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1

Genetics, family structure, and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent biomedical research shows that roughly three-quarters of cognitive abilities are attributable to genetics and family\\u000a environment. This paper presents a growth model that characterizes the role of the intergenerational transmission of genes\\u000a and the effect of family environment on growth trajectories. If the average human or physical capital stocks are sufficiently\\u000a low, the model shows that the economy

Paul J. Zak

2002-01-01

2

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

3

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

4

Economic Conditions of Military Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

5

Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

6

Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

Sabi, Manijeh

7

Social Structure and Family Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

2010-01-01

8

Work and Family Balance: An Economic View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which people balance their work and family responsibilities is becoming increasingly prominent on the policy agenda. This paper uses an economic framework to explore the rationale for government policies to improve work\\/family balance. It finds that strongest economic grounds for government intervention are the effects that maternal work may have on children. The evidence, however, is not

Lindy Fursman; Veronica Jacobsen; Jason Varuhas

2003-01-01

9

Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

Dennis, Bobbye

10

Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

2009-01-01

11

Energy conservation via solar energy applications to multi-family and commercial structures. Volume 3: An energy, engineering and economic analysis of heating and cooling systems for multi-family structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy analysis was made for a multi family apartment model involving the heating, cooling, lumination and miscellaneous equipments energy consumption. The analysis compared various heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems with and without solar assistance to determine their merits on the basis of energy conservation and economic value. An electric resistance heating and electric air conditioning system were utilized

W. S. Fleming; T. Bender; T. Jagusztyn; P. Parkman; D. Sweetser

1977-01-01

12

Energy conservation via solar energy application to multi-family and commercial structures. Volume III. An energy, engineering and economic analysis of heating and cooling systems for multi-family structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy analysis was made for a multi-family apartment model involving the heating, cooling, lumination and miscellaneous equipments energy consumption. The analysis compares various heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with and without solar assistance to determine their merits on the basis of energy conservation and economic value. An electric resistance heating and electric air conditioning system were utilized

W. S. Fleming; T. Bender; T. Jagusztyn; P. Parkman; D. Sweetser

1977-01-01

13

Changing aspects of economic and family structures in Kal?rdasht, a district in Northern Iran, up to 1978  

E-print Network

population may have been unsettled. Since the 1930s the oentral government has been restrioting the migration of nomads and has attempted to make them sedentary; at the same time, eoonomic pressures have attraoted nomadic men away from pastoralism... migrants. At the same time, as a result of the changed economic system and the country's increased industrialization, more jobs were created and new opportunities became available in the urban centres. Thus urban centres began to attract people from...

Mir-Hosseini, Ziba

1980-12-02

14

Social Support and the Quality of Parenting Under Economic Pressure and Workload in Finland: The Role of Family Structure and Parental Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on how factors outside the home affect the quality of mothering and fathering. Economic pressure and workload were evaluated along with the compensating role of social support on parenting. Information was gathered from 842 mothers and 573 fathers including 139 single-mother and 21 single-father families. The results showed that the nature of the strains, together with parental

Jenni A. Leinonen; Tytti S. Solantaus; Raija-Leena Punamäki

2003-01-01

15

Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

2004-01-01

16

Family Economic Stress and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family process model is proposed that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. With a sample of 220 7th-grade girls living in intact families in the rural Midwest, the theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. In general, results were consistent with the proposed model. Economic

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1993-01-01

17

Is family planning an economic decision?  

PubMed

This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

Wunderink, S R

1995-09-01

18

The Economic Status of the African American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the economic status of the African American family in Cleveland (Ohio) and in the United states as a whole and describes a model of interactions of social forces and economic factors that have influenced the declining earnings of African American families. The proportion of African American families in poverty in the United…

Reed, Wornie L.

19

The Internal Organization of the Family: Economic Analysis and Psychological Advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYThis article shows that therapeutic advice for behavior within the family is to create a functioning property-rights system and to emulate voluntary transactions within a competitive economic market. The optimal organization of the family requires that relations are structured so that non-cooperative game playing is minimized and transaction costs are reduced. The article employs economic analysis to explain why ‘setting

Donald Wittman

2005-01-01

20

We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

2006-01-01

21

ECON 461: Economics of Gender and Family Seattle University  

E-print Network

and Outcomes This course will enhance students' understanding of the role of gender in the familyECON 461: Economics of Gender and Family Seattle University Fall 2013 Tuesdays and Thursdays 1 School of Business and Economics Office: Pigott 523 Phone: (206) 296-2803 Email: bgh@seattleu.edu Office

Carter, John

22

The Family Economic Environment as a Context for Children's Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinally examines how the complexities of the family economic environment may affect children's health, behavior, and ideas about the world of work. Family economic factors considered include father's/mother's work status (especially parental unemployment); per-capita income; health insurance; father's job security; and satisfaction with…

Farran, Dale Clark; Margolis, Lewis H.

1987-01-01

23

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

Barnett, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

24

Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic

Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

2010-01-01

25

Ethics Education in Family and Consumer Economics: Perspectives and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the conceptual frameworks of consequentialist and nonconsequentialist ethics as examples of two common and competing moral perspectives. Suggests possibilities for applications of ethics to issues that are common in consumer and family economics curricula. (Author/JOW)

Peterson, Audrey L.

1993-01-01

26

Essays in population and family economics  

E-print Network

(cont.) observed in several Western countries. Finally, the third chapter evaluates the labor market effects of public subsidies to families with children. Using variation in the level of benefits provided by a policy ...

León, Alexis, 1977-

2004-01-01

27

Children's mental health in times of economic recession: replication and extension of the family economic stress model in Finland.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation models showed that the FESM fit the data well, indicating its generalizability in Finnish society. The results confirmed that a reduction in disposable family income constitutes a risk for child mental health through increased economic pressure and negative changes in parental mental health, marital interaction, and parenting quality. Controlling the children's prerecession mental health substantiated that economic hardship can lead to deterioration in children's mental health. Alternative models based on fully recursive analyses revealed reciprocal influences between parents and their children over time: Children's prerecession mental health problems predicted compromised parenting, which in turn contributed to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms during the recession. PMID:15122967

Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

2004-05-01

28

Coping with Family Conflict and Economic Strain: The Adolescent Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested two models of family economic problems and adolescent psychological adjustment. Found that the models did not differ according to age or gender, nor whether subjects lived with two parents or fewer. Found no support for coping as a moderator of stress. Reviewed implications and suggestions for future research involving coping with economic

Wadsworth, Martha E.; Compas, Bruce E.

2002-01-01

29

Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2005-01-01

30

Wives' Off-Farm Employment, Farm Family Economic Status, and Family Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined farm families with and without employed wife on economic and relationship status. Data from 1,067 farm spouses revealed that, compared to families with nonemployed wives, families with employed wives had higher debt loads, wives who worked longer hours in all production, wives who were less satisfied with marital relationship, and…

Godwin, Deborah D.; And Others

1991-01-01

31

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

32

The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.  

PubMed

Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

33

Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume III: Analyses of the First Six Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume focuses on the main issues to which the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was directed--the determinants of the changing economic fortunes of black and white families. The economic status of the families studied, patterns of transition, and changes in the structure of the families and their relationship to changes in economic activity are…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

34

Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.

35

Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple family dwelling for upstate New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple family dwelling in three upstate New York cities, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse was studied. Specifically, two passive solar applications, a Trombe wall and direct gain system, for a nine unit structure were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. city specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

Laquatra, J., Jr.

1982-02-01

36

Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

2013-01-01

37

President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates…

Lindjord, Denise

2003-01-01

38

For love and money? The impact of family structure on family income.  

PubMed

What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and cohabiting households, for example, can benefit from economies of scale and from having two adult earners. The availability of child support for single-parent families and the marriage penalties in the tax and transfer system reduce but rarely completely offset the economic benefits of marriage. Consistent with these expectations, national data on family income show that across all races and for a variety of income measures, children in lone-parent families (single-parent households with no cohabiter) have less family income and are more likely to be poor than children in married-parent families. Cohabiting families are generally better off economically than lone-parent families, but considerably worse off than married-parent families. Thomas and Sawhill acknowledge the possibility that the link between famlily structure and family resources may not be causal. But new research that simulates niarriages between existing single mothers and unattached men with similar characteristics suggests that family structure does affect family resources and that child poverty rates would drop substantially if these mothers were to marry. It does not necessarily follow, however, that policymakers ought to, or even can, do anything about family structure. Marriage is not an economic cure-all for the complex problem of child poverty. It would be a mistake for policymakers to focus on promoting marriage to the exclusion of encouraging and rewarding work or addressing problems such as early out-of-wedlock childbearing. Still, Thomas and Sawhill conclude that a continuation of recent declines in single parenthood, linked most recently to declines in teen and out-of-wedlock births, offers great promise for improving the economic welfare of U.S. children. PMID:16158730

Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

2005-01-01

39

Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

Scholl, Jan

40

Family Structure and Adolescent Labor Market Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that focusing on only one type of fragile family structure—generally single-parent families, without distinguishing\\u000a how these families were formed—obscures important processes and mechanisms among different types of families. We focus on\\u000a a specific adolescent risk behavior, high-intensity work, and theorize that adolescents in certain types of fragile families\\u000a will work more hours because of financial need, while teens

Mikaela J. Dufur; Kelly P. Troutman

41

Social and economic change, intergenerational relationships, and family formation in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of social change and economic growth on intergenerational relationships and the formation of families in Taiwan. Using data from two island-wide surveys in 1973 and 1980, the analysis shows that, as expected, social change has been accompanied by rapid changes in family structure and relationships, including the spread of schooling, the employment of young people outside the family, increasing separation of the residences of parents and children before and after marriage, growing independence of young people, and increases in premarital sex and pregnancies. The position of a family in the social structure also influences the way young people interact with their parents and form their own families: women with educated fathers have more nonfamilial experiences than others, and farm origins tend to exert a traditional influence on the life course. Finally, experiences early in the life course have important ramifications for later behavior and transitions. PMID:6519319

Thornton, A; Chang, M C; Sun, T H

1984-11-01

42

Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…

Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

2008-01-01

43

The Effects of Gender and Family Structure on Family Functioning of African American College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers examined the effects of gender and family structure on family functioning of African American college students. The independent variables in this research project were family structure and socio-demographic variables (age, classification, and gender). The specific family structures of interest are Dual Intact Families, Single-Parent Families, and Extended Families. The dependent variable of family functioning was measured by the

Fernelle L. Warren; Barry S. Davidson

44

Discrimination, Sex Roles, and Changing Family Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of discrimination against families within the context of changing sex roles and the growing diversity of family structure is discussed in this paper. It begins with an analysis of underlying social trends, then focuses on sex discrimination and discrimination against different family types and concludes with an interpretation of…

Giele, Janet Zollinger

45

Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.  

PubMed

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

2010-05-01

46

Family structure and eating behavior disorders.  

PubMed

Introduction. The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. Methodology. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Results. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. Conclusions. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs. PMID:25388769

Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther

2014-11-01

47

Depressive Affect and Restraint in Early Adolescents: Relationships with Family Structure, Family Process and Friendship Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between depressive affect and restraint and family and friendship variables in 103 unselected sixth graders (56 girls). Family measures included family structure (intact vs. two-parent families) and four family processes; communication with father, communication with mother, family cohesion and family adaptability. In addition, friendship support was assessed. Family structure was related to depression, but not

S. Shirley Feldman; Judith L. Rubenstein; Carol Rubin

1988-01-01

48

Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

2008-01-01

49

How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

2008-01-01

50

Industrialization and Family Structure in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between industrialization and family structure in Hong Kong. Findings show that, as the development of industrialization increases, there have been corresponding changes in the structure of the family which evolves from a broken extended form, to a settled stem one, and currently toward a nuclear one. (Author)

Wong, Fai-Ming

1975-01-01

51

The Network Structure of Economic Output  

E-print Network

Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

Hidalgo, Cesar A.

52

Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.  

PubMed

Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

Schmeer, Kammi K

2013-10-01

53

Family Structure and Child Well-being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families N=35,938 were used to examine the relationship between family structure and child well-being. I extended prior research by including children in two-biological-parent cohabiting families, as well as co-habiting stepfamilies, in an investigation of the roles of economic and parental resources…

Brown, Susan L.

2004-01-01

54

Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-01-01

55

Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure.  

PubMed

Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren's preferences regarding intimate personal contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/2006' (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years completed the semi-structured questionnaire. The analyses included only adolescents living in households with at least one birth parent. The subjects were 4,389 schoolchildren (2,178 boys and 2,211 girls), who were divided into three groups based on: (1) suicidal thoughts, with or without depressive feelings; (2) depressive feelings; and (3) neither suicidal thoughts nor depressive feelings. Multinomial logistic regression was used. The proportion of depressive feelings increased with age for both boys and girls. Girls expressed depressive feelings more frequently than boys from ages 13 and 15 years, and suicidal thoughts from age 15 years. Self-reported satisfaction with relationships in the family reduced the likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. Good communication with the parents reduced the likelihood of suicidal thoughts in all age groups. Adolescents who were satisfied with their family relationships suffered less frequently from depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. The best environment for an adolescent was a family with both birth parents. Of the adolescents in 'non-intact' families, those with a step-parent in the family showed suicidal thoughts more frequently than those in single-parent families. Associations between family-related variables and suicidal thoughts were significant even after adjusting for family economic deprivation score. PMID:19946721

Samm, Algi; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Kõlves, Kairi; Aasvee, Katrin; Värnik, Airi

2010-05-01

56

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Families of Children with Down Syndrome and the Economic Impacts of Child Disability on Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the research examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of families of children with Down syndrome as well as how Down syndrome and other disabilities impact the economic situations of families. Two consistent demographic patterns are found. First, parents of children with Down syndrome on average are older than parents of other children. Second, families of children with

Scott D. Grosse

2010-01-01

57

Assessing the Economic Impact of the AOK Family Child Care Licensing Program  

E-print Network

Assessing the Economic Impact of the AOK Family Child Care Licensing Program William Waite, Analyst Child Care Licensing Economic Impact Page 2 of 55 Table of Contents 1 Executive Summary.................................................................................24 6.1 Quality and Availability of Child Care

Holsinger, Kent

58

The Family Economic Strain Scale: Development and Evaluation of the Instrument with Single and Two-Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure economic strain in single-parent and two-parent families. The Family Economic Strain Scale (FESS) originally contains 25 items. Thirteen items is adapted from previous research and 12 are developed for the study. The FESS is pilot tested using data from a sample of 59 single-mother, 12 single-father, and 164

Jeanne M. Hilton; Esther L. Devall

1997-01-01

59

Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

Leach, Mark A.

2010-01-01

60

Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

2008-01-01

61

Child Poverty and Family Structure In Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between family structure and child poverty in Canada over the 1981-1997 period. While recognising the many methodological and conceptual difficulties encountered in efforts to document child poverty over time, two alternate indicators are used, Statistics Canada’s official low income cut-offs, and an alternate indicator of \\

Don Kerr; Roderic Beaujot

2001-01-01

62

The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.  

PubMed Central

The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds. PMID:8761444

Flower, D R

1996-01-01

63

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

64

For Love "and" Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and…

Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

2005-01-01

65

Consumer-Directed Supports: Economic, Health, and Social Outcomes for Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses,…

Caldwell, Joe

2006-01-01

66

The Effect of Economic Stability on Family Stability among Welfare Recipients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main rationale for defining two-parent families eligible for welfare was to keep families intact by eliminating an incentive for union dissolution. But there are other reasons for family instability, most notably women's reduced economic gain from marriage associated with having a chronically unemployed husband. This article explores the…

Lewin, Alisa C.

2005-01-01

67

Do Economic Stresses Influence Child Work Hours on Family Farms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work.Objective: To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between 2001 and October 2003.Methods: This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field

Anne Gadomski; Rachel de Long; Patrick Burdick; Paul Jenkins

2005-01-01

68

The effects of gender and family structure on family functioning and problem-solving skills of African American college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This researcher investigated the effects of gender and family structure on family functioning and problem-solving skills of African American college students. The Independent Variables in this research project were family structure, and sociodemographic variables (age, classification, gender). The specific family structures of interest are Dual Intact Families, Single-Parent Families, and Extended Families. The two dependent variables of family functioning and

Fernelle Lekoyne Warren

2000-01-01

69

Using Minuchin's structural family therapy techniques with Italian-American families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Italian-American families have general characteristics about which family therapists should be informed in order to select appropriate and effective family therapy for this cultural group. The author identifies Minuchin's structural family therapy techniques as relevant for working with Italian-American families, adding a note of personal validation of the need and efficacy of the Minuchin approach.

M. Elaine Yaccarino

1993-01-01

70

Structured Group Counseling and Bibliotherapy as In-School Strategies for Preventing Problems in Children from Changing Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The change in family structure precipitated by divorce, separation, death and other parental absences often creates psychological, social and economic problems for some individuals. Of specific interest to school counselors are findings about the effect of changed family structure on children's in-school behavior. The effectiveness of structured

Sheridan, John T.

71

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

72

The Economics of Land Consolidation in Family Farms of Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the current situation with fragmentation of family farms in Moldova and its effects on family well-being and farm productivity. A key hypothesis is that consolidation of agricultural land in Moldova has beneficial effects in terms of productivity and is desirable in the long run. We examine the case for market-driven land consolidation using data from several recent

Dragos Cimpoies; Zvi Lerman; Anatol Racul

2009-01-01

73

Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

Fortin, P. E.

1985-01-01

74

Birth order, family size, and achievement: family structure and wage determination.  

PubMed

The influence of birth order and childhood family size on future achievement is discussed. Two major empirical findings are presented by the author. "First, neither birth order nor childhood family size significantly influences the level or growth rate of wages, a result that is consistent with previous research. Second, family size is both a statistically and economically significant determinant of women's employment status: women from small families work less than women from large families when they are young and more than women from large families when they are more mature." The geographical focus is on the United States. PMID:12317089

Kessler, D

1991-10-01

75

Family Structure, Parent-Child Communication, and Adolescent Participation in Family Consumer Tasks and Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the theoretical perspective of consumer socialization, this exploratory study examined the single-parent family context with respect to adolescent participation in family consumer activities. Specifically, the relationships between family structure, parent-child communication as related to consumer issues, and adolescent participation in family consumer tasks and decisions were studied. Findings confirmed that family structure is related to parent-child communication and to

Marie J. Lachance; Frédéric Legault; Nérée Bujold

2000-01-01

76

The Effects of Family Structure and SES on Family Processes in Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates parent-adolescent relationships focusing on the effects of dyadic communication, family cohesion, family structure, and socioeconomic status on family conflict in three ethnic groups: African-American, Mexican-American, and Euro-American. Results showed three-year increases in family conflict in each group. Reports significant…

Baer, Judith

1999-01-01

77

Inter-relationships between the economic and emotional consequences of colorectal cancer for patients and their families: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background While the evidence-base concerning the economic impact of cancer for patients and their families/carers has grown in recent years, there is little known about how emotional responses to cancer influence this economic impact. We investigated the economic costs of cancer in the context of patients’ emotions and how these both shaped the patient and family burden. Methods Health professionals from six hospitals invited patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (ICD10 C18-C20) within the previous year to take part in the study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients and, where available, a family member. Interviews covered medical and non-medical costs incurred as a result of cancer and the impact of these on the lives of the patient and their family. Interviews were audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and these data were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis. Results Twenty-two patients with colorectal cancer (17 colon and 5 rectal; 14 women and 8 men) were interviewed; 6 were accompanied by a family member. Important cancer-related financial outlays included: travel and parking associated with hospital appointments; costs of procedures; increased household bills; and new clothing. Cancer impacted on employed individuals’ ability to work and depressed their income. The opportunity cost of informal care for carers/family members, especially immediately post-diagnosis, was a strong theme. All patients spoke of the emotional burden of colorectal cancer and described how this burden could lead to further costs for themselves and their families by limiting work and hindering their ability to efficiently manage their expenses. Some patients also spoke of how economic and emotional burdens could interact with each other. Support from employers, family/carers and the state/health services and patients’ own attitudes influenced this inter-relationship. Conclusions The economic impact of colorectal cancer on patients and their families is complex. This study suggests that the economic costs and the emotional impact of cancer are often related and can exacerbate each other, but that various factors can meditate this inter-relationship. PMID:22676509

2012-01-01

78

Family Stress and Cultural Adaptation: Home Economics Needs Of Lao Hmong Refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study of a random sample of Lao Hmong refugees in Nebraska examined the change in need that occurred between 1980 and 1985 for the fol lowing home economics areas: housing, employment, family relations, family finance, nutrition, clothing, and social environment. A questionnaire translated into the Hmong language was used. Change was interpreted using McCubbin's stress theory and Maslow's

William H. Meredith; Douglas A. Abbott; Sheron L. Cramer

1986-01-01

79

Social and Economic Aspects of the Family in an Italian Peripheral Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

From analyses carried out in the 70s, the family emerges as a system of economic management and a complement to Market and State. Besides having been of undeniable importance in terms of a more detailed perception of the family as a whole in Italian society, this result has also attributed greater possibilities of interpretation to the models of analysis of

Patrizia David; Giovanna Vicarelli

1989-01-01

80

The Development of Interpersonal Aggression during Adolescence: The Importance of Parents, Siblings, and Family Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent growth curve modeling employed data from a longitudinal study of 451 sibling families to examine parents, siblings, and family economics as factors in individual differences in the developmental course of interpersonal aggression during adolescence. Findings suggest that individual change in interpersonal aggression during adolescence can…

Williams, Shannon Tierney; Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Blozis, Shelley A.

2007-01-01

81

Future Families in a Nation At Risk: The Promise and Potential of Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss problems of the present in families: functional illiteracy; violence and abuse; adolescent pregnancy; dual earner, single parent, and blended families; alcohol and drug abuse; ethnic diversity; and the aging of America. How high school home economics programs can help with these issues is explored. (CT)

Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Haley, Elizabeth G.

1985-01-01

82

Rescuing the American Dream: Halting the Economic Freefall of Today's Young Families with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1973, families headed by someone younger than 30 years of age have experienced a collapse in the value of their incomes, a surge in poverty, and an erosion of employer-provided health benefits. This report details the deep economic losses among young families with children and warns of consequences from these losses for young and old…

Sherman, Arloc

83

For Love and Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to af- fect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and cohabiting households, for example, can benefit from economies of scale

Adam Thomas; Isabel V. Sawhill

2005-01-01

84

Entry Number: 1 GB DAILY DIARY LINKS AMONG FAMILY STRUCTURE, FAMILY CONTEXTUAL  

E-print Network

Entry Number: 1 GB DAILY DIARY LINKS AMONG FAMILY STRUCTURE, FAMILY CONTEXTUAL PROCESSES Developmental Psychology Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey T. Cookston Abstract: We explored whether family structure. Results showed that parent time with child was significantly associated with children's stress, enjoyment

85

The Effects of Family Structures on Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of family structures on students' academic achievement in terms of self-reported grades. It also examined relevant factors that would explain the differences in student grades among students from intact two-parent families, step-families, and single-parent families. Data came from a statewide survey of students in…

Shim, Minsuk K.; Felner, Robert D.; Shim, Eunjae

86

Family and personal adjustment of economically disadvantaged chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik Fong

2012-01-01

87

Helping Families Adjust to Economic Change. A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was developed to gain more insight into family financial problems, to identify these problems, and to formulate educational strategies to deal with and help solve these problems. This project was conducted in three phases, which included community outreach, development of educational materials, and evaluation. Three communities with…

Matejic, Denise M.

88

Molybdenum site structure of MOSC family proteins.  

