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1

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

2

When Forever is No-More: Economic Implications of Changing Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the salient demographic trends affecting the structure of famil ies in Britain and to consider the main economic implications of these. A rise in families in which the parents live in separate households is identified as the most important change in family structure. The second section of the paper argues that there

John Ermisch

3

Families under Economic Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

4

Economic Conditions of Military Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

5

Demographic and socio-economic status of women in different family structures in a rural area of south India.  

PubMed

The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types." PMID:12345797

Padmini, I K; Krishnamoorthy, S

1994-01-01

6

The Changing Family Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

1993-01-01

7

Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

Manijeh Sabi

8

Predictors of Family Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an sociology class class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of households/families, income and race to understand how family structure and demographic information predict trends in family structure. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990 and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Maxine Atkinson

9

Economic Pressure in African American Families: A Replication and Extension of the Family Stress Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 422 two-caregiver African American families, each with a 10–11-year-old focal child (54% girls), evaluated the applicability of the family stress model of economic hardship for understanding economic influences on child development in this population. The findings generally replicated earlier research with European American families. The results showed that economic hardship positively relates to economic pressure in families.

Rand D. Conger; Lora Ebert Wallace; Yumei Sun; Ronald L. Simons; Vonnie C. McLoyd; Gene H. Brody

2002-01-01

10

Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family

Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

2010-01-01

11

Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic

Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

2010-01-01

12

We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

2006-01-01

13

Income Tax Cuts: The Promises and Pitfalls for Families across the Economic Spectrum. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that recent economic news and slowed economic growth statistics are bad news for American families. Examines President Bush's efforts to implement tax cuts and finds that the proposed tax cut is skewed to the top of the income spectrum, not to the low- and middle-income families it is purported to assist most. (SD)

Lindjord, Denise

2001-01-01

14

Assessing the Health of Consumer and Family Economics Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 196 Canadian home economics departments (55% response) regarding the status of consumer and family economics programs confirms that undergraduate enrollment is declining. The relevance and appeal of the undergraduate curriculum need to be improved and constituencies must be educated about the skills graduates possess. (JOW)

Zick, Cathleen D.; Widdows, Richard

1994-01-01

15

Essays in population and family economics  

E-print Network

(cont.) observed in several Western countries. Finally, the third chapter evaluates the labor market effects of public subsidies to families with children. Using variation in the level of benefits provided by a policy ...

León, Alexis, 1977-

2004-01-01

16

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

17

Vocational Home Economics Education: Family Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by vocational home economics teachers in grades 11 and 12, this curriculum guide provides preparation for students to assume the roles of homemakers and wage earners. The seven sections included are subdivided into two or more units and consist of the following topics: (1) career planning, which also encompasses job search methods…

Sawatzky, Joyce

18

Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

Laquatra, J. Jr.

1982-02-01

19

Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.

20

Family Structure, Policy Shocks, and Family Business Adjustment Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used survey data collected between 2005 and 2006 in rural Kentucky to empirically investigate how different\\u000a types of rural households in Kentucky cope with the changes in economic environment during the post-tobacco buyout by employing\\u000a two different family business models, the Agricultural Household Model and the Sustainable Family Business Model. Data were\\u000a analyzed using a multinomial probit model.

Helen Pushkarskaya; Maria I. Marshall

2010-01-01

21

Familial Poverty, Family Allowances, and the Normative Family Structure in Britain, 1917-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, the Family Allowances Act was incorporated into law. The family allowances scheme depended on the maintenance of a normative family structure and a wage system that discriminated against women. Eleanor Rathbone, along with social surveyors of the 1930s and social policy makers, recognized the family wage system as a primary cause of poverty among working families. Unfortunately, the

Colleen Margaret Forrest

2001-01-01

22

Family Structure and Social Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

Olson, Dawn R.

23

Family Structure and Adolescent Labor Market Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that focusing on only one type of fragile family structure—generally single-parent families, without distinguishing\\u000a how these families were formed—obscures important processes and mechanisms among different types of families. We focus on\\u000a a specific adolescent risk behavior, high-intensity work, and theorize that adolescents in certain types of fragile families\\u000a will work more hours because of financial need, while teens

Mikaela J. Dufur; Kelly P. Troutman

24

The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.  

PubMed

We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

2012-07-14

25

Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.  

PubMed

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

2010-05-01

26

Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood  

PubMed Central

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men’s transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call “fragile families.” The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

HOFFERTH, SANDRA L.; GOLDSCHEIDER, FRANCES

2010-01-01

27

Compulsive gambling: Structured family intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family intervention has been an effective procedure for getting alcoholics into treatment for more than twenty years. Now this technique is being used with compulsive gamblers. Because the gambling disorder is so easy to hide, the patient seems to be further into the illness by the time the family seeks help. Furthermore, because the gambling offers intermittent rewards, the denial

Mary Heineman

1994-01-01

28

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Families of Children with Down Syndrome and the Economic Impacts of Child Disability on Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the research examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of families of children with Down syndrome as well as how Down syndrome and other disabilities impact the economic situations of families. Two consistent demographic patterns are found. First, parents of children with Down syndrome on average are older than parents of other children. Second, families of children with

Scott D. Grosse

2010-01-01

29

Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.  

PubMed

Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

Schmeer, Kammi K

2013-10-01

30

Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-01-01

31

Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

2012-01-01

32

Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

2008-01-01

33

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

34

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

35

The Economic Plight of America's Young Families. An Update of CDF's Vanishing Dreams Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes improvements in the status of families headed by persons under age 30 from 1986 to 1987 based on figures from "Vanishing Dreams" and the most recent available data drawn from the Current Population Survey. The following sets of economic data are updated: (1) earnings of family heads; (2) young family incomes; and (3) poverty…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

36

Effects of Economic Structure on Regional Economic Performance  

E-print Network

Since the most recent recession, many local governments, which excessively paid attention to economic growth, have undergone tremendous difficulties caused by severe fluctuations. It shows that economic stability also has to be considered as another...

