified in seven families of structurally and lutionary related proteins. Within a\\u000a given lectin family most but not necessarily all mbers are built up of protomers with a similar primary structure and overall\\u000a 3-D fold. The rall structure of the native lectins is not only determined by the structure of the protomers depends

Willy J. Peumansl; J. M. Damme; Annick Barre; Pierre Rougé

338

On the structural relations of malachite. I. The rosasite and ludwigite structure families.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of malachite Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) and rosasite (Cu,Zn)(2)(OH)(2)CO(3), though not isotypic, are closely related. A previously proposed approach explaining this relation via a common hypothetical parent structure is elaborated upon on the basis of group-subgroup considerations, leading to the conclusion that the aristotype of malachite and rosasite should crystallize in the space group Pbam (No. 55). An ICSD database search for actual representatives of this aristotype leads to the interesting observation that the structure type of ludwigite (Mg,Fe)(2)FeO(2)BO(3), which is adopted by several natural and synthetic oxide orthoborates M(3)O(2)BO(3), is closely related to the proposed malachite-rosasite aristotype and thus to the malachite-rosasite family of hydroxide carbonates M(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) in general. Relations within both structure families and their analogies are summarized in a joint simplified Bärnighausen tree. PMID:22436908

Girgsdies, Frank; Behrens, Malte

2012-03-20

339

Relation of Attachment Style and Family Structure In Homeless Girls and Effect of Family Therapy In Changing Their Attachment styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study as pretest_ posttest design attempts to assess family structure of runaway girls and their attachment styles at the first stage. The sample consists of 50 subjects from five centers including: juvenile justice system, crisis intervention of welfare center, counseling center of educational system, Reihaneh halfway and the prisoners of juvenile delinquencies. At the second stage 15 participants with

Farideh Hamidi

340

Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

2004-01-01

341

Towards a covering set of protein family profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary classification leads to an economical description of the protein sequence universe because attributes of function and structure are inherited in protein families. Efficient strategies of functional and structural genomics therefore target one representative from each family. Enumerating all families and establishing family membership consistently based on sequence similarities are nontrivial computational problems. Emerging concepts and caveats of global sequence

Andreas Heger; Liisa Holm

2000-01-01

342

Avoiding pitfalls in using structural VARs to estimate economic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural Vector Autoregressions with a differenced specification of hours (DSVAR) suggest that productivity shocks identified using long-run restrictions lead to a persistent and significant decline in hours worked. Economists have interpreted this evidence as showing that standard business cycle models in which a positive technology shock leads to a rise in hours are inconsistent with the data. In this paper

Martial Dupaigne; Patrick Fève; Julien Matheron

2007-01-01

343

The Economics of Structured Continuing Education in Selected Professional Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study determined what business administration considerations were elements in the managerial decision making process to include structured continuing education in a professional journal and what the positive or negative results have been in terms of operating benefits and profits. An initial literature review showed the need for exploratory…

Sasmor, James C.

344

Structural-ceramic research program: a preliminary economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced power systems for vehicles can potentially produce fuel efficiencies that greatly exceed those of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Recent work has focused on adiabatic diesel engines, gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and electric vehicle batteries. The heat engine technologies, however, are limited by problems involving mechanical strength at high temperatures. Structural ceramics, if they can be reliably mass-produced,

L. R. Johnson; A. P. S. Teotia; L. G. Hill

1983-01-01

345

The Structure of Families who Adopt Children from Foster Care  

PubMed Central

The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) gave incentives to states to expedite the adoption of children from foster care. Administrative data describe the changes in adoptive families from 1996 to 2003 in terms of the marital status and sex of the household head and in terms of the relationship of the parents to the child prior to adoption. Patterns in the way children with special needs were matched with different kinds of families are described. The data show that agencies have tapped the resources of families headed by single parents to provide permanency for older children and that older children adopted by fathers have spent more time as legal orphans than children adopted by single mothers.

Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

2009-01-01

346

Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

2004-01-01

347

New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes  

PubMed Central

Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN ? lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3?-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs.

Parker, Brian J.; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

2011-01-01

348

Can One-Parent Families or Divorced Families Produce Two-Language Children? An Investigation into How Portuguese-English Bilingual Children Acquire Biliteracy within Diverse Family Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school-aged Portuguese-English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in…

Obied, Vicky Macleroy

2010-01-01

349

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN IN DIFFERENT FAMILY STRUCTURES IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 60 percent of ever married women in the reproductive age group live in nuclear or subnuclear families. Those who live in subnuclear families are generally widowed or separated. They are on the average older than others in the extended types. Women in subnuclear families have a low literacy level and poor economic condition and are generally employed in low

I. K. PADMINI; S. KRISHNAMOORTHY

1994-01-01

350

Histone recognition and large-scale structural analysis of the human bromodomain family.  

PubMed

Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein interaction modules that specifically recognize ?-N-lysine acetylation motifs, a key event in the reading process of epigenetic marks. The 61 BRDs in the human genome cluster into eight families based on structure/sequence similarity. Here, we present 29 high-resolution crystal structures, covering all BRD families. Comprehensive crossfamily structural analysis identifies conserved and family-specific structural features that are necessary for specific acetylation-dependent substrate recognition. Screening of more than 30 representative BRDs against systematic histone-peptide arrays identifies new BRD substrates and reveals a strong influence of flanking posttranslational modifications, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, suggesting that BRDs recognize combinations of marks rather than singly acetylated sequences. We further uncovered a structural mechanism for the simultaneous binding and recognition of diverse diacetyl-containing peptides by BRD4. These data provide a foundation for structure-based drug design of specific inhibitors for this emerging target family. PMID:22464331

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Picaud, Sarah; Mangos, Maria; Keates, Tracy; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Felletar, Ildiko; Volkmer, Rudolf; Müller, Susanne; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Knapp, Stefan

2012-03-30

351

Economic Structure, Aggregate Production Functions and the Demand for Energy as an Intermediate Product: A Preliminary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the relationship between the price elasticity of demand for energy as a factor of production and differences in economic structure. A simplified model of general economic equilibrium is constructed utilizing a constant-elasticity-o...

G. M. Lady

1978-01-01

352

SCOP database in 2004: refinements integrate structure and sequence family data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. Protein domains in SCOP are hierarchically classified into families, superfamilies, folds and classes. The con- tinual accumulation of sequence and structural data allows more rigorous analysis and provides import- ant information for understanding the protein world

Antonina Andreeva; Dave Howorth; Steven E. Brenner; Tim J. P. Hubbard; Cyrus Chothia; Alexey G. Murzin

2004-01-01

353

"Breaking the Chain of Poverty": Family Planning, Community Involvement, and the Population Council/Office of Economic Opportunity Alliance.  

PubMed

The Office of Economic Opportunity-Population Council program is an example of a mid-twentieth-century federal government/private foundation cooperative effort to place family planning and maternal health at the center of a fight against entrenched poverty. These joint efforts were the trend in family planning and maternal health provision by the 1960s and had two overlapping but also contradictory goals. The first was to provide contraceptive services to poor women to reduce the numbers of poor children, thus relieving the poor of added mouths to feed. Popular fears of a population explosion, mounting welfare rolls, and an increase in the numbers of African Americans receiving welfare fueled this goal. The second aim, however, was to expand comprehensive maternal health services to help reduce poverty by increasing poor women's involvement in and control over the health institutions that could have significant impact on their lives. While the first goal pivoted on encouraging poor women to bear fewer children, the second sought to integrate poor women into community healthcare delivery systems. PMID:22700715

Nelson, Jennifer

2012-06-13

354

Associations between children's physical activities, sedentary behaviours and family structure: a sequential mixed methods approach.  

PubMed

This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands, United Kingdom, participated through questionnaires (n = 381) and semi-structured interviews (n = 62). The results indicated that boys and girls from single parent families spent more time in sedentary activities during the week and at the weekend (P < 0.01) when compared with their intact couple family counterparts. It was identified that children in single-parent families received less parental support due to a lack of time, transport and additional parental responsibilities that created a family environment that encouraged sedentary pursuits. Moreover, the barriers that encouraged sedentary activities also prevented children in single parent families from engaging in lifetime activities during the week. Children from intact couple families recorded more time in lifetime activities than those in single parent families (P < 0.01). Finally, children in two-parent families had more opportunities to engage not only in these activities individually but also in joint activities with their parents, further reinforcing these behaviours. PMID:21059801

Quarmby, T; Dagkas, S; Bridge, M

2010-11-08

355

Gender, Poverty, Family Structure, and Investments in Children's Education in Kinshasa, Congo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, Congo, focusing on how poverty, household structure, gender, and economic well-being affect investments in children's education. Increased economic well-being translates into greater attainment for both females and males, but does not necessarily reduce gender differences in school…

Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

2001-01-01

356

Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

2012-01-01

357

SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES IN BANGKOK, THAILAND: FACTORS AFFECTING CHILDREN LIVING IN SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a transformation in family structure in Thailand due to the changes in economic and social structures over time. Though not recorded in census data the rise in single-parent families can be expected due to a rise in divorce rates, that have been recorded, over the past decades. However, the literature on single-parent families is limited and little

Waruesporn Jiumpanyarach

2011-01-01

358

Tryin’ to Make It During the Transition From High School: The Role of Family Obligation Attitudes and Economic Context for Latino-Emerging Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to examine the role of familial and economic context in the decisions and behaviors of low-income, urban Latinos during the transition from high school. Thirty-two Latino emerging adults who graduated from a public high school participated in one-on-one in-depth interviews about their transition. Participants discussed family obligation attitudes as a central theme in

Bernadette Sánchez; Patricia Esparza; Yarí Colón; Katrina E. Davis

2010-01-01

359

Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children's Wellbeing During Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children’s achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement, and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement.

Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

2010-01-01

360

Modification Effects of Family Economic Status and School Factors on Depression Risk of Single-Father Family Children in Mid-Taiwan Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The incidence of single-parent families has increased significantly in Taiwan in recent years. Children born in single-parent families are predisposed to suffering from emotional problems. We aimed to determine if the children of single-parent families are more depressive than children from both-parent families, and to examine the individual and…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Fu-Gong

2013-01-01

361

Functional and structural analysis of members of the TorD family, a large chaperone family dedicated to molybdoproteins.  