PubMed

Mo K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe as-isolated structures of the MOSC family proteins pmARC-1 and HMCS-CT. The Mo K-edge near-edge spectrum of HMCS-CT is shifted ~2.5 eV to lower energy compared to the pmARC-1 spectrum, which indicates that as-isolated HMCS-CT is in a more reduced state than pmARC-1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates significant structural differences between pmARC-1 and HMCS-CT, with the former being a dioxo site and the latter possessing only a single terminal oxo ligand. The number of terminal oxo donors is consistent with pmARC-1 being in the Mo(VI) oxidation state and HMCS-CT in the Mo(IV) state. These structures are in accord with oxygen-atom-transfer reactivity for pmARC-1 and persulfide bond cleavage chemistry for HMCS-CT. PMID:25166909

Giles, Logan J; Ruppelt, Christian; Yang, Jing; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Kirk, Martin L

2014-09-15

89

Family-Directed Structural Therapy in a Therapeutic Wilderness Family Camp: An Outcome Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing families attending a three-day therapeutic wilderness family camp utilizing Family-Directed Structural Therapy (FDST), as well as receiving Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) usual services, with families receiving only usual services from the same CMHC. All families came from a rural area in the midwest. Data were collected over six months' time. Measures included

Tara McLendon; Don McLendon; Christopher G. Petr; Stephen A. Kapp; John Mooradian

2009-01-01

90

Consumer-directed supports: economic, health, and social outcomes for families.  

PubMed

The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses, greater access to health care, engagement in more social activities, and greater leisure satisfaction. There also appeared to be greater impacts on lower income families; these caregivers reported better mental health and access to health care than did similar caregivers on the waiting list. PMID:17132035

Caldwell, Joe

2006-12-01

91

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

2007-01-01

92

Structure and change: Douglass North's economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglass North is a pivotal figure in the development of the ‘new’ economic history as well as the ‘new’ institutional economics. However, the relationship between these two aspects of his thinking remains undeveloped in previous critical assessments of North's work. The relationship is clarified here. The evidence presented indicates that three distinct phases can be distinguished in his writings between

Graham A. Brownlow

2010-01-01

93

Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

2011-01-01

94

Adolescent Sexuality: Disentangling the Effects of Family Structure and Family Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing up in single parent, step parent, cohabiting, or lesbian families has been suggested to have negative effects on adolescent sexual behavior. However, analysis reveals that family structure does not significantly influence adolescents' sexual initiation. Rather, family context-more specifically the mother-child relationship-is associated…

Davis, Erin Calhoun; Friel, Lisa V.

2001-01-01

95

Themes and Trends of Journal of Family and Economic Issues : A Review of Twenty Years (1988–2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article examines the progress and impact of the Journal of Family and Economic Issues (JFEI) between 1988–2007. Over the past 20 years, JFEI has become a major journal publishing articles on the relationship between families and economic systems. JFEI contributed to both the economic and family studies disciplines by publishing articles that explore the interface of these\\u000a two disciplines.

Jeffrey Dew

2008-01-01

96

Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

1975-01-01

97

Families at the Century's Turn: The Troubling Economic Trends. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses U.S. economic trends for the past century. Notes that distribution of wealth is more concentrated at top than is distribution of income, with income inequality growing worse in the 1990s. Maintains that wealth disparity explains achievement test score gaps between white and minority students. Presents proposals for asset-building,…

Lindjord, Denise

2000-01-01

98

Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

99

Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

Stevens, P.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1996-06-01

100

Adding It Up: The Economic Impact of Incarceration on Individuals, Families, and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written on the causes and negative consequences of arrest and incarceration on the employment and earnings of individuals. Research has documented the social and psychological effects of crime on families and children. But the impact of incarceration on communities has received little attention, other than to document the positive economic benefits of prison building and administration. This

Harold Watts; Demetra Smith Nightingale

101

Practical Concerns of Limited Income Families: An Adult Home Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on focus group research in five locations in Iowa, this curriculum guide was developed to help meet the educational needs of families facing economic problems as a result of job or farm loss. The curriculum guide, which is organized in three modules that cover self-esteem, parenting, and resource management, uses a practical problem-solving…

Williams, Sally K.; Bertelson, Laura Winslow

102

Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

Blau, Joel

103

How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities?  

E-print Network

· How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities? · How does renewable energy revitalize agricultural communities, provide energy self-sufficiency & protect the environment? · How do renewable energy & sustainable food create

de Leon, Alex R.

104

The Social Ecology of Race and Ethnicity School Achievement Gaps: Economic, Neighborhood, School, and Family Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students to examine the degree to which economic, neighborhood, school, and family factors contributed to three points on a proposed school outcome continuum: (1)avoidance of problem behavior, (2)sense of school coherence, and (3)grades. Multilevel models were employed to account for the clustering of students inside schools. Results suggested

Andrew Grogan-Kaylor; Michael E. Woolley

2010-01-01

105

Measuring the Economic Well-Being of Families and Children, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report assembles some of the indicators that describe the economic environment of Minnesota children and families. The report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers at the city, county, and state levels, as well as community advocates, parents, and those who work with children. Section 1 of the report presents…

Coffin, Linda

106

Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations  

Cancer.gov

Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations Scott D. Ramsey, M.D., Ph.D. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA) Wylie Burke, M.D.., Ph.D.

107

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

108

Family Structure and Academic Skills among Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…

Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna

2011-01-01

109

Family Structure, Parental Practices and High School Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between high school achievement and family structure using data from the 1986 sophomore cohort of the High School and Beyond study. Children living with single parents or stepparents receive less encouragement and help with schoolwork, and this affects their academic achievement negatively. However, family structure has…

Astone, Nan Marie; McLanahan, Sara S.

1991-01-01

110

The relationship of family structure and family conflict to adjustment in young adult college students.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the structural intactness of the family and/or perceived family conflict was related to young adult adjustment as assessed by measures of ego identity status and psychological distress. The physical-wholeness model holds that family structure is the major variable affecting adjustment, while the psychological-wholeness model posits family conflict as the critical variable. In the present study, undergraduate college students (N = 285) were classified as belonging to an intact two-parent family or a nonintact family, and as coming from homes characterized by low, medium, or high levels of conflict. A statistically significant relationship between family conflict and adjustment was observed; there was no significant association between family structure and adjustment. Individuals from families perceived as being low or medium in level of conflict reported fewer psychiatric symptoms and demonstrated higher levels of ego identity than did those from families perceived as high in conflict. These findings support the psychological-wholeness model. It is suggested that future research be directed toward developing more refined measures of interpersonal conflict. PMID:8456614

Nelson, W L; Hughes, H M; Handal, P; Katz, B; Searight, H R

1993-01-01

111

Transitions in family structure and adolescent well-being.  

PubMed

This article examines the effects of transitions in family structure on physical health, thoughts of suicide, mental health, relational well-being, and employment situation of adolescents from four family structures: stable intact families, conflict intact families, single-parent families, and stepfamilies. Data were used from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), a study of developments in the life course of young people during the 1990s. Results are presented from over 2,500 respondents between 15 and 24 years of age. Their parents were also interviewed on a number of topics. Transition in family structure after marital problems, divorce, and remarriage does appear to have significant long-term effects on a number of adolescent well-being variables. Young people from single-parent families have the lowest scores on the different indicators; they are more likely to have relational problems and experience unemployment as compared with youngsters from stable intact families. Adolescents from conflict intact families and stepfamilies have moderate scores. These effects remain after controlling for family income, gender, age, and educational level. PMID:9426812

Spruijt, E; de Goede, M

1997-01-01

112

Dropping Out of High School: The Effects of Family Structure and Family Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the 1988, 1990, and 1992 waves of data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of family structure and family transitions on adolescent high school dropout. Our study differs from previous studies by using a large longitudinal sample (N?=?21,420) and applying event history analysis with standard errors corrected for clustered sampling. Our study has two

Chunyan Song; Jennifer Glick

2012-01-01

113

Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

Wen, Ming

2008-01-01

114

Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.  

PubMed

Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

2014-03-01

115

Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

2011-01-01

116

Race, poverty, family structure, and the inequality of schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how three major background characteristics of students—race, poverty, and family structure—can produce inequalities in school outcomes, as measured by standardized tests. It found that the percentage of students from families headed by single women is an extremely powerful predictor of levels of achievement in schools. Moreover, it indicates that neither racial composition nor percentage of students below

Carl L. Bankston III; Stephen J. Caldas

1998-01-01

117

Family structure and variation in reproductive success in blackbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In avian families, some offspring are rendered unequal by parental fiat. By imposing phenotypic handicaps (e.g., via asynchronous\\u000a hatching) upon certain of their offspring and not others, parents structure the sibship into castes of advantaged “core” offspring\\u000a and disadvantaged “marginal” offspring that results in an asymmetric sibling rivalry. Here, I show how this family structure\\u000a scales up to population level

Scott Forbes

2010-01-01

118

Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function  

SciTech Connect

The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

2007-01-01

119

Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

1996-01-01

120

Structural trends in agriculture and preservation of family farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics and role of the family farm have profoundly influenced the quality of human ecology. Considerable debate exists about the role of the family farm in the United States. This article attempts to clarify aspects of this debate by: (a) examining various definitions of the family farm and the conclusions that flow from these definitions, (b) presenting results of a structural analysis of American agriculture to better understand the origins of the debate and the relationship between people and agriculture, and (c) discussing the relevancy of some data and concepts used in evaluating the consequences of the structure of the agricultural sector.

Lemons, John

1986-01-01

121

Changes in young children's family structures and child care arrangements.  

PubMed

Family structure change can disrupt the settings of children's daily lives. Most scholarship focuses on disruption in the home environment. Moving beyond the home, this study explores the association between changes in family structure and changes in several dimensions of early child care. With longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1,298), first-difference models reveal that family structure transitions are associated with changes in the type and quantity of early care as well as the number of care arrangements used, especially during the latter part of infancy. Given prior evidence linking these child care dimensions to behavioral and cognitive outcomes, these results suggest a policy-relevant mechanism by which family change may create inequalities among children. PMID:24243268

Crosnoe, Robert; Prickett, Kate Chambers; Smith, Chelsea; Cavanagh, Shannon

2014-04-01

122

Modernization and the family structure of the elderly in the United States.  

PubMed

The major shift in the family structure of the older American population occurred during the twentieth century, especially in the period since World War II. This transition to living alone came long after discontinuities had developed in other major indicators of economic, demographic, familial and attitudinal modernization. The long delay in the transformation of household structure is, however, consistent with a family ideology that is explicit and implicit in the writings of the seventeenth-century English philosopher John Locke. The article presents data on the relationship to household head and on the kin composition of the households of the elderly (65+) between 1880 and the present. The 1900 national sample of non-institutionalized older persons (55+) also supplies details on living arrangements by nativity and by type of urban neighborhood and farm and non-farm rural residence. PMID:6372276

Smith, D S

1984-01-01

123

Relation of eighth graders' family structure, gender, and family environment with academic performance and school behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess how family structure, gender, and family environment were related to both academic performance (end-of-the-year grades and quantitative and verbal achievement factor scores) and school behavior (number of days absent, number of days tardy, and number of in-school detentions). Subjects were 219 middle-class eighth graders (96 boys, 123 girls). Generally, students in two-parent

Lawrence A. Kurdek; Ronald J. Sinclair

1988-01-01

124

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14

125

Consumer, Consumption, and Family Economics\\/ Household Management Research, 1972-82: Survey of the Past and Outlook for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in family economics\\/home management research was as sessed. An analysis of research in the areas of consumer, consumption, and family economics\\/household management, published during the period 1972-82 in four journals revealed a fairly even distribution of articles across the four major topic areas. The majority of articles reported studies that used survey method ology, while

Mohamed Abdel-Ghany; Sharon Y. Nickols

1984-01-01

126

Family Structure and Mothers’ Caregiving of Children With Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation is to examine differences in the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis who are in diverse family structures (first-marriage families, stepfamily households, single-parent households). In particular, mothers’ perceptions of children’s health, adherence to prescribed treatments, and help received from others were compared and predictors of treatment adherence were examined. Children’s health and adherence

Debra Gayer; Lawrence Ganong

2006-01-01

127

Utilizing structural family therapy and systems theory in the business world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of businesses and the structure of families are very similar, considering the fact that so many businesses are owned or operated by families. Structural family therapists who are knowledgeable in systems theory and have an adequate understanding of the underlying concepts of structural family theory (including hierarchy, boundaries, and coalitions) can translate their knowledge to the structure of

Sharon A. Deacon

1996-01-01

128

Family Structure and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Does Family Structure Really Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed older adolescents (N=2,313) to examine the effects of family size, birth order, and sibling spacing and gender upon perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships. Using the analysis of techniques of past studies, significant associations were found for family size, birth order, and spacing, although the effect sizes were quite small.…

Bell, Nancy J.; Avery, Arthur W.

1985-01-01

129

Economics and energy conservation in the design of new single-family housing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent to which certain energy conservation modifications to the envelope design of a new, single family house are economically justified for a wide range of climates and projected energy costs were investigated factors that give rise to space heating and cooling loads in buildings are provided thermal inter-dependencies within and among envelope components that can greatly affect heating and cooling loads are examined. Economic criteria for determining a minimum life cycle cost building envelope design are formulated and a priority ranking method is developed to assist in the calculation of these designs. An expanded version of the NBS load determination program is used to calculated the annual heating and cooling requirements and maximum heating and cooling loads for a 1200 square foot, wood frame house with a wide range of thermal improvements in 14 geographic locations. It is demonstrated that the optimal envelope design configuration varies over a wide rang depending on climate, energy costs, and modification costs.

Petersen, S. R.

1981-08-01

130

Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.  

PubMed

The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2071-2073. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753054

De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

2014-11-01

131

Economic geography and regional production structure: An empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two principal theories of why countries or regions trade: comparative advantage and increasing returns to scale. Yet there is virtually no empirical work that assesses the relative importance of these two theories in accounting for production structure and trade. We use a framework that nests an increasing returns model of economic geography featuring `home market effects' with that

Donald R. Davis; David E. Weinstein

1999-01-01

132

Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

2009-01-01

133

Economic Mineral Deposits in Impact Structures: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many large meteorite impact structures throughout the world host mineral resources that are either currently mined or have\\u000a the potential to become important economic resources in the future. The giant Vredefort-Witwatersrand and Sudbury impact structures\\u000a underline this statement, because of their enormous resources in gold and uranium, and nickel, copper, and PGEs, respectively.\\u000a In relation to impact, three basic types

Wolf Uwe Reimold; Christian Koeberl; Roger L. Gibson; Burkhard O. Dressler

134

Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Advantage*  

PubMed Central

I examine whether the effect of parents’ education on children’s educational achievement and attainment varies by family structure and, if so, whether this can be explained by differential parenting practices. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that as parents’ education increases, children in single mother families experience a lower boost in their achievement test scores, likelihood of attending any post-secondary schooling, likelihood of completing a four-year college degree, and years of completed schooling relative to children living with both biological parents. Differences in parents’ educational expectations, intergenerational closure, and children’s involvement in structured leisure activities partially explain these status transmission differences by family structure. The findings imply that, among children with highly educated parents, children of single mothers are less likely to be highly educated themselves relative to children who grow up with both biological parents. PMID:23017695

Martin, Molly A.

2013-01-01

135

Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative study of the relationship between family economic background and adult outcomes in the United States and Canada addresses three questions. First, is there something to explain? We suggest that the existing literature finds that there are significant differences in the degree of intergenerational economic mobility between these two countries, relative mobility being lower in the United States. This

Miles Corak; Lori Curtis; Shelley Phipps

2010-01-01

136

A structural portrait of the PDZ domain family.  

PubMed

PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO1) domains are interaction modules that typically bind to specific C-terminal sequences of partner proteins and assemble signaling complexes in multicellular organisms. We have analyzed the existing database of PDZ domain structures in the context of a specificity tree based on binding specificities defined by peptide-phage binding selections. We have identified 16 structures of PDZ domains in complex with high-affinity ligands and have elucidated four additional structures to assemble a structural database that covers most of the branches of the PDZ specificity tree. A detailed comparison of the structures reveals features that are responsible for the diverse specificities across the PDZ domain family. Specificity differences can be explained by differences in PDZ residues that are in contact with the peptide ligands, but these contacts involve both side-chain and main-chain interactions. Most PDZ domains bind peptides in a canonical conformation in which the ligand main chain adopts an extended ?-strand conformation by interacting in an antiparallel fashion with a PDZ ?-strand. However, a subset of PDZ domains bind peptides with a bent main-chain conformation and the specificities of these non-canonical domains could not be explained based on canonical structures. Our analysis provides a structural portrait of the PDZ domain family, which serves as a guide in understanding the structural basis for the diverse specificities across the family. PMID:25158098

Ernst, Andreas; Appleton, Brent A; Ivarsson, Ylva; Zhang, Yingnan; Gfeller, David; Wiesmann, Christian; Sidhu, Sachdev S

2014-10-23

137

Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

2011-01-01

138

Russia's Geo-economic Future; The Security Implications of Russia's Political and Economic Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's political-economic structure is a neo-Tsarist patrimonial one that fuses together power and position in traditional, even medieval ways. As a result its economy is hobbled by pervasive systemic corruption, misrule, and chronic sub-optimal outcomes. Of necessity these outcomes have a profound impact on Russian security and defense agendas. This article focuses on the relationship between these pathologies of Russian

Stephen Blank

2011-01-01

139

Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an example of a poor country moving along a path toward strong sustainability. To this end, a sincere intervention at the social and natural capital along with economic growth is necessary. Poverty alleviation efforts should target the socio-economically deprived households by enriching their human capital. Since community based social structures, such as the forest user groups, are already setting an example of strong sustainability, such community based social capital initiatives should be encouraged by granting rights and other resources to augment further economic activities like harnessing hydropower that may eventually transform the socio-ecological-economic system.

Devkota, Surendra R.

140

Divorce, Family Structure, and the Academic Success of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this book is to examine the relationship between parental family structure, especially parental divorce and/or remarriage, and the academic achievement of children. Much has been written about the need to raise the academic achievement of students from minority backgrounds. However, minority is often defined in terms of skin color and…

Jeynes, William

141

EARLY HEAD START Effects of Fathers, Neighborhoods and Family Structure  

E-print Network

EARLY HEAD START Effects of Fathers, Neighborhoods and Family Structure on Child and Program randomly assigned - 1,513 to Early Head Start - 1,488 to other child care program #12;Highlights of the EHS to Another No Longer Married to Another #12;Sample Characteristics (n = 680) · Average age of child at time

142

Family Structure, Schoolmates, and Racial Inequalities in School Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam data, this study examines the influence of schoolmate family structure, racial concentration, and socioeconomic status on the academic achievement of individual African-American and White students. It finds that many educational disadvantages of segregated minority schools are related to the predominance of…

Bankston III, Carl L.; Caldas, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

143

The genetic analysis of family structured inbreeding depression studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important question emerging from theoretical studies of mating system evolution is whether the fitness of a randomly extracted, fully inbred genotype will exceed the mean of outbred individuals. We introduce two statistics (I1 and I2) related to the probability of extracting a high line. I1 and I2 can be estimated from the family structured experimental designs typically used to

J K Kelly; M K Tourtellot

2006-01-01

144

Has Debt Restructuring Facilitatead Structural Transformation on Israeli Family Farms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes structural transformation on Israieli family farms using longitudinal village-level data for the years 1992-2001, with particular emphases on the effects of the 1985 debt crisis and the subsequent 1992 debt settlement legislation. Dynamic panel GMM estimation reveals a negative effect of the amount of debt, and a positive effect of reaching a debt restructuring agreement, on farm

Ayal Kimhi

2008-01-01

145

HAS DEBT RESTRUCTURING FACILITATED STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION ON ISRAELI FAMILY FARMS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes structural transformation on Israeli family farms using longitudinal village-level data for the years 1992-2001, with particular emphasis on the effects of the 1985 debt crisis and the subsequent 1992 debt settlement legislation. Dynamic panel GMM estimation reveals a negative effect of the amount of debt, and a positive effect of reaching a debt restructuring agreement, on farm

Ayal Kimhi

2008-01-01

146

Job loss and unmet health care needs in the economic recession: different associations by family income.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. Methods. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n?=?12?658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Results. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. Conclusions. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship. PMID:25211745

Huang, Jin; Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

2014-11-01

147

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

148

986 nature structural biology structural genomics supplement november 2000 Evolution has produced families of pro-  

E-print Network

progress 986 nature structural biology · structural genomics supplement · november 2000 Evolution and fre- quently have detectably similar sequences. This conservation allows a structural description of all proteins in a family even when only the structure of a single mem- ber is known. Evolution also

Sali, Andrej

149

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

150

Scholastic achievement and family marital structure: Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Israel.  

PubMed

In a sample of Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in the Negev region of Israel, the authors examined scholastic achievement levels in the subjects of Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics. There were no significant differences in the scholastic achievement levels in those 4 disciplines between adolescents from monogamous families and those from polygamous families. There was, however, a significant interaction between gender and family marital structure for Hebrew scores: Polygamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the male participants, whereas monogamous family structures tended to engender higher Hebrew scores for the female participants. However, the major overall finding was that polygamous family marital structures did not affect deleteriously the scholastic achievement levels of the Bedouin-Arab participants. PMID:10981378

Elbedour, S; Bart, W M; Hektner, J M

2000-08-01

151

Migration and Father Absence: Shifting Family Structure in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico—declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility—Mexican children’s family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father’s migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children’s living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children’s family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

2013-01-01

152

User study on family communication in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a core element of society. The development of economics and the transformation of cultures in mainland China bring new challenges to family communications. To understand current practices and the needs of family communication in mainland China, we studied 27 rural and urban families with ethnographic methods. We summarized the main family structures for rural and urban families and

Jie Wang; Ying Liu; Huanglingzi Liu; Jyri Salomaa

2008-01-01

153

The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740

Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

2005-01-01

154

Engaging families in the child welfare process utilizing the Family-Directed Structural Assesment Tool.  

PubMed

Effectively engaging parents in the provision of child welfare services is a crucial component of the helping process; however, it has proven to be an ongoing challenge for workers in this service area. The literature indicates that outcomes are improved for children and families when parents are actively involved in service provision. This article presents a literature review specific to parental engagement in child welfare services, identifies gaps in service provision, and introduces the Family-Directed Structural Assessment Tool, which addresses several challenges of engaging parents in this process. The pilot utilization of this assessment tool by two Bachelor of Social Work students is also presented. Finally, implications for child welfare practice are described. PMID:24843948

McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Dickerson, Pamela S; Lyons, Jane K; Tapp, Karen

2012-01-01

155

Family structure, neonatal infection, and hay fever in adolescence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased numbers of siblings and infection in early life protect against allergic sensitisation. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Sheffield, UK. SUBJECTS: 11,765 children aged 11-16 years for whom a history of neonatal infectious illness had been recorded systematically at 1 month of age. METHODS: A history of hay fever and family structure was obtained by postal questionnaire; neonatal illness history was ascertained from health visitor records; 723 children underwent skin prick testing with mixed grass pollen extract. RESULTS: The prevalence of hay fever was reduced (p < 0.0001) among children of younger mothers, and those from larger families. The number of older siblings exerted a stronger independent effect than the number of younger siblings (p < 0.001). Infants breast fed exclusively during the first month were at higher risk (p < 0.05) of subsequent hay fever, independent of demographic factors. Adolescents at high risk of hay fever by virtue of their family structure were more likely to be sensitised to grass pollen (p < 0.002). No significant relations emerged between hay fever and infection in the first month of life, even among children born in June. CONCLUSIONS: The association of hay fever with family structure is not due to reporting bias and reflects an environmental influence on allergic sensitisation. The effects of sibship size, birth order, and infant feeding are consistent with a protective influence of postnatal infection. The first month of life and the first postnatal exposure to allergen are not the critical periods during which this protective effect is determined. PMID:8669958

Strachan, D P; Taylor, E M; Carpenter, R G

1996-01-01

156

A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

Fulmer, Richard H.

1983-01-01

157

Sequence, Structure, and Evolution of Cellulases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 48*  

PubMed Central

Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels (1). Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for “true” cellulases. PMID:23055526

Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Zhulin, Igor B.