Hong, Sa Heum

2014-06-04

37

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

38

The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.  

PubMed Central

The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds. PMID:8761444

Flower, D R

1996-01-01

39

The economics of family planning and underage conceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on

David Paton

2002-01-01

40

Southern Rural Family Economic Well-being in the Context of Public Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Congress considers reauthorization of public assistance legislation in 2002, researchers are challenged to pro- vide data about the economic well-being of rural, low-income families. This paper provides findings from three southern states (Kentucky, Louisiana and Maryland) currently participating in a 15-state, longitudinal study monitoring the economic well-being of rural families in the context of welfare reform of cash and

Bonnie Braun; Frances C. Lawrence; Patricia H. Dyk; Maria Vandergriff-Avery

2002-01-01

41

Economic Pressure, Maternal Depression, and Child Adjustment in Latino Families: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of poverty and economic pressure upon the adjustment of mothers and children in immigrant Latino families. Participants included 56 first generation Latina mothers who completed questionnaires addressing economic difficulties, depression, social support, and behavior problems exhibited by their children (30 boys, 26 girls) who ranged in ages from 4 to

Jessica M. Dennis; Ross D. Parke; Scott Coltrane; Jan Blacher; Sharon A. Borthwick-Duffy

2003-01-01

42

Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

2004-01-01

43

Adult Roles & Responsibilities. Home Economics Family Life Course. Grades 11-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for developing a home economics family life course to assist students in improving the quality of individual and family life. The course contains 12 units that cover the following topics: self-awareness, wheel of life, dating, mate selection, engagement, marriage, money management, parenting, crisis…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

44

Family Living. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a family living course for 10th, 11th, and 12th grade students. The materials were developed for a semester or 1-year course designed to prepare students (1) to exhibit knowledge of the past, present, and future…

Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

45

Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

Fortin, P. E.

1985-01-01

46

The Psychological Sense of Economic Hardship: Measurement Models, Validity, and Cross-Ethnic Equivalence for Urban Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty is a community stressor that disproportionally affects ethnic minority families. One aspect of programmatic research on poverty focuses on the psychological sense of economic hardship. In a study of 319 African American, European American, and Mexican American urban families, parents completed objective measures of economic status and scales of perceived economic hardship that were adapted from previous research. Measurement

Manuel Barrera; Heather Caples; Jenn-Yun Tein

2001-01-01

47

The Effects of Family Structure and SES on Family Processes in Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates parent-adolescent relationships focusing on the effects of dyadic communication, family cohesion, family structure, and socioeconomic status on family conflict in three ethnic groups: African-American, Mexican-American, and Euro-American. Results showed three-year increases in family conflict in each group. Reports significant…

Baer, Judith

1999-01-01

48

Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.  

PubMed

Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

Cherry, Mark J

2012-12-01

49

Economic Hardship and Family-to-Work Conflict: The Importance of Gender and Work Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a 2007 national survey of working Americans, we examine the association between economic hardship and family-to-work\\u000a conflict (FWC). We also assess contingencies of this association, focusing particularly on gender and several work conditions.\\u000a Findings indicate that economic hardship is associated with higher FWC; this pattern is stronger among men. Three work conditions\\u000a also function as effect modifiers:

Scott Schieman; Marisa Young

2011-01-01

50

Molybdenum site structure of MOSC family proteins.  

PubMed

Mo K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe as-isolated structures of the MOSC family proteins pmARC-1 and HMCS-CT. The Mo K-edge near-edge spectrum of HMCS-CT is shifted ~2.5 eV to lower energy compared to the pmARC-1 spectrum, which indicates that as-isolated HMCS-CT is in a more reduced state than pmARC-1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates significant structural differences between pmARC-1 and HMCS-CT, with the former being a dioxo site and the latter possessing only a single terminal oxo ligand. The number of terminal oxo donors is consistent with pmARC-1 being in the Mo(VI) oxidation state and HMCS-CT in the Mo(IV) state. These structures are in accord with oxygen-atom-transfer reactivity for pmARC-1 and persulfide bond cleavage chemistry for HMCS-CT. PMID:25166909

Giles, Logan J; Ruppelt, Christian; Yang, Jing; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Kirk, Martin L

2014-09-15

51

Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

52

How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities?  

E-print Network

· How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities? · How does renewable energy revitalize agricultural communities, provide energy self-sufficiency & protect the environment? · How do renewable energy & sustainable food create

de Leon, Alex R.

53

Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

Blau, Joel

54

Family Equity at Issue: A Study of the Economic Consequences of Divorce on Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implemented in the 1970s, Alaska's system of "no fault" divorce creates economic hardships for women and children instead of providing greater family equity. The study site selected was Anchorage because its demographic profile generally reflects the statewide profile, necessary court records are accessible and more than one-half of all Alaskan…

Baker, Barbara

55

Family Structure Effects on Parenting Stress and Practices in the African-American Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant approach to African-American parenting research focuses on disadvantages associated with single parenthood to the exclusion of other issues. The current research suggests that this does not represent the diversity in family structure configurations among African-American families, nor does it give voice to the parenting resilience of single mothers. We argue that rather than marital status or family configuration,

Daphne S. Cain; Terri Combs-Orme

2005-01-01

56

Family Structure versus Family Relationships for Predicting to Substance Use/Abuse and Illegal Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…

Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

2000-01-01

57

Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

2008-01-01

58

Structural studies of Bcl2-family regulators of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins

P. W. Stevens; X. Cai; M. Schiffer

1996-01-01

59

Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

1975-01-01

60

Mate Availability, Family Formation, and Family Structure among Black Americans in Nonmetropolitan Louisiana 1970-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses effects of community sex ratio (of men to women) on rural Black family formation and structure. Ratio directly linked to Black women's marriage prevalence, and inversely linked to women's nonmarital fertility. Concludes ratio a family-structure factor. Suggests social policy implications. Suggests urban ghetto studies be broadened. (TES)

Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill

1990-01-01

61

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.  