PubMed

The trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase TorA, a DMSO reductase family member, is a periplasmic molybdoenzyme of Escherichia coli. The cytoplasmic protein TorD acts as a chaperone for TorA, allowing the efficient insertion of the molybdenum cofactor into the apoform of the enzyme prior to its secretion. This paper demonstrates that TorD is a member of a large family of prokaryotic proteins that are structurally related. Moreover, their genes generally belong to operons also encoding molybdoenzymes of the DMSO reductase family. Both the TorD and the DMSO reductase families present a similar phylogenetic organization, suggesting a co-evolution of these two families of proteins. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that the TorD and DmsD chaperones cannot replace each other and thus appear dedicated to specific molybdopartners. Interestingly, it was found that the positive effect of TorD on TorA maturation, and the partial inhibitory effect of DmsD and homologues, are independent of the TorA signal sequence. PMID:15073303

Ilbert, Marianne; Méjean, Vincent; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal

2004-04-01

362

Structural definition and substrate specificity of the S28 protease family: the crystal structure of human prolylcarboxypeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The unique S28 family of proteases is comprised of the carboxypeptidase PRCP and the aminopeptidase DPP7. The structural basis of the different substrate specificities of the two enzymes is not understood nor has the structure of the S28 fold been described. RESULTS: The experimentally phased 2.8 Å crystal structure is presented for human PRCP. PRCP contains an ?\\/? hydrolase

Stephen M Soisson; Sangita B Patel; Pravien D Abeywickrema; Noel J Byrne; Ronald E Diehl; Dawn L Hall; Rachael E Ford; John C Reid; Keith W Rickert; Jennifer M Shipman; Sujata Sharma; Kevin J Lumb

2010-01-01

363

Work–home conflict and facilitation across four different family structures in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how work–home conflict and facilitation vary among people living in different family structures in Norway, here conceptualized as: two-parent families; single parents; childless couples; and singles. The study used data from a Norwegian study on occupational health (N=2414). We hypothesized that respondents living in two-parent families experience more work–home conflict and facilitation

Siw Tone Innstrand; Ellen Melbye Langballe; Geir Arild Espnes; Olaf Gjerløw Aasland; Erik Falkum

2010-01-01

364

Global Structure of the Kerr Family of Gravitational Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerr family of solutions of the Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell equations is the most general class of solutions known at present which could represent the field of a rotating neutral or electrically charged body in asymptotically flat space. When the charge and specific angular momentum are small compared with the mass, the part of the manifold which is stationary in

Brandon Carter

1968-01-01

365

Family structure variations in patterns and predictors of child victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a national probability sample of 1,000 children aged 1017, youth from single parent and stepfamilies experienced higher rates of several different kinds of victimization compared with youth living with two biological parents. Youth in stepfamilies had the highest overall rates of victimization and the greatest risk from family perpetrators, including biological parents, siblings, and stepparents. Elevated risk in stepfamilies

Heather A. Turner; David Finkelhor; Richard Ormrod

2007-01-01

366

Structure and function in the p53 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of several p53 homologs has uncovered a p53 superfamily of transcription factors that can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The challenge now is to understand the similarities and differences between family members especially in terms of their regulation and potential for physical or genetic interactions with one another. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the

CH Arrowsmith

1999-01-01

367

Structural-ceramic research program: a preliminary economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Advanced power systems for vehicles can potentially produce fuel efficiencies that greatly exceed those of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Recent work has focused on adiabatic diesel engines, gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and electric vehicle batteries. The heat engine technologies, however, are limited by problems involving mechanical strength at high temperatures. Structural ceramics, if they can be reliably mass-produced, can make possible improved vehicle fuel efficiencies through higher-temperature operation and reduced vehicle weight. In this report, the macroeconomic impacts (effects on gross national product, employment, fuel imports, and balance of trade) are modeled for two scenarios, one in which the US dominates the commercialization of ceramics in heat engines throughout the 1990s and the other in which Japan dominates. The positive effects of US dominance were forecast to be substantially greater than the negative effects of foreign dominance due to two assumptions: (1) Japanese ceramic commercialization does not include the truck and stationary engine markets because of a lack of historical presence in these areas and (2) imports of Japanese cars with ceramic engines are legislatively limited to 30% of new car sales. Improved ceramics can also be substituted for superalloys containing strategic materials and thus reduce US dependence on foreign suppliers.

Johnson, L.R.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Hill, L.G.

1983-03-01

368

Associations of Childhood Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and Nonmarital Fertility across Cohorts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers associations among childhood family structure, childhood religious service attendance, and the probability of having a nonmarital first birth before age 30 for non-Hispanic White women born 1944 to 1964 using data from the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 5,995). We found that attending…

Wildeman, Christopher; Percheski, Christine

2009-01-01

369

Family Structure and Patterns and Psychological Adjustment to Immigration in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research examines the relationship of family structure (couple-based or single-parent, with or without a grandparent) and family patterns (role division, decision making, and quality of marriage) with the psychological adjustment (satisfaction, and emotional state) of immigrants. The sample included 236 new immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia who came to Israel between 1990 and 2001. The findings

Hadas Doron; Gila Markovitzky

2007-01-01

370

Influence of Family Structure and School Variables on Behavior Disorders of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of family structure and school variables on behavior disorders of children (N=1,162). Results indicated grade in school, sex, social class, ordinal position in the family, and teacher were important variables in the determination of behavior disorders. (Author)

Lindholm, Byron W.; And Others

1977-01-01

371

Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a survey of 7722 15–16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families,

Patrick Miller

1997-01-01

372

Family Structure, Institutions, and Growth: The Origins and Implications of Western Corporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a vast amount of literature that con- siders the importance of the family as an insti- tution. Little attention, however, has been given to the impact of the family structure and its dynamics on institutions. This limits our ability to understand distinct institutional develop- ments—and hence growth—in the past and present. This paper supports this argument by highlighting

Avner Greif

2006-01-01

373

Female-Headed HouseholdsImpact of Family Structure on Quarterly Expenditures for Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the impact of family structure (female headed without spouse present and two parent) on individual household member expenditures for clothing. Quarterly clothing expenditure data from the 1985 Consumer Expenditure Survey were analyzed via Tobit. Each family type was analyzed separately, and within each subsample, expenditures for women's, girls', boys', and infants' clothing were estimated. For each explanatory

Gail DeWeese

1993-01-01

374

Financial decisions as determinants of ownership structure : Evidence from Spanish family controlled firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to analyse how financial decisions influence corporate ownership structure of Spanish family and non-family controlled firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors derived two models in line with financial theory, which have then been estimated by using a sample of Spanish companies. Panel data methodology and estimation by the generalized method of moments allow

Julio Pindado; Chabela de la Torre

2008-01-01

375

Diverging family structure and “rational” behavior: The decline in marriage as a disorder of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past fifty years have witnessed a growing divergence in family structure by social class, income, education, and race. The goal is to explain why significant segments of the population are moving away from the traditional patterns of family and reproduction. Most demographers acknowledge that external and material constraints fail to account for most of the present dispersion by class

Amy L. Wax

2010-01-01

376

Mx Scripts Library: Structural Equation Modeling Scripts for Twin and Family Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a flexible tool to carry out genetic analyses of family and twin data. The basic model which decomposes the variance between and within families for a particular trait into genetic and non-genetic components can be generalized to multivariate and\\/ or longitudinal data, incorporate sex differences in parameter estimates, and model the effects of measured environment,

D. Posthuma; D. I. Boomsma

2005-01-01

377

Associations of Childhood Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and Nonmarital Fertility across Cohorts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers associations among childhood family structure, childhood religious service attendance, and the probability of having a nonmarital first birth before age 30 for non-Hispanic White women born 1944 to 1964 using data from the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 5,995). We found that attending…

Wildeman, Christopher; Percheski, Christine

2009-01-01

378

The ATP-binding cassette family: a structural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette family is one of the largest groupings of membrane proteins, moving allocrites across lipid membranes,\\u000a using energy from ATP. In bacteria, they reside in the inner membrane and are involved in both uptake and export. In eukaryotes,\\u000a these transporters reside in the cell’s internal membranes as well as in the plasma membrane and are unidirectional—out of\\u000a the

Veronica Kos; Robert Curtis Ford

2009-01-01

379

Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using\\u000a state-level panel data from the 1981–2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both\\u000a the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of

Craig Gundersen; James Patrick Ziliak

2004-01-01

380

Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood.  

PubMed

Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=4,538), we examine the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigate: (a) first, whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation behaviors; (b) second, which dimensions of family structure history are most predictive of children's later relationship formation behaviors; and (c) third, if the association between family structure history and young adulthood relationship formation differs by gender. Our findings provide evidence of an intergenerational link between parent relationship histories and their offspring's own relationship formation behaviors in young adulthood, over and above confounding factors. PMID:20890404

Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

2009-11-01

381

Children's Imaginative and Social Play in Relation to Family Structure, Maternal Stress, and Attitudes about Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the level of imaginative and social play of children in relation to family structure (single parent household versus dual parent household), maternal level of stress, and mothers' beliefs and attitudes about play. (BB)

Cornelius, Georgianna

1988-01-01

382

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

383

The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

2004-01-01

384

Oligomeric structure diversity within the GIY-YIG nuclease family.  

PubMed

The GIY-YIG nuclease domain has been identified in homing endonucleases, DNA repair and recombination enzymes, and restriction endonucleases. The Type II restriction enzyme Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily and, like most of other family members, including the homing endonuclease I-TevI, is a monomer. It recognizes the palindromic sequence 5'-CCGC/GG-3' ("/" marks the cleavage position) and cuts it to generate 3'-staggered ends. The Eco29kI monomer, which contains a single active site, either has to nick sequentially individual DNA strands or has to form dimers or even higher-order oligomers upon DNA binding to make a double-strand break at its target site. Here, we provide experimental evidence that Eco29kI monomers dimerize on a single cognate DNA molecule forming the catalytically active complex. The mechanism described here for Eco29kI differs from that of Cfr42I isoschisomer, which also belongs to the GIY-YIG family but is functional as a tetramer. This novel mechanism may have implications for the function of homing endonucleases and other enzymes of the GIY-YIG family. PMID:19361436

Ibryashkina, Elena M; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Solonin, Alexander S; Zakharova, Marina V; Siksnys, Virginijus

2009-01-30

385

The contribution of family structure and differentiation to identity development in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development. One hundred sixty-four female undergraduate students completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relationship Inventory (PRI), and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS) scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the SFIS-R and PRI scales indicated that two factors, Proximity-Differentiation and Generational

Linda M. Perosa; Sandra L. Perosa; Hak Ping Tam

1996-01-01

386

Can one?parent families or divorced families produce two?language children? An investigation into how Portuguese–English bilingual children acquire biliteracy within diverse family structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school?aged Portuguese–English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in bilingual studies on the issue of what happens when a single parent or non?residential parent

Vicky Macleroy Obied

2010-01-01

387

Poverty, affluence, and income inequality: neighborhood economic structure and its implications for health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we attempt to verify that neighborhood economic structure influences individual health over and above other individual characteristics, and to comparatively evaluate the effects of neighborhood concentrated affluence, concentrated poverty and income inequality in relation to individual health in the USA. We also explore physical environment, health-enhancing services, social hazards (crime) and social resources as mechanisms operating at

Ming Wen; Christopher R. Browning; Kathleen A. Cagney

2003-01-01

388

Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?  