2012-01-01

158

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

Lam, Ching Man

2011-01-01

159

The Relationship Between Chinese Cultural Beliefs About Adversity and Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Families with Economic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Chinese beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being was studied in 229 economically disadvantaged Chinese families. Results showed that adolescents with stronger endorsement of positive Chinese beliefs about adversity generally displayed better psychological well-being and school adjustment and less problem behavior. Maternal endorsement, but not paternal endorsement, of Chinese beliefs about adversity was related to adolescent adjustment. Parental

Daniel T. L. Shek; Vera Tang; C. M. Lam; M. C. Lam; K. W. Tsoi; K. M. Tsang

2003-01-01

160

Gender Role Beliefs and Family Migration Decision-Making - Consequences for Married Women's Economic and Labor Force Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in educational attainment and attitudes toward women in the labor force, women continue to lag behind men in economic and labor market success. The role of family migration in social science and policy discussions of this gender-gap has gone unnoticed, in spite of the fact that nearly 25 years ago the noted economist Jacob Mincer proposed that

Thomas Cooke

2005-01-01

161

Why do Women feel the way they do about market work: the role of familial, social and economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various empirical studies find evidence of that women tend to underestimate the probability that they will work in the market in the future. This can lead to initial under-investment in market human capital and resulting earnings penalties later in life. However, virtually no study investigates the familial, social and economic factors that cause women to plan\\/expect not to work. Thus

Bisakha Sen

2003-01-01

162

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

163

Coparenting Conflict and Parenting Behavior in Economically Disadvantaged Single Parent African American Families: The Role of Maternal Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial research has focused on the negative associations between coparenting conflict, parental psychological functioning,\\u000a and parenting behavior in European American, middle-income, families. However, less attention has been given to ethnic minority\\u000a families and to families that are nontraditionally structured. In an effort to address this gap, the current longitudinal\\u000a study examines the relation between conflict with the mother-identified primary co-caregiver

Shannon Dorsey; Rex Forehand; Gene Brody

2007-01-01

164

The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

2013-01-01

165

Economic insecurity and access to the social safety net among Latino farmworker families.  

PubMed

Farmworkers experience pervasive economic insecurity in part because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work and limited employment protections. Yet little is known about the adequacy of the social safety net in responding to farmworker needs. Using data from the 2005-2009 National Agricultural Workers Survey (N = 10,469), the current study analyzed predictors of social welfare participation among Latinos, who represent approximately 80 percent of all farmworkers. Nearly 95 percent are immigrants, although almost half of them have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Descriptive analyses showed that, even among farmworker households whose income fell below the poverty line or that were headed by legally documented individuals, social services use was very low. Logistic regression analyses revealed that degree of social integration influenced social welfare participation, controlling for education, poverty status, family composition, and employment characteristics. Latino farmworkers who were recent immigrants (that is, in the United States for less than five years) had significantly lower odds of access to social insurance and public assistance programs relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Low self-reported English ability significantly decreased access to most social insurance programs but not public assistance receipt. The findings indicate the need for social workers to engage in outreach efforts and policy advocacy to improve farmworkers access to social welfare. PMID:24855865

Padilla, Yolanda C; Scott, Jennifer L; Lopez, Olivia

2014-04-01

166

The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

Taylor, Ronald

167

STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND  

PubMed Central

In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

2010-01-01

168

Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China  

E-print Network

: first, to examine the effects of family structure on the marital fertility of married women; and second, to better understand the effects of family structure on the premarital fertility by examining the effects of family structure on premarital sex...

He, Lei 1984-

2012-11-20

169

Family Structure and Self-Rated Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the relationship between family structure and child well-being is well-established, little is known about the specific\\u000a impact of family structure on health in adolescence and young adulthood. Using data on 12,737 respondents from Waves I and\\u000a III of Add Health, we examine the association between family structure (two biological\\/adoptive, stepfather, and single mother\\u000a families at Wave I) and self-rated

Holly E. Heard; Bridget K. Gorman; Carolyn A. Kapinus

2008-01-01

170

Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load uses different current and future as well as alternative price and energy policy scenarios, four years of 15-minute interval data on system and renewable load as well as an unpreceded degree of detail on plant cost structures and technical characteristics. I find that the costs of electricity generation of cleaner, flexible thermal plants are positively effected by the transition. The competitiveness of inflexible baseload plants falls as they become more expensive than renewables. Lignite and nuclear power turns out to be unsuited to supplement renewable energy: a future exit reduces the average costs of electricity generation from conventional plants.

Keil, Jan

171

Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc  

PubMed Central

Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

2013-01-01

172

Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

Humphrey, Laura Lynn

1989-01-01

173

Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time  

PubMed Central

Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

Simon, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

174

LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

MANN, OPAL H.

175

Common dynamical signatures of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated structurally  

E-print Network

Common dynamical signatures of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated structurally to aggregation in the dimeric enzyme Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are implicated in familial amyotrophic familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) (2, 3). There are 100 distinct and structurally diverse FALS

Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

176

Family Structure Differences in the Timing of Leaving Home: Exploring Mediating Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used panel data in event history analysis examining association between family structure and departure from parental home, specifically possible mediators (parent-child relationship quality, household work efforts, psychological efficacy, family/personal income, peer involvement, childbearing). Single-parent family structure (and for girls,…

Cooney, Teresa M.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

1999-01-01

177

The concept of the ?-amylase family: Structural similarity and common catalytic mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reconsiders the concept of the ?-amylase family in the light of the recent wealth of information on the structures, the catalytic mechanisms, and the classification of amylases. We proposed a general concept for an enzyme family, the ?-amylase family including most of the amylases and related enzymes in 1992, based on the structural similarity and the common catalytic

Takashi Kuriki; Tadayuki Imanaka

1999-01-01

178

Alternative Estimates of the Effect of Family Structure during Adolescence on High School Graduation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported significant empirical associations between family structure during childhood and children's outcomes later in life. It may be that living in a nonintact family has adverse consequences for children. On the other hand, it may be that some unobserved process jointly determines family structure and children's outcomes. How then should one interpret the empirical evidence on the

Charles F. Manski; Gary D. Sandefur; Sara McLanahan; Daniel Powers

1992-01-01

179

Integration of related sequences with protein three-dimensional structural families in  

E-print Network

Integration of related sequences with protein three-dimensional structural families in an updated by integrating the protein domain structural families with the corresponding homologous sequences obtained from of homo- logous protein structures (PALI) contains three- dimensional (3-D) structure-dependent sequence

Srinivasan, N.

180

Stability and Change in Family Structure and Maternal Health Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Recent increases in births to unmarried parents, and the instability surrounding these relationships, have raised concerns about the possible health effects associated with changes in family structure. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (N = 2,448), this article examines trajectories of maternal mental and physical health. We specifically focus on mothers’ transitions into and out of residential relationships with a child’s biological father during the first five years after birth. We find that continuously married mothers are in better mental and physical health than unmarried mothers one year after birth, but the disparity does not increase over time. This finding provides little support for the resource model. Consistent with the crisis model, exiting a marital or cohabiting union increases mental health problems and decreases self-rated health. These effects appear to be relatively short-lived, though, and they are stronger for mental health than for self-rated health. The results also suggest that union dissolution may be selective of less healthy mothers, whereas union formation does not appear to be selective of healthier mothers. PMID:20333277

Meadows, Sarah O.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2010-01-01

181

Family History Assessment to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual Considerations and a Preliminary Economic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although the rationale for earlier screening of persons with a family history of colorectal cancer is plausible, there is no direct evidence that earlier assessment is either effective or cost-effective. Objective To estimate the clinical and economic effect of using family history assessment to identify persons for colorectal cancer screening before age 50. Methods We developed a decision model to compare costs and outcomes for two scenarios: (a) standard population screening starting at age 50; (b) family history assessment at age 40, followed by screening colonoscopy at age 40 for those with a suggestive family history of colorectal cancer. The analysis was conducted using the health insurer perspective. Results Using U.S. population estimates, 22 million would be eligible for family history assessment, and one million would be eligible for early colonoscopy; 2,834 invasive cancers would be detected, and 29,331 life years would be gained. The initial program cost would be $900 million. The discounted cost per life year gained of family history assessment versus no assessment equals $58,228. The results were most sensitive to the life expectancy benefit from earlier screening, the cost of colonoscopy, and the relative risk of colon cancer in those with a family history. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness of family history assessment for colorectal cancer approaches that of other widely accepted technologies; yet, the results are sensitive to several assumptions where better data are needed. Because of the relatively high prevalence of family history in the population, careful analysis and empirical data are needed. PMID:16284369

Ramsey, Scott D.; Burke, Wylie; Pinsky, Linda; Clarke, Lauren; Newcomb, Polly; Khoury, Muin J.

2008-01-01

182

Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals  

SciTech Connect

The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

183

The extended granin family: structure, function, and biomedical implications.  

PubMed

The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y Peng; Salton, Stephen R J

2011-12-01

184

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

2004-01-01

185

The Associations Between Social Support, Economic Strain, and Parenting Stress Among At-Risk Families  

E-print Network

stress in an overall measure of parent stress. This analysis found a strong association between parent stress and material hardship (i.e., food insecurity, residential instability, inadequacy of medical care, months of financial troubles). Social.... While some extended family members could provide support and resources, other family members might have fewer resources and expect help themselves (Brown, 1992, McLoyd, 1990). Families living below the federal poverty threshold generally qualify...

Wilson, Mary Horn

2009-04-28

186

Structural trends in agriculture and preservation of family farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics and role of the family farm have profoundly influenced the quality of human ecology. Considerable debate exists about the role of the family farm in the United States. This article attempts to clarify aspects of this debate by: (a) examining various definitions of the family farm and the conclusions that flow from these definitions, (b) presenting results of

John Lemons

1986-01-01

187

Graphic Family Therapy: An Affective Alternative to Structure and Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic family therapy based on changing family dysfunctioning through self-discovery is described. The stages of this design are discussed and specific graphic excercises for eight categories of family dysfunction are described. Two illustrative cases are presented. Conclusions regarding results, future research, training and other clinical…

Schneider, Thomas; And Others

1981-01-01

188

Consciousness, Adaptability and Coping Strategies: Socio-Economic Characteristics and Ecological Issues in Black Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of Black family systems describes the kinds of pressures (lack of money, unemployment, discrimination) that make it difficult for the Black family to maintain its integrity. A study conducted in the San Francisco Black community by the Westside Community Health Center forms the basis for the analysis. (MC)

Nobles, Wade W.; Goddard, Lawford L.

1977-01-01

189

The Association Between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent–Child Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study sought to examine young people’s life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the\\u000a 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-,\\u000a 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The study found there to be\\u000a a relationship between family structure

Kate Ann Levin; Lorenza Dallago; Candace Currie

2012-01-01

190

GeneFarm, structural and functional annotation of Arabidopsis gene and protein families by a network  

E-print Network

GeneFarm, structural and functional annotation of Arabidopsis gene and protein families11 , Christophe Geourjon8 , Jean-Michel Grienenberger10 , Guy Houlne´10 , Elisabeth Jamet10 , Fre on every member of each gene family. Performing a family-wide annotation makes the task easier and *To whom

Gent, Universiteit

191

Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

1999-01-01

192

Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated impact of childhood family structure on timing of home-leaving. Data from 1988 National Survey of Families and Households suggest that exposure to nonintact family living during childhood raises likelihood of home-leaving prior to age 19. Adopted children and children who lived in nonparental situations were most likely to leave…

Aquilino, William S.

1991-01-01

193

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-  

E-print Network

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

194

The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal.  

PubMed

Developmental idealism (DI) is a system of beliefs and values that endorses modern societies and families and sees them as occurring together, with modern families as causes and consequences of societal development. This study was motivated by the belief that the population of Nepal has absorbed these ideas and that the ideas affect their family behaviour. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to show that Nepalis discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that DI has been widely accepted. It is related in predictable ways to education, paid employment, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although it would be useful to know its influence on demographic decision-making and behaviour, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time cross-sectional survey. Our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Mitchell, Colter

2012-11-01

195

Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

2014-01-01

196

ELSEVIER Ecological Economics 10 (1994) 249-263 Ecological and economic effects of forest landscape structure  

E-print Network

model that simulates animal population dynamics and economic yield from timber harvests based on forest the population dynamics and extinction probability of Rachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestiualis), a species caused serious ecological problems, includ- ing the rapid extinction of species (May, 1988). #12;250 J

197

Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support  

PubMed Central

This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family–ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention–comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of the 3 conditions. Results of growth curve analyses over 5 time points revealed that SET was more efficacious than either of the control conditions in reducing psychological distress and family-related hassles. However, contrary to hypotheses, SET was not more efficacious in increasing family support. Latent growth mixture modeling analyses indicated that SET was most efficacious for women who, on average, were at or near the clinical threshold for psychological distress and for women with high levels of family hassles. Implications for further intervention development are discussed. PMID:15065962

Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

2005-01-01

198

The Family Strain Index (FSI). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of a brief questionnaire for families of children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background\\u000a   Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children affects every member of the family. Practical tools are needed\\u000a to assess the effects of ADHD on families to better understand and address the level of stress, strain and burden that families\\u000a experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To provide the preliminary reliability, validity and factor structure of the Family Strain Index (FSI), a 6-item parent-report\\u000a questionnaire.

Anne W. Riley; Lisa M. Lyman; Georg Spiel; Manfred Döpfner; Maria J. Lorenzo

2006-01-01

199

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

200

Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate-Binding Module: Evidence for Significant  

E-print Network

Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate- Binding Module: Evidence for Significant generally contain non- catalytic, carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that function by attaching the enzyme: carbohydrate-binding module; NMR structure; mannan; binding specificity; decorated oligosaccharides

Williamson, Mike P.

201

The crystal structure of endoglucanase CelA, a family 8 glycosyl hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cellulases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose, can be classified into several different protein families. Endoglucanase CelA is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 8, a family for which no structural information was previously available.Results The crystal structure of CelA was determined by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to 1.65 å resolution. The protein folds into

Pedro M Alzari; Hélè ne Souchon; Roberto Dominguez

1996-01-01

202

Ownership structure and acquirers performance: Family vs. Non-family firms  

E-print Network

on firm performance following an acquisition. Mergers and acquisitions represent an interesting framework of 239 acquisitions undertaken by French listed companies between January 1997 and December 2006 no statistical significant effect. Keywords: Acquisitions, family firms, agency theory, stock performance

Boyer, Edmond

203

Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

204

Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

2011-01-01

205

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure

Boyer, Edmond

206

Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

2012-01-01

207

Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

2010-01-01

208

Ethnic and Marital Differences in Family Structure, Risk Behaviors, and Service Requests Among Young Minority Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and marital status differences in family structure, risk behaviors and service requests among African American and Hispanic adolescent fathers participating in a community-based fatherhood program. Demographic factors, risk behaviors, and service requests were gathered at program entry. The results indicated that each group demonstrated distinct patterns associated with family structure, sexual

Lucinda Nevarez; Maxine L. Weinman; Ruth S. Buzi; Peggy B. Smith

2009-01-01

209

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

210

Classification of Plant Lectins in Families Of Structurally and Evolutionary Related Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The majority of plant lectins can be classified in seven families of structurally and lutionary related proteins. Within a\\u000a given lectin family most but not necessarily all mbers are built up of protomers with a similar primary structure and overall\\u000a 3-D fold. The rall structure of the native lectins is not only determined by the structure of the protomers depends

Willy J. Peumansl; J. M. Damme; Annick Barre; Pierre Rougé

211

Relation of Attachment Style and Family Structure In Homeless Girls and Effect of Family Therapy In Changing Their Attachment styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study as pretest_ posttest design attempts to assess family structure of runaway girls and their attachment styles at the first stage. The sample consists of 50 subjects from five centers including: juvenile justice system, crisis intervention of welfare center, counseling center of educational system, Reihaneh halfway and the prisoners of juvenile delinquencies. At the second stage 15 participants with

Farideh Hamidi

212

Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

2006-01-01

213

The economic history of sovereignty: communal responsibility, the extended family, and the firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic institutions encompassing increasingly sophisticated concepts of risk-sharing and liability flourished in Europe since the High Middle Ages. These innovations occurred in an environment of fragmented local jurisdictions, not within the framework of the territorial state. In this short paper we attempt to sketch a unifying approach towards the interpretation of the emergence of these institutions. We argue that communal

Lars Boerner; Albrecht Ritschl

2008-01-01

214

The Economic History of Sovereignty: Communal Responsibility, the Extended Family, and the Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic institutions encompassing increasingly sophisticated concepts of risksharing and liability flourished in Europe beginning in the High Middle Ages. These innovations occurred in an environment of fragmented local jurisdictions, not within the framework of the territorial state. In this short paper we attempt to sketch a unifying approach towards the interpretation of the emergence of these institutions. We argue that

Lars Boerner; Albrecht Ritschl

2009-01-01

215

Socio-Economic Analysis of Neighborhood Issues Facing Milwaukee Public Schools Students and Their Families  

E-print Network

or Near Poverty 26 #12;Socio-Economic Analysis of Zip Code 53206 2 Child Care Availability and Subsidies% of poverty and may continue to receive support until their income reaches 200% of poverty. In zip code 53206 education each year). "Lead teachers" caring for children under age 2 must also take a 10-hour training

Saldin, Dilano

216

Socio-Economic Analysis of Neighborhood Issues Facing Milwaukee Public School Students and Their Families  

E-print Network

or Near Poverty 22 #12;Socio-Economic Analysis of Zip Code 53204 2 Child Care Availability and Subsidies% of poverty and may continue to receive support until their income reaches 200% of poverty. In zip code 53204 must complete only an 80-hour training class (and 25 hours of continuing education each year). "Lead

Saldin, Dilano

217

THE IMPACT OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSITION ON FERTILITY AND FAMILY FORMATION IN MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolia has never been a member of the USSR, but the collapse of the Soviet Union deeply affected this country. While a growing body of literature documents the consequences of this collapse on fertility and family formation behaviour for the former socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltic countries, Russia and Ukraine, and more recently, countries in Central

Thomas Spoorenberg

2009-01-01

218

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

219

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

220

Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined transitions into and out of poverty and welfare across 4-year time periods and their implications for math and reading skills and behavior among 10- and 11-year-olds. Analyses of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement indicate that even with controls for factors that select families into poverty,…

Moore, Kristin A.; Glei, Dana A.; Driscoll, Anne K.; Zaslow, Martha J.

221

Social and Economic Change and Family Formation: Results of a Micro-Demographic Study from Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context The timing of marriage and first birth are the two important aspect of family formation. Most of the Asian countries are experiencing in recent years a general rise and virtually universal delay of first marriage. This phenomenon of increasing delay in the timing of first marriage is true in Nepal. What is equally true is the shortening of the

Devendra P. Shrestha

222

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Kansas. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 342 Kansas farm operators (a 34% response rate) and 313 spouses (a 31% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Biere, Arlo

223

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Regional Summary. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes data from a February 1989 survey of farm families in 12 North Central states and is a companion reference report for a series of state reports. The 12 states are subdivided into Corn Belt states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio); Plains states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska); and Lakes states…

Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

224

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Minnesota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 275 Minnesota farm operators (a 39% response rate) and 245 spouses (a 35% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

Olson, Kent D.; Mikesell, Chris L.

225

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

226

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Iowa. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 311 Iowa farm operators (a 31% response rate) and 288 spouses (a 29% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

227

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Nebraska. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 230 Nebraska farm operators (a 23% response rate) and 222 spouses (a 22% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

Johnson, Bruce B.

228

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Wisconsin. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 622 Wisconsin farm operators (a 39% response rate) and 525 spouses as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The purpose of the…

Saupe, William E.; Eisenhauer, Janet

229

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

230

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Ohio. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 388 Ohio farm operators (a 38.8% response rate) and 353 spouses as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The purpose of the survey…

Lobao, Linda; Meyer, Katherine

231

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Indiana. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 337 Indiana farm operators (a 24% response rate) and 289 spouses (a 21% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Barnard, Freddie L.

232

High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and Family Economic Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research evidence suggests that having a car is a worthwhile investment in better outcomes for low-income families. Recent reports quantify the additional money required to own and operate personal vehicles, as compared to the lower cost of traveling on public transit. However, this method of accounting fails to consider the fact that poor workers without a car may not be

Margy Waller; Isabel V. Sawhill; R. Kent Weaver; Ron Haskins; Andrea Kane; Rebecca Blank

233

How economic integration affects the vertical structure of the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of economic integration on the vertical structure of the public sector within a country.\\u000a To tackle this issue we set up a model of fiscal federalism, where economic integration is assumed to affect central government\\u000a tax revenues. The main findings are that when an increase of the impact of economic integration brings about a reduction

Paolo Liberati; Antonio Sciala

2011-01-01

234

Can One-Parent Families or Divorced Families Produce Two-Language Children? An Investigation into How Portuguese-English Bilingual Children Acquire Biliteracy within Diverse Family Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school-aged Portuguese-English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in…

Obied, Vicky Macleroy

2010-01-01

235

Presentation of structural component designs for the family of commuter airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to present the implementation of structural commonality in the family of commuter airplanes. One of the main goals is implementation of structural commonality to as high a degree as possible. The structural layouts of those parts of the airplanes in which commonality is possible with all members of the family will be presented. The following airplane sections, which are common on all of the airplanes in the family, will be presented: common nose cone design; common wing torque box design; and common tail cone design. A proposed production and manufacturing breakdown is described. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing structural commonality and recommendations for further work will be discussed.

Russell, Mark; Haddad, Raphael; Creighton, Tom; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Swift, Jerry

1987-01-01

236

Health insurance and family structure: the case of adolescents in skipped-generation families.  

PubMed

Since 1970, both the number and proportion of children being parented by a grandparent without the help of a parent has increased substantially. The increase in skipped-generation households has generated much concern from policy makers because such households are, on average, disadvantaged compared with most other household types. One important challenge facing grandparents with parenting responsibilities is securing health insurance for their dependent grandchildren. In this study, the authors investigate the extent to which grandparents raising their grandchildren were able to secure health insurance for their dependent grandchildren. They find that adolescents living in skipped-generation families in 1995 were more often uninsured, more often publicly insured, and less often privately insured compared with adolescents in other family types. Even after controlling for income, work status, and education, adolescents in skipped-generation families were still more likely to have public insurance and less likely to have private insurance compared with other adolescents. PMID:12053820

Kirby, James B; Kaneda, Toshiko

2002-06-01

237

New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes  

PubMed Central

Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN ? lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3?-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs. PMID:21994249

Parker, Brian J.; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

2011-01-01

238

Early maternal employment and childhood obesity among economically disadvantaged families in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in low-income urban communities in the USA (n?=?322). Logistic regression and propensity

Rebekah Levine Coley; Caitlin McPherran Lombardi

2012-01-01

239

A Clinical and Economic Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasound for Patients at Risk for Familial Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Approximately 10% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is familial. Approximately 50% of 1st-degree relatives (FDRs) have endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of chronic pancreatitis. We modeled the natural history of these patients to compare 4 management strategies. Methods: We performed a systematic review, and created a Markov model for 45-year-old male FDRs, with findings of chronic pancreatitis on screening EUS.

Joel H. Rubenstein; James M. Scheiman; Michelle A. Anderson

2007-01-01

240

Health economics and genetic service development: a familial cancer genetic example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in genetics are allowing a greater number of clinical genetics services to be offered to individuals with family\\u000a histories of particular diseases. It is important that such services are not allowed to proliferate before they have been\\u000a properly evaluated in terms of both their clinical and cost-effectiveness. A randomised controlled study of a new clinical\\u000a genetics service in Wales

David Cohen; Garry Barton; Jonathon Gray; Kate Brain

2004-01-01

241

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

242

Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from  

E-print Network

process of Vietnam will have to take place. Vietnam joined the Association of South East Asian NationsEconomic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from a social accounting to regional and global economic forces. As a result, Vietnam faces signi®cant challenges in the area

Kammen, Daniel M.

243

China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure  

SciTech Connect

Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

1994-09-01

244

Overview of the family structure in Egypt and its relation to psychiatry.  