PubMed

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

Townsend, Robert

2010-09-01

62

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics  

PubMed Central

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

Townsend, Robert

2010-01-01

63

Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood  

PubMed Central

The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood. PMID:22025928

Lee, Jennifer C.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

2009-01-01

64

Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.  

PubMed

Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

2014-03-01

65

Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.  

PubMed

The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054

De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

2014-11-01

66

Family Structure and Academic Skills among Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…

Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna

2011-01-01

67

Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India). Data were collected by using a specially designed 'Semi-structured Questionnaire. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320), 21.9% (70/230) and 18.1% (58/230) of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p less than 0.01).Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family(p was less than 0.01),uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p was less than 0.01)and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p was less than 0.01),irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p was less than 0.01) while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p was less than 0.01). Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p was less than 0.01). Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions. PMID:21483193

Deb, Sibnath; Modak, Subhasis

2010-01-01

68

Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l<2000 is bigger than that with l>2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

2013-09-01

69

PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space  

PubMed Central

Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space. PMID:19523904

Dessailly, Benoît H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

2010-01-01

70

Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context\\u000a of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren’s preferences regarding intimate personal\\u000a contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study ‘Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005\\/2006’\\u000a (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13

Algi Samm; Liina-Mai Tooding; Merike Sisask; Kairi Kõlves; Katrin Aasvee; Airi Värnik

2010-01-01

71

[Economic growth and changes in the structure of the population].  

PubMed

A reevaluation of classic works by Simon Kuznets and Wassily Leontief suggests that their conclusions concerning the interrelationships between economic growth and population structure correspond to relatively highly specialized characteristics of present forms of capitalist development or underdevelopment and not necessarily to capitalist development within a new international economic order or to socialist development. Kuznets' work seems to offer conclusive proof of the negative effects of rapid population growth on economic development for 3 reasons: 1) requirements for capital are greater, 2) total production and per capita consumption are greatly reduced with high dependency ratios, and 3) rapid growth in consumption is more difficult when the population is growing more rapidly. However, at least 4 problems are noted when Kuznets' ideas are applied to the 3rd world. Kuznets assumes that growth of physical capital is the only source of growth, so that only increased investment can increase returns. Secondly, assuming the same ratio of capital/output for all cases assumes that no substitution of labor for capital is possible. Third, the assumption that participation rates remain the same regardless of dependency ratios may be incorrect. And finally, the difference in per capita consumption that Kuznets attributes to differences in rates of population growth represents a tiny proportion of the total gap in the standard of living of rich countries with slow population growth and poor countries with rapid growth. Kuznets' argument has considerable validity in Third World countries which relay on traditional patterns of capitalist accumulation, but the problems represent the effects of rapid population growth only under the current modes of capitalist expansion. The negative effect of high fertility on savings has probably been greatly exaggerated, and the problems of providing educational facilities and health care for ever larger numbers of persons have been poorly conceptualized. To the degree that employment security, decent salaries, and social programs for the elderly are provided, as they are at present only in socialist countries of the Third World, the incentives for large families will be reduced. The work of Leontief, based on a computer model with 2625 equations, demonstrates that regardless of the rates of population growth in Third World countries, little change in the gap between rich and poor countries can be expected in the foreseeable future. PMID:12265328

Conroy, M E

1980-01-01

72

Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has implications for the conceptual foundations of both economic theory and sustainable development.

Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

2011-12-01

73

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14

74

Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

Kwan, Ying-Keung

2008-01-01

75

Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

76

Structural analyses reveal two distinct families of nucleoside phosphorylases.  

PubMed Central

The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:11743878

Pugmire, Matthew J; Ealick, Steven E

2002-01-01

77

Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family  

PubMed Central

Members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, polyamines, amino acids, and methylated lysine side chains in proteins. The enzymes have similar overall structures, with conserved FAD-binding domains and varied substrate-binding sites. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the catalytic reactions of these enzymes. The present review compares the structures of different members of the family and the various mechanistic proposals. PMID:22022344

Gaweska, Helena; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

2011-01-01

78

Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies  

PubMed Central

This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families. PMID:25505808

Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia

2009-01-01

79

Relation of eighth graders' family structure, gender, and family environment with academic performance and school behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess how family structure, gender, and family environment were related to both academic performance (end-of-the-year grades and quantitative and verbal achievement factor scores) and school behavior (number of days absent, number of days tardy, and number of in-school detentions). Subjects were 219 middle-class eighth graders (96 boys, 123 girls). Generally, students in two-parent

Lawrence A. Kurdek; Ronald J. Sinclair

1988-01-01

80

An exploration of health, family and economic experiences of leprosy patients, Iran.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the life experiences of Iranian leprosy patients in health, family and economic dimensions. Mycobacterium leprae is responsible for leprosy, a type of chronic inflammatory disease that existed from ancient times, still hearing the name of leprosy creates an awful imagination of cutting the organ, blindness and isolation and it has still remained as a serious social problem. The patients are confronted with particular problems physically and mentally. The phenomenological tradition was used to gain knowledge of the leprosy patients lived experiences. Data analysis method was based on Colaizzi's approach. This is a qualitative research using purposeful sampling, interviewing the leprosy patients referring to a contagious diseases department of the Health Network of Nourabad Lorestan City. Data were collected by interviews those were analyzed in Colaizzi's Methods to extract the conceptual codes. Some concepts obtained from the analysis of data in the study such as physical, psychological, social, family, economic experiences, cultural beliefs of society, the context for tendency toward defect and disability and social stigma. These findings suggest that health care professionals should pay attention not only to leprosy patients to reduce their physical and psychological but also to the community and public culture to reduce the leprosy patients suffering from social stigma. The results of the present study can help us in a better understanding of all aspects of patients' lived experiences. PMID:24502149