PubMed

The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm. PMID:1469676

Tumwine, J K

1992-12-01

389

Effects of Changes in the Economic Structure on Energy Demand in the USSR and the US.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers in both the US and the USSR expect further reduction in their economy's energy use per output. An important factor underlying this trend is the shift in the structure of economic production away from energy-intensive sectors. This paper focuse...

Y. D. Kononov H. G. Huntington E. A. Medvedeva G. A. Boyd

1988-01-01

390

Pick Your Poison: Economic Crises, International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment and Leader Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural loans from international organizations impose large costs on the receiving nation. The decisions to accept such loans and then whether or not to implement the prescribed reforms are made with high stakes in mind. The domestic leader is most likely facing punish- ment for the current economic crisis, but what is her incentive to implement the arrangements if the

Laron K. Williams

391

Wood fuel for power generation at Wendel, California. Volume 2. Business structure and economics  

SciTech Connect

The business structure and operating approach recommended for economic procurement of wood fuel for the proposed Honey Lake hybrid power plant are covered including: (a) constraints, (b) availability of wood fuel, (c) business approach and organization, (d) cost of wood fuel, and (e) socioeconomic considerations.

Not Available

1981-05-01

392

Data Analysis Strategy for Revealing Multivariate Structures in Social-Economic Data Warehouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This research work,is aimed at the development,of data analysis strategy in a com- plex, multidimensional, and dynamic domain. Our universe of discourse is concerned with the data mining,techniques of data warehouses,revealing the importance of multivariate structures of social-economic data which influence criminality. Distinct tasks require different data structures and various data mining,exercises in data warehouses. The proposed,problem,solution strategy allows

Dale Dzemydiene; Vitalija Rudzkiene

2003-01-01

393

Family structure, victimization, and child mental health in a nationally representative sample.  

PubMed

Utilizing the 2008 National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), the current study compares past year rates of 7 forms of child victimization (maltreatment, assault, peer victimization, property crime, witnessing family violence and exposure to community violence) across 3 different family structure types (two biological/adoptive parents, single parent, step/cohabiting family) among a representative sample of 4046 U.S. children ages 2-17. The study also considers whether certain social-contextual risk factors help to explain family structure variations in victimization, and the extent to which victimization exposure accounts for family structure differences in distress symptom levels. Findings showed significantly elevated rates of almost all types of victimization among children in both nontraditional family types, relative to those living with two biological/adoptive parents. Factors associated with increased victimization risk in these families include high parental conflict, drug or alcohol problems, family adversity, and community disorder. A summary measure of children's exposure to multiple forms of victimization was the strongest predictor of distress symptoms. PMID:23631777

Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Hamby, Sherry L; Shattuck, Anne

2013-03-14

394

Rural families with a child abuse report are more likely headed by a single parent and endure economic and family stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief, which is based on data from the Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, finds that rural families who have been reported to Child Protective Services are more likely than urban families to have financial difficulties and high family stress, as well as grow up in single-parent households. To effectively address these issues, the brief urges policy makers to

Marybeth J. Mattingly; Wendy A. Walsh

2010-01-01

395

Family fingerprints: a global approach to structural classification.  

PubMed

Protein domain classification is a useful tool to deduce functional properties of proteins. Many software to classify domains according to available databases have been proposed so far. This paper introduces the notion of "fingerprint" as an easy and readable digest of the similarities between a protein fragment and an entire set of sequences. This concept offers us a rationale for building an automatic SCOP classifier which assigns a query sequence to the most likely family. Fingerprint-based analysis has been implemented in a software tool and we report some experimental validations for it. PMID:22809377

Casagrande, Alberto; Fabris, Francesco

2012-06-01

396

The impact of a small steady stream of income for women on family health and economic well-being.  

PubMed

Our primary aim to evaluate the impact of a small steady stream of income on family health and well-being among rural women employed part-time in a health project in Sarlahi district, Nepal. All 870 women applying for the job of distributing nutritional supplements in their villages completed a questionnaire prior to selection for employment, 350 of whom were hired and 520 who were not. A total of 736 women completed a second questionnaire 2 years later, 341 (97.4%) of whom had been continuously employed during this period, and 395 (76.0%) who had never been employed by the project. Changes in health and well-being over 2 years were compared between women who were and were not hired. Women who were hired were younger and better educated, but were similar in other regards. After adjusting for selection differences, employed women were more likely to save cash, buy jewellery, and buy certain discretionary household goods over 2 years than those who were not hired. Expenditures on children's clothing increased more for employed women, and their children were more likely to be in private schools at follow-up, but there was no impact on health and survival of children. Women with a small steady stream of income did improve their personal economic situation by savings and increased expenditures for children and the household. Longer follow-up may reveal impacts on health access and expenditures, although these were not evident in 2 years of employment. PMID:19280386

Katz, J; West, K P; Pradhan, E K; LeClerq, S C; Khatry, S K; Shrestha, S Ram

2007-01-01

397

Family structure and health, how companionship acts as a buffer against ill health  

PubMed Central

Background Health and well-being are the result of synergistic interactions among a variety of determinants. Family structure and composition are social determinants that may also affect health behaviours and outcomes. This study was performed to examine the associations between family structure and health and to determine the protective effects of support mechanisms to improve quality of health outcome. Methods Six hundred people, selected by multistage sampling to obtain a representative population of men and women aged 20–60 living in communities in Japan, were included in this study. Data regarding subjective views of one's own health, family structure, lifestyle and social support were collected through structured face-to-face interviews on home visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, height and weight were measured by trained examiners. The associations between family structure and health after controlling for demographics, lifestyle and social support were examined using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Subjects living alone were significantly more likely to be in ill health, as determined using the General Health Questionnaire, in comparison to those in extended families (OR = 3.14). Subjects living alone or as couples were significantly more likely to suffer from severe hypertension in comparison to those living in extended families (OR = 8.25, OR = 4.90). These associations remained after controlling for the influence of lifestyle. Subjects living only with spouse or in nuclear family had higher probabilities of mental ill health in the absence than in the presence of people showing concern for their well-being. Conclusion The results of this study infers that a support mechanism consisting of companionship and the presence of family or other people concerned for one's well being acts as a buffer against deleterious influence of living in small family that will lead to improved quality of health outcome.

Turagabeci, Amelia R; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

2007-01-01

398

Regular family structures observed in neutron resonance energies: Breathing model of the compound nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neutron resonances, which are long believed to be a form of quantum chaos, simple regular family structures are found for many even-even nuclei in the several tens of keV to MeV region. Resonance energies can be written by simple arithmetic expressions with good accuracies, where separation energies Sn and G play essential roles and where G?34.5MeV is almost equal to the Fermi energy. Family structures are described for the observed resonances in 40Ca, 54Cr, 64Ni, 90Zr, and 208Pb. Statistical probability tests are performed for the appearance of these family structures. A classical dynamic model of the compound nucleus is proposed where the recurrence of multiple oscillators produces “breathing” and seems to successfully reproduce observed resonance families.

Ohkubo, Makio

2013-01-01

399

The influence of using biogas digesters on family energy consumption and its economic benefit in rural areas—comparative study between Lianshui and Guichi in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of biogas digesters has improved the family energy consumption structure, promoted the development of livestock breeding and farm production in the countryside. Through the comparative study of the questionnaires filled out by individual families in Lianshui, Jiangsu Province and Guichi, Anhui Province, we figured out the different effects of biogas digesters in different areas on household energy consumption

Wang Xiaohua; Di Chonglan; Hu Xiaoyan; Wu Weiming; Jiang Xiaoping; Jiang Shangyun

2007-01-01

400

Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna

2012-01-01

401

Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Examining the Role of Administrative Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…

Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna

2010-01-01

402

Health, Family Planning and Well-Being in Indonesia during an Economic Crisis: Early Results from the Indonesian Family Life Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

After almost three decades of sustained economic growth, Indonesia is currently in the midst of a major economic and financial crisis. This paper seeks to contribute new evidence on three questions: who has been affected most by the crisis, how they have been affected and how they have responded to the crisis.

Elizabeth Frankenberg; Kathleen Beegle; Bondan Sikoki; Duncan Thomas

1999-01-01

403

Retirement in Dual-Career Families: A Structural Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural econometric model of retirement of dual-career couples is specified and estimated with panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. A coincidence of spouses retiring together, despite the younger ages of wives, suggests explicit efforts at coordination. The estimates suggest that one reason is a correlation of tastes for leisure. More important, each spouse, and perhaps

Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

2000-01-01

404

Low Income Russian Families Adopt Effective Behavioral Strategies to Maintain Dietary Stability in Times of Economic Crisis1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also

Anna R. Dore; Linda S. Adair; Barry M. Popkin

405

The structure of a family GH25 lysozyme from Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Lysins are important biomolecules which cleave the bacterial cell-wall polymer peptidoglycan. They are finding increasing commercial and medical application. In order to gain an insight into the mechanism by which these enzymes operate, the X-ray structure of a CAZy family GH25 ‘lysozyme’ from Aspergillus fumigatus was determined. This is the first fungal structure from the family and reveals a modified ?/?-barrel-like fold in which an eight-stranded ?-barrel is flanked by three ?-helices. The active site lies toward the bottom of a negatively charged pocket and its layout has much in common with other solved members of the GH25 and related GH families. A conserved active-site DXE motif may be implicated in catalysis, lending further weight to the argument that this glycoside hydrolase family operates via a ‘substrate-assisted’ catalytic mechanism.