PubMed

The family is the basic unit of any society and culture. The concept, structure, and function of the family unit vary considerably across different cultures; however, its role continues to be imperative to the development of individuals and their psychological make-up. All societies have a concept of 'family', its relative importance, structure, and functions; however, this varies according to the particular culture. In the Arabic culture, as well as other collectivistic cultures, the extended family is often regarded as the basic unit. The family is the foundational and basic social unit that fosters the stability, well-being and sustainability of society. The quality of family relationships shapes and influences the social, psychological, and biological development and functioning of its members. This may be especially relevant to individuals with mental health problems. The people of ancient Egypt valued family life highly, and this is the case even now. They treasured children and regarded them as a great blessing. If a couple had no children, they would pray to the gods and goddesses for help. They would also place letters at the tombs of dead relatives asking them to use their influence with the gods. The importance of family has not changed dramatically even though the structures are beginning to. In this paper we highlight changes in family set-up and the state of family therapy in Egypt. PMID:22515467

Okasha, Tarek; Elkholy, Hussien; El-Ghamry, Reem

2012-04-01

245

Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

2012-01-01

246

Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

2004-01-01

247

The Economic Consequences of Absent Parents. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the belief that marriage bestows large economic gains has generated enthusiasm for policy proposals that encourage the formation and continuation of two-parent families. This study examined the effects of family structure on economic resources, controlling for unobservable family background characteristics. Data were drawn from…

Page, Marianne E.; Stevens, Ann Huff

248

When hard times take a toll: the distressing consequences of economic hardship and life events within the family-work interface.  

PubMed

Using two waves of data from a national survey of working Americans (N = 1,122), we examine the associations among economic hardship, negative life events, and psychological distress in the context of the family-work interface. Our findings demonstrate that family-to-work conflict mediates the effects of economic hardship and negative events to significant others on distress (net of baseline distress and hardship). Moreover, economic hardship and negative events to significant others moderate the association between family-to-work conflict and distress. While negative events to others exacerbate the positive effect of family-to-work conflict on distress, we find the opposite for economic hardship: The positive association between hardship and distress is weaker at higher levels of family-to-work conflict. These patterns hold across an array of family, work, and sociodemographic conditions. We discuss how these findings refine and extend ideas of the stress process model, including complex predictions related to processes of stress-buffering, resource substitution, and role multiplication. PMID:22336534

Young, Marisa; Schieman, Scott

2012-03-01

249

Fold recognition analysis of glycosyltransferase families: further members of structural superfamilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are diverse enzymes organized into 65 families. X-ray crystallography and in silico studies have shown many of these to belong to two structural super- families: GT-A and GT-B. Through application of fold recog- nition and iterated sequence searches, we demonstrate that families 60, 62, and 64 may also be grouped into the GT-A fold superfamily. Analysis of conserved

O. L. Franco; Daniel J. Rigden

2003-01-01

250

Emotional Neglect and Family Structure: Impact on Student Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 69 female and 22 male undergraduates found participants who reported childhood emotional neglect by a primary female caregiver described greater current psychological distress and lower cohesion and adaptability in their family of origin than those reporting no neglect or neglect by a primary male caregiver. (Contains…

Wark, Mary Jo; Kruczek, Theresa; Boley, Amanda

2003-01-01

251

Family Structure & Social Change: A Preparation for Further Study Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit, which is intended for Australians working toward a Certificate in General Education for Adults, contains activities to help learners develop the skills and knowledge to read and write complex texts while examining human relationships and the family. Aimed at both native and nonnative English speakers, the unit contains…

Donovan, Cathy

252

Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

2004-01-01

253

Effect of Family Structure on Life Satisfaction: Australian Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do family arrangements affect subjective well-being? We investigate this issue using data pooled from the IsssA and HILDA, both large, representative national samples of Australia (pooled n = 38 447). Our regression analysis of cross-sectional and panel data examines how large are the differences in life satisfaction according to marital…

Evans, M.D.R.; Kelley, Jonathan

2004-01-01

254

The Fpg/Nei Family of DNA Glycosylases: Substrates, Structures and Search for Damage  

PubMed Central

During the initial stages of the base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway, DNA glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of endogenous oxidative base lesions. The bifunctional formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of the Fpg/Nei family, one of the two families of glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases, the other being the HhH/GPD (or Nth) superfamily. Structural and biochemical developments over the past decades have led to novel insights into the mechanism of damage recognition by the Fpg/Nei family of enzymes. Despite the overall structural similarity among members of this family, these enzymes exhibit distinct features that make them unique. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge of the Fpg/Nei family members, emphasizes their substrate specificities, and describes how these enzymes search for lesions. PMID:22749143

Prakash, Aishwarya; Doublié, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S.

2014-01-01

255

Gender, Poverty, Family Structure, and Investments in Children's Education in Kinshasa, Congo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, Congo, focusing on how poverty, household structure, gender, and economic well-being affect investments in children's education. Increased economic well-being translates into greater attainment for both females and males, but does not necessarily reduce gender differences in school…

Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

2001-01-01

256

Family Structure, Institutions, and Growth: The Origins and Implications of Western Corporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a vast amount of literature that con- siders the importance of the family as an insti- tution. Little attention, however, has been given to the impact of the family structure and its dynamics on institutions. This limits our ability to understand distinct institutional develop- ments—and hence growth—in the past and present. This paper supports this argument by highlighting

Avner Greif

2006-01-01

257

Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

2013-01-01

258

Family structure and substance use problems in adolescence and early adulthood: examining explanations for the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Our study has two goals: to evaluate variation in symptoms of substance abuse\\/dependence by family structure and to examine several potential explanations for this association, including differences in socio-eco- nomic status, social support, social stress and perceived approval and use of substances by family and friends. Design Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is used to examine the association between

Anne E. Barrett; R. Jay Turner

2006-01-01

259

Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like)  

E-print Network

Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors. adrenergic receptor

Palczewski, Krzysztof

260

Engaging Adolescent Drug Abusers and Their Families in Treatment: A Strategic Structural Systems Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents evidence for the effectiveness of a strategy for engaging adolescent drug users and their families in therapy. The intervention method is based on strategic, structural, and systems concepts. To overcome resistance, the identified pattern of interactions that interferes with entry into treatment is restructured. Subjects were 108 Hispanic families in which an adolescent was suspected of, or

José Szapocznik; Angel Perez-Vidal; Andrew L. Brickman; Franklin H. Foote; Daniel Santisteban; Olga Hervis; William M. Kurtines

1988-01-01

261

Attachment, Family Dysfunction, Parental Alcoholism, and Interpersonal Distress in Late Adolescence: A Structural Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental attachment was hypothesized as a mediational variable, explaining the relationship between parental alcoholism, family dysfunction, and the expression of interpersonal distress. Undergraduate students (N = 152) were administered questionnaires to assess parental attachment, parental alcoholism, family dysfunction, and interpersonal distress; structural analysis was used to specify the relations among measured constructs. Parental alcoholism was not a significant predictor of

Philip K. Mothersead; Timothy F. Wynkoop

1998-01-01

262

Structural-Strategic Family Counseling: A Case Study in Elementary School Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview for understanding the application of a structural-strategic family counseling model to school-based family counseling. Presents examples from a case study with a six-year-old boy experiencing behavior problems in school, which occurred as problems escalated between his mother and grandmother. Several implications are discussed…

Davis, Keith M.

2001-01-01

263

Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers  

E-print Network

Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

264

Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using\\u000a state-level panel data from the 1981–2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both\\u000a the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of

Craig Gundersen; James Patrick Ziliak

2004-01-01

265

Sorghum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family: structure, function and molecular evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although housekeeping functions have been shown for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31, PEPC) in plants and in prokaryotes, PEPC is mainly known for its specific role in the primary photosynthetic CO2 fixation in C4 and CAM plants. We have shown that in Sorghum, a monocotyledonous C4 plant, the enzyme is encoded in the nucleus by a small multigene family. Here

Loïc Lepiniec; Eliane Keryer; Herve Philippe; Pierre Gadal; Claude Crétin

1993-01-01

266

Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use: An Exploration of Single-Parent Families  

PubMed Central

Data from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey examined a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 8th to 12th grade adolescents in rural and urban schools from across the United States (N = 37,507). Results found that drug use among daughters living with single fathers significantly exceeded that of daughters living with single mothers, while gender of parent was not associated with sons’ usage. This distinction in adolescent drug use between mother-only versus father-only households is largely overlooked in contemporary studies. Factors responsible for variations in sons’ and daughters’ usage in single-parent families have important implications for future drug prevention efforts. PMID:20001697

Hemovich, Vanessa; Crano, William D.

2011-01-01

267

Family Structure and Income During the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults’ prosocial behavior – charitable giving and volunteering – were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative sample of 1,011 American young adults. In the full sample, family structure transition during adolescence was negatively associated with subsequent charitable giving in young adulthood. Low income during adolescence was negatively associated with both giving and volunteering in young adulthood. European-American young men also exhibited a negative association between family structure transition during adolescence and subsequent volunteering. The results did not seem to describe African-American young adults. Keeping this qualification in mind, the results suggest that adolescence is a sensitive stage in the development of charitable giving and volunteering. PMID:22414561

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

268

Household income pooling and the demand for food: does family financial structure matter?  

E-print Network

Research on food consumption and expenditures usually employs the use of unitary models that do not account for type of family financial structure. This research presents two collective models of household behavior, conditional and unconditional...

Perusquia Corres, Ernesto

2009-06-02

269

Speeding Up the Process of Modeling Temporary Structures in a Building Information Model Using Predefined Families  

E-print Network

real building project has been used to model these temporary structures by two different methods: 1. Using ordinary tools in BIM application (Revit), and, 2. Using predefined parametric families of objects developed and customized for this project...

Sabahi, Parsa

2012-02-14

270

Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=4,538), we examine the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigate: (a) first, whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation behaviors; (b) second, which dimensions of family structure history are most predictive of children's later relationship formation behaviors; and (c) third, if the association between family structure history and young adulthood relationship formation differs by gender. Our findings provide evidence of an intergenerational link between parent relationship histories and their offspring's own relationship formation behaviors in young adulthood, over and above confounding factors. PMID:20890404

Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

2010-01-01

271

Family structure, victimization, and child mental health in a nationally representative sample.  

PubMed

Utilizing the 2008 National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), the current study compares past year rates of 7 forms of child victimization (maltreatment, assault, peer victimization, property crime, witnessing family violence and exposure to community violence) across 3 different family structure types (two biological/adoptive parents, single parent, step/cohabiting family) among a representative sample of 4046 U.S. children ages 2-17. The study also considers whether certain social-contextual risk factors help to explain family structure variations in victimization, and the extent to which victimization exposure accounts for family structure differences in distress symptom levels. Findings showed significantly elevated rates of almost all types of victimization among children in both nontraditional family types, relative to those living with two biological/adoptive parents. Factors associated with increased victimization risk in these families include high parental conflict, drug or alcohol problems, family adversity, and community disorder. A summary measure of children's exposure to multiple forms of victimization was the strongest predictor of distress symptoms. PMID:23631777

Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Hamby, Sherry L; Shattuck, Anne

2013-06-01

272

Global Economic Prospects: Medium Term Projections and Structural Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores prospects for the world economy to the year 2020 through a series of scenarios based on different assumptions about future changes in the structure of individual economies. It differs from most other medium term studies because we do not assume that each economy's variables (such as output, energy use, resource depletion or pollution) all grow in proportion

P. Bagnoli; W. J. McKibbin; P. J. Wilcoxen

273

The Economics of Structured Continuing Education in Selected Professional Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined what business administration considerations were elements in the managerial decision making process to include structured continuing education in a professional journal and what the positive or negative results have been in terms of operating benefits and profits. An initial literature review showed the need for exploratory…

Sasmor, James C.

274

Structure and expression of maize phytochrome family homeologs.  

PubMed Central

To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251

Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P

2004-01-01

275

Structure-based analysis of catalysis and substrate definition in the HIT protein family  

SciTech Connect

The histidine triad (HIT) protein family is among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved in nature, but a biological activity has not yet been identified for any member of the HIT family. Fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) and protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCL) were used in a structure-based approach to elucidate characteristics of in vivo ligands and reactions. Crystallographic structures of apo, substrate analog, pentacovalent transition-state analog, and product states of both enzymes reveal a catalytic mechanism and define substrate characteristics required for catalysis, thus unifying the HIT family as nucleotidyl hydrolases, transferases, or both. The approach described here may be useful in identifying structure-function relations between protein families identified through genomics. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lima, C.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Klein, M.G. [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States)] [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States); Hendrickson, W.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1997-10-10

276

Immigrants, their children, and theories of assimilation: family structure in the United States, 1880-1970.  

PubMed

This research employs United States census data from 1880 to 1970 to assess the influence of ethnicity and generation on the family structure of Mexican, Irish, Swedish, Italian, Polish, and native white children. Using evidence for three generations, it tests two theories, linear assimilation and segmented assimilation. Assimilation theory makes no special claims for ethnic effects, but segmented assimilation proposes that ethnicity influences the incorporation of immigrant-origin children into American society. We find few consistent ethnic effects on the probability of family type. Our principal finding is that migration itself, common to all groups, has similar consequences for all; these are revealed in generational changes in family structure. The historical periods of open immigration do differ from the contemporary period, which implies that immigration policy affects family structure. The results disconfirm segmented assimilation theory's emphasis on ethnicity in family structure, and confirm aspects of linear assimilation theory. They point to the salience of structural factors resulting from migration experience and policy, rather than ethnicity, in the evolution of family form among immigrant-origin persons. PMID:18193098

Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron P; Skop, Emily

2007-01-01

277

Sandwich-type structure for economical MEMS and MOEMS assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fabrication method suitable for cheap assembling of MEMS and MOEMS is described. As a present, the very expensive methods for assembling and packaging, applied in the case of MEMS and MOEMS, make almost prohibit the final cost of a new prototype. For this reason it is so important to reduce the prize of the assembling techniques, and to find a way for batch mounting and packaging. The proposed method consists of generating a high aspect ratio structure, by means of soldering some different shaped metallic foils. The technological process consists of the following steps. In the first step, the desired 3D structure is divided into N different levels, while maintaining the thickness of each of them between 10-300 micrometers. Next, the pattern for each level is achieved by applying, to the copper metallic substrates, a double side lithography, commonly used in printed circuits fabrication, such as: solid negative resist lamination; UV exposure; alkaline spray developing, and acid spray etching. After a double side Sn-Pb electroplating of each metallic foil, all of them are properly stacked and aligned in a frame, by means of some special etched holes. The resulting stack is pressed and heated at soldering alloy's melting temperature, preferably by using a vacuum system. Finally, the temperature is ramped down and the pressure is released, resulting in the desired 3D arbitrary shaped sandwich type structure. This new technique opens wide perspectives to replace some expensive assembling methods, in a variety of prototypes containing MEMS and MOEMS, being also recommended for metal can packaging in special applications and microfluidic devices assembling too.

Dumbravescu, Niculae

1999-10-01

278

[Effect of economic structure adjustment on pollution emission: a case study of COD].  

PubMed

Economic structure adjustment is an important means to reduce the emissions of pollutants. For quantitative analysis of the effect of economic structure adjustment on the reduction of pollution emission, the country was divided into four sub-regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, and the industry was divided into 39 sectors. Taking chemical oxygen demand (COD) as an example, the influences of regional structure and industry structure adjustment on total emission reduction and emission intensity were analyzed through building a model. The results showed that, in 2000-2010: (1) COD emissions in China were reduced from 1 445 x 10(4) t to 1 238 x 10(4) t, with a total emission of 14 950 x 10(4) t in 11 years, among which the emissions from eastern area occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 35.6%. (2) In the industrial COD emissions, emission from paper and paper products was the largest, accounting for 35.8% of the industrial COD emissions. (3) The economic structure changes in the four areas reduced the COD emissions by 420 x 10(4) t, resulting in a decrease of 1.29% in COD emission intensity. (4) Industrial internal structure changes reduced the COD emissions by 533 x 10(4) t, leading to a decrease of 3.1% in COD emission intensity. The research results have certain reference value in guiding the Chinese economic structure adjustment and achieving the targets of energy-saving and emission reduction. PMID:25338401

Li, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Hang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jian-Hui

2014-08-01

279

Crystal Structure of Bombyx mori Lipoprotein 6: Comparative Structural Analysis of the 30-kDa Lipoprotein Family  

PubMed Central

The 30-kDa lipoprotein (LP) family of mulberry silkworm comprises major hemolymph proteins specific to the fifth instar larvae. The family consists of 46 members, 24 of which are referred to as typical 30-kDa LPs. To date, two crystal structures of 30-kDa LPs from Bombyx mori have been described (Bmlp3 and Bmlp7). Here, we present the crystal structure of Bmlp6, another 30-kDa LP member. Bmlp6 is comprised of two domains characteristic of this family, the VHS-type N-terminal domain and ?-trefoil C-terminal domain. The structures of the three 30-kDa LPs have been compared and a number of differences are noted, including loop conformation, the surface electrostatic potential, and the potential binding cavities. We discuss the observed structural differences in the light of the potential different roles of the particular 30-kDa LP members in silkworm physiology. PMID:25379889

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; ?ochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

280

The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

2004-01-01

281

Behavioral Economics and Social Policy: Designing Innovative Solutions for Programs Supported by the Administration for Children and Families. OPRE Report No. 2014-16a  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) project is the first major opportunity to use a behavioral economics lens to look at programs that serve poor and vulnerable people in the United States. Sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S.…

Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Anzelone, Caitlin; Dechausay, Nadine; Datta, Saugato; Fiorillo, Alexandra; Potok, Louis; Darling, Matthew; Balz, John

2014-01-01

282

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

283

Perception of Incentives and Constraints by the Low Income Families in the Acceptance of New Ideas and Small Scale Economic Enterprises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase I of a more comprehensive project examined the perceived incentives and constraints related to acceptance of new ideas and small-scale economic enterprises by low income families. Six counties of northwest Florida were selected on the basis of their rurality, racial composition, and incidence of poverty. A multi-stage sampling procedure was…

Dhillon, Jogindar S.

284

Influences of family structure experiences on the risk of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence in Cameroon.  

PubMed

The link between family structure experiences and premarital sexual initiation in sub-Saharan African settings has been investigated using primarily the socialization perspective. This article tests additional hypotheses using the perspectives of change and duration of exposure. The analyses are based on time-dependent retrospective data on family living arrangements from a sample of 1182 individuals aged 12-24 years old, drawn from the Cameroon Family and Health Survey. From the socialization perspective for both females and males: living without both biological parents does not necessarily increase the probability of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence; the timing of family structure experiences is an important factor to consider in life course transitions; and other relatives play a protective role during adolescence, especially among females living in mother-only families. Findings also provide some support for the instability and change hypothesis as well as for the duration of exposure conjecture: a change from other family structure types to a both biological parents structure between age 6 and age 12 (change perspective) and living with the biological mother only at all the time (duration of exposure perspective) are associated with lower risks of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence among females. Our results have implications for preventing risky sexual behaviours during adolescence. PMID:24796711

Sidze, Estelle Monique; Defo, Barthélemy Kuate

2013-12-01

285

Alternatives for Families: Emergency Shelters and Transitional Programs That Identify, and Treat those Problems that Lead to Family Dissolution and Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multi-problem families are at risk of dissolution and homelessness. Cultural, social, economic, educational and family structural problems and differences often bring unbearable pressure upon families. Traditionally, a single problem or a family member was identified as the causal factor. Quite often a family member was removed from the home.…

Humphrey, James Stewart

286

A Comparison of Three Levels of Structure of Educational Programs in Family Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project evaluated and compared three educational programs of high, medium, and low structure in family day care settings for a period of 10 months, to determine their impact on cognitive and social development in 60 children aged 2 1/2 to 4 years. The high-structure program followed the Bereiter-Engelmann approach, the…

Goodman, Norman; And Others

287

Family structure and mothers’ mental health: A life course perspective on stability and change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how a life course perspective can be used to examine the intersection of various patterns of stability or change in family structure over the life course with women's trajectories of psychological distress. Our approach in this chapter addresses both conceptual issues and methodological developments that we believe can advance our understanding of the intricate interplay between social structure

William R. Avison; Lorraine Davies; Andrea Willson; Kim Shuey

2008-01-01

288

Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna

2012-01-01

289

beta Adrenergic Receptor Kinase: Primary Structure Delineates a Multigene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beta -adrenergic receptor kinase (beta -ARK), which specifically phosphorylates only the agonist-occupied form of the beta -adrenergic and closely related receptors, appears to be important in mediating rapid agonist-specific (homologous) desensitization. The structure of this enzyme was elucidated by isolating clones from a bovine brain complementary DNA library through the use of oligonucleotide probes derived from partial amino acid

Jeffrey L. Benovic; Antonio Deblasi; W. Carl Stone; Marc G. Caron; Robert J. Lefkowitz

1989-01-01

290

Structural Insights into the Anti-HIV Activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii Agglutinin Homolog Lectin Family*  

PubMed Central

Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ?66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to ?3,?6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties. PMID:22865886

Koharudin, Leonardus M. I.; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M.

2012-01-01

291

Two Pfam protein families characterized by a crystal structure of protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila  

PubMed Central

Background Every genome contains a large number of uncharacterized proteins that may encode entirely novel biological systems. Many of these uncharacterized proteins fall into related sequence families. By applying sequence and structural analysis we hope to provide insight into novel biology. Results We analyze a previously uncharacterized Pfam protein family called DUF4424 [Pfam:PF14415]. The recently solved three-dimensional structure of the protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila provides the first structural information pertaining to this family. This protein additionally includes the first representative structure of another Pfam family called the YARHG domain [Pfam:PF13308]. The Pfam family DUF4424 adopts a 19-stranded beta-sandwich fold that shows similarity to the N-terminal domain of leukotriene A-4 hydrolase. The YARHG domain forms an all-helical domain at the C-terminus. Structure analysis allows us to recognize distant similarities between the DUF4424 domain and individual domains of M1 aminopeptidases and tricorn proteases, which form massive proteasome-like capsids in both archaea and bacteria. Conclusions Based on our analyses we hypothesize that the DUF4424 domain may have a role in forming large, multi-component enzyme complexes. We suggest that the YARGH domain may play a role in binding a moiety in proximity with peptidoglycan, such as a hydrophobic outer membrane lipid or lipopolysaccharide. PMID:24004689

2013-01-01

292

Relationships Among Minuchin's Structural Family Model, Identity Achievement, and Coping Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine S. Minuchin's (1974) contention that a balance between enmeshment and disengagement in the family is associated with healthy adolescent development. One hundred eighty-two college students completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale—Revised, the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale, and the Ego Identity Scale. The results of canonical analyses suggested that clear boundaries

Sandra L. Perosa; Linda M. Perosa

1993-01-01

293

Structural basis of membrane targeting by the Dock180 family of Rho family guanine exchange factors (Rho-GEFs).  

PubMed

The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180. PMID:20167601

Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Bobkov, Andrey A; Patel, Manishha; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Bankston, Laurie A; Stec, Boguslaw; Vuori, Kristiina; Côté, Jean-Francois; Liddington, Robert C

2010-04-23

294

Structural Basis of Membrane Targeting by the Dock180 Family of Rho Family Guanine Exchange Factors (Rho-GEFs)*  

PubMed Central

The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180. PMID:20167601

Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Patel, Manishha; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Bankston, Laurie A.; Stec, Boguslaw; Vuori, Kristiina; Cote, Jean-Francois; Liddington, Robert C.

2010-01-01

295

Progressive Optimism and High Literacy Press: Defeating the Deficit Notion in Economically Disadvantaged African-American Families Whose Children Are Successful Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the lives of families and successful readers within "at-risk" environments. This inquiry sought to identify and understand the home and family characteristics that enable children to defy the myths and become successful readers and literacy users, when individuals and institutions would suggest they would fail. Through structured

McClain, Veda Pendleton

296

Non-invasive sampling of schistosomes from humans requires correcting for family structure.  

PubMed

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

Steinauer, Michelle L; Christie, Mark R; Blouin, Michael S; Agola, Lelo E; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Mutuku, Martin W; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mkoji, Gerald M; Loker, Eric S

2013-01-01

297

Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure  

PubMed Central

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

298

Family structure and childhood obesity: an analysis through 8th grade.  