Abedi, Heidarali; Javadi, Akbar; Naji, Sayedali

2013-09-15

81

Polygynous contexts, family structure, and infant mortality in sub-saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features and that it has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared with monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny for 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in nonpolygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child well-being. PMID:24402794

Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

2014-04-01

82

Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

83

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

84

Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

2011-01-01

85

Economic Well-Being and Children's Social Adjustment: The Role of Family Process in an Ethnically Diverse Low-Income Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being among African American and Hispanic children from low-income families, mostly headed by single mothers. Found that lower economic well-being adversely impacted parent's psychological well-being; these parents felt less effective in disciplinary interactions…

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Huston, Aletha C.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

2002-01-01

86

User study on family communication in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a core element of society. The development of economics and the transformation of cultures in mainland China bring new challenges to family communications. To understand current practices and the needs of family communication in mainland China, we studied 27 rural and urban families with ethnographic methods. We summarized the main family structures for rural and urban families and

Jie Wang; Ying Liu; Huanglingzi Liu; Jyri Salomaa

2008-01-01

87

The inter-alpha-inhibitor family: from structure to regulation.  

PubMed Central

Inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and related molecules, collectively referred to as the IalphaI family, are a group of plasma protease inhibitors. They display attractive features such as precursor polypeptides that give rise to mature chains with quite distinct fates and functions, and inter-chain glycosaminoglycan bonds within the various molecules. The discovery of an ever growing number of such molecules has raised pertinent questions about their pathophysiological functions. The knowledge of this family has long been structure-oriented, whereas the structure/function and structure/regulation relationships of the family members and their genes have been largely ignored. These relationships are now being elucidated in events such as gene transcription, precursor processing, changes in plasma protein levels in health and disease and binding capacities that involve hyaluronan as well as other plasma proteins as ligands. This review presents some recent progress made in these fields that paves the way for an understanding of the functions of IalphaI family members in vivo. Finally, given the wealth of heterogeneous, complicated and sometimes contradictory nomenclatures and acronyms currently in use for this family, a new, uniform, nomenclature is proposed for IalphaI family genes, precursor polypeptides and assembled proteins. PMID:8670091

Salier, J P; Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Daveau, M

1996-01-01

88

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

Mark Granovetter

1985-01-01

89

Association between family structure and food group intake in children  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

2014-01-01

90

[Family planning. Objectives, measures, regulations, structures].  

PubMed

5 major criteria are used to evaluate family planning methods: efficacy, both theoretical and practical; acceptability as measured by continuation of use; safety; reversibility; and cost, including the cost of treatment, follow-up, and screening for contraindications. Traditional family planning methods are mostly based on periodic abstinence during the presumed fertile period. The calendar, temperature, Billings or cervical mucus, and symptothermal methods are based on observation of different symptoms of ovulation and fertility. Their advantages are that they do not require intervention by health personnel, their costs of use are nil, and they are morally acceptable to some couples. Their efficacy is lower than that of other methods and they should be viewed as methods to space rather than limit births. The withdrawal method, also less effective, requires active cooperation by the male partner. Among mechanical methods, the use of condoms has increased recently because of the protection they offer against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Their efficacy depends on correct use, regular use, and the quality of the condom. The Pearl index varies from 93099 per 100 woman-years. The diaphragm must be individually measured and should be used with spermicides. The Pearl index ranges from 85095 per 100 woman-years. Spermicides, generally either nonoxynol-9 or benzalkonium chloride, are surfactants that have a Pearl index of 83-97 per 100 woman-years. They are available as creams, jellies, foams, suppositories, tablets, or impregnated sponges. Most failures appear due to errors of utilization. The mechanism of action of the IUD is imperfectly understood, but it is known to prevent nidation of the fertilized egg. Copper devised have higher rates of efficacy and tolerance. Pearl indices range from 95-99.5. Contraindications include genital infection, uterine anomalies, valvular cardiopathy, and coagulation problems. The IUD is relatively contraindicated if there is history of ectopic pregnancy or upper genital tract infections. The combined oral contraceptive is the most widely utilized method in France. The Pearl index is nearly 100 in the absence of forgetting, vomiting, or drug interactions. The contraindications are basically those of estrogens: history of thrombosis, prolonged bedrest, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic disorders, hormonodependent cancers, or smoking after age 35. Progestin-only methods are available in 3 forms: low-dose pills which must be taken at the same time each day, higher-dosed progestins taken for 20 days each month, and injectable progestins providing contraception for 8-12 weeks. Postcoital contraception using OCs or IUDs is possible but not well known among women or physicians. The Neuwirth law authorizing use of contraception in France was passed in 1967. Amendments in 1974 improved access and provided for reimbursement for some methods, but some newer forms are not reimbursed. PMID:1853135

Meyer, L

1991-06-11

91

A structural portrait of the PDZ domain family.  