Korczynska, Justyna E.; Danielsen, Steffen; Schagerlof, Ulrika; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J.; Wilson, Keith S.; Taylor, Edward J.

2010-01-01

406

Founding family ownership and the agency cost of debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impact of founding family ownership structure on the agency cost of debt. We find that founding family ownership is common in large, publicly traded firms and is related, both statistically and economically, to a lower cost of debt financing. Our results are consistent with the idea that founding family firms have incentive structures that result in fewer

Ronald C. Anderson; Sattar A. Mansi; David M. Reeb

2003-01-01

407

Founding Family Ownership and the Agency Cost of Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impact of founding family ownership structure on the agency cost of debt. We find that founding family ownership is common in large, publicly traded firms and is related, both statistically and economically, to a lower cost of debt financing. Our results are consistent with the idea that founding family firms have incentive structures that result in fewer

Ronald C. Anderson; Sattar A. Mansi; David M. Reeb

2002-01-01

408

Structural insights into the anti-HIV activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog lectin family.  

PubMed

Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ~66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to ?3,?6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties. PMID:22865886

Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M

2012-08-04

409

Structural Insights into the Anti-HIV Activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii Agglutinin Homolog Lectin Family*  

PubMed Central

Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ?66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to ?3,?6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties.

Koharudin, Leonardus M. I.; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M.

2012-01-01

410

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family\\u000a accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating\\/moderating\\u000a effects. This study examined a structural equation model

Nicole Elise Caporino; Jessica Morgan; Jason Beckstead; Vicky Phares; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

411

How Does Family Structure Affect Children's Outcomes? Evidence from the Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach to measuring the causal effect of family structure on a child’s outcomes. In a war, some fathers are killed in action and cannot return to their families. This creates a natural experiment in which the effects of a father’s absence can be tested. Using data from the U.S. Civil War, we find no evidence that

David M. Frankel

2007-01-01

412

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065 - a member of the IclR transcriptional factor family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 Angstroms resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed

R.-G. Zhang; Y.-C. Kim; T. Skarina; S. Beasley; R. Laskowski; C. Arrowsmith; A. Edwards; A. Joachimiak; A. Savchenko; Birbeck Coll

2002-01-01

413

Risk behaviours, victimisation and mental distress among adolescents in different family structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies have shown an elevated risk with regard to social and behavioural domains in adolescents of single parents.\\u000a However, the diversity of single parent families concerning gender of the resident parent has seldom been taken into account\\u000a when investigating the relation between family structure and children’s negative outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was\\u000a to investigate risk behaviours,

Beata Jablonska; Lene Lindberg

2007-01-01

414

Accessibility of Family Planning Services: Impact of Structural and Organizational Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study sought to determine whether selected structural and organizational characteristics of publicly available family\\u000a planning facilities are associated with greater availability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A survey was sent to 726 publicly available family planning facilities in four states. These included local health departments,\\u000a federally qualified health centers (FQHC), Planned Parenthood sites, hospital outpatient departments, and freestanding women’s\\u000a health centers. Usable

Lorraine V. Klerman; Kay A. Johnson; Chiang-hua Chang; Phyllis Wright-Slaughter; David C. Goodman

2007-01-01

415

Crystal Structure of ?- d-Xylosidase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a Family 39 Glycoside Hydrolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,4-?-d-Xylan is the major component of plant cell-wall hemicelluloses. ?-d-Xylosidases are involved in the breakdown of xylans into xylose and belong to families 3, 39, 43, 52, and 54 of glycoside hydrolases. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a member of family 39 glycoside hydrolase, i.e. ?-d-xylosidase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A-RI. This study also represents the first

Jin Kuk Yang; Hye-Jin Yoon; Hyung Jun Ahn; Byung Il Lee; Jean-Denis Pedelacq; Elaine C. Liong; Joel Berendzen; Maris Laivenieks; Claire Vieille; Gregory J. Zeikus; David J. Vocadlo; Stephen G. Withers; Se Won Suh

2004-01-01

416

High-throughput computational structure-based characterization of protein families: START domains and implications for structural genomics  

PubMed Central

SkyLine, a high-throughput homology modeling pipeline tool, detects and models true sequence homologs to a given protein structure. Structures and models are stored in SkyBase with links to computational function annotation, as calculated by MarkUs. The SkyLine/SkyBase/MarkUs technology represents a novel structure-based approach that is more objective and versatile than other protein classification resources. This structure-centric strategy provides a multidimensional organization and coverage of protein space at the levels of family, function, and genome. The concept of “modelability”, the ability to model sequences on related structures, provides a reliable criterion for membership in a protein family (“leverage”) and underlies the unique success of this approach. The overall procedure is illustrated by its application to START domains, which comprise a Biomedical Theme for the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) as part of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). START domains are typically involved in the non-vesicular transport of lipids. While 19 experimentally determined structures are available, the family, whose evolutionary hierarchy is not well determined, is highly sequence diverse, and the ligand-binding potential of many family members is unknown. The SkyLine/SkyBase/MarkUs approach provides significant insights and predicts: 1) many more family members (~4,000) than any other resource; 2) the function for a large number of unannotated proteins; 3) instances of START domains in genomes from which they were thought to be absent; and 4) the existence of two types of novel proteins, those containing dual START domain and those containing N-terminal START domains.

Lee, Hunjoong; Li, Zhaohui; Silkov, Antonina; Fischer, Markus; Petrey, Donald; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana

2010-01-01

417

Toward an economic design of reinforced concrete structures against progressive collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional discrete crack model based on the Applied Element Method is used to perform economic design for reinforced concrete structures against progressive collapse. The model adopts fully nonlinear path-dependent constitutive models for concrete and reinforcing bars. The model applies a dynamic solver in which post-failure behavior, element separation, falling and collision are predicted. First, the model is used to

H. M. Salem; A. K. El-Fouly; H. S. Tagel-Din

2011-01-01

418

Local bank office ownership, deposit control, market structure, and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests empirical associations between banking market structure, banking regulation, and subsequent growth rates in local real per capita personal income. Our findings suggest that out-of-market bank mergers or acquisitions need not, ceteris paribus, impair local economic growth, and may even have beneficial effects in rural markets with the possible exception of farm-dependent areas. These findings derive from empirical

Robert N. Collender; Sherrill Shaffer

2003-01-01

419

Non-invasive sampling of schistosomes from humans requires correcting for family structure.  

PubMed

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

Steinauer, Michelle L; Christie, Mark R; Blouin, Michael S; Agola, Lelo E; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Mutuku, Martin W; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mkoji, Gerald M; Loker, Eric S

2013-09-19

420

Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure  

PubMed Central

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations.

Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

421

Structural vibration passive control and economic analysis of a high-rise building in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance analysis of the Pangu Plaza under earthquake and wind loads is described in this paper. The plaza is a 39-story steel high-rise building, 191 m high, located in Beijing close to the 2008 Olympic main stadium. It has both fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) and buckling restrained braces or unbonded brace (BRB or UBB) installed. A repeated iteration procedure in its design and analysis was adopted for optimization. Results from the seismic response analysis in the horizontal and vertical directions show that the FVDs are highly effective in reducing the response of both the main structure and the secondary system. A comparative analysis of structural seismic performance and economic impact was conducted using traditional methods, i.e., increased size of steel columns and beams and/or use of an increased number of seismic braces versus using FVD. Both the structural response and economic analysis show that using FVD to absorb seismic energy not only satisfies the Chinese seismic design code for a “rare” earthquake, but is also the most economical way to improve seismic performance both for one-time direct investment and long term maintenance.

Chen, Yongqi; Cao, Tiezhu; Ma, Liangzhe; Luo, Chaoying

2009-12-01

422

One or two parents? Half or step siblings? The effect of family structure on young children's achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do children who live with both biological parents fare better than children in other types of family structures? Does the presence of step or half-siblings affect child well-being? This study examines the effect of family structure on young children's achievement addressing two sources of potential bias: (1) misclassification of blended families and (2) the omission of within-family and individual time-invariant

Lisa A. Gennetian

2005-01-01

423

Comparison of adolescent health-related behavior in different family structures.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the relationship between the family structures in which adolescents lived and their health-related behavior. This study, applying a cross-sectional descriptive design, investigated the hypothesis that family structure and level of parent education are strongly associated with health-related behavior in adolescents. Study subjects consisted of sixth to eighth graders drawn from six schools in Taipei and Kaohsiung between September 2002 and March 2003. Five hundred and forty-six youths, with a mean age of 13 years, participated in this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t test, and one-way ANOVA. Multiple stepwise regression was used to determine relationships between health promotion scores and family structure, parent level of education, gender and other variables. Results indicated that, when potentially confounding factors were controlled, adolescents living with both parents have healthier behavior than those living with a single parent. In addition, when potentially confounding factors were controlled, adolescents residing with both parents with relatively high educational levels only achieved higher healthy behavior scores in the dimensions of health responsibility, nutrition, and exercise. Further, adolescent females had substantially higher health-related behavior scores than their male peers in all dimensions, with the exception of "exercise behavior". Findings support the hypothesis that family structure and female gender are significant variables affecting adolescent health-related behavior. Research results are useful in developing intervention strategies to assist adolescents in single parent families. PMID:17370228

Chen, Mei-Yen; Shiao, Ya-Chu; Gau, Yueh-Mei

2007-03-01

424

Structure and Evolution of the Actin Gene Family in Arabidopsis Thaliana  

PubMed Central

Higher plants contain families of actin-encoding genes that are divergent and differentially expressed. Progress in understanding the functions and evolution of plant actins has been hindered by the large size of the actin gene families. In this study, we characterized the structure and evolution of the actin gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA blot analyses with gene-specific probes suggested that all 10 of the Arabidopsis actin gene family members have been isolated and established that Arabidopsis has a much simpler actin gene family than other plants that have been examined. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Arabidopsis gene family contains at least two ancient classes of genes that diverged early in land plant evolution and may have separated vegetative from reproductive actins. Subsequent divergence produced a total of six distinct subclasses of actin, and five showed a distinct pattern of tissue specific expression. The concordance of expression patterns with the phylogenetic structure is discussed. These subclasses appear to be evolving independently, as no evidence of gene conversion was found. The Arabidopsis actin proteins have an unusually large number of nonconservative amino acid substitutions, which mapped to the surface of the actin molecule, and should effect protein-protein interactions.