PubMed

Research on the effect of family structure on childhood obesity is scarce. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on US children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten in 1998-1999, to examine the effect of family structure on children's body mass index and risk of obesity from kindergarten through 8th grade. Study outcomes were BMI in kindergarten and 8th grade, obesity status in kindergarten and 8th grade, and change in BMI from kindergarten through 8th grade. Multivariate regressions were used to assess the association between family structure and study outcomes while adjusting for other covariates. In 8th grade, children with no siblings had higher BMI (23.7 vs. 22.6; P ? 0.01) and higher probability of being obese (25.8 vs. 19.7 %; P ? 0.05) than their counterparts with two or more siblings. They also had a larger increase in BMI from kindergarten through 8th grade than children living with two or more siblings (7.3 vs. 6.3; P = 0.02). Our analysis suggests that the association between family structure and obesity persists and even intensifies through 8th grade. These findings have important implications for targeting obesity support and counseling for families. PMID:24370680

Chen, Alex Y; Escarce, José J

2014-09-01

299

Financial Market Structure and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contributes to understanding the impact of financial system indicators on economic growth. A particular emphasis is placed on financial structure indicators, which measure the specific organization of the financial system, namely, banking sector concentration, foreign bank penetration, government regulation and the efficiency of the banking industry - as opposed to depth indicators, which measure financial market liquidity. In

Friedrich Fritzer

2004-01-01

300

Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

1981-01-01

301

A structured review of the recent literature on the economic consequences of preterm birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although survival rates for preterm infants have greatly improved over the last three to four decades, these infants remain at risk of developing a broad range of short-term and long-term complications. Despite the large body of work on the clinical sequelae of preterm birth, relatively little is known about its economic consequences. This paper represents a structured review of the

Stavros Petrou; Oya Eddama; Lindsay Mangham

2011-01-01

302

Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

2014-01-01

303

Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda  

PubMed Central

AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

2012-01-01

304

The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence OnsetDoes it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors determine if the associations between family violence(corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of Rowe, Vazsonyi, and Flannery (1994) related to examining subgroup differences and similarities

Vangie A. Foshee; Susan T. Ennett; Karl E. Bauman; Thad Benefield; Chirayath Suchindran

2005-01-01

305

Evaluations of Family by Youth: Do They Vary as a Function of Family Structure, Gender, and Birth Order?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youths (N=334) evaluated their families on Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Results revealed no significant main effects for birth order or gender. Males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families evaluated their respective families significantly more negatively than did counterparts from other…

Parish, Thomas S.

1990-01-01

306

The role of family structure and attachment in college student hookups.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between family structure and hooking up among emerging adults (N = 881) and the extent to which attachment moderated this relationship. Neither family structure nor number of structure transitions were related to the number of hookup partners in the past 12 months. Having an avoidant attachment, being an underclassman, consuming more alcohol, and not being in an exclusive relationship were related to having a greater number of hookup partners, and avoidant attachment was a stronger indicator of hooking up for men than for women. Among those who had hooked up in the past 12 months (63.8 %), family structure did not significantly differentiate those having a penetrative sex hookup (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) versus a non-penetrative sex hookup (i.e., kissing and/or sexual touching only). Findings were discussed in terms of their methodological implications for studying hookups, such as the collection of event level data and examining how family structure influences other correlates of hooking up. PMID:23733154

Garneau, Chelsea; Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

2013-11-01

307

A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

2014-08-01

308

Low Income Russian Families Adopt Effective Behavioral Strategies to Maintain Dietary Stability in Times of Economic Crisis1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also

Anna R. Dore; Linda S. Adair; Barry M. Popkin

309

Do family structure and poverty affect sexual risk behaviors of undergraduate students in Nigeria?  

PubMed

This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to understanding the role of family structure and poverty on risky sexual behaviours. A representative sample of 1,301 undergraduate students was randomly selected from the various faculties that made up the University. Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from single parent homes showed lower likelihood of having multiple sexual partners. Also poverty was found not to be a critical determinant of risky sexual behaviour. Given the unclear nature of the findings, future study should explore further understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students. PMID:24558790

Odimegwu, Clifford; Adedini, Sunday A

2013-12-01

310

The Pur protein family: Genetic and structural features in development and disease  

PubMed Central

The Pur proteins are an ancient family of sequence-specific single-stranded nucleic acid-binding proteins. They bind a G-rich element in either single- or double-stranded nucleic acids and are capable of displacing the complementary C-rich strand. Recently several reports have described Pur family member knockouts, mutations and disease aberrations. Together with a recent crystal structure of Pur?, these data reveal conserved structural features of these proteins that have been adapted to serve functions unique to higher eukaryotes. In humans Pur proteins are critical for myeloid cell development, muscle development, and brain development, including trafficking of mRNA to neuronal dendrites. Pur family members have been implicated in diseases as diverse as cancer, premature aging and fragile-X mental retardation syndrome. PMID:23018800

Johnson, Edward M.; Daniel, Dianne C.; Gordon, Jennifer

2013-01-01

311

Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers.  

PubMed

Data from a survey of 7722 15-16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families, it made little further difference whether the mother, the father or both were absent. The effects were reduced on controlling four other variables. The latter were: psychological symptoms, social support, involvement in hobbies and reading, and engagement in behaviours such as riding mopeds, going out with friends, aggression and delinquency. It is suggested that these variables may mediate the effects of family structure. PMID:9179514

Miller, P

1997-04-14

312

The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules*  

E-print Network

The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules* Received involved in the protein-carbohydrate interaction is rotated by 90° compared with its position in CBM2a recognition of the absence or presence of functional groups. The molecular recognition of carbohydrates

Williamson, Mike P.

313

Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

314

The Effect of Child Care on Family Structure: Theory and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of child care provision on family structure. We present a model of a marriage market with positive assortative matching, where in equilibrium the poorest women stay single. Couples have to decide on the number of children and spousal specialization in home production of public goods and child care. We then study how child care provision

Stefan Bauernschuster; Rainald Borck

2012-01-01

315

The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

2012-01-01

316

ROBERT LUNDBLAD PRESENTATION The following contribute to student stress: weak family structure, downturn in economy, increased  

E-print Network

ROBERT LUNDBLAD PRESENTATION The following contribute to student stress: weak family structure system. Sometimes those support systems can be lost when a student enters college. Types of disorders experience an inordinate amount of stress: Non-traditional students (older than average, minority, etc

Tullos, Desiree

317

Family Structure and Nursing Home Entry Risk: Are Daughters Really Better?  

E-print Network

Family Structure and Nursing Home Entry Risk: Are Daughters Really Better? February 2001 Kerwin that an elderly person enters a nursing home entry. It is the first to use two nationally representative data sets which jointly represent the entire elderly population, both in nursing homes and living in the community

Shyy, Wei

318

Crystal structure of extracellular human BAFF, a TNF family member that stimulates B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

B cell activating factor (BAFF), a ligand belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays a critical role in regulating survival and activation of peripheral B cell populations and has been associated with autoimmune disease. BAFF is known to interact with three receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, that have distant similarities with other receptors of the TNF family. We have determined the crystal structure of the TNF-homologous domain of BAFF at 2.8 A resolution. The structure reveals significant differences when compared to other TNF family members, including an unusually long D-E loop that participates in the formation of a deep, concave and negatively charged region in the putative receptor binding site. The BAFF structure was further used to generate a homology model of APRIL, a closely related TNF family ligand that also binds to BCMA and TACI, but not BAFF-R. Analysis of the putative receptor binding sites of BAFF and APRIL suggests that differences in the D-E loop structure and electrostatic surface potentials may be important for determining binding specificities for BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R. PMID:11827482

Karpusas, Michael; Cachero, Teresa G; Qian, Fang; Boriack-Sjodin, Ann; Mullen, Colleen; Strauch, Kathy; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Kalled, Susan L

2002-02-01

319

Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

Miller, John K.

2010-01-01

320

Adult Daughters' Family Structure and the Association between Reciprocity and Relationship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores whether family structure is a moderator of the associations between help exchange, reciprocity of this exchange, and the quality of the mother and adult daughter relationship. A total of 183 daughters (mean age = 42.13; SD = 4.91) are either in first marriage (n = 87), living with a new partner after divorce (n = 77), or…

Schwarz, Beate

2006-01-01

321

Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

2012-01-01

322

Family Structure among Urban, Rural and Farm Populations: Classic Sociological Theory Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on classic sociological theories of Durkheim, Tonnies, and others to suggest that many urban-rural differences found in the past were actually farm-nonfarm differences. Analysis of Current Population Survey data reveals few differences in family structure between urban and rural nonfarm residents, but extensive differences between these and…

Albrecht, Don E.; Albrecht, Stan L.

1996-01-01

323

Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has recently posted Population Division Working Paper No. 23, on its website. This paper, Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP, by Jason M. Fields and Kristin E. Smith, examines the efficacy of SIPP as a measure of child well-being.

Fields, Jason M.; Smith, Kristin E.

1998-01-01

324

Immigrants, their children, and theories of assimilation: Family structure in the United States, 1880–1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs United States census data from 1880 to 1970 to assess the influence of ethnicity and generation on the family structure of Mexican, Irish, Swedish, Italian, Polish, and native white children. Using evidence for three generations, it tests two theories, linear assimilation and segmented assimilation. Assimilation theory makes no special claims for ethnic effects, but segmented assimilation proposes

Brian Gratton; Myron P. Gutmann; Emily Skop

2007-01-01

325

Cupin: A candidate molecular structure for the Nep1-like protein family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) are a novel family of microbial elicitors of plant necrosis. Some NLPs induce a hypersensitive-like response in dicot plants though the basis for this response remains unclear. In addition, the spatial structure and the role of these highly conserved proteins are not known. RESULTS: We predict a 3d-structure for the ?-rich section of the NLPs based

Adelmo L Cechin; Marialva Sinigaglia; Ney Lemke; Sérgio Echeverrigaray; Odalys G Cabrera; Gonçalo AG Pereira; José CM Mombach

2008-01-01

326

Family Structure and Adolescent Physical Health, Behavior, and Emotional Well-Being  

PubMed Central

This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821

Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.

2011-01-01

327

Structure of Acidothermus cellulolyticus family 74 glycoside hydrolase at 1.82 Å resolution.  

PubMed

Here, a 1.82?Å resolution X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 74 (GH74) enzyme from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is reported. The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.150 and an Rfree of 0.196. Structural analysis shows that five related structures have been reported with a secondary-structure similarity of between 75 and 89%. The five similar structures were all either Clostridium thermocellum or Geotrichum sp. M128 GH74 xyloglucanases. Structural analysis indicates that the A. cellulolyticus GH74 enzyme is an endoxyloglucanase, as it lacks a characteristic loop that blocks one end of the active site in exoxyloglucanases. Superimposition with the C. thermocellum GH74 shows that Asp451 and Asp38 are the catalytic residues. PMID:24316824

Alahuhta, Markus; Adney, William S; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V

2013-12-01

328

[Perspective of genetic improvement of inflorescences structure in oil crops of Brassicaceae family].  

PubMed

The theoretical substantiation and new scientific decision of ability to genetic construction of agriculturally valuable inflorescence structure in oil crops of Brassicaceae family are proposed on the examples of A. thaliana genes AP1, BP1 and TFL1. New types of plants are more suitable to machine seed harvesting as a result of decreasing non-simultaneous ripeness of seeds within inflorescences. It has been determined that A. thaliana forms inflorescences with new combinations of untypical for family Brassicaceae features by the effects of recessive alleles ap1-1, bp-1 and tfl1-2 expression. PMID:19938632

Khablak, S G; Checheneva, T N

2009-01-01

329

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

Giguere, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

330

Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.  

PubMed

Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2006-12-01

331

Family structure transitions and changes in maternal resources and well-being.  

PubMed

This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether family instability is associated with changes in perceived social support, material hardship, maternal depression, and parenting stress among mothers of young children. In addition to accounting for the number of transitions that a mother experiences during the first five years of her child's life, we pay close attention to the type and timing of these transitions. We find that mothers who transition to cohabitation or marriage with their child's biological father experience declines in material hardship and that those who transition to cohabitation or marriage with another man exhibit modest declines in both material hardship and depression. Mothers who exit cohabiting or marital relationships encounter decreases in perceived social support and increases in material hardship, depression, and parenting stress. Overall, our results suggest that both the type and, to a much lesser degree, the timing of family structure transitions may influence maternal well-being. PMID:22215507

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M; Magnuson, Katherine

2012-02-01

332

Nutritional assessment of pre-school children in rural villages of the family dynamics, lifestyles and nutrition study (1997-2001) I. Socio-economic status of households.  

PubMed

This paper presents the socio-economic profile of households in the Family Dynamics Study (FDS) (1997-2001) and makes comparisons with the earlier Functional Groups Study (FGS) (1992-1996). For the current study, FGS villages with a high prevalence of child malnutrition were purposively selected. In each village selected, all households were included, and interviews with a structured questionnaire were conducted in April-May 1998. Incomes were generally low and incidence of poverty was high; 49.6% of the households were under the poverty line income, of which 37.2% were poor and 12.4% were hard core poor. Overall, only 23.2% of heads of households were in agricultural occupations, others being primarily waged workers and petty traders. Livestock rearing was widespread (57.8%), and most households (90.4%) owned at least one motorised vehicle, the most common being the motorcycle. The majority of households had refrigerators (73.6%), washing machines (58.8%), and televisions (91.1%); but telephones (42.2%), mobile phones (6.1%) and computers (2.3%) were less common. Although 99.7% of households had electricity supply and 95.1% had either a flush or pour flush latrine, only 57.4% had piped water supply. In comparison to the FGS, poverty in the current study is lower (49.6% of FDS households are poor compared to 55.2% of FGS households), the proportion of household heads in agricultural occupations is also lower (26.9% compared to 55.3%), while all other socioeconomic indicators were better, except for piped water supply, which remains inadequate for households in the current study. PMID:22692437

Chee, Heng Leng; Khor, Geoklin; Arshad, Fatimah; Wanmuda, Wanabdulmanan; Shabdin, Ahmadaffendi; Abusamah, Asnarulkhadi; Abdullah, Rohani; Bidin, Sitijamilah; Emby, Zahid; Mohdmarjan, Zamaliah

2002-03-01

333

Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

Cauthen, Nancy K.

334

The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression  

PubMed Central

Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1–67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I–IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1–3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

2014-01-01

335

The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression.  

PubMed

Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

Feng, Lin; Chen, Zhu; Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

2014-01-01

336

Home Economics for Families with Limited Income Resource Supplement to the Consumer Education Curriculum Guide for Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a supplement to the section on the socio-economically disadvantaged in the Consumer Education Curriculum Guide for Ohio, K-12, the guide contains consumer education learning activities for use with persons of limited income. It is organized in six sections, each dealing with one of the following basic concepts: (1) the economic system,…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

337

Effects of Population Change on Family Life and the Child: Implications for Home Economics Programs in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines some of the population-related factors and effects upon the family and child. Because of their vested interests and wealth of experience in family life, home economists are challenged to take the lead in planning and providing curriculum materials, and to promote population education in the schools. (Author)

Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon

1981-01-01

338

Economic Pressure and Children's Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mediating role of family dynamics (marital quality, parental depression) in the link between economic pressure and child psychological functioning using the data from the National Survey of Family and Households (NSFH). From the initial multiethnic probability sample, we used a subsample of 2998 parents with a focal child 5 to 17 years of age. We used structural

Mihaela Robila; Ambika Krishnakumar

2006-01-01

339

Structural Basis for Substrate Recognition in the Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase Family  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel family of methyltransferases was identified in plants. Some members of this newly discovered and recently characterized methyltransferase family catalyze the formation of small-molecule methyl esters using S-adenosyl-l-Met (SAM) as a methyl donor and carboxylic acid–bearing substrates as methyl acceptors. These enzymes include SAMT (SAM:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), BAMT (SAM:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), and JMT (SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase). Moreover, other members of this family of plant methyltransferases have been found to catalyze the N-methylation of caffeine precursors. The 3.0-Å crystal structure of Clarkia breweri SAMT in complex with the substrate salicylic acid and the demethylated product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine reveals a protein structure that possesses a helical active site capping domain and a unique dimerization interface. In addition, the chemical determinants responsible for the selection of salicylic acid demonstrate the structural basis for facile variations of substrate selectivity among functionally characterized plant carboxyl-directed and nitrogen-directed methyltransferases and a growing set of related proteins that have yet to be examined biochemically. Using the three-dimensional structure of SAMT as a guide, we examined the substrate specificity of SAMT by site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays against 12 carboxyl-containing small molecules. Moreover, the utility of structural information for the functional characterization of this large family of plant methyltransferases was demonstrated by the discovery of an Arabidopsis methyltransferase that is specific for the carboxyl-bearing phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:12897246

Zubieta, Chloe; Ross, Jeannine R.; Koscheski, Paul; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P.

2003-01-01

340

Structural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family  

SciTech Connect

The NudC family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. The archetypal nudC gene from Aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. This family also includes nudF, whose human orthologue, Lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. Three paralogues of NudC are known in vertebrates: NudC, NudC-like (NudCL), and NudC-like 2 (NudCL2). The fourth distantly related member of the family, CML66, contains a NudC-like domain. The three principal NudC proteins have no catalytic activity but appear to play as yet poorly defined roles in proliferating and dividing cells. We present crystallographic and NMR studies of the human NudC protein and discuss the results in the context of structures recently deposited by structural genomics centers (i.e., NudCL and mouse NudCL2). All proteins share the same core CS domain characteristic of proteins acting either as cochaperones of Hsp90 or as independent small heat shock proteins. However, while NudC and NudCL dimerize via an N-terminally located coiled coil, the smaller NudCL2 lacks this motif and instead dimerizes as a result of unique domain swapping. We show that NudC and NudCL, but not NudCL2, inhibit the aggregation of several target proteins, consistent with an Hsp90-independent heat shock protein function. Importantly, and in contrast to several previous reports, none of the three proteins is able to form binary complexes with Lis1. The availability of structural information will be of help in further studies on the cellular functions of the NudC family.

Zheng, Meiying; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Burdette, Alexander J.; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Janczyk, Pawe; #322; ; #321; .; Derewenda, Urszula; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Caldwell, Kim A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (UV); (UAT)

2012-05-25

341

The economic burden to families of HIV and HIV/tuberculosis coinfection in a subsidized HIV treatment program.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: The high cost of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has led to the initiation of subsidized HIV treatment programs in developing countries. The care of tuberculosis (TB), a common opportunistic infection, is not built into the subsidized program. The current study was done to evaluate the cost burden of HIV/AIDS, TB, and TB and HIV/AIDS coinfections to the family. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Consecutive families with 21 family member managed for HIV and or TB were recruited into three cohorts of HIV only, TB only and HIV/TB cohorts. The average monthly costs of treatment, transportation family income and percentage of income spent on care were computed for each family. The average monthly man-hours per family spent on clinic visitation were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 families consisting of 128 family members met the study criteria. The mean cost of treatment per month was significantly higher in families in the HIV/TB cohort than in other cohorts, P = 0.0001. The mean percentage of income spent on treatment was significantly higher in the HIV/TB cohort compared to other cohorts, P = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: The cost of managing TB/HIV coinfection significantly increased the costs to the families in the subsidized HIV treatment program. It is recommended that a comprehensive package of subsidized HIV care that is inclusive of TB treatment and care for other comorbidities be initiated in developing countries. PMID:17595931

Sadoh, Wilson E.; Oviawe, Osa

2007-01-01

342

Associations between family structure changes and children's behavior problems: the moderating effects of timing and marital birth.  

PubMed

Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,492), it estimates how changes in family structure experienced during 4 different developmental periods relate to concurrent and subsequent changes in children's behavioral trajectories. We estimate associations separately for children born to married and unwed parents to determine whether family instability has different associations with children's behavior across policy-relevant family types. Results indicate that changes in family structure during the first 3 years of life predict children's behavioral development more consistently than later changes, changes into a single-parent family have different implications for children's development than changes into a blended family, and changes in family structure matter more for children born to married parents than children born to unwed parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22866830

Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy

2013-07-01

343

Understanding discipline in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a structural equation model.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-five mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) completed a semi-structured interview, the Parenting Stress Index Questionnaire (Abidin, 1990), to evaluate parenting stress. The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff & Acker, 1993) was also administered to measure dysfunctional discipline strategies. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which the independent variables were the Child's Characteristics and the Socio-Educational Status of his or her family; intermediate variables were Parenting Stress concerning the Child Domain and concerning the Parent Domain; and the dependent variable was Parental Discipline. The results confirm our hypotheses. Interventions in these families should therefore incorporate a component focused on Parenting Stress (in both the Child Domain and the Parent Domain), as a determinant of Parental Discipline. PMID:19899651

Miranda, Ana; Grau, Dolores; Rosel, Jesús; Meliá, Amanda

2009-11-01

344

Structural basis for the broad specificity of a new family of amino-acid racemases.  

PubMed

Broad-spectrum amino-acid racemases (Bsrs) enable bacteria to generate noncanonical D-amino acids, the roles of which in microbial physiology, including the modulation of cell-wall structure and the dissolution of biofilms, are just beginning to be appreciated. Here, extensive crystallographic, mutational, biochemical and bioinformatic studies were used to define the molecular features of the racemase BsrV that enable this enzyme to accommodate more diverse substrates than the related PLP-dependent alanine racemases. Conserved residues were identified that distinguish BsrV and a newly defined family of broad-spectrum racemases from alanine racemases, and these residues were found to be key mediators of the multispecificity of BrsV. Finally, the structural analysis of an additional Bsr that was identified in the bioinformatic analysis confirmed that the distinguishing features of BrsV are conserved among Bsr family members. PMID:24419381

Espaillat, Akbar; Carrasco-López, César; Bernardo-García, Noelia; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Otero, Lisandro H; Álvarez, Laura; de Pedro, Miguel A; Pazos, Florencio; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K; Hermoso, Juan A; Cava, Felipe

2014-01-01

345

Factor structure of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Family and Youth satisfaction surveys.  

PubMed

Two studies of the Mental Health Statics Improvement Project (MHSIP) Family and Youth consumer satisfaction surveys factor structure and psychometrics were conducted. In study 1, the 2002-2006 Youth Services Survey for Families (N = 6,007) was administered to parents of children receiving services, and in study 2, the 2002-2004 Youth Services Survey (N = 1,718) was administered to children age 12-18 receiving services. Factor analyses across both studies found five factors that strongly supported the hypothesized scale domains of outcomes, satisfaction, cultural sensitivity, participation, and access. Scales based on these factors had good reliability with an average coefficient alpha of 0.85. The average convergent validity correlation between scale scores from the parent and child surveys was r = 0.62. Overall, the results supported the structure, reliability, and validity of the surveys. PMID:23636620

Shafer, Alan B; Temple, Judith M

2013-07-01

346

Structural features of B family chorion sequences in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, and their evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Partial protein sequences, and DNA sequences of corresponding cDNA and genomic clones were obtained and analyzed to reveal the primary structural features of major, developmentally middle or late components of the B chorion multigene family in Bombyx mori. Comparisons with other types of sequences confirm and clarify the tripartite domain structure of chorion proteins. Glycine-, leucine- and tyrosine-containing, tandemly repetitive peptides form the bulk of the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains ('arms'). Extensive sequence homologies suggest a common evolutionary origin for the amino-terminal arms of some B. mori B sequences and the corresponding portions of members of a different (A) chorion multigene family in Antheraea polyphemus, a distantly related silkmoth. PMID:6571700

Tsitilou, S G; Rodakis, G C; Alexopoulou, M; Kafatos, F C; Ito, K; Iatrou, K

1983-01-01

347

Delinquency in male adolescents: the role of alexithymia and family structure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) (alexithymia), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS) (anxiety), the Liste d'Adjectifs Bipolaires et en Echelles de Likert (LABEL) (personality-Big Five) and demographic data. Findings revealed that the adolescents of the offender group scored high on alexithymia and that proportion of disrupted family structure in the offender group is higher than in the control group. Logistic regressions confirmed that alexithymia and family structure are the strongest discriminatory factors for juvenile delinquency. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:16182361

Zimmermann, Grégoire

2006-06-01

348

Does Adolescent Family Structure Predict Military Enlistment? A Comparison of Post-High School Activities  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the link between adolescent family structure and the likelihood of military enlistment in young adulthood, as compared to alternative post-high school activities. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multinomial logistic regression analyses to compare the odds of military enlistment with college attendance or labor force involvement. We find that alternative family structures predict enlistment relative to college attendance. Living in a single-parent household during adolescence increased odds of military enlistment, but the effect is accounted for by socioeconomic status and early feelings of social isolation. Living with a stepparent or with neither biological parent more than doubles the odds of enlistment, independent of socioeconomic status, characteristics of parent-child relationships, or feelings of social isolation. Although college attendance is widely promoted as a valued post-high school activity, military service may offer a route to independence and a greater sense of belonging. PMID:24000268

Spence, Naomi J.; Henderson, Kathryn A.; Elder, Glen H.