PubMed

PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO1) domains are interaction modules that typically bind to specific C-terminal sequences of partner proteins and assemble signaling complexes in multicellular organisms. We have analyzed the existing database of PDZ domain structures in the context of a specificity tree based on binding specificities defined by peptide-phage binding selections. We have identified 16 structures of PDZ domains in complex with high-affinity ligands and have elucidated four additional structures to assemble a structural database that covers most of the branches of the PDZ specificity tree. A detailed comparison of the structures reveals features that are responsible for the diverse specificities across the PDZ domain family. Specificity differences can be explained by differences in PDZ residues that are in contact with the peptide ligands, but these contacts involve both side-chain and main-chain interactions. Most PDZ domains bind peptides in a canonical conformation in which the ligand main chain adopts an extended ?-strand conformation by interacting in an antiparallel fashion with a PDZ ?-strand. However, a subset of PDZ domains bind peptides with a bent main-chain conformation and the specificities of these non-canonical domains could not be explained based on canonical structures. Our analysis provides a structural portrait of the PDZ domain family, which serves as a guide in understanding the structural basis for the diverse specificities across the family. PMID:25158098

Ernst, Andreas; Appleton, Brent A; Ivarsson, Ylva; Zhang, Yingnan; Gfeller, David; Wiesmann, Christian; Sidhu, Sachdev S

2014-10-23

92

Economic disadvantage, perceived family life quality, and emotional well-being in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child\\u000a relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). While participants\\u000a experiencing economic disadvantage generally had more negative perceptions of parenting quality and parent-child relational\\u000a quality than did

Daniel T. L. Shek

2008-01-01

93

Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

Gartner, Rosemary

1991-01-01

94

Family Structure: Its Effects on Adolescent Attachment and Identity Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the association between family structure, attachment, and identity formation. Results partially support the hypotheses and indicate that unresolved spouse conflict is associated with low levels of attachment in adolescents and attachment to father is linked to identity achieved and the diffused identity status. Findings support a link…

Faber, Anthony J.; Edwards, Anne E.; Bauer, Karlin S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.

2003-01-01

95

Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

2001-01-01

96

Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2008-01-01

97

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

98

Life Management: Moving Out! Solving Practical Problems for Independent Living. Utah Home Economics and Family Life Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which has been developed for Utah's home economics and family life education program, contains materials for use in teaching a life management course emphasizing the problem-solving skills required for independent living. Discussed first are the assumptions underlying the curriculum, development of the guide, and suggestions for its…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

99

Migration and Father Absence: Shifting Family Structure in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico—declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility—Mexican children’s family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father’s migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children’s living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children’s family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

2013-01-01

100

Electronic structure contributions to reactivity in xanthine oxidase family enzymes.  

PubMed

We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the two-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

Stein, Benjamin W; Kirk, Martin L

2014-11-26

101

Children’s Mental Health Task 11 FY 2007: Family-Directed Structural Therapy Training  

E-print Network

Family-Directed Structural Therapy (FDST) is a family-based helping modality that is designed to be utilized with a variety of family and relationship issues. There is a corresponding FDST assessment tool, which is completed ...

McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Petr, Chris

2007-07-01

102

The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740

Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

2005-01-01

103

Singlehood, Marriage, and RemarriageThe Effects of Family Structure and Family Relationships on Mothers' Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines three dimensions of mothers' well-being (personal happiness, self-esteem, and depression) across four diverse family structures (first-married, remarried, divorced, and continuously single-parent families). Using a nationally representative sample of 2,781 mothers, the results indicate small but statistically significant differences across family structures. Mothers in their first marriage enjoy the highest well-being, mothers in stepfamilies fare nearly as well,

DAVID H. DEMO; ALAN C. ACOCK

1996-01-01

104

Female genital structures in several families of Centropagoidea (Copepoda: Calanoida)  

PubMed Central

The female genital structures of 21 calanoid species belonging to the families Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae and Tortanidae were studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy). Except the monotypic Sulcanidae, their organization conforms to a common pattern characterized by egg-laying ducts opening through paired adjacent gonopores into a small cavity, the genital atrium, covered by a genital operculum and opening to the outside through a distal atrial slit. No seminal receptacle is present and the seminal products must be stored for a brief period in the genital atrium.The genital structures occupy a well delimited genital area, the main changes in which concern their position on the ventral face of the genital double-somite, and operculum morphology. Their organization and possible mode of operation are compared with those of other calanoid families. A possible correlation between absence of seminal receptacles and mating behaviour is discussed.

Barthélémy, R.-M.

1998-01-01

105

Sequence, Structure, and Evolution of Cellulases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 48*  

PubMed Central

Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels (1). Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for “true” cellulases. PMID:23055526

Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Zhulin, Igor B.

2012-01-01

106

Sequence, structure, and evolution of cellulases in glycoside hydrolase family 48.  

PubMed

Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels. Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for "true" cellulases. PMID:23055526

Sukharnikov, Leonid O; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V; Zhulin, Igor B

2012-11-30

107

Structure and signalling in the IL17 receptor family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), the hallmark cytokine of the newly defined T helper 17 (TH17) cell subset, has important roles in protecting the host against extracellular pathogens, but also promotes inflammatory pathology in autoimmune disease. IL-17A and its receptor (IL-17RA) are the founding members of a newly described family of cytokines and receptors that have unique structural features which distinguish them from

Sarah L. Gaffen

2009-01-01

108

Structural identifiability analysis of some highly structured families of statespace models using differential algebra.  

PubMed

In this paper we identify biologically relevant families of models whose structural identifiability analysis could not be performed with available techniques directly. The models considered come from both the immunological and epidemiological literature. PMID:15549308

Margaria, Gabriella; Riccomagno, Eva; White, Lisa J

2004-11-01

109

The SLC10 carrier family: transport functions and molecular structure.  