McDowell, J. M.; Huang, S.; McKinney, E. C.; An, Y. Q.; Meagher, R. B.

1996-01-01

425

Changes in the Formation and Structure of Black Families: The Impact on Black Women. Working Paper No. 182.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to dispel stereotypes about black family structures through an examination of the impact of demographic trends on black women. Topics covered include the following: (1) the structure of black families from the arrival of black slaves in North America through the 1950's; (2) the impact that the historical structure and…

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

426

Separate roles of structured and unstructured regions of Y-family DNA polymerases  

PubMed Central

All organisms have multiple DNA polymerases specialized for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) on damaged DNA templates. Mammalian TLS DNA polymerases include Pol ?, Pol ?, Pol ? and Rev1 (all classified as ‘Y-family’ members) and Pol ? (a ‘B-family’ member). Y-family DNA polymerases have highly structured catalytic domains; however, some of these proteins adopt different structures when bound to DNA (such as archaeal Dpo4 and human Pol ?), while others maintain similar structures independently of DNA binding (such as archaeal Dbh and S. cerevisiae Pol ?). DNA binding-induced structural conversions of TLS polymerases depend on flexible regions present within the catalytic domains. In contrast, non-catalytic regions of Y-family proteins, which contain multiple domains and motifs for interactions with other proteins, are predicted to be mostly unstructured, except for short regions corresponding to ubiquitin-binding domains. In this review we discuss how the organization of structured and unstructured regions in TLS polymerases is relevant to their regulation and function during lesion bypass.

Ohmori, Haruo; Hanafusa, Tomo; Ohashi, Eiji; Vaziri, Cyrus

2011-01-01

427

Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.  

PubMed

Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa. PMID:19941674

Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

2009-11-27

428

Economic development and the structure of the demand for commercial energy  

SciTech Connect

To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the relations between per-capita GDP and per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors. Panel data covering up to 123 nations are employed, and measurement problems are treated both in dataset construction and in estimation. Time and country fixed effects are assumed, and flexible forms for income effects are employed. There are substantial differences among sectors in the structure of country, time, and income effects. In particular, the household sector's share of aggregate energy consumption tends to fall with income, the share of transportation tends to rise, and the share of industry follows an inverse-U pattern.

Judson, R.A.; Schmalensee, R.; Stoker, T.M.

1999-07-01

429

Estimating a Structural Model of Causal Paths between Health and Socio- Economic Status: Evidence from European Older Workforce Surveys1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate a structural model describing a variety of dynamic causal paths that are likely to relate different health dimensions to different socio-economic measures. We use Asymptotic Least Squares (ALS) as a means of simultaneously testing such causal mechanisms between health status and socio- economic status. The ALS method provides an appropriate framework to account for important issues such as

Sandra Cavaco; Jean-Michel Etienne; Ali Skalli

430

The structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 81 endo-?-1,3-glucanase.  

PubMed

Endo-?-1,3-glucanases catalyze the hydrolysis of ?-1,3-glycosidic linkages in glucans. They are also responsible for rather diverse physiological functions such as carbon utilization, cell-wall organization and pathogen defence. Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 81 mainly consists of ?-1,3-glucanases from fungi, higher plants and bacteria. A novel GH family 81 ?-1,3-glucanase gene (RmLam81A) from Rhizomucor miehei was expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified RmLam81A was crystallized and the structure was determined in two crystal forms (form I-free and form II-Se) at 2.3 and 2.0?Å resolution, respectively. Here, the crystal structure of a member of GH family 81 is reported for the first time. The structure of RmLam81A is greatly different from all endo-?-1,3-glucanase structures available in the Protein Data Bank. The overall structure of the RmLam81A monomer consists of an N-terminal ?-sandwich domain, a C-terminal (?/?)6 domain and an additional domain between them. Glu553 and Glu557 are proposed to serve as the proton donor and basic catalyst, respectively, in a single-displacement mechanism. In addition, Tyr386, Tyr482 and Ser554 possibly contribute to both the position or the ionization state of the basic catalyst Glu557. The first crystal structure of a GH family 81 member will be helpful in the study of the GH family 81 proteins and endo-?-1,3-glucanases. PMID:24100321

Zhou, Peng; Chen, Zhongzhou; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Jiang, Zhengqiang

2013-09-20

431

Sequence Variations within Protein Families are Linearly Related to Structural Variations  

PubMed Central

It is commonly believed that similarities between the sequences of two proteins infer similarities between their structures. Sequence alignments reliably recognize pairs of protein of similar structures provided that the percentage sequence identity between their two sequences is sufficiently high. This distinction, however, is statistically less reliable when the percentage sequence identity is lower than 30% and little is known then about the detailed relationship between the two measures of similarity. Here, we investigate the inverse correlation between structural similarity and sequence similarity on 12 protein structure families. We define the structure similarity between two proteins as the cRMS distance between their structures. The sequence similarity for a pair of proteins is measured as the mean distance between the sequences in the subsets of sequence space compatible with their structures. We obtain an approximation of the sequence space compatible with a protein by designing a collection of protein sequences both stable and specific to the structure of that protein. Using these measures of sequence and structure similarities, we find that structural changes within a protein family are linearly related to changes in sequence similarity.

Koehl, Patrice; Levitt, Michael

2009-01-01

432

Phylogeny of the SOX Family of Developmental Transcription Factors Based on Sequence and Structural Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the SOX family of transcription factors are found throughout the animal kingdom, are characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding HMG domain, and are involved in a diverse range of developmental processes. Previous attempts to group SOX genes and deduce their structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships have relied largely on complete or partial HMG box sequence of a

Josephine Bowles; Goslik Schepers; Peter Koopman

2000-01-01

433

Crystal Structure of a pol ? Family Replication DNA Polymerase from Bacteriophage RB69  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the bacteriophage RB69 gp43, a member of the eukaryotic pol ? family of replicative DNA polymerases, shares some similarities with other polymerases but shows many differences. Although its palm domain has the same topology as other polymerases, except rat DNA polymerase ?, one of the three carboxylates required for nucleotidyl transfer is located

J. Wang; A. K. M. A. Sattar; C. C. Wang; J. D. Karam; W. H. Konigsberg; T. A. Steitz

1997-01-01

434

A family of structural genes for human lymphoblastoid (leukocyte-type) interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid sequences of tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from human lymphoblastoid interferon (IFN-alpha) have been determined. The results show that IFN-alpha consists of a family of proteins with at least five different, but homologous, primary structures. There appears to be little, if any, glycosylation of the major components of IFN-alpha.

Geoffrey Allen; Karl H. Fantes

1980-01-01

435

Evolution of Family 18 Glycoside Hydrolases: Diversity, Domain Structures and Phylogenetic Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin and its derivates have many industrial and medical uses. There is a demand for chitin-modifying enzymes with new or modified properties and as microorganisms are the primary degraders of chitin in the environment, they provide a source of chitin-modifying enzymes with novel properties. We have analyzed the diversity, domain structure and phylogenetic relationships between family 18 chitinases based on

Magnus Karlsson; Jan Stenlid

2009-01-01

436

Parental Knowledge and Its Sources: Examining the Moderating Roles of Family Structure and Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine patterns of parental knowledge and its sources (adolescent reports of disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental trust) among adolescents who differ as a function of family structure and race. Data are drawn from adolescents (N = 2,374, M = 14 years, SD = 1.68) participating in a school-based study. Adolescent…

Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce

2009-01-01

437

Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to…

Miller, John K.

2010-01-01

438

Culture, Family Structure, and Psyche in Hindu India: The “Fit” and the “Inconsistencies”  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Kakar rightly describes important psychological tendencies among upper-caste Hindu men, contradictory tendencies among these men might be a source of change. The dominant psychological orientation among Hindu women differs from the male orientation, which Kakar describes, causing tensions in Indian society that may be a second source of change. While Kakar is right to note that family structure and

Steve Derné

2000-01-01

439

Parental Knowledge and Its Sources: Examining the Moderating Roles of Family Structure and Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to examine patterns of parental knowledge and its sources (adolescent reports of disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental trust) among adolescents who differ as a function of family structure and race. Data are drawn from adolescents (N = 2,374, M = 14 years, SD = 1.68) participating in a school-based study. Adolescent…

Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce

2009-01-01

440

The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

2012-01-01

441

Combining Structure and Sequence Information Allows Automated Prediction of Substrate Specificities within Enzyme Families  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of the functional annotation of enzymes is not only the type of reaction catalysed by an enzyme, but also the substrate specificity, which can vary widely within the same family. In many cases, prediction of family membership and even substrate specificity is possible from enzyme sequence alone, using a nearest neighbour classification rule. However, the combination of structural information and sequence information can improve the interpretability and accuracy of predictive models. The method presented here, Active Site Classification (ASC), automatically extracts the residues lining the active site from one representative three-dimensional structure and the corresponding residues from sequences of other members of the family. From a set of representatives with known substrate specificity, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) can then learn a model of substrate specificity. Applied to a sequence of unknown specificity, the SVM can then predict the most likely substrate. The models can also be analysed to reveal the underlying structural reasons determining substrate specificities and thus yield valuable insights into mechanisms of enzyme specificity. We illustrate the high prediction accuracy achieved on two benchmark data sets and the structural insights gained from ASC by a detailed analysis of the family of decarboxylating dehydrogenases. The ASC web service is available at http://asc.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/.

Rottig, Marc; Rausch, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver

2010-01-01

442

Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

2012-01-01

443

Structural insights into glycoside hydrolase family 32 and 68 enzymes: functional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycoside hydrolases (GH) have been shown to play unique roles in various biological processes like the biosynthesis of glycans, cell wall metabolism, plant defence, signalling, and the mobilization of storage reserves. To date, GH are divided into more than 100 families based upon their overall structure. GH32 and GH68 are combined in clan GH-J, not only harbouring typical hydrolases but

Willem Lammens; Katrien Le Roy; Lindsey Schroeven; AndreVan Laere; Anja Rabijns; Wim Van den Ende

2009-01-01

444

The Structural Basis for Exopolygalacturonase Activity in a Family 28 Glycoside Hydrolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family 28 glycoside hydrolases (polygalacturonases) are found in organisms across the plant, fungal and bacterial kingdoms, where they are central to diverse biological functions such as fruit ripening, biomass recycling and plant pathogenesis. The structures of several polygalacturonases have been reported; however, all of these enzymes utilize an endo-mode of digestion, which generates a spectrum of oligosaccharide products with varying

D. Wade Abbott; Alisdair B. Boraston

2007-01-01

445

The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

2012-01-01

446

Circular dichroism spectra of langasite family crystals in the range of electronic transitions of structure defects  

SciTech Connect

The absorption and circular dichroism spectra of langasite family crystals are studied. Wide bands in the range of 285-500 nm that are related to the structure lattice defects are found. For all the crystals, these bands are in approximately the same spectral region, have identical structures, and can be attributed to one type of defects formed by cation vacancies and excess oxygen atoms in the optically active positions.