2013-01-01

349

Neurofilament Cross-Bridge – A Structure Associated Specifically with the Neurofilament Among the Intermediate Filament Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The neurofilament (NF) is a member of the intermediate filament family, which is composed of different proteins but all having\\u000a the same width, approximately 10 nm diameter. Among intermediate filaments, NFs have unique chemical and structural properties.\\u000a They are composed of three distinctly different proteins called triplet proteins (NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H) and are constituted morphologically of two distinct domains in

Takahiro Gotow

350

Crystal chemistry of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , NZP or CTP, structure family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NaZr2(PO4)3 type structure (abbreviated as NZP or CTP, CaTi4(PO4)6), has emerged as a new family, which has extraordinary technological utility in three fields: fast-ion conductors, radwaste solidification and zero expansion ceramics. NZP or CTP is formed by an extraordinary range of discrete compositions and crystalline solutions. In this paper these compositions are classified according to their crystal chemical substitution

James Alamo; Rustum Roy

1986-01-01

351

Structure and Coding Content of CST (BART) Family RNAs of Epstein-Barr Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

CST (BART BARF0) family viral RNAs are expressed in several types of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, including EBV-associated cancers. Many different spliced forms of these RNAs have been described; here we have clarified the structures of some of the more abundant splicing patterns. We report the first cDNAs representing a full-length CST mRNA from a clone library and further characterize

PAUL R. SMITH; ORLANDO DE JESUS; DAVID TURNER; MARTINE HOLLYOAKE; CLAUDIO ELGUETA KARSTEGL; BEVERLY E. GRIFFIN; LORRAINE KARRAN; YILONG WANG; S. DIANE HAYWARD; PAUL J. FARRELL

2000-01-01

352

Family Structure, Mother–Daughter Relationship Quality, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Girls' Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 7,114 adolescent girls (4,269 White, 1,707 African American, and 1,138 Hispanic) and biological mothers from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined how family structure, girls' perceptions of mother–daughter relationship quality, and race and ethnicity related to girls' health risks. In general, results indicate heightened risk for both precocious events and

Michael J. Merten; Carolyn S. Henry

2011-01-01

353

Proteins on the catwalk: modelling the structural domains of the CCN family of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CCN family of proteins (CCN1, CCN2, CCN3, CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6) are multifunctional mosaic proteins that play keys roles\\u000a in crucial areas of physiology such as angiogenesis, skeletal development tumourigenesis, cell proliferation, adhesion and\\u000a survival. This expansive repertoire of functions comes through a modular structure of 4 discrete domains that act both independently\\u000a and in concert. How these interactions

Kenneth P. Holbourn; Bernard Perbal; K. Ravi Acharya

2009-01-01

354

Relation between parent psychiatric symptoms and youth problems: moderation through family structure and youth gender.  

PubMed

Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N?=?333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender. PMID:24014160

Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R

2014-02-01

355

Analysis on conservation of disulphide bonds and their structural features in homologous protein domain families  

PubMed Central

Background Disulphide bridges are well known to play key roles in stability, folding and functions of proteins. Introduction or deletion of disulphides by site-directed mutagenesis have produced varying effects on stability and folding depending upon the protein and location of disulphide in the 3-D structure. Given the lack of complete understanding it is worthwhile to learn from an analysis of extent of conservation of disulphides in homologous proteins. We have also addressed the question of what structural interactions replaces a disulphide in a homologue in another homologue. Results Using a dataset involving 34,752 pairwise comparisons of homologous protein domains corresponding to 300 protein domain families of known 3-D structures, we provide a comprehensive analysis of extent of conservation of disulphide bridges and their structural features. We report that only 54% of all the disulphide bonds compared between the homologous pairs are conserved, even if, a small fraction of the non-conserved disulphides do include cytoplasmic proteins. Also, only about one fourth of the distinct disulphides are conserved in all the members in protein families. We note that while conservation of disulphide is common in many families, disulphide bond mutations are quite prevalent. Interestingly, we note that there is no clear relationship between sequence identity between two homologous proteins and disulphide bond conservation. Our analysis on structural features at the sites where cysteines forming disulphide in one homologue are replaced by non-Cys residues show that the elimination of a disulphide in a homologue need not always result in stabilizing interactions between equivalent residues. Conclusion We observe that in the homologous proteins, disulphide bonds are conserved only to a modest extent. Very interestingly, we note that extent of conservation of disulphide in homologous proteins is unrelated to the overall sequence identity between homologues. The non-conserved disulphides are often associated with variable structural features that were recruited to be associated with differentiation or specialisation of protein function. PMID:19111067

Thangudu, Ratna R; Manoharan, Malini; Srinivasan, N; Cadet, Frederic; Sowdhamini, R; Offmann, Bernard

2008-01-01

356

Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

2014-01-01

357

Structure of a PL17 family alginate lyase demonstrates functional similarities among exotype depolymerases.  

PubMed

Brown macroalgae represent an ideal source for complex polysaccharides that can be utilized as precursors for cellulosic biofuels. The lack of recalcitrant lignin components in macroalgae polysaccharide reserves provides a facile route for depolymerization of constituent polysaccharides into simple monosaccharides. The most abundant sugars in macroalgae are alginate, mannitol, and glucan, and although several classes of enzymes that can catabolize the latter two have been characterized, studies of alginate-depolymerizing enzymes have lagged. Here, we present several crystal structures of Alg17c from marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans along with structure-function characterization of active site residues that are suggested to be involved in the exolytic mechanism of alginate depolymerization. This represents the first structural and biochemical characterization of a family 17 polysaccharide lyase enzyme. Despite the lack of appreciable sequence conservation, the structure and ?-elimination mechanism for glycolytic bond cleavage by Alg17c are similar to those observed for family 15 polysaccharide lyases and other lyases. This work illuminates the evolutionary relationships among enzymes within this unexplored class of polysaccharide lyases and reinforces the notion of a structure-based hierarchy in the classification of these enzymes. PMID:24478312

Park, David; Jagtap, Sujit; Nair, Satish K

2014-03-21

358

Structural similarity of loops in protein families: toward the understanding of protein evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Protein evolution and protein classification are usually inferred by comparing protein cores in their conserved aligned parts. Structurally aligned protein regions are separated by less conserved loop regions, where sequence and structure locally deviate from each other and do not superimpose well. Results Our results indicate that even longer protein loops can not be viewed as "random coils" and for the majority of protein families in our test set there exists a linear correlation between the measures of sequence similarity and loop structural similarity. Results suggest that distance matrices derived from the loop (dis)similarity measure may produce in some cases more reliable cluster trees compared to the distance matrices based on the conventional measures of sequence and structural (dis)similarity. Conclusions We show that by considering "dissimilar" loop regions rather than only conserved core regions it is possible to improve our understanding of protein evolution. PMID:15691378

Panchenko, Anna R; Madej, Thomas

2005-01-01

359

Genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of the penaeidin gene family from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Penaeidins are a family of shrimp antimicrobial peptides that have a unique molecular structure consisting of a highly conserved leader peptide followed by an N-terminal proline-rich domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. Three distinct classes of penaeidins, named PEN2, PEN3, and PEN4, are expressed in the hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple isoforms, generated by substitutions and deletions within the proline and cysteine-rich domains, have been reported at the mRNA level for all three classes of penaeidins suggesting that this is a highly diverse gene family; however, the genetic mechanisms by which sequence variability in the penaeidin gene family is generated are unknown. The present study examines the genomic sources for both class and isoform diversity in the penaeidin family. We show that each penaeidin class is encoded by a unique gene and that isoform diversity is generated by polymorphism within each penaeidin gene locus. Furthermore, the genomic regions upstream of each penaeidin gene were partially characterized and found to drive transcription. PMID:16488092

O'Leary, Nuala A; Gross, Paul S

2006-04-12

360

A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family  

PubMed Central

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

2014-01-01

361

Latent structure of facets of alcohol reinforcement from a behavioral economic demand curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Behavioral economic demand curves are quantitative representations of the relationship between consumption of a drug and its\\u000a cost. Demand curves provide a multidimensional assessment of reinforcement, but the relationships among the various indices\\u000a of reinforcement have been largely unstudied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The objective of the study is to use exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying factor structure of the facets\\u000a of

James MacKillop; James G. Murphy; Jennifer W. Tidey; Christopher W. Kahler; Lara A. Ray; Warren K. Bickel

2009-01-01

362

Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics

Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

363

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu  

E-print Network

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu Agricultural Experiment Station · College's economic decisions related to grazing, stocking rates, and livestock weight gain; ultimately, it underpins

Johnson, Eric E.

364

Structure and function of the mammalian fibrillin gene family: implications for human connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

Fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor ? binding proteins (LTBPs) are components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. While fibrillins are integral to the 10nm microfibrils, and often associated with elastin, all family members are likely to have an additional role in regulating the bioavailability of transforming growth factor ? (TGB?). Both fibrillins and LTBPs are large glycoproteins, containing a series of calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains as well as a number of copies of a unique 8 cysteine domain found only in this protein superfamily. There are three mammalian fibrillins and four LTBPs. Fibrillin monomers link head to tail in microfibrils which can then form two and three dimensional structures. In some tissues elastin is recruited to the fibrillin microfibrils to provide elasticity to the tissue. LTBPs are part of the TGB? large latent complex which sequesters TGB? in the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 appears to bind to LTBPs to assist in this process and is thus involved in regulating the bioavailability of TGB?. Mutation of fibrillin genes results in connective tissue phenotypes which reflect both the increased level of active TGB? and the structural failure of the extracellular matrix due to the absence or abnormality of fibrillin protein. Fibrillinopathies include Marfan syndrome, familial ectopia lentis, familial thoracic aneurysm (mutations of FBN1) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (mutation of FBN2). There are no diseases currently associated with mutation of FBN3 in humans, and this gene is no longer active in rodents. Expression patterns of fibrillin genes are consistent with their role in extracellular matrix structure of connective tissue. FBN1 expression is high in most cell types of mesenchymal origin, particularly bone. Human and mouse FBN2 expression is high in fetal cells and has more restricted expression in mesenchymal cell types postnatally. FBN3 is expressed early in development (embryonic and fetal tissues) in humans. The fibrillins are thus important in maintaining the structure and integrity of the extracellular matrix and, in combination with their sequence family members the LTBPs, also contribute to the regulation of the TGF? family of major growth factors. PMID:22921888

Davis, Margaret R; Summers, Kim M

2012-12-01

365

Crystal Structure of Talaromyces cellulolyticus (Formerly Known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) GH Family 11 Xylanase.  

PubMed

Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) is one of the mesophilic fungi that can produce high levels of cellulose-related enzymes and are expected to be used for the degradation of polysaccharide biomass. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus detected seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to xylanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. The gene encoding the GH11 xylanase C (TcXylC) with the highest activity was used for overproduction and purification of the recombinant enzyme, permitting solving of the crystal structure to a resolution of 1.98 Å. In the asymmetric unit, two kinds of the crystal structures of the xylanase were identified. The main structure of the protein showed a ?-jelly roll structure. We hypothesize that one of the two structures represents the open form and the other shows the close form. The changing of the flexible region between the two structures is presumed to induce and accelerate the enzyme reaction. The specificity of xylanase toward the branched xylan is discussed in the context of this structural data and by comparison with the other published structures of xylanases. PMID:25138599

Kataoka, Misumi; Akita, Fusamichi; Maeno, Yuka; Inoue, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

2014-10-01

366

Chlorite dismutases, DyPs, and EfeB: 3 microbial heme enzyme families comprise the CDE structural superfamily  

PubMed Central

Heme proteins are extremely diverse, widespread, and versatile biocatalysts, sensors, and molecular transporters. The chlorite dismutase family of hemoproteins received its name due to the ability of the first-isolated members to detoxify anthropogenic ClO2?, a function believed to have evolved only in the last few decades. Family members have since been found in fifteen bacterial and archaeal genera, suggesting ancient roots. A structure- and sequence-based examination of the family is presented, in which key sequence and structural motifs are identified and possible functions for family proteins are proposed. Newly identified structural homologies moreover demonstrate clear connections to two other large, ancient, and functionally mysterious protein families. We propose calling them collectively the CDE superfamily of heme proteins. PMID:21354424

Goblirsch, Brandon; Kurker, Richard C.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

367

Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database  

SciTech Connect

The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

1991-02-01

368

Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior to Assess Critical but Elusive Family Processes: A New Solution to an Old Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) offers a new approach to the old problem of how to measure the complex and elusive concepts that are critical to family theory and therapy. SASB includes both a theoretical model and an assessment methodology that can be applied to disturbed family relationships and interaction patterns. It also provides operational definitions and measures of

Laura Lynn Humphrey; Lorna Smith Benjamin

1986-01-01

369

Moderating Effects of Family Structure on the Relationship Between Physical and Mental Health in Urban Children with Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined whether certain family structures modify the relationship between psychological adjustment and severity of physical illness, as measured by an index of functional status, among children with chronic illness. 352 families were divided into four types: two biological parents (n = 149), mother plus another adult relative (n = 47), mother plus unrelated spouse or partner (n = 23), and

Ellen Johnson Silver; Ruth E. K. Stein; Mark R. Dadds

1996-01-01

370

PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties, and evolution by gene duplication  

E-print Network

1 PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties-type lectin-like domain but possess additional highly conserved amino acids. By studying human databases and FII families, respectively. REG I and PAP IB share 50% sequence identity. After cloning PAP IB

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

2012-01-01

372

New Crystallographic Shear Families Derived from the Rutile Structure, and the Possibility of Continuous Ordered Solid Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of new families of titanium and mixed titanium plus chromium oxides has been discovered, their structures all being derived from the rutile type by crystallographic shear. Different families have different CS plans (hkl), and the members of a fam...

B. G. Hyde, D. K. Philp, L. A. Bursill

1970-01-01

373

Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

1994-09-01

374

Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters  

PubMed Central

An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed TA; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

2014-01-01

375

Keeping It in the Family: Diverse Histone Recognition by Conserved Structural Folds  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic regulation of gene transcription relies on an array of recurring structural domains that have evolved to recognize post-translational modifications on histones. The roles of bromodomains, PHD fingers, and the Royal family domains in the recognition of histone modifications to direct transcription have been well characterized. However, only through recent structural studies it has been realized that these basic folds are capable of interacting with increasingly more complex histone modification landscapes, illuminating how nature has concocted a way to accomplish more with less. Here we review the recent biochemical and structural studies of several conserved folds that recognize modified as well as unmodified histone sequences and discuss their implications on gene expression. PMID:20923397

Yap, Kyoko L.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

2010-01-01

376

Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters.  

PubMed

An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

2014-08-01

377

Berkeley Center on Health, Economic & Family Security|Cutting Child Care Out from Under Californians EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

E-print Network

to subsidized child care. While the Legislature's Joint Budget Conference Committee rejected these child care. This paper outlines the impact these child care cuts would have on working parents, children, and the state. These cuts, if enacted, will cause severe economic insecurity for working parents and child care providers

Kammen, Daniel M.

378

Planning for Free Lives: Curriculum Materials for Combatting Sex Stereotyping in Home Economics, Family Living, and Career Awareness Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom activities for high-school students in home economics are provided. Designed to help male and female students gain home management skills without the usual limits of traditional sex-role stereotyping, the activities aim at assisting members of both sexes realize their potential as independent, thoughtful, cooperative, and assertive…

Feminists Northwest, Seattle, WA.

379

Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

380

Child Care Subsidies and the Economic Well-Being of Recipient Families: A Survey and Implications for Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secular increase over the past several decades in the number of families where both the husband and wife work in the paid labor force, coupled with the surge in labor force participation of single mothers in the 1990s, has heightened policy focus on child care options for working parents; federal and state governments are now major players…

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research, 2008

2008-01-01

381

Economic Diversity in Medical EducationThe Relationship between Students’ Family Income and Academic Performance, Career Choice, and Student Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing access to higher education across all income groups is a national priority. This analysis assessed the performance, career choice, and educational indebtedness of medical college students whose educational pursuits were assisted by the provision of financial support. The study looked at designated outcomes (academic performance, specialty choice, accumulated debt) in relation to the independent variable, family (parental) income, of

Raelynn Cooter; James B. Erdmann; Joseph S. Gonnella; Clara A. Callahan; Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

382

Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database  

SciTech Connect

These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

1991-02-01

383

Unusual chromatin structure associated with monoparalogous transcription of the Babesia bovis ves multigene family.  

PubMed

Rapid antigenic variation in Babesia bovis involves the variant erythrocyte surface antigen-1 (VESA1), a heterodimeric protein with subunits encoded by two branches of the ves multigene family. The ves1? and ves1? gene pair encoding VESA1a and 1b, respectively, are transcribed in a monoparalogous manner from a single locus of active ves transcription (LAT), just one of many quasi-palindromic ves loci. To determine whether this organization plays a role in transcriptional regulation, chromatin structure was first assessed. Limited treatment of isolated nuclei with micrococcal nuclease to assay nucleosomal patterning revealed a periodicity of 156-159 bp in both bulk chromatin and specific gene coding regions. This pattern also was maintained in the intergenic regions (IGr) of non-transcribed ves genes. In contrast, the LAT IGr adopts a unique pattern, yielding an apparent cluster of five closely-spaced hypersensitive sites flanked by regions of reduced nucleosomal occupancy. ves loci fall into three patterns of overall sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease or DNase I digestion, with only the LAT being consistently very sensitive. Non-transcribed ves genes are inconsistent in their sensitivity to the two enzymatic probes. Non-linear DNA structure in chromatin was investigated to determine whether unique structure arising as a result of the quasi-palindromic nature of the LAT may effect transcriptional control. The in vitro capacity of ves IGr sequences to adopt stable higher-order DNA structure is demonstrated here, but the presence of such structure in vivo was not supported. Based upon these results a working model is proposed for the chromatin structural remodeling responsible for the sequential expression of ves multigene family members from divergently-organized loci. PMID:23178996

Huang, Yingling; Xiao, Yu-Ping; Allred, David R

2013-02-01

384

X-ray diffraction structure of a plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 protein: fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa of Cichorium intybus.  

PubMed

Fructan 1-exohydrolase, an enzyme involved in fructan degradation, belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 32. The structure of isoenzyme 1-FEH IIa from Cichorium intybus is described at a resolution of 2.35 A. The structure consists of an N-terminal fivefold beta-propeller domain connected to two C-terminal beta-sheets. The putative active site is located entirely in the beta-propeller domain and is formed by amino acids which are highly conserved within glycosyl hydrolase family 32. The fructan-binding site is thought to be in the cleft formed between the two domains. The 1-FEH IIa structure is compared with the structures of two homologous but functionally different enzymes: a levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis (glycosyl hydrolase family 68) and an invertase from Thermotoga maritima (glycosyl hydrolase family 32). PMID:15659099

Verhaest, Maureen; Van den Ende, Wim; Roy, Katrien Le; De Ranter, Camiel J; Laere, André Van; Rabijns, Anja

2005-02-01

385

Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2013-01-31

386

Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16,224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We have investigated these two factors for associations with overweight; our studies, in the context of previous findings, are the focus of this review. PMID:24507855

Hunsberger, Monica

2014-02-01

387

New molecular structure offers first picture of a protein family vital to human health  

Cancer.gov

The 20 proteins in the Wnt family are some of the most important proteins in controlling how an organism develops and grows, but for 30 years scientists have not known what these vital proteins actually look like. The proteins have eluded standard visualization techniques, in large part because they do not dissolve well in the water-based liquids normally used for biochemical studies. But once a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and colleagues in his Stanford University School of Medicine lab thought of an approach to make the proteins behave better, they succeeded in solving the first structure of a Wnt protein.

388

Structural Insights into the Common ?-Chain Family of Cytokines and Receptors from the Interleukin-7 Pathway  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Over the past 13 years, numerous crystal structures of complexes of the common ?-chain (?c) cytokine receptors and their cytokines have been solved. Even with the remarkable progress in the structural biology of ?c receptors and their cytokines or interleukins, there are valuable lessons to be learned from the structural and biophysical studies of interleukin-7 (IL-7) and its ?-receptor (IL-7R?) and comparisons to other ?c family members. The structure of the IL-7/IL-7R? complex teaches that interfaces between the ?c interleukins and their receptors can vary in size, polarity, and specificity, and that significant conformational changes might be necessary for complexes of interleukins and their receptors to bind the shared, activating ?c receptor. Binding, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of IL-7 and IL-7R? show that glycosylation and electrostatics can be important to interactions between ILs and their receptor, even where the glycans and charged residues are distant from the interface. The structure of the IL-7R? homodimer is a reminder that often-ignored non-activating complexes likely perform roles just as important to signaling as activating complexes. And last but not least, the structural and biophysical studies help explain and potentially treat the diseases caused by aberrant IL-7 signaling. PMID:23046137

Walsh, Scott T. R.

2012-01-01

389

Two Crystal Structures of Bombyx mori Lipoprotein 3 - Structural Characterization of a New 30-kDa Lipoprotein Family Member  

PubMed Central

The 30-kDa family of lipoproteins from insect hemolymph has been the focus of a number of studies over the last few years. Recently, four crystal structures of Bombyx mori lipoprotein 7 have been determined. Here we report two crystal structures of another member of the 30-kDa lipoprotein family, Bombyx mori lipoprotein 3 (Bmlp3). The protein was isolated from its natural source, mulberry silkworm hemolymph. It crystallized in two different crystal forms, Bmlp3-p21 (space group P21) and Bmlp3-c2 (space group C2). The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement using the coordinates of Bmlp7 as a starting model. The crystals of Bmlp3-p21 diffracted X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution and of Bmlp3-c2 to 2.1 Å resolution. Bmlp3 has an overall fold characteristic of 30-kDa lipoproteins, with a VHS-type N-terminal domain and ?-trefoil C-terminal domain. Structural comparison of Bmlp3 and Bmlp7 shows that the loops present in the C-terminal domain are flexible and participate in dimer formation. Additionally, new putative binding sites of Bmlp3 have been analyzed in detail and the electrostatic potential of the protein surface at physiological pH 7.4 conditions has been calculated. The results of these calculations are the starting point for an explanation of the recently reported cell-penetrating properties of the 30-kDa lipoproteins. PMID:23613829

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Lochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

390

Family Structure Transitions and Changes in Maternal Resources and Well-Being  

PubMed Central

This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether family instability is associated with changes in perceived social support, material hardship, maternal depression, and parenting stress among mothers of young children. In addition to accounting for the number of transitions a mother experiences over the first five years of her child’s life, we pay close attention to the type and timing of these transitions. We find that mothers who transition to cohabitation or marriage with their child’s biological father experience declines in material hardship and that those who transition to cohabitation or marriage with another man exhibit modest declines in both material hardship and depression. Mothers who exit cohabiting or marital relationships encounter decreases in perceived social support and increases in material hardship, depression, and parenting stress. Overall, our results suggest that both the type and, to a much lesser degree, the timing of family structure transitions may influence maternal well-being. PMID:22215507

Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.; Magnuson, Katherine

2013-01-01

391

Introns in, introns out in plant gene families: a genomic approach of the dynamics of gene structure.  