PubMed

The SLC10 family represents seven genes containing 1-12 exons that encode proteins in humans with sequence lengths of 348-477 amino acids. Although termed solute carriers (SLCs), only three out of seven (i.e. SLC10A1, SLC10A2, and SLC10A6) show sodium-dependent uptake of organic substrates across the cell membrane. These include the uptake of bile salts, sulfated steroids, sulfated thyroidal hormones, and certain statin drugs by SLC10A1 (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP)), the uptake of bile salts by SLC10A2 (apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT)), and uptake of sulfated steroids and sulfated taurolithocholate by SLC10A6 (sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT)). The other members of the family are orphan carriers not all localized in the cell membrane. The name "bile acid transporter family" arose because the first two SLC10 members (NTCP and ASBT) are carriers for bile salts that establish their enterohepatic circulation. In recent years, information has been obtained on their 2D and 3D membrane topology, structure-transport relationships, and on the ligand and sodium-binding sites. For SLC10A2, the putative 3D morphology was deduced from the crystal structure of a bacterial SLC10A2 analog, ASBT(NM). This information was used in this chapter to calculate the putative 3D structure of NTCP. This review provides first an introduction to recent knowledge about bile acid synthesis and newly found bile acid hormonal functions, and then describes step-by-step each individual member of the family in terms of expression, localization, substrate pattern, as well as protein topology with emphasis on the three functional SLC10 carrier members. PMID:23177985

Döring, Barbara; Lütteke, Thomas; Geyer, Joachim; Petzinger, Ernst

2012-01-01

110

Molecular Evolution and Structural Features of IRAK Family Members  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family comprises critical signaling mediators of the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways. IRAKs are Ser/Thr kinases. There are 4 members in the vertebrate genome (IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAKM, and IRAK4) and an IRAK homolog, Pelle, in insects. IRAK family members are highly conserved in vertebrates, but the evolutionary relationship between IRAKs in vertebrates and insects is not clear. To investigate the evolutionary history and functional divergence of IRAK members, we performed extensive bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic relationship between IRAK sequences suggests that gene duplication events occurred in the evolutionary lineage, leading to early vertebrates. A comparative phylogenetic analysis with insect homologs of IRAKs suggests that the Tube protein is a homolog of IRAK4, unlike the anticipated protein, Pelle. Furthermore, the analysis supports that an IRAK4-like kinase is an ancestral protein in the metazoan lineage of the IRAK family. Through functional analysis, several potentially diverged sites were identified in the common death domain and kinase domain. These sites have been constrained during evolution by strong purifying selection, suggesting their functional importance within IRAKs. In summary, our study highlighted the molecular evolution of the IRAK family, predicted the amino acids that contributed to functional divergence, and identified structural variations among the IRAK paralogs that may provide a starting point for further experimental investigations. PMID:23166766

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Basith, Shaherin; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Choi, Sangdun

2012-01-01

111

Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time.  

PubMed

Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry's most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness-poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible "path toward economic resilience" (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program's appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system's most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

Simon, Melissa A; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J; Foucar, Charles E; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M; Emanuel, Linda L

2013-10-01

112

Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time  

PubMed Central

Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

Simon, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

113

Structured approach to patients with memory difficulties in family practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a structured approach to patients presenting with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Memory Clinic in partnership with the Ontario College of Family Physicians. Main message Use of a structured clinical reasoning approach can assist physicians in achieving an accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with memory difficulties. Delirium, depression, and reversible causes need to be excluded, followed by differentiation among normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Obtaining collateral history and accurate functional assessment are critical. Common forms of dementia can be clinically differentiated by the order in which symptoms appear and by how cognitive deficits evolve over time. Typically, early signs of Alzheimer dementia involve impairment in episodic memory, whereas dementia involving predominantly vascular causes might present with early loss of executive function and relatively preserved episodic memory. Frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body spectrum disorders might have early loss of executive function and visuospatial function, as well as characteristic clinical features. Conclusion A clinical reasoning approach can help physicians achieve early, accurate diagnoses that can guide appropriate management and improve care for patients with memory difficulties. PMID:23486793

Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Heckman, George; Gagnon, Micheline; Lee, F. Joseph; Sloka, Scott

2013-01-01

114

Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

1982-01-01

115

Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

Hemmings, Philip

2007-01-01

116

The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

Rana, Vishwajeet

2011-12-01

117

Mathematical Models for Tubular Structures in the Papilloma-Polyoma family of viruses  

E-print Network

Mathematical Models for Tubular Structures in the Papilloma-Polyoma family of viruses R. Twarock The surface lattices of all possible tubular structures in the papilloma- polyoma family of viruses-polyoma family of viruses contains tumour causing viruses, and mathematical models for the structure

118

Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

2004-01-01

119

Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and Methods: The families of 177 Cuban American and White non-Hispanic American caregivers of dementia patients were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Structural family theory and clinical experience were used to identify family interaction patterns believed to be related to caregiver emotional functioning. Factor analysis was used to refine subscales and develop a multiscale measure. Results: Six reliable subscales were related to caregiver distress and included in the SFSR-DC. There were two second-order factors. The SFSR-DC was provisionally cross-validated and showed invariance across the two ethnic groups. Implications: The SFSR-DC provides a method for examining specific and multiple interaction patterns in caregiver families and thus can advance knowledge regarding the role of the family in the stress processes of caregiving. These findings support the relevance of family interactions in caregiver distress and suggest that a treatment approach aimed at supporting family closeness and conflict resolution and reducing negativity might enhance caregiver well-being. PMID:16051907

Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

2008-01-01

120

The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

2013-01-01

121

Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex  

E-print Network

The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an ($e_\\text{P},a_\\text{P}$) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ~180 degrees with ejecta velocity $v_\\text{ej} \\sim 285$ m/s. The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of $\\delta a_{ej} = 0.005 \\pm 0.008$ AU, which constitutes only a small fraction (7\\%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to...

Dykhuis, Melissa

2015-01-01

122

The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

2005-01-01

123

Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations. PMID:23142346

Laughlin, John D.; Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Cherry, Lisa; Nettles, Kendall W.; LoGrasso, Philip V.

2012-01-01

124

Structural mechanisms of allostery and autoinhibition in JNK family kinases.  

PubMed

c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations. PMID:23142346

Laughlin, John D; Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Cherry, Lisa; Nettles, Kendall W; LoGrasso, Philip V

2012-12-01

125

Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases  

SciTech Connect

c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

Laughlin, J.D.; Nwachukwu, J.C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K.W.; LoGrasso, P.V.