Burkov, V. I., E-mail: optikcentr@mail.mipt.ru; Perederei, E. P.; Fedotov, E. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Mill', B. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Pisarevskii, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-09-15

447

Polypeptoids: A Diverse Family of Sequence-Specific Heteropolymers with Stable Secondary Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis and characterization of a family of structured oligo-N-substituted glycines (peptoids) up to 36 residues in length, produced by an efficient solid-phase protocol that allows the facile incorporation of chemically diverse sidechains in a sequence-specific fashion. Certain polypeptoid sequences demonstrate stable, chiral secondary structure in the polymer backbone, despite its lack of mainchain chiral centers and hydrogen

Annelise E. Barron; Kent Kirshenbaum; Philippe Armand; Fred E. Cohen; Ken A. Dill; Richard E. Goldsmith; Kiet T. V. Truong; Erin K. Bradley; Ronald N. Zuckermann

1998-01-01

448

Sequence-Specific Polypeptoids: A Diverse Family of Heteropolymers with Stable Secondary Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized and characterized a family of structured oligo-N-substituted-glycines (peptoids) up to 36 residues in length by using an efficient solid-phase protocol to incorporate chemically diverse side chains in a sequence-specific fashion. We investigated polypeptoids containing side chains with a chiral center adjacent to the main chain nitrogen. Some of these sequences have stable secondary structure, despite the achirality

Kent Kirshenbaum; Annelise E. Barron; Richard A. Goldsmith; Philippe Armand; Erin K. Bradley; Kiet T. V. Truong; Ken A. Dill; Fred E. Cohen; Ronald N. Zuckermann

1998-01-01

449

Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of a family 18 exo-chitinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinase B (ChiB) from Serratia marcescens is a family 18 exo- chitinase whose catalytic domain has a TIM-barrel fold with a tunnel-shaped active site. We have solved structures of three ChiB complexes that reveal details of substrate binding, substrate- assisted catalysis, and product displacement. The structure of an inactive ChiB mutant (E144Q) complexed with a pentameric sub- strate (binding in

D. M. F. van Aalten; D. Komander; B. Synstad; S. Gåseidnes; M. G. Peter; V. G. H. Eijsink

2001-01-01

450

Family Structure and Patterns of Independence Giving to Adolescents: Variations by Age, Race, and Gender of Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between family structure and control attempts of parents with regard to their adolescent children. Findings reveal little difference between parental control attempts in lifelong intact families versus single-parents and stepparent families. Cohabitating parents demonstrated the greatest variation on adolescent control…

Bulcroft, Richard A.; Carmody, Dianne Cyr; Bulcroft, Kris A.

1998-01-01

451

Impact of Family Structure on Stimulant Use among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of family structure on pharmacologic stimulant use among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data Source Nationally representative, population-based sample of the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2003 linked with drug event files from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 1998 to 2005. Study Design Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of stimulant use for each individual during 2 years of observation after adjustment for sociodemographic, health, and family characteristics. Stratified analyses were also conducted to examine whether family characteristics had different impacts within single-mother and dual-parent households. Principal Findings Stimulant use varied based on children's sociodemographic and health characteristics. In multivariate analyses, associations between children's household structure, parental education, and stimulant use appeared to be mediated by children's access to care and health status. However, in full multivariate models, there remained a robust positive association between family size and stimulant use. Conclusions These findings highlight the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children.

Rabbani, Atonu; Alexander, G Caleb

2009-01-01

452

Economic change and health benefits: structural trends in employer-based health insurance.  

PubMed

Drawing on structural theories of economic outcomes, we investigated how economic change affects the distribution of health benefits, the main source of health insurance for American workers. Through an aggregate level analysis, we show how the effects of industry level characteristics on the level of health benefits change between 1988 and 1997. Due to the increased reliance on women, nonwhite workers, and part-time labor, we expect declines in the effect sizes of gender and race composition and proportion full-time. In contrast, we predict increases in the effects of proportion small firm employment, proportion union, and industry sector due to rising health care costs, the competitive economic environment, and greater union effectiveness. We analyze data from the March Current Population Surveys for 1987 to 1997 using generalized least-squares regression. The positive effect of proportion white increases over time, while the positive effect of level of full-time work declines. The negative effects of small firm employment and being a retail or nonprofessional service industry increase in magnitude. Both union activity and gender composition have stable effects over the period. The results challenge views of a declining significance of race and gender in the labor market. PMID:11357718

Cubbins, L A; Parmer, P

2001-03-01

453

Aperiodic Deterministic Structure of OCD and the Familial Effect on Rituals.  

PubMed

A dynamical disease is one in which the symptoms appear and disappear over time in a deterministic pattern that could be chaotic. By determining the dynamic structure of the temporal pattern it would be possible to gain some insight into the triggers for symptoms if not the disease process as a whole. The present study investigated whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be considered a dynamical disease because of the intermittent outbursts of ritual behaviors. One-week diaries were collected from 17 clinical cases with 16 matched controls to record both the occurrence of rituals as they transpired over time and the influence the family may have had upon the spatiotemporal structure of symptoms. Comparisons of nonlinear regression parameters and Lyapunov exponents revealed that OCD exhibited a low-dimensional deterministic structure. The average nonlinear model (R2 = 0.32) explained more than 10 times the variance of its linear counterpart (R2 = 0.03). Family reactions and emotional responses accounted for only a very modest increase in the variance explained by the nonlinear regression model or in the amount of turbulence. Family reactions and emotional responses do little to make the rituals go away, but instead may strengthen the dynamics. Finally, significant rank order correlations were found between the R2 for the time series for each logbook and Lyapunov exponents with symptom severity and family reactions. PMID:24011117

Bond, Robert W; Guastello, Stephen J

2013-10-01

454

New family of three-dimensional topological insulators with antiperovskite structure.  

PubMed

All known topological insulators are crystallographically related to either the noncentrosymmetric zinc-blende HgTe-type family or to the hexagonal centrosymmetric Bi2Se3 one. Through first-principles calculations, here we show evidence that under a proper uniaxial strain cubic ternary centrosymmetric antiperovskite compounds (M3N)Bi (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) are three-dimensional topological insulators. This proposed family of materials is chemically inert and the lattice structure is well matched to important semiconductors, which provides a rich platform to easily integrate with electronic devices. PMID:21231331

Sun, Yan; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Yunoki, Seiji; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

2010-11-17

455

Structural elucidation of dextran degradation mechanism by streptococcus mutans dextranase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66.  

PubMed

Dextranase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes dextran ?-1,6 linkages. Streptococcus mutans dextranase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66, producing isomaltooligosaccharides of various sizes and consisting of at least five amino acid sequence regions. The crystal structure of the conserved fragment from Gln(100) to Ile(732) of S. mutans dextranase, devoid of its N- and C-terminal variable regions, was determined at 1.6 Å resolution and found to contain three structural domains. Domain N possessed an immunoglobulin-like ?-sandwich fold; domain A contained the enzyme's catalytic module, comprising a (?/?)(8)-barrel; and domain C formed a ?-sandwich structure containing two Greek key motifs. Two ligand complex structures were also determined, and, in the enzyme-isomaltotriose complex structure, the bound isomaltooligosaccharide with four glucose moieties was observed in the catalytic glycone cleft and considered to be the transglycosylation product of the enzyme, indicating the presence of four subsites, -4 to -1, in the catalytic cleft. The complexed structure with 4',5'-epoxypentyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, revealed that the epoxide ring reacted to form a covalent bond with the Asp(385) side chain. These structures collectively indicated that Asp(385) was the catalytic nucleophile and that Glu(453) was the acid/base of the double displacement mechanism, in which the enzyme showed a retaining catalytic character. This is the first structural report for the enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66, elucidating the enzyme's catalytic machinery. PMID:22337884

Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kim, Young-Min; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Kimura, Atsuo

2012-02-15

456

Common and Distant Structural Characteristics of Feruloyl Esterase Families from Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Background Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. Conclusions/Significance Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for short listing the putative substrates prior to docking studies or for post-processing docking results to remove false positives. Our study exemplifies how computational predictions can complement to the information obtained through experimental methods.

Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Mapelli, Valeria; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

2012-01-01

457

Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase.  

PubMed

RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

2013-07-26

458

The Predictive Value of Parental Family Structure on Attitudes Regarding Premarital Pregnancy and the Consumption of Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last twenty-five years, researchers have become greatly interested in the predictive value of parental family structure on the subsequent behavior and attitudes of adolescents years later. Social scientists are increasingly interested on the predictive value of family structure on the attitudes of adolescents towards premarital pregnancy and their consumption of marijuana. The vast majority of these studies have

William H. Jeynes

2002-01-01

459

Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

1994-09-01

460

Economic costs and benefits associated with investments in pollution prevention structures  

SciTech Connect

Both fertilizers and pesticides are primary sources of surface and groundwater contamination in the US. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. The general objective of these programs is to provide research, development, and application of pollution prevention technologies and strategies for industries which market or use fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals. From an economic perspective, the installation of pollution prevention structures, as well as adherence to other regulatory requirements carries a real cost to the agrichemical retailer. However, there may also be benefits tied to the adoption of new technology that would offset some or all of the additional operating costs accrued as a result of investment in the environmental technology. This paper attempts to document the economic costs associated with investments in pollution prevention technologies and adherence to environmental regulations at TVA demonstrator sites; as well as the potential benefits an agribusiness dealer may accrue as a result of the environmental investment.

Simpson, G.S.

1995-09-01

461

Family structure transitions and changes in maternal resources and well-being.  