PubMed

Gene duplication is considered to be a source of genetic information for the creation of new functions. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence revealed that a majority of plant genes belong to gene families. Regarding the problem of genes involved in the genesis of novel organs or functions during evolution, the reconstitution of the evolutionary history of gene families is of critical importance. A comparison of the intron/exon gene structure may provide clues for the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the genesis of gene families. An extensive study of A. thaliana genome showed that families of duplicated genes may be organized according to the number and/or density of intron and the diversity in gene structure. In this paper, we propose a genomic classification of several A. thaliana gene families based on introns in an evolutionary perspective. PMID:12836690

Lecharny, Alain; Boudet, Nathalie; Gy, Isabelle; Aubourg, Sébastien; Kreis, Martin

2003-01-01

392

Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers  

PubMed Central

Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/? or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); Omax (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); Pmax (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as “Persistence,” reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and “Amplitude,” reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement. PMID:22727784

Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

2012-01-01

393

Comparisons between the structures of HCV and Rep helicases reveal structural similarities between SF1 and SF2 super-families of helicases.  

PubMed Central

Three helicase structures have been determined recently: that of the DNA helicase PcrA, that of the hepatitis C virus RNA helicase, and that of the Escherichia coli DNA helicase Rep. PcrA and Rep belong to the same super-family of helicases (SF1) and are structurally very similar. In contrast, the HCV helicase belongs to a different super-family of helicases, SF2, and shows little sequence homology with the PcrA/Rep helicases. Yet, the HCV helicase is structurally similar to Rep/PcrA, suggesting preservation of structural scaffolds and relationships between helicase motifs across these two super-families. The comparison study presented here also reveals the existence of a new helicase motif in the SF1 family of helicases. PMID:9541392

Korolev, S.; Yao, N.; Lohman, T. M.; Weber, P. C.; Waksman, G.

1998-01-01

394

The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

395

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

396

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases  

PubMed Central

Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure?function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity. Enhanced version This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a Web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1. PMID:20676357

Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

2010-01-01

397

Crystal structure and snapshots along the reaction pathway of a family 51 ?-l-arabinofuranosidase  

PubMed Central

High-resolution crystal structures of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6, a family 51 glycosidase, are described. The enzyme is a hexamer, and each monomer is organized into two domains: a (?/?)8-barrel and a 12-stranded ? sandwich with jelly-roll topology. The structures of the Michaelis complexes with natural and synthetic substrates, and of the transient covalent arabinofuranosyl– enzyme intermediate represent two stable states in the double displacement mechanism, and allow thorough examination of the catalytic mechanism. The arabinofuranose sugar is tightly bound and distorted by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. The two catalytic residues are 4.7 ? apart, and together with other conserved residues contribute to the stabilization of the oxocarbenium ion-like transition state via charge delocalization and specific protein–substrate interactions. The enzyme is an anti-protonator, and a 1.7 ? electrophilic migration of the anomeric carbon takes place during the hydrolysis. PMID:14517232

Hovel, Klaus; Shallom, Dalia; Niefind, Karsten; Belakhov, Valery; Shoham, Gil; Baasov, Timor; Shoham, Yuval; Schomburg, Dietmar

2003-01-01

398

Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members  

PubMed Central

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins. PMID:23372681

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-01

399

A class 2 weight assessment for the implementation of commonality and preliminary structural designs for the family of commuter airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of commonality objectives are determined. Commonality is discussed in terms of weight penalties that increase the take-off weight of several members of the family of airplanes. Preliminary designs of fuselage structural members and a discussion of weight penalties due to implementation of common fuselage structure throughout the family is examined. Wing torque box designs are discussed along with structural weight penalties incurred. A landing gear design study is contained along with the weight penalties that a common gear system will impose. Implementation of common power plants throughout the family and the weight penalties that occur are discussed. The weight penalties imposed by commonality on all the airplanes in the family are summarized. Class 2 breakdowns are also presented. The feasibility of commonality based on a percentage of take-off weight increase over the Class 2 baseline weights is then assessed.

Creighton, Tom; Dragush, George; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Oxendine, Charles; Remen, John; Robinson, Terry; Russell, Mark; Swift, Jerry

1987-01-01

400

Cupin: A candidate molecular structure for the Nep1-like protein family  

PubMed Central

Background NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) are a novel family of microbial elicitors of plant necrosis. Some NLPs induce a hypersensitive-like response in dicot plants though the basis for this response remains unclear. In addition, the spatial structure and the role of these highly conserved proteins are not known. Results We predict a 3d-structure for the ?-rich section of the NLPs based on alignments, prediction tools and molecular dynamics. We calculated a consensus sequence from 42 NLPs proteins, predicted its secondary structure and obtained a high quality alignment of this structure and conserved residues with the two Cupin superfamily motifs. The conserved sequence GHRHDWE and several common residues, especially some conserved histidines, in NLPs match closely the two cupin motifs. Besides other common residues shared by dicot Auxin-Binding Proteins (ABPs) and NLPs, an additional conserved histidine found in all dicot ABPs was also found in all NLPs at the same position. Conclusion We propose that the necrosis inducing protein class belongs to the Cupin superfamily. Based on the 3d-structure, we are proposing some possible functions for the NLPs. PMID:18447914

Cechin, Adelmo L; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Lemke, Ney; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Cabrera, Odalys G; Pereira, Gonçalo AG; Mombach, José CM

2008-01-01

401

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-05-11

402

The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-06-24

403

Evolution of Intron/Exon Structure of DEAD Helicase Family Genes in Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis, and Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The DEAD box RNA helicase (RH) proteins are homologs involved in diverse cellular functions in all of the organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Nevertheless, there is a lack of conservation in the splicing pattern in the 53 Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRHs), the 32 Caenorhabditis elegans (CeRHs) and the 29 Drosophila melanogaster (DmRHs) genes. Of the 153 different observed intron positions, 4 are conserved between AtRHs, CeRHs, and DmRHs, and one position is also found in RHs from yeast and human. Of the 27 different AtRH structures with introns, 20 have at least one predicted ancient intron in the regions coding for the catalytic domain. In all of the organisms examined, we found at least one gene with most of its intron predicted to be ancient. In A. thaliana, the large diversity in RH structures suggests that duplications of the ancestral RH were followed by a high number of intron deletions and additions. The very high bias toward phase 0 introns is in favor of intron addition, preferentially in phase 0. Results from this comparative study of the same gene family in a plant and in two animals are discussed in terms of the general mechanisms of gene family evolution. PMID:11731501

Boudet, Nathalie; Aubourg, Sébastien; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Kreis, Martin; Lecharny, Alain

2001-01-01

404

Ethnic and Marital Differences in Family Structure, Risk Behaviors, and Service Requests Among Young Minority Fathers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and marital status differences in family structure, risk behaviors and service requests among African American and Hispanic adolescent fathers participating in a community-based fatherhood program. Demographic factors, risk behaviors, and service requests were gathered at program entry. The results indicated that each group demonstrated distinct patterns associated with family structure, sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and criminal behavior. In comparison to African American fathers, Hispanic fathers were younger and were more likely to be married and present at the delivery of their child. African American fathers reported having more children than Hispanic fathers. Disparities in school-related measures were also found, with African American fathers having higher high school graduation rates than Hispanic fathers. The impact of marriage on risk behaviors had mixed results. Services requests were similar for both groups. The finding that different ethnic groups have specific patterns of risk behaviors highlights the importance of considering the ethnic composition of a population when developing future research and interventions.

NEVAREZ, LUCINDA; WEINMAN, MAXINE L.; BUZI, RUTH S.; SMITH, PEGGY B.

2014-01-01

405

Family, community, and educational outcomes in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family\\u000a and community variables and children’s educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of\\u000a family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At the community level, we\\u000a assess the limited research on

Amita ChudgarM; M. Najeeb Shafiq

2010-01-01

406

A spatiotemporal structure: common to subatomic systems, biological processes, and economic cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model derived based on a quasi-stability concept applied to momentum conservation (Naitoh, JJIAM, 2001, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008, 2010) has revealed the spatial structure of various systems. This model explains the reason why particles such as biological cells, nitrogenous bases, and liquid droplets have bimodal size ratios of about 2:3 and 1:1. This paper shows that the same theory holds true for several levels of parcels from baryons to stars in the cosmos: specifically, at the levels of nuclear force, van der Waals force, surface tension, and the force of gravity. A higher order of analysis clarifies other asymmetric ratios related to the halo structure seen in atoms and amino acids. We will also show that our minimum hypercycle theory for explaining the morphogenetic cycle (Naitoh, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008) reveals other temporal cycles such as those of economic systems and the circadian clock as well as the fundamental neural network pattern (topological pattern). Finally, a universal equation describing the spatiotemporal structure of several systems will be derived, which also leads to a general concept of quasi-stability.

Naitoh, Ken

2012-03-01

407

Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages  

PubMed Central

Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the “stability profiles” of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world. PMID:23028843

Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

408

Comparative Study on Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship of the Human Short-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases Protein Family  

PubMed Central

Human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) protein family has been the subject of recent studies for its critical role in human metabolism. Studies also found that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SDR protein family were responsible for a variety of genetic diseases, including type II diabetes. This study reports the effect of sequence variation on the structural and functional integrities of human SDR protein family using phylogenetics and correlated mutation analysis tools. Our results indicated that (i) tyrosine, serine, and lysine are signature protein residues that have direct contribution to the structural and functional stabilities of the SDR protein family, (ii) subgroups of SDR protein family have their own signature protein combination that represent their unique functionality, and (iii) mutations of the human SDR protein family showed high correlation in terms of evolutionary history. In combination, the results inferred that over evolutionary history, the SDR protein family was able to diverge itself in order to adapt with the changes in human nutritional demands. Our study reveals understanding of structural and functional scaffolds of specific SDR subgroups that may facilitate the design of specific inhibitor. PMID:25374450

Tang, Nu Thi Ngoc; Le, Ly

2014-01-01

409

The Structural Basis of Exopolygalacturonase Activity in a Family 28 Glycoside Hydrolase  

SciTech Connect

Family 28 glycoside hydrolases (polygalacturonases) are found in organisms across the plant, fungal and bacterial kingdoms, where they are central to diverse biological functions such as fruit ripening, biomass recycling and plant pathogenesis. The structures of several polygalacturonases have been reported; however, all of these enzymes utilize an endo-mode of digestion, which generates a spectrum of oligosaccharide products with varying degrees of polymerization. The structure of a complementary exo-acting polygalacturonase and an accompanying explanation of the molecular determinants for its specialized activity have been noticeably lacking. We present the structure of an exopolygalacturonase from Yersinia enterocolitica, YeGH28 in a native form (solved to 2.19 {angstrom} resolution) and a digalacturonic acid product complex (solved to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution). The activity of YeGH28 is due to inserted stretches of amino acid residues that transform the active site from the open-ended channel observed in the endopolygalacturonases to a closed pocket that restricts the enzyme to the exclusive attack of the non-reducing end of oligogalacturonide substrates. In addition, YeGH28 possesses a fused FN3 domain with unknown function, the first such structure described in pectin active enzymes.

Abbott,D.; Boraston, A.

2007-01-01

410

The XMAP215 family drives microtubule polymerization using a structurally diverse TOG array  

PubMed Central

XMAP215 family members are potent microtubule (MT) polymerases, with mutants displaying reduced MT growth rates and aberrant spindle morphologies. XMAP215 proteins contain arrayed tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains that bind tubulin. Whether these TOG domains are architecturally equivalent is unknown. Here we present crystal structures of TOG4 from Drosophila Msps and human ch-TOG. These TOG4 structures architecturally depart from the structures of TOG domains 1 and 2, revealing a conserved domain bend that predicts a novel engagement with ?-tubulin. In vitro assays show differential tubulin-binding affinities across the TOG array, as well as differential effects on MT polymerization. We used Drosophila S2 cells depleted of endogenous Msps to assess the importance of individual TOG domains. Whereas a TOG1-4 array largely rescues MT polymerization rates, mutating tubulin-binding determinants in any single TOG domain dramatically reduces rescue activity. Our work highlights the structurally diverse yet positionally conserved TOG array that drives MT polymerization. PMID:24966168

Fox, Jaime C.; Howard, Amy E.; Currie, Joshua D.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Slep, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

411

Social change and the family: Comparative perspectives from the west, China, and South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the influence of social and economic change on family structure and relationships: How do such economic and social transformations as industrialization, urbanization, demographic change, the expansion of education, and the long-term growth of income influence the family? We take a comparative and historical approach, reviewing the experiences of three major sociocultural regions: the West, China, and South

Arland Thornton; Thomas E. Fricke

1987-01-01

412

Young adults' evaluations of themselves and their parents as a function of family structure and disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults (N=349) were asked to evaluate, in a counterbalanced fashion, their mothers, fathers, and themselves. They also evaluated their families. Individuals from “happy” families were found to rate themselves significantly higher and their mothers somewhat higher than did their counterparts from “unhappy” families. Evaluations of fathers were not found to vary as a function of family happiness. Evaluations of

Thomas S. Parish

1981-01-01

413

A Content Analysis of the Family Structure in Children's Literature for the Periods between 1955-1970 and 1980-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the family structure has changed over time in contemporary realistic children's literature for middle readers. There is an ongoing debate in this country about what defines a family and whether it is in transformation or becoming extinct. Since 1960 there is evidence that the family structure has changed. The books selected in…

Gallo, Erminia Mina

414

Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N-acetyl-glucosamine  

E-print Network

Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N carbohydrate esterases deacetylate poly- meric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan carbohydrate esterases in a structural context and represents a first step towards understanding the reaction

van Aalten, Daan

415

Structural and Process Features in Three Types of Child Care for Children from High and Low Income Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use observations from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and, Youth Development (SECCYD) to compare structural and process characteristics of child care centers, family child care homes (nonrelative care in a home setting) and care by relatives for 2-, 3- and 4.5-year-old children. Type of care differences in structural and caregiver…

Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Huston, Aletha C.; Imes, Amy E.; Gennetian, Lisa

2008-01-01

416

The Vertebrate RCAN Gene Family: Novel Insights into Evolution, Structure and Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recently there has been much interest in the Regulators of Calcineurin (RCAN) proteins which are important endogenous modulators of the calcineurin-NFATc signalling pathway. They have been shown to have a crucial role in cellular programmes such as the immune response, muscle fibre remodelling and memory, but also in pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and neurodegenerative diseases. In vertebrates, the RCAN family form a functional subfamily of three members RCAN1, RCAN2 and RCAN3 whereas only one RCAN is present in the rest of Eukarya. In addition, RCAN genes have been shown to collocate with RUNX and CLIC genes in ACD clusters (ACD21, ACD6 and ACD1). How the RCAN genes and their clustering in ACDs evolved is still unknown. After analysing RCAN gene family evolution using bioinformatic tools, we propose that the three RCAN vertebrate genes within the ACD clusters, which evolved from single copy genes present in invertebrates and lower eukaryotes, are the result of two rounds of whole genome duplication, followed by a segmental duplication. This evolutionary scenario involves the loss or gain of some RCAN genes during evolution. In addition, we have analysed RCAN gene structure and identified the existence of several characteristic features that can be involved in RCAN evolution and gene expression regulation. These included: several transposable elements, CpG islands in the 5? region of the genes, the existence of antisense transcripts (NAT) associated with the three human genes, and considerable evidence for bidirectional promoters that regulate RCAN gene expression. Furthermore, we show that the CpG island associated with the RCAN3 gene promoter is unmethylated and transcriptionally active. All these results provide timely new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying RCAN function and a more in depth knowledge of this gene family whose members are obvious candidates for the development of future therapies. PMID:24465593

Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Farre, Domenec; Aranguren-Ibanez, Alvaro; Martinez-H?yer, Sergio; Perez-Riba, Merce

2014-01-01

417

Crystal Structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065, a Member of the IclR Transcriptional Factor Family*  

PubMed Central

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 Å resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed of two domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains the winged helix-turn-helix motif, and the C-terminal presumed regulatory domain is involved in binding signal molecule. In a proposed signal-binding site, a bound Zn2+ ion was found. In the crystal, TM-IclR forms a dimer through interactions between DNA-binding domains. In the dimer, the DNA-binding domains are 2-fold related, but the dimer is asymmetric with respect to the orientation of signal-binding domains. Crystal packing analysis showed that TM-IclR dimers form a tetramer through interactions exclusively by signal-binding domains. A model is proposed for binding of IclR-like factors to DNA, and it suggests that signal-dependent transcription regulation is accomplished by affecting an oligomerization state of IclR and therefore its affinity for DNA target. PMID:11877432

Zhang, Rong-guang; Kim, Youngchang; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Laskowski, Roman; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei

2009-01-01

418

Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3  

PubMed Central

Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold. PMID:23583036

Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2013-01-01

419

Socialization or Social Structure: Investigating Predictors of Attitudes toward Filial Responsibility among Chinese Urban Youth from One- And Multiple-Child Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the influence of familial and social factors on the maturing cohort of China's one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibilities. Based on survey data collected in 1997 and 1998 among 777 Chinese young adults, this research found that family economic conditions had a significant impact on young adults'…

Zhan, Heying Jenny

2004-01-01

420

The SmtB\\/ArsR family of metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors: structural insights into prokaryotic metal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SmtB\\/ArsR family of prokaryotic metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors represses the expression of operons linked to stress-inducing concentrations of di- and multivalent heavy metal ions. Derepression results from direct binding of metal ions by these homodimeric ‘metal sensor’ proteins. An evolutionary analysis, coupled with comparative structural and spectroscopic studies of six SmtB\\/ArsR family members, suggests a unifying ‘theme and variations’ model,

Laura S. Busenlehner; Mario A. Pennella; David P. Giedroc

2003-01-01

421

The wheat low-molecular-weight glutenin genes: characterization of six new genes and progress in understanding gene family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits are important for aspects of wheat quality and dough processing,\\u000a a detailed description of the DNA structure and encoded polypeptides of this multigene family is still lacking. We report\\u000a progress in obtaining a more thorough description of the LMW-glutenin gene family from a single wheat cultivar (‘Cheyenne’).\\u000a Six new genomic sequences are reported and

B. G. Cassidy; J. Dvorak; O. D. Anderson

1998-01-01

422

Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members  

PubMed Central

Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-? family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-? ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

2008-01-01

423

New family of aminophenalenyl-based neutral radical molecular conductors: synthesis, structure, and solid state properties.  

PubMed

We report the preparation, crystallization, and solid-state characterization of the first members of a new family of spiro-bis-(1,9-diamino-substituted-phenalenyl)boron neutral radicals. The crystal structures show that the three radicals are monomeric and without close contacts in the crystal lattice. In all cases magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the presence of free radicals with one unpaired spin per molecule. Two of the new radical compounds are among the most highly conducting neutral organic solids, with room-temperature conductivities reaching sigma(RT) = 4 x 10(-2) S/cm. The measured conductivities correlate with the closest intermolecular contacts in the solid state and with the calculated band dispersions, even though the bandwidths are much smaller than those found in other organic conductors. PMID:15926848

Mandal, Swadhin K; Itkis, Mikhail E; Chi, Xiaoliu; Samanta, Satyabrata; Lidsky, David; Reed, Robert W; Oakley, Richard T; Tham, Fook S; Haddon, Robert C

2005-06-01

424

SAND, a New Protein Family: From Nucleic Acid to Protein Structure and Function Prediction  

PubMed Central

As a result of genome, EST and cDNA sequencing projects, there are huge numbers of predicted and/or partially characterised protein sequences compared with a relatively small number of proteins with experimentally determined function and structure. Thus, there is a considerable attention focused on the accurate prediction of gene function and structure from sequence by using bioinformatics. In the course of our analysis of genomic sequence from Fugu rubripes, we identified a novel gene, SAND, with significant sequence identity to hypothetical proteins predicted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans, a Drosophila melanogaster gene, and mouse and human cDNAs. Here we identify a further SAND homologue in human and Arabidopsis thaliana by use of standard computational tools. We describe the genomic organisation of SAND in these evolutionarily divergent species and identify sequence homologues from EST database searches confirming the expression of SAND in over 20 different eukaryotes. We confirm the expression of two different SAND paralogues in mammals and determine expression of one SAND in other vertebrates and eukaryotes. Furthermore, we predict structural properties of SAND, and characterise conserved sequence motifs in this protein family. PMID:18628914

Cottage, Amanda; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

2001-01-01

425

Structural insights into glycoside hydrolase family 32 and 68 enzymes: functional implications.  

PubMed

Glycoside hydrolases (GH) have been shown to play unique roles in various biological processes like the biosynthesis of glycans, cell wall metabolism, plant defence, signalling, and the mobilization of storage reserves. To date, GH are divided into more than 100 families based upon their overall structure. GH32 and GH68 are combined in clan GH-J, not only harbouring typical hydrolases but also non-Leloir type transferases (fructosyltransferases), involved in fructan biosynthesis. This review summarizes the recent structure-function research progress on plant GH32 enzymes, and highlights the similarities and differences compared with the microbial GH32 and GH68 enzymes. A profound analysis of ligand-bound structures and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identified key residues in substrate (or inhibitor) binding and recognition. In particular, sucrose can bind as inhibitor in Cichorium intybus 1-FEH IIa, whereas it binds as substrate in Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and Arabidopsis thaliana cell wall invertase (AtcwINV1). In plant GH32, a single residue, the equivalent of Asp239 in AtcwINV1, appears to be important for sucrose stabilization in the active site and essential in determining sucrose donor specificity. PMID:19129163

Lammens, Willem; Le Roy, Katrien; Schroeven, Lindsey; Van Laere, André; Rabijns, Anja; Van den Ende, Wim

2009-01-01

426

New crystal structural families of lanthanide chloride alcohol/water complexes  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of lanthanide chloride compounds as possible scintillation materials for gamma ray and neutron detection has led to the discovery of several new families of crystal structures with the general formula LnCl3(CH3OH)x(H2O)y. The specific crystal structure depends on the water/methanol content and lanthanide ion. The coordination of the light (large) lanthanides is the typical value of 8 and reduces to 7 for the heavier (small) lanthanides. The binding energy of water versus alcohol ligands is comparable, so that if water is present in the system, it is typically incorporated as a ligand in the crystal. In these crystals, the molecular adducts occur as monomers, dimers, and dichloro-bridged chains. These, in turn, form 3-D frameworks through H-bonds to the Cl atoms. Other distinct crystal structures are predicted, given the volume changes due to the lanthanide contraction, the water content of the crystal growth solutions, and the specific halide.

Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

2012-01-01

427

Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (protista, ciliophora, phyllopharyngea).  