2012-12-05

126

Family Structure and Self-Rated Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the relationship between family structure and child well-being is well-established, little is known about the specific\\u000a impact of family structure on health in adolescence and young adulthood. Using data on 12,737 respondents from Waves I and\\u000a III of Add Health, we examine the association between family structure (two biological\\/adoptive, stepfather, and single mother\\u000a families at Wave I) and self-rated

Holly E. Heard; Bridget K. Gorman; Carolyn A. Kapinus

2008-01-01

127

Family Structure Versus Parental Attachment in Controlling Adolescent Deviant Behavior: A Social Control Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between family characteristics and adolescent deviant behaviors, such as delinquency and drug use. Results indicate a significant direct relationship between family attachment and each of the deviant behaviors, whereas family structure was not significantly related to deviant behavior. Family attachment had a direct…

Sokol-Katz, Jan; Dunham, Roger; Zimmerman, Rick

1997-01-01

128

Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

Shaw, Eric J.

1998-01-01

129

The war at home: affective economics and transnationally adoptive families in the United States.  

PubMed

The question of how to best conduct post-placement interventions for transnationally adoptive families at risk of dissolution (legal annulment) is an emerging issue in the United States. The current popular trend for adoptive families to pursue biomedical post-placement interventions, despite a lack of proof that such interventions actually work to keep the adoptive family intact, suggests the need for a more phenomenological approach to understanding both adoptive parents’ and transnational adoptees’ post-placement experiences. This study examines the empirical experiences of adoptive families at risk of dissolution in the United States who attempt to define and navigate the path toward family stability after adopting. From the coding of this data set emerge some routes through and by which emotions circulate between adoptive parents and transnational adoptees through the family body and the family social. Particularly, it investigates one post-placement “affective economy” at work in which adoptive parents attempt, through the expression of particular forms of parental love, to align adoptees as subjects of the private, nuclear American family, while adoptees more often attempt to create space for more heterogeneous forms of family, ones that include birth parents and other kin-like relations in their countries of origin. Ultimately, it illuminates some vastly different and sometimes contradictory ways that adoptive parents and adoptees can interpret family through emotional lenses, ones that can prevent a smooth post-placement transition for adoption actors. An understanding of these differences and how they shape, and are shaped by, the post-placement affective economy within families at risk of dissolution may aid in locating indicators for adoption dissolution, and possibly, designing more effective post-placement interventions for families struggling in the aftermath of adoption. It may also help scholars begin to think about the construction and impact of affective economies in the realm of adoption more generally. PMID:22180883

Stryker, Rachael

2011-01-01

130

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

131

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.  

PubMed

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-24

132

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

133

The National Forum on Family Security: Social Economic Factors and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and economic influences significantly affect the development of competence, health, and well-being in modern society. During periods of profound social and economic change, such as the present, some sectors of society are often at very high risk of encountering a decline of social support and hence inadequate nurturance of developmental…

Keating, D.; Mustard, J. Fraser

134

The Economic Burden of Infant Formula on Families with Young Children in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infant formula usage places children at risk for illness and death. Studies in the United States demonstrated high economic burden, health care costs, and absenteeism of caregivers associated with formula usage. Despite high formula usage in developing countries, no economic studies were found. This study examines the financial burden of purchasing infant formula and increased health care expenditure in

Howard L. Sobel; Alessandro D. Iellamo; Rene R. Raya; Alexander A. Padilla; Filomeno S. Sta. Ana; Soe Nyunt-U

2012-01-01

135

Alternative Estimates of the Effect of Family Structure during Adolescence on High School Graduation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported significant empirical associations between family structure during childhood and children's outcomes later in life. It may be that living in a nonintact family has adverse consequences for children. On the other hand, it may be that some unobserved process jointly determines family structure and children's outcomes. How then should one interpret the empirical evidence on the

Charles F. Manski; Gary D. Sandefur; Sara McLanahan; Daniel Powers

1992-01-01

136

The concept of the ?-amylase family: Structural similarity and common catalytic mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reconsiders the concept of the ?-amylase family in the light of the recent wealth of information on the structures, the catalytic mechanisms, and the classification of amylases. We proposed a general concept for an enzyme family, the ?-amylase family including most of the amylases and related enzymes in 1992, based on the structural similarity and the common catalytic

Takashi Kuriki; Tadayuki Imanaka

1999-01-01

137

Prospective association between negative life events and initiation of sexual intercourse: the influence of family structure and family income.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. Methods. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n?=?649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Results. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Conclusions. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure. PMID:25602885

Cheney, Marshall K; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L; John, Robert

2015-03-01

138

Comprehensive Family-Centered Training Programs: Five Comparative Case Studies. Evaluation of the Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, which exemplifies the comprehensive, residential family-centered approach to serving the economically disadvantaged, was compared to four similar programs in the United States: Arizona Job Colleges (AJC) in Arizona; Madera Employment Training Center (METC) in California; Manpower,…

Bale, Richard L.; Sprague, C. Fremont

139

The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications  

PubMed Central

The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

2011-01-01

140

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

141

RICE UNIVERSITY Mapping the Structural Landscape of Protein Families  

E-print Network

members, segregation by ligation state, and orga- nization by ancestry among convergent protein lineages: Constructing Consensus Motifs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.6 Step 6: Formulating Hypothesis Tests-Family Ontologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.3 Ancestry-based Intra-Family Ontologies

Kavraki, Lydia E.