PubMed

This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether family instability is associated with changes in perceived social support, material hardship, maternal depression, and parenting stress among mothers of young children. In addition to accounting for the number of transitions that a mother experiences during the first five years of her child's life, we pay close attention to the type and timing of these transitions. We find that mothers who transition to cohabitation or marriage with their child's biological father experience declines in material hardship and that those who transition to cohabitation or marriage with another man exhibit modest declines in both material hardship and depression. Mothers who exit cohabiting or marital relationships encounter decreases in perceived social support and increases in material hardship, depression, and parenting stress. Overall, our results suggest that both the type and, to a much lesser degree, the timing of family structure transitions may influence maternal well-being. PMID:22215507

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M; Magnuson, Katherine

2012-02-01

462

Structural Basis of Membrane Trafficking by Rab Family Small G Protein  

PubMed Central

The Ras-superfamily of small G proteins is a family of GTP hydrolases that is regulated by GTP/GDP binding states. One member of the Ras-superfamily, Rab, is involved in the regulation of vesicle trafficking, which is critical to endocytosis, biosynthesis, secretion, cell differentiation and cell growth. The active form of the Rab proteins, which contains GTP, can recruit specific binding partners, such as sorting adaptors, tethering factors, kinases, phosphatases and motor proteins, thereby influencing vesicle formation, transport, and tethering. Many Rab proteins share the same interacting partners and perform unique roles in specific locations. Because functional loss of the Rab pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, the Rab GTPase family has been extensively investigated. In this review, we summarize Rab GTPase- mediated membrane trafficking while focusing on the structures of Rab protein and Rab-effector complexes. This review provides detailed information that helps explain how the Rab GTPase family is involved in membrane trafficking.

Park, Hyun Ho

2013-01-01

463

Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics

Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

464

Effectiveness Trial of an Intensive Communication Structure for Families of Long-Stay ICU Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Formal family meetings have been recommended as a useful approach to assist in goal setting, facilitate decision making, and reduce use of ineffective resources in the ICU. We examined patient outcomes before and after implementation of an intensive communication system (ICS) to test the effect of regular, structured formal family meetings on patient outcomes among long-stay ICU patients. Methods: One hundred thirty-five patients receiving usual care and communication were enrolled as the control group, followed by enrollment of intervention patients (n = 346), from five ICUs. The ICS included a family meeting within 5 days of ICU admission and weekly thereafter. Each meeting discussed medical update, values and preferences, and goals of care; treatment plan; and milestones for judging effectiveness of treatment. Results: Using multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between control and intervention patients in length of stay (LOS), the primary end point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in indicators of aggressiveness of care or treatment limitation decisions (ICU mortality, LOS, duration of ventilation, treatment limitation orders, or use of tracheostomy or percutaneous gastrostomy). Exploratory analysis suggested that in the medical ICUs, the intervention was associated with a lower prevalence of tracheostomy among patients who died or had do-not-attempt-resuscitation orders in place. Conclusions: The negative findings of the main analysis, in combination with preliminary evidence of differences among types of unit, suggest that further examination of the influence of patient, family, and unit characteristics on the effects of a system of regular family meetings may be warranted. Despite the lack of influence on patient outcomes, structured family meetings may be an effective approach to meeting information and support needs. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01057238 ; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov

Douglas, Sara L.; O'Toole, Elizabeth; Gordon, Nahida H.; Hejal, Rana; Peerless, Joel; Rowbottom, James; Garland, Allan; Lilly, Craig; Wiencek, Clareen; Hickman, Ronald

2010-01-01

465

Socialization or social structure: investigating predictors of attitudes toward filial responsibility among Chinese urban youth from one- and multiple-child families.  

PubMed

This study explores the influence of familial and social factors on the maturing cohort of China's one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibilities. Based on survey data collected in 1997 and 1998 among 777 Chinese young adults, this research found that family economic conditions had a significant impact on young adults' attitudes; higher family income was positively related to respondents' willingness toward accepting filial responsibility; higher educational levels, though positively related to respondents' attitudes toward xiao, were negatively related to their commitment to parent care when they foresaw job and care conflicts. Family socialization was not found to enhance young adults' attitudes toward filial responsibility. Sharing the same household with grandparents and having dependent grandparents in the family were negatively associated with respondents' sense of obligation for parental care. Further, only children born after the one-child policy implementation scored lower than other children in their willingness to provide parental care when they foresaw job and care conflicts. The author argues that social structure, rather than socialization, plays an increasingly important role in shaping one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibility in China, and will continue to do so in the future. PMID:15453140

Zhan, Heying Jenny

2004-01-01

466

Gender, poverty, family structure, and investments in children's education in Kinshasa, Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. We focus on the impact of poverty, household structure, and economic well-being more generally on investments in children's education and differences by gender in such investments. These issues are addressed using data from a 1990 survey that

David Shapiro; B. Oleko Tambashe

2001-01-01

467

Structural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family  

SciTech Connect

The NudC family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. The archetypal nudC gene from Aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. This family also includes nudF, whose human orthologue, Lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. Three paralogues of NudC are known in vertebrates: NudC, NudC-like (NudCL), and NudC-like 2 (NudCL2). The fourth distantly related member of the family, CML66, contains a NudC-like domain. The three principal NudC proteins have no catalytic activity but appear to play as yet poorly defined roles in proliferating and dividing cells. We present crystallographic and NMR studies of the human NudC protein and discuss the results in the context of structures recently deposited by structural genomics centers (i.e., NudCL and mouse NudCL2). All proteins share the same core CS domain characteristic of proteins acting either as cochaperones of Hsp90 or as independent small heat shock proteins. However, while NudC and NudCL dimerize via an N-terminally located coiled coil, the smaller NudCL2 lacks this motif and instead dimerizes as a result of unique domain swapping. We show that NudC and NudCL, but not NudCL2, inhibit the aggregation of several target proteins, consistent with an Hsp90-independent heat shock protein function. Importantly, and in contrast to several previous reports, none of the three proteins is able to form binary complexes with Lis1. The availability of structural information will be of help in further studies on the cellular functions of the NudC family.

Zheng, Meiying; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Burdette, Alexander J.; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Janczyk, Pawe; #322; ; #321; .; Derewenda, Urszula; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Caldwell, Kim A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (UV); (UAT)

2012-05-25

468

A diverse set of family 48 bacterial glycoside hydrolase cellulases created by structure-guided recombination.  

PubMed

Sequence diversity within a family of functional enzymes provides a platform for elucidating structure-function relationships and for protein engineering to improve properties important for applications. Access to nature's vast sequence diversity is often limited by the fact that only a few enzymes have been characterized in a given family. Here, we recombined the catalytic domains of three glycoside hydrolase family 48 bacterial cellulases (Cel48; EC 3.2.1.176) - Clostridium cellulolyticum CelF, Clostridium stercorarium CelY, and Clostridium thermocellum CelS - to create a diverse library of Cel48 enzymes with an average of 106 mutations from the closest native enzyme. Within this set, we found large variations in properties such as the functional temperature range, stability, and specific activity on crystalline cellulose. We showed that functional status and stability were predictable from simple linear models of the sequence-property data: recombined protein fragments contributed additively to these properties in a given chimera. Using this, we correctly predicted sequences that were as stable as any of the native Cel48 enzymes described to date. The characterization of 60 active Cel48 chimeras expands the number of characterized Cel48 enzymes from 13 to 73. Our work illustrates the role that structure-guided recombination can play in helping to identify sequence-function relationships within a family of enzymes by supplementing natural diversity with synthetic diversity. PMID:23075376

Smith, Matthew A; Rentmeister, Andrea; Snow, Christopher D; Wu, Timothy; Farrow, Mary F; Mingardon, Florence; Arnold, Frances H

2012-11-09

469

Structural Insights into the UbiD Protein Family from the Crystal Structure of PA0254 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The 3-polyprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase (UbiD) catalyzes the conversion of 3-polyprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate to 2-polyprenylphenol in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains two genes (PA0254 and PA5237) that are related in sequence to putative UbiD enzymes. A bioinformatics analysis suggests that the UbiD sequence family can be divided into two subclasses, with PA5237 and PA0254 belonging to different branches of this family. The three-dimensional structure of PA0254 has been determined using single wavelength anomalous diffraction and molecular replacement in two different crystal forms to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.3 Å, respectively. The subunit of PA0254 consists of three domains, an N-terminal ?/? domain, a split ?-barrel with a similar fold of a family of flavin reductases and a C-terminal ?/? domain with a topology characteristic for the UbiD protein family. The middle domain contains a metal binding site adjacent to a large open cleft that may represent the active site. The two protein ligands binding a magnesium ion, His188 and Glu229, invariant in the PA0254 subclass, are also conserved in a corresponding metal site found in one of the FMN binding proteins from the split ?-barrel fold family. PA0254 forms, in contrast to the hexameric UbiD from E. coli and P. aeruginosa, a homo-dimer. Insertion of four residues in a loop region in the PA0254 type enzymes results in structural differences that are incompatible with hexamer assembly.

Jacewicz, Agata; Izumi, Atsushi; Brunner, Katharina; Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter

2013-01-01

470

The Community Economic Development Tradition in Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada: Ideological Continuities and Discontinuities between the Antigonish Movement and the Family of Community Development Corporations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts activities and organizational structures of two Canadian community development initiatives: the Antigonish Movement and the Family of Cape Breton community development corporations. Finds ideological differences in the view of property and profit, governance and accountability, and role of education. Concludes that Antigonish is more…

MacAulay, Scott

2001-01-01

471

Growth of Family Businesses and Small Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study examines ownership structure and its affect on the growth of family businesses as compared,to small firms. A sample of small firms (735) examined,if goal conflict exists between managers and owners in small firms using regression analysis. Analysis suggests relationships in large firms may not be same in small and family firms. The use of economic variables in

Edward M. Hufft

472

More Hard Times Ahead for American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay considers the worsening plight of the American family from the perspective of major social-structural dynamics, such as decline of community, corporate-induced consumerism, invasion of professionals into family life, etc. Proposed is an invigorated vision of community life and the supportive political-economic conditions that can…

Forster, Michael; Linton, Thomas E.

1989-01-01

473

The Effects of Mexican origin family structure on parental monitoring and pre-adolescent substance use expectancies and substance use  

PubMed Central

Substance use among Mexican origin, low-income youths is a serious, but under-studied problem. This study examines the relationship between the structure of Mexican origin families (i.e. nuclear, single-parent, blended or extended), and the parental monitoring, substance use expectancies, and substance use reported by pre-adolescents. Family structure did not differentiate the substance use prevalence, expectancies or parental monitoring among the 1224 low-income, Mexican-origin fifth grade participants. Parents from all family types demonstrated similar levels of parental monitoring. More importantly, family composition was not related to pre-adolescents’ substance use. Other analyses showed that the relationship between substance use and certain demographic variables (e.g. gender, country of birth, language use) did not differ across family structures. The report concludes by discussing possible developmental and resiliency factors in Mexican origin families that would account for these findings.