PubMed

In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear ?-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

2014-08-01

428

The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures  

PubMed Central

Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also bind small molecules (250–1000 Da), and 197 exhibit a statistically significant (p<0.01) overlap between ligand and protein binding positions. These “bi-functional positions”, which bind both ligands and proteins, are particularly enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan residues, similar to “energetic hotspots” described previously, and are significantly less conserved than mono-functional and solvent exposed positions. Homology transfer identifies ligands whose binding sites overlap at least 20% of the protein interface for 35% of domain–domain and 45% of domain–peptide mediated interactions. The analysis recovered known small-molecule modulators of protein interactions as well as predicted new interaction targets based on the sequence similarity of ligand binding sites. We illustrate the predictive utility of the method by suggesting structural mechanisms for the effects of sanglifehrin A on HIV virion production, bepridil on the cellular entry of anthrax edema factor, and fusicoccin on vertebrate developmental pathways. The results, available at http://pibase.janelia.org, represent a comprehensive collection of structurally characterized modulators of protein interactions, and suggest that homologous structures are a useful resource for the rational design of interaction modulators. PMID:20140189

Davis, Fred P.; Sali, Andrej

2010-01-01

429

The CATH Domain Structure Database and related resources Gene3D and DHS provide comprehensive domain family information for genome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CATH database of protein domain structures (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath\\/) currently contains 43229 domains classified into 1467 super- families and 5107 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with sequence relatives from GenBank and completed genomes, using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended CATH protein family data- base contains 616470 domain sequences classified into 23876 sequence

Frances M. G. Pearl; Annabel E. Todd; Ian Sillitoe; Mark Dibley; Oliver Redfern; Tony E. Lewis; Christopher Bennett; Russell L. Marsden; Alastair Grant; David Lee; Adrian Akpor; Michael Maibaum; Andrew P. Harrison; Timothy Dallman; Gabrielle A. Reeves; Ilhem Diboun; Sarah Addou; Stefano Lise; Caroline Johnston; Antonio Sillero; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

2005-01-01

430

Parental Division of Labor, Coordination, and the Effects of Family Structure on Parenting in Monogamous Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)  

PubMed Central

Family relationships help shape species-typical social and emotional development, but our understanding of how this shaping occurs is still relatively limited. Prairie voles are a socially monogamous and biparental species that is well situated to complement traditional animal models, such as rats and mice, in investigating the effects of family experience. In this series of studies, we aimed to test hypotheses relating to how prairie vole families function under undisturbed, standard laboratory conditions. In the first study, we compared the parental behavior of primiparous biparental (BP) and single-mother (SM) prairie vole family units for 12 postnatal days and then tested for sex differences, behavioral coordination, and family structure effects. Under BP conditions, nest attendance was coordinated and shared equally by both sexes, while pup-directed and partner-directed licking and grooming (LG) were coordinated in a sex and social-context-dependent manner. Contrary to our expectations, SMs showed no evidence of strong parental compensation in response to the lack of the father, indicating a minimal effect of family structure on maternal behavior but a large effect on pup care. In the second study, we examined the effects of these BP and SM rearing conditions on family dynamics in the next generation and found that SM-reared adult parents exhibited lower rates of pup-directed LG in comparison to BP-reared counterparts. Situated in the context of human family dynamics and psychology, these results suggest that the study in prairie voles may help improve our understanding of family systems and how perturbations to these systems can affect adults and offspring. PMID:20945408

Hammock, Elizabeth A.D.; Young, Larry J.

2011-01-01

431

Parental division of labor, coordination, and the effects of family structure on parenting in monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Family relationships help shape species-typical social and emotional development, but our understanding of how this shaping occurs is still relatively limited. Prairie voles are a socially monogamous and biparental species that is well situated to complement traditional animal models, such as rats and mice, in investigating the effects of family experience. In this series of studies, we aimed to test hypotheses relating to how prairie vole families function under undisturbed, standard laboratory conditions. In the first study, we compared the parental behavior of primiparous biparental (BP) and single-mother (SM) prairie vole family units for 12 postnatal days and then tested for sex differences, behavioral coordination, and family structure effects. Under BP conditions, nest attendance was coordinated and shared equally by both sexes, while pup-directed and partner-directed licking and grooming (LG) were coordinated in a sex and social-context-dependent manner. Contrary to our expectations, SMs showed no evidence of strong parental compensation in response to the lack of the father, indicating a minimal effect of family structure on maternal behavior but a large effect on pup care. In the second study, we examined the effects of these BP and SM rearing conditions on family dynamics in the next generation and found that SM-reared adult parents exhibited lower rates of pup-directed LG in comparison to BP-reared counterparts. Situated in the context of human family dynamics and psychology, these results suggest that the study in prairie voles may help improve our understanding of family systems and how perturbations to these systems can affect adults and offspring. PMID:20945408

Ahern, Todd H; Hammock, Elizabeth A D; Young, Larry J

2011-03-01

432

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

433

Structure and function of the human Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme family  

E-print Network

The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of 17 proteins. PARP-1, the first member of the family, synthesizes a large, complex post-translational modification, poly(ADP-ribose). While ...

Rood, Jennifer E. (Jennifer Evelyn)

2013-01-01

434

Structural specificity of heparin binding in the fibroblast growth factor family of proteins  

PubMed Central

Heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) mediate a wide variety of complex biological processes by specifically binding proteins and modulating their biological activity. One of the best studied model systems for protein–HSGAG interactions is the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of molecules, and recent observations have demonstrated that the specificity of a given FGF ligand binding to its cognate receptor (FGFR) is mediated by distinct tissue-specific HSGAG sequences. Although it has been known that sulfate and carboxylate groups in the HSGAG chain play a key role by interacting with basic residues on the proteins, there is little understanding of how these ionic interactions provide the necessary specificity for protein binding. In this study, using all of the available crystal structures of different FGFs and FGF–HSGAG complexes, we show that in addition to the ionic interactions, optimal van der Waals contact between the HSGAG oligosaccharide and the protein is also very important in influencing the specificity of FGF–HSGAG interactions. Although the overall helical structure is maintained in the FGF-bound HSGAG compared with unbound HSGAG, we observe distinct changes in the backbone torsion angles of the oligosaccharide chain induced upon protein binding. These changes result in local deviations in the helical axis that provide optimal ionic and van der Waals contact with the protein. A specific conformation and topological arrangement of the HSGAG-binding loops of FGF, on the other hand, impose structural constraints that induce the local deviations in the HSGAG structure, thereby enabling maximum contact between HSGAG and the protein. PMID:12604799

Raman, Rahul; Venkataraman, Ganesh; Ernst, Steffen; Sasisekharan, V.; Sasisekharan, Ram

2003-01-01

435

Crystal Structures of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 20 Lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum *  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-? resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a ?2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near 4E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a 4C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed. PMID:23479733

Ito, Tasuku; Katayama, Takane; Hattie, Mitchell; Sakurama, Haruko; Wada, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ashida, Hisashi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Stubbs, Keith A.; Fushinobu, Shinya

2013-01-01

436

Serotype-Specific Structural Differences in the Protease-Cofactor Complexes of the Dengue Virus Family  

SciTech Connect

With an estimated 40% of the world population at risk, dengue poses a significant threat to human health, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Preventative and curative efforts, such as vaccine development and drug discovery, face additional challenges due to the occurrence of four antigenically distinct serotypes of the causative dengue virus (DEN1 to -4). Complex immune responses resulting from repeat assaults by the different serotypes necessitate simultaneous targeting of all forms of the virus. One of the promising targets for drug development is the highly conserved two-component viral protease NS2B-NS3, which plays an essential role in viral replication by processing the viral precursor polyprotein into functional proteins. In this paper, we report the 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of the DEN1 NS2B hydrophilic core (residues 49 to 95) in complex with the NS3 protease domain (residues 1 to 186) carrying an internal deletion in the N terminus (residues 11 to 20). While the overall folds within the protease core are similar to those of DEN2 and DEN4 proteases, the conformation of the cofactor NS2B is dramatically different from those of other flaviviral apoprotease structures. The differences are especially apparent within its C-terminal region, implicated in substrate binding. The structure reveals for the first time serotype-specific structural elements in the dengue virus family, with the reported alternate conformation resulting from a unique metal-binding site within the DEN1 sequence. We also report the identification of a 10-residue stretch within NS3pro that separates the substrate-binding function from the catalytic turnover rate of the enzyme. Implications for broad-spectrum drug discovery are discussed.

Chandramouli, Sumana; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Daudenarde, Sophie; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Kuhn, Peter (Scripps)

2010-03-04

437

Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation analysis and structure-function correlation in an omani arab family with familial hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder typified by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Previously, we reported a novel mutation in the exon-3 of LDLR gene, observed in a 9-year-old Omani Arab female. Here, we investigated the mode of inheritance of this mutation and confirmed that FH in this family is due to mutation only in the LDLR and not PCSK9 and ApoB genes. Further, the effect of the mutation has been appraised in silico on the tertiary structure of LDLR. A model of the mutant LDLR has been constructed using the coordinates of the wild-type LDLR extracellular domain. Based on the model, we present a mechanistic justification behind the observed detrimental effect of the mutation on LDL-C levels. PMID:24249837

Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zidi, Ward Al-Muna; Al-Abri, Abdul Rahim; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al-Tobi, Sheikha; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Zadjali, Fahad; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Banerjee, Yajnavalka

2014-11-01

438

Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs: compromising on economic, carbon and structural diversity objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use compromise programming to solve a multiple-objective land use and forest management planning model. Long- and short- ('fast') term carbon uptake, maintenance of structural diversity, and economic (net returns to forestry and agriculture) objectives are simultaneously achieved by minimizing the distance between current objective values and the ideal ones. Two distance metrics are used, representing a

Emina Krcmara; G. Cornelis van Kooten; STN CSC

439

Families, Prisons, and Men with Death SentencesThe Human Impact of Structured Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact on family members of the uncertainty surrounding the institutionalization of a loved one. Detailed observations and interviews were conducted with several men sentenced to death in Florida and with their families. The stresses of death row confinement for both the family and inmate are outlined. It is found that the stresses of death row have

MICHAEL L. RADELET; MARGARET VANDIVER; FELIX M. BERARDO

1983-01-01

440

DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families.  

PubMed

Many bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens undergo antigenic variation to counter host immune defense mechanisms. In Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal of human malaria parasites, switching of var gene expression results in alternating expression of the adhesion proteins of the Plasmodium falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 class on the infected erythrocyte surface. Recombination clearly generates var diversity, but the nature and control of the genetic exchanges involved remain unclear. By experimental and bioinformatic identification of recombination events and genome-wide recombination hotspots in var genes, we show that during the parasite's sexual stages, ectopic recombination between isogenous var paralogs occurs near low folding free energy DNA 50-mers and that these sequences are heavily concentrated at the boundaries of regions encoding individual Plasmodium falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 structural domains. The recombinogenic potential of these 50-mers is not parasite-specific because these sequences also induce recombination when transferred to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic cross data suggest that DNA secondary structures (DSS) act as inducers of recombination during DNA replication in P. falciparum sexual stages, and that these DSS-regulated genetic exchanges generate functional and diverse P. falciparum adhesion antigens. DSS-induced recombination may represent a common mechanism for optimizing the evolvability of virulence gene families in pathogens. PMID:24253306

Sander, Adam F; Lavstsen, Thomas; Rask, Thomas S; Lisby, Michael; Salanti, Ali; Fordyce, Sarah L; Jespersen, Jakob S; Carter, Richard; Deitsch, Kirk W; Theander, Thor G; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Arnot, David E

2014-02-01

441

Functional Proteomic And Structural Insights Into Molecular Recognition in the Nitrilase Family Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Nitrilases are a large and diverse family of nonpeptidic C-N hydrolases. The mammalian genome encodes eight nitrilase enzymes, several of which remain poorly characterized. Prominent among these are nitrilase-1 (Nit1) and nitrilase-2 (Nit2), which, despite having been shown to exert effects on cell growth and possibly serving as tumor suppressor genes, are without known substrates or selective inhibitors. In previous studies, we identified several nitrilases, including Nit1 and Nit2, as targets for dipeptide-chloroacetamide activity-based proteomics probes. Here, we have used these probes, in combination with high-resolution crystallography and molecular modeling, to systematically map the active site of Nit2 and identify residues involved in molecular recognition. We report the 1.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of mouse Nit2 and use this structure to identify residues that discriminate probe labeling between the Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes. Interestingly, some of these residues are conserved across all vertebrate Nit2 enzymes and, conversely, not found in any vertebrate Nit1 enzymes, suggesting that they are key discriminators of molecular recognition between these otherwise highly homologous enzymes. Our findings thus point to a limited set of active site residues that establish distinct patterns of molecular recognition among nitrilases and provide chemical probes to selectively perturb the function of these enzymes in biological systems.

Barglow, K.T.; Saikatendu, K.; Bracey, M.H.; Huey, R.; Morris, G.M.; Olson, A.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Cravatt, B.F.

2009-05-11

442

Structural insights into the mechanism of GTPase activation in the GIMAP family.  

PubMed

GTPases of immunity-associated proteins (GIMAPs) are regulators of lymphocyte survival and homeostasis. We previously determined the structural basis of GTP-dependent GIMAP2 scaffold formation on lipid droplets. To understand how its GTP hydrolysis is activated, we screened for other GIMAPs on lipid droplets and identified GIMAP7. In contrast to GIMAP2, GIMAP7 displayed dimerization-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. The crystal structure of GTP-bound GIMAP7 showed a homodimer that assembled via the G domains, with the helical extensions protruding in opposite directions. We identified a catalytic arginine that is supplied to the opposing monomer to stimulate GTP hydrolysis. GIMAP7 also stimulated GTP hydrolysis by GIMAP2 via an analogous mechanism. Finally, we found GIMAP2 and GIMAP7 expression differentially regulated in several human T cell lymphoma lines. Our findings suggest that GTPase activity in the GIMAP family is controlled by homo- and heterodimerization. This may have implications for the differential roles of some GIMAPs in lymphocyte survival. PMID:23454188

Schwefel, David; Arasu, B Sivanandam; Marino, Stephen F; Lamprecht, Björn; Köchert, Karl; Rosenbaum, Eva; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Behlke, Joachim; Rocks, Oliver; Mathas, Stephan; Daumke, Oliver

2013-04-01

443

Structural Basis for NADH/NAD+ Redox Sensing by a Rex Family Repressor  

SciTech Connect

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides have emerged as key signals of the cellular redox state. Yet the structural basis for allosteric gene regulation by the ratio of reduced NADH to oxidized NAD{sup +} is poorly understood. A key sensor among Gram-positive bacteria, Rex represses alternative respiratory gene expression until a limited oxygen supply elevates the intracellular NADH:NAD{sup +} ratio. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism for NADH/NAD{sup +} sensing among Rex family members by determining structures of Thermus aquaticus Rex bound to (1) NAD{sup +}, (2) DNA operator, and (3) without ligand. Comparison with the Rex/NADH complex reveals that NADH releases Rex from the DNA site following a 40{sup o} closure between the dimeric subunits. Complementary site-directed mutagenesis experiments implicate highly conserved residues in NAD-responsive DNA-binding activity. These rare views of a redox sensor in action establish a means for slight differences in the nicotinamide charge, pucker, and orientation to signal the redox state of the cell.

McLaughlin, K.J.; Soares, A.; Strain-Damerell, C. M.; Xie, K.; Brekasis, D.; Pagent, M. S. B.; Kielkopf, C. L.

2010-05-28

444

Structure and function of a peptide pheromone family that stimulate the vomeronasal sensory system in mice.  

PubMed

Mammals use pheromones to communicate with other animals of the same species. In mice, the VNO (vomeronasal organ) has a pivotal role in pheromone detection. We discovered a 7 kDa peptide, ESP1 (exocrine-gland-secreting peptide 1), in tear fluids from male mice that enhances the sexual behaviour of female mice via the VNO. NMR studies demonstrate that ESP1 adopts a compact structure with a helical fold stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Functional analysis in combination with docking simulation indicates that ESP1 is recognized by a specific G-protein-coupled vomeronasal receptor, V2Rp5, via charge-charge interactions in the large extracellular region of the receptor. ESP1 is a member of the ESP family, which comprises 38 homologous genes in mice, and some of these genes are expressed in a sex- or age-dependent manner. Most recently, ESP22 was found to be released specifically in juvenile tear fluids and to inhibit the sexual behaviour of adult male mice. These studies demonstrate that peptide pheromones are used for chemical communication in mice, and they indicate a structural basis for the narrowly tuned perception of mammalian peptide pheromones by vomeronasal receptors. PMID:25109971

Abe, Takayuki; Touhara, Kazushige

2014-08-01

445

Today's Families: Continuity, Change and Challenge. Keynote address on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Canadian Home Economics Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadian families differ from one another to the degree that it is now customary for researchers, helping professionals, teachers, and others to declare their interest in families, not "the family." The proliferation of different family forms has led some, who disregard the fact that the traditional family has had a very brief history, to lament…

Glossop, Robert

446

The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

2014-11-01

447

The Future of Family Life. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet presents an overview of current and projected changes in American family life, along with implications of those changes for home economics educators. Topics which are covered include: (1) changing family structures; (2) working women and homemakers; (3) family problems such as divorce, adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, violence…

Thompson, Catherine

448

Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

449

Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979–2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database.

Timothy Sim

2008-01-01

450

Investing in Human Capital. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (26th, San Francisco, California, November 13-15, 1986). Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 13 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or discussant comments. The papers include "Comparable Worth: Pay Equity or Road to Ruin?" (Ferber; discussants Braconi, Zick); "Measuring Financial Satisfaction" (Davis; discussant Lown); "Can Tools for Regional Economics Be Used to Assess the Export of Family

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

451

Multiple Mating and Family Structure of the Western Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale: Impact on Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of genetic diversity can strongly influence the dynamics and evolutionary changes of natural populations. Survival and disease resistance have been linked to levels of genetic diversity in eusocial insects, yet these relationships remain untested in gregarious insects where disease transmission can be high and selection for resistance is likely to be strong. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we use 8 microsatellite loci to examine genetic variation in 12 families of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale from four different island populations to determine the relationship of genetic variability to survival and disease resistance. In addition these genetic markers were used to elucidate the population structure of western tent caterpillars. Multiple paternity was revealed by microsatellite markers, with the number of sires estimated to range from one to three per family (mean ± SE ?=?1.92±0.23). Observed heterozygosity (HO) of families was not associated to the resistance of families to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) (r?=?0.161, F1,12 ?=?0.271, P?=?0.614), a major cause of mortality in high-density populations, but was positively associated with larval survival (r?=?0.635, F1,10 ?=?5.412, P?=?0.048). Genetic differentiation among the families was high (FST?=?0.269, P<0.0001), and families from the same island were as differentiated as were families from other islands. Conclusion/Significance We have been able to describe and characterize 8 microsatellite loci, which demonstrate patterns of variation within and between families of western tent caterpillars. We have discovered an association between larval survival and family-level heterozygosity that may be relevant to the population dynamics of this cyclic forest lepidopteran, and this will be the topic of future work. PMID:22655050

Franklin, Michelle T.; Ritland, Carol E.; Myers, Judith H.; Cory, Jenny S.

2012-01-01

452

Depression among mexican men on the migration frontier: the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors.  

PubMed

This study documents the mental health of Mexican migrant men in a new non-traditional settlement in the Rocky Mountain West and examines the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors in relation to depressive symptoms. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted interviewer-assisted surveys with 134 Mexican migrant men. Findings revealed that, overall, 46 % of participants reported depressive symptoms in the range for clinical concern and that single and married men who were separated from their families were particularly vulnerable to poor mental health. Best predictors of depression included both structural stressors (family separation, sending remittances to Mexico) and situational stressors (fearfulness, worry about police confrontation, treatment by non-Latinos, and lack of support). These findings highlight the need for complex and contextually-sensitive mental health interventions designed to protect this vulnerable population on the migration frontier and to promote their mental health. PMID:24142396

Letiecq, Bethany L; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Gray, Katie M; Eudave, Yanet M

2014-12-01

453

Exon-intron structure of outlier tick lipocalins indicate a monophyletic origin within the larger lipocalin family.  

PubMed

All tick proteins assigned to the lipocalin family lack the structural conserved regions (SCRs) that are characteristic of the kernel lipocalins and can thus be classified as outliers. These tick proteins have been assigned to the tick lipocalin family based on database searches that indicated homology between tick sequences and the fact that the histamine binding protein (HBP2) from the hard tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Ixodidae) shows structural similarity to the lipocalin fold. Sequence identity between kernel and outlier lipocalins falls below 20% and the question raised is whether the outlier and kernel lipocalins are truly homologous. More specifically in the case of the tick lipocalins, whether their structural fold is derived from the lipocalin fold or whether convergent evolution resulted in the generation of the basic lipocalin-like fold which consists of an eight stranded continuous anti-parallel beta-barrel terminated by a C-terminal alpha-helix that lies parallel to the barrel. The current study determined the gene structure for HBP2 and TSGP1, TSGP2 and TSGP4, lipocalins identified from the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi (Argasidae). All tick lipocalins have four introns (A-D) with conserved positions and phases within the tick lipocalin sequence alignment. The positions and phase information are also conserved with regard to the rest of the lipocalin family. Phylogenetic analysis using this information shows conclusively that tick lipocalins are evolutionary related to the rest of the lipocalin family. Tick lipocalins are grouped within a monophyletic clade that indicates a monophyletic origin within the tick lineage and also group with the other arthropod lipocalins in a larger clade. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence alignments based on conserved secondary structure of the lipocalin fold support the conclusions from the gene structure trees. These results indicate that exon-intron arrangement can be useful for the inclusion of outlier lipocalins within the larger lipocalin family. PMID:15147759

Mans, Ben J; Neitz, Albert W H

2004-06-01

454

'Trying to make it all come together': structuration and employed mothers' experience of family food provisioning in Canada.  

PubMed

This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet. PMID:21693474

Slater, Joyce; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Edginton, Barry; O'neil, John

2012-09-01

455

[Family policy in Western Europe: a sociological reflection].  

PubMed

Family policy, a primarily European phenomenon including all governmental actions designed to maintain, support, or influence the structure and life of families, must be distinguished from measures intended for other purposes which merely impact upon the family. Family policy may concern legislative measures governing the formation and dissolution of households and marriages, or it may concern social transfers. The transfers may be monetary ones as in the tax, social security, and public assistance systems, or services such as child care made available to families. This article argues that recent changes in family policy in Western Europe tend to blur the distinction between family policy and a policy of family impact. 3 phases can be distinguished in development of family policy in Western Europe. The first, developed after World War II, involved economic and financial aid to families through tax benefits and family allowances; it was explicitly intended to safe guard the economic base of productive families. Next came nonmaterial assistance intended to increase the welfare of families through such measures as sex education and marriage preparation courses and centers for family therapy or marriage counseling. The final step was provision of services such as child care intended to substitute partially and temporarily for the family. In the 1960s and 1970s economic aid to families was criticized by feminists for perpetuating sexual stereotypes and by others for benefiting middle income and wealthy families more than the disadvantaged. The economic recession which began in the late 1970s, the diffusion of nontraditional household and family types, and the spectre of population decline due to very low birth rates have been important influences on family policy during the 1980s. Employment has become an issue in family policy for the first time, with feminists rejecting policy initiatives that would discourage female employment and other groups arguing that jobs should be allocated to families, not individuals. Controversy has arisen over the most equitable manner of calculating income tax for 2-income households. The close relationship of family allowances to employment and the social security system is weakening in several countries, and allocations are coming to be viewed as a right of the child regardless of the employment or marital status of the parents. Changes in family policy or family impact are perhaps most notable in public assistance policies. In some countries, family status has become a criterion for the level of assistance received. The recent Western European experience demonstrates that family policy is often at cross purposes with other goals such as improvement of the status of women. The conflicting interests of varied groups must be taken into account when policies affecting the family are developed. PMID:12314966

Dumon, W

1987-01-01

456

Helping Low-Conflict Divorced Parents Establish Appropriate Boundaries Using a Variation of the Miracle Question: An Integration of Solution-Focused Therapy and Structural Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the implications of divorce and the effect that divorce has on the relationships between family members. Parents are encouraged to develop appropriate co-parental boundaries that direct and influence subsequent interactions between family members. Using an integration of solution-focused therapy and structural family therapy, a variation of the miracle question is suggested as a means to help parents

Julie L. Ramisch; Melissa McVicker; Z. Seda Sahin

2009-01-01

457

Peer Influences and Drug Use Among Urban Adolescents: Family Structure and Parent–Adolescent Relationship as Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moderating influences of family structure and parent–adolescent distress on the relationship between peer variables and drug use were examined in a predominantly African American sample of 630 10th graders at 9 urban high schools. Both peer pressure and peer drug use were significantly related to the reported frequency of drug use. The relationship between peer pressure and drug use

Albert D. Farrell; Kamila S. White

1998-01-01

458

The Association of Sexual Behaviors with Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Race/Ethnicity among U.S. Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), family structure, and race/ethnicity to adolescent sexual behaviors that are key determinants of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data from the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that differences in adolescent sexual behavior by race and SES were not large enough to…

Santelli, John S.; Lowry, Richard; Brener, Nancy D.; Robin, Leah

2000-01-01

459

Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

2007-01-01

460

Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

2007-01-01