142

Graphic Family Therapy: An Affective Alternative to Structure and Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic family therapy based on changing family dysfunctioning through self-discovery is described. The stages of this design are discussed and specific graphic excercises for eight categories of family dysfunction are described. Two illustrative cases are presented. Conclusions regarding results, future research, training and other clinical…

Schneider, Thomas; And Others

1981-01-01

143

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-  

E-print Network

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

144

Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

2004-01-01

145

Family Structure, Gender, and the Work–Family Interface: Work-to-Family Conflict Among Single and Partnered Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether single parents experience greater reductions in work-to-family conflict from using resources than\\u000a partnered parents do. The question of whether single mothers, single fathers, partnered mothers, or partnered fathers experienced\\u000a differing levels of work-to-family conflict was also addressed. Data were from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce,\\u000a and only those respondents with at least one

Krista Lynn Minnotte

2012-01-01

146

Economic Stress in the Family and Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between welfare status and perceived financial stress and children's emotional and behavioral problems using data from National Survey of Children. Found that levels of depressive symptoms, impulsive behavior, and antisocial behavior were higher among children who experienced either type of economic stress at least once…

Takeuchi, David T.; And Others

1991-01-01

147

Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

2006-01-01

148

The Associations Between Social Support, Economic Strain, and Parenting Stress Among At-Risk Families  

E-print Network

This study tested the hypothesis that social support mediates the relation between economic strain and parenting stress using a sample of parents and caregivers (N = 151) of adolescents (ages 11-14) attending a six-week summer camp for at-risk youth...

Wilson, Mary Horn

2009-04-28

149

Structural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family  

E-print Network

of nuclear migration. This family also includes nudF, whose human orthologue, Lis1, codes for a protein © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;Introduction The nud (nuclear distribution) gene familyStructural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family Meiying Zheng1 , Tomasz

Caldwell, Guy

150

Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

151

Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

De Bruycker, Trees

2008-01-01

152

Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences  

EPA Science Inventory

As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

153

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

154

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

155

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

156

Family disruption, economic hardship and psychological distress in schizophrenia: can they be measured?  

PubMed

This study examined the dimensions of burden perceived by key-relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder by the development of an instrument, the Family Burden Scale (FBS) and the underlying predictors. One hundred and seventy one primary caregivers, living with 158 patients suffering from chronic psychotic illness and maintained on community basis in Athens area, were interviewed by the use of FBS supplemented by the Family Atmosphere Scale and GHQ. Construction procedure and factor analysis of FBS produced a scale of 23 items in four factors, three of them measuring objective and the fourth one, subjective burden. The scale was also proved to be reliable and valid. Forty-five percent of primary caregivers reported high levels of burden. Psychological impairment (high GHQ scores) was related with high levels of burden and negative family atmosphere. Previous admissions and duration of illness were also found to predict burden. The results suggest that FBS differentiates objective from subjective burden. Psychological well being of carers is affected by the dimensions of perceived burden. PMID:15504647

Madianos, M; Economou, M; Dafni, O; Koukia, E; Palli, A; Rogakou, E

2004-11-01

157

Family Economic Strengthening and Parenting Stress Among Caregivers of AIDS-Orphaned Children: Results from a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial in Uganda.  

PubMed

This study examines the impact of a family economic strengthening intervention on parenting stress among caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda. The study uses data from a 4-year (2008-2012) NIMH randomized clinical trial for AIDS-orphaned children known as Suubi-Maka (N=346 dyads). Child-caregiver dyads from 10 comparable primary schools were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=167 dyads) receiving usual care for school-going orphaned children (such as food aid and scholastic materials) or the treatment group (n=179 dyads) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention (focused on a matched savings account), financial planning and management workshops over and above the usual care. Interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 months and 24 months follow-up. This study uses data from baseline and 24 months post-intervention. We use multivariate regression methods, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. At 24 months, caregivers in the treatment group reported significantly lower levels of parenting stress compared to caregivers in the control group. Findings from this study point to the potential of a family economic strengthening intervention to improve caregiver's psychosocial wellbeing and that of their families. We conclude that programs and policies aimed at improving the psychosocial wellbeing of families caring for AIDS-orphaned children may consider incorporating economic strengthening components in their programming to help support these kinds of families, caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children especially those residing in developing countries. PMID:25136142

Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M; Ilic, Vilma

2014-09-01

158

When hard times take a toll: the distressing consequences of economic hardship and life events within the family-work interface.  

PubMed

Using two waves of data from a national survey of working Americans (N = 1,122), we examine the associations among economic hardship, negative life events, and psychological distress in the context of the family-work interface. Our findings demonstrate that family-to-work conflict mediates the effects of economic hardship and negative events to significant others on distress (net of baseline distress and hardship). Moreover, economic hardship and negative events to significant others moderate the association between family-to-work conflict and distress. While negative events to others exacerbate the positive effect of family-to-work conflict on distress, we find the opposite for economic hardship: The positive association between hardship and distress is weaker at higher levels of family-to-work conflict. These patterns hold across an array of family, work, and sociodemographic conditions. We discuss how these findings refine and extend ideas of the stress process model, including complex predictions related to processes of stress-buffering, resource substitution, and role multiplication. PMID:22336534

Young, Marisa; Schieman, Scott

2012-03-01

159

The crystal structure of endoglucanase CelA, a family 8 glycosyl hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cellulases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose, can be classified into several different protein families. Endoglucanase CelA is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 8, a family for which no structural information was previously available.Results The crystal structure of CelA was determined by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to 1.65 å resolution. The protein folds into

Pedro M Alzari; Hélè ne Souchon; Roberto Dominguez

1996-01-01

160

Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate-Binding Module: Evidence for Significant  

E-print Network

Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate- Binding Module: Evidence for Significant generally contain non- catalytic, carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that function by attaching the enzyme: carbohydrate-binding module; NMR structure; mannan; binding specificity; decorated oligosaccharides

Williamson, Mike P.

161

Family structural issues and chemical dependency: A review of the literature from 1985 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the literature summarizes publications from 1985 to 1991 that viewed the chemically dependent family from a structural perspective, focusing on boundaries, roles, rules, and communication patterns. The review will provide an overview of structural issues with implications for therapy and suggestions for further research. Seven journals were reviewed and are as follows: Family Process, Journal of