WARREN, JENNIFER R.; WAGSTAFF, DAVID A.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.; ELEK, ELVIRA

2010-01-01

474

Structural-symmetry-related sequence patterns of the proteins of beta-propeller family.  

PubMed

It is still not very clear to what extent and how does the amino acid sequences of proteins determine their tertiary structures. In this paper, we report our investigations of the sequence-structure relations of the proteins in the beta-propeller fold family, which adopt highly symmetrical tertiary structures while their sequences appear "random". We analyzed the amino acid sequences by using a similarity matrix plus Pearson correlation method and found that the sequences can show the same symmetries as their tertiary structures only if we deduce the conditions of sequence similarity. This suggests that some key residues may play an important role in the formation of the tertiary structures of these proteins. PMID:17574887

Wang, Xiaochun; Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

2007-05-03

475

Synthesis-Guided Structure Revision of the Sarcodonin, Sarcoviolin and Hydnellin Natural Product Family  

PubMed Central

A sweeping structural revision of the sarcodonin natural product family (published structures: 1a–13a) is proposed after extensive studies aimed at their chemical synthesis. Key features of revised structure 1b include replacement of the N,N-dioxide moiety with an oxime, ring opening of the central diketopiperazine, and transposition of the terphenyl wing from the 1?-2? position of 1a to the 2?-3? position of 1b. This structure revision arose from the serendipitous synthesis of a benzodioxane aminal (44) whose structure was unambiguously determined by X-Ray crystallography and whose spectral properties bore considerable resemblance to the published data for the sarcodonins. A versatile new method for O-arylation of hydroxamic acids is also reported herein, as well as a manganese(III)-mediated ?-oxidation of hydroxamic acids to aminals.

Lin, David W.; Masuda, Takeshi; Biskup, Moritz B.; Nelson, Jonathan D.; Baran, Phil S.

2011-01-01

476

Two-stage association tests for genome-wide association studies based on family data with arbitrary family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Steen et al proposed a two-stage approach for genome-wide family-based association studies. In the first stage, a screening test is used to select markers, and in the second stage, a family-based association test is performed on a much smaller set of the selected markers. The two-stage method can be much more powerful than the traditional family-based association tests. In

Tao Feng; Shuanglin Zhang; Qiuying Sha

2007-01-01

477

Associations between family structure changes and children's behavior problems: the moderating effects of timing and marital birth.  

PubMed

Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,492), it estimates how changes in family structure experienced during 4 different developmental periods relate to concurrent and subsequent changes in children's behavioral trajectories. We estimate associations separately for children born to married and unwed parents to determine whether family instability has different associations with children's behavior across policy-relevant family types. Results indicate that changes in family structure during the first 3 years of life predict children's behavioral development more consistently than later changes, changes into a single-parent family have different implications for children's development than changes into a blended family, and changes in family structure matter more for children born to married parents than children born to unwed parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22866830

Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy

2012-08-06

478

Factor structure of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Family and Youth satisfaction surveys.  

PubMed

Two studies of the Mental Health Statics Improvement Project (MHSIP) Family and Youth consumer satisfaction surveys factor structure and psychometrics were conducted. In study 1, the 2002-2006 Youth Services Survey for Families (N = 6,007) was administered to parents of children receiving services, and in study 2, the 2002-2004 Youth Services Survey (N = 1,718) was administered to children age 12-18 receiving services. Factor analyses across both studies found five factors that strongly supported the hypothesized scale domains of outcomes, satisfaction, cultural sensitivity, participation, and access. Scales based on these factors had good reliability with an average coefficient alpha of 0.85. The average convergent validity correlation between scale scores from the parent and child surveys was r = 0.62. Overall, the results supported the structure, reliability, and validity of the surveys. PMID:23636620

Shafer, Alan B; Temple, Judith M

2013-07-01

479

Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers.  

PubMed

Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/? or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); O(max) (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); P(max) (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as "Persistence," reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and "Amplitude," reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement. PMID:22727784

Bidwell, L Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M

2012-06-13

480

Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers  

PubMed Central

Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/? or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); Omax (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); Pmax (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as “Persistence,” reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and “Amplitude,” reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement.

Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

2012-01-01

481

Family Structure, Mother–Daughter Relationship Quality, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Girls' Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 7,114 adolescent girls (4,269 White, 1,707 African American, and 1,138 Hispanic) and biological mothers from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined how family structure, girls' perceptions of mother–daughter relationship quality, and race and ethnicity related to girls' health risks. In general, results indicate heightened risk for both precocious events and

Michael J. Merten; Carolyn S. Henry

2011-01-01

482

Genomic Structure and Expression of STM2, the Chromosome 1 Familial Alzheimer Disease Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the gene STM2 result in autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer disease. To screen for mutations and to identify regulatory elements for this gene, the genomic DNA sequence and intron–exon structure were determined. Twelve exons including 10 coding exons were identified in a genomic region spanning 23,737 bp. The first 2 exons encode the 5?-untranslated region. Expression analysis of STM2

Ephrat Levy-Lahad; Parvoneh Poorkaj; Kai Wang; Ying Hui Fu; Junko Oshima; John Mulligan; Gerard D. Schellenberg

1996-01-01

483

Functional Classification of Amino Acid Decarboxylases from the Alanine Racemase Structural Family by Phylogenetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are involved in the biosynthesis of putrescine, which is the precursor of other polyamines in animals, plants, and bacteria. These pyridoxal-5#-phosphate-dependent decarbox- ylases belong to the alanine racemase (AR) structural family together with diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DapDC), which catalyzes the final step of lysine biosynthesis in bacteria. We have constructed a multiple-sequence alignment of

Heidi Kidron; Susanna Repo; Mark S. Johnson; Tiina A. Salminen

2006-01-01

484

Abuse of and dependence on alcohol in Swedish women: role of education, occupation and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, which is part of a multipurpose study on alcohol use among women, focuses on the association between education,\\u000a occupation, family structure and development of alcohol dependence or abuse in women. A total of 316 women were selected by\\u000a stratified random sampling from all women in a defined part of Gothenburg, Sweden. In a face to face interview,

K.-L. Thundal; P. Allebeck

1998-01-01

485

Proteins on the catwalk: modelling the structural domains of the CCN family of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CCN family of proteins (CCN1, CCN2, CCN3, CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6) are multifunctional mosaic proteins that play keys roles\\u000a in crucial areas of physiology such as angiogenesis, skeletal development tumourigenesis, cell proliferation, adhesion and\\u000a survival. This expansive repertoire of functions comes through a modular structure of 4 discrete domains that act both independently\\u000a and in concert. How these interactions

Kenneth P. Holbourn; Bernard Perbal; K. Ravi Acharya

2009-01-01

486

Structural insights into a new homodimeric self-activated GTPase family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human XAB1\\/MBDin GTPase and its close homologues form one of the ten phylogenetically distinct families of the SIMIBI (after signal recognition particle, MinD and BioD) class of phosphate-binding loop NTPases. The genomic context and the partners identified for the archaeal and eukaryotic homologues indicate that they are involved in genome maintenance—DNA repair or replication. The crystal structure of PAB0955

Stéphanie Gras; Valérie Chaumont; Bernard Fernandez; Philippe Carpentier; Fabienne Charrier-Savournin; Sophie Schmitt; Charles Pineau; Didier Flament; Arnaud Hecker; Patrick Forterre; Jean Armengaud; Dominique Housset

2007-01-01

487

State of Australia's Young People: A Report on the Social, Economic, Health and Family Lives of Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a comprehensive picture of how young Australians are faring by bringing together data from a variety of sources and drawing on the comments of young people themselves. Overall the report presents a positive picture, showing how important young people are to this country and why it makes good economic and social sense for…

Muir, Kristy; Mullan, Killian; Powell, Abigail; Flaxman, Saul; Thompson, Denise; Griffiths, Megan

2009-01-01

488

A Generation at Risk: Growing Up in an Era of Family Upheaval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the last three decades, remarkable transformations have occurred in the American family, including changes in economic well-being, gender roles, family relationships, and family structure. Based on a 15-year study begun in 1980, this book examines young Americans coming of age in the 1980s and 1990s among families experiencing these social…

Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

489

A structural basis for depolymerization of alginate by polysaccharide lyase family-7.  

PubMed

Alginate lyases depolymerize alginate, a heteropolysaccharide consisting of alpha-L-guluronate and beta-D-mannuronate, through a beta-elimination reaction. Their structure/function relationships are expected to provide information valuable to future industrial alginate processing and drug design for Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate biofilm-dependent infection, but much remains unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure at 1.0 A resolution and the results of mutational analysis of Sphingomonas sp. A1 alginate lyase A1-II', which is grouped into the polysaccharide lyase (PL) family-7. The overall structure of A1-II' uses a beta-sandwich fold, and it has a large active cleft covered by two short flexible loops. Comparison with other family PL-7 structures indicated that loop opening is necessary for substrate binding when the catalytic reaction is initiated. In contrast to the disorder in many side-chains on the protein surface, the three adjacent beta-strands at the center of the active cleft are well ordered. This results from hydrogen bond networks and stacking-like associations identical with those in other family PL-7 structures. Disruption of these interactions by site-directed mutagenesis (R146A, E148A, R150A, Q189A, and K280A) makes the protein insoluble or greatly decreases its activity. The A1-II' structure includes two sulfate ions in the active cleft. Ammonium sulfate was a potent inhibitor with a Ki of 2.5 mM, indicating that our structure represents a model of the inhibitory state. Results of mutational analysis and continuous hydrogen bond networks suggest that Arg146, Gln189, His191, and Tyr284 form an active center. Tyr284OH appears particularly crucial to the catalytic reaction, which is supported by sulfate ion binding and the proximity to the C5 and O4 atoms of subsite +1 in the model obtained by energy minimization calculations using tri-mannuronate. The structural basis shown by this study is similar in many respects to that of the family PL-5 enzymes. PMID:16081095

Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ogura, Kohei; Hashimoto, Wataru; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku

2005-09-01

490

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-05-11

491

The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-06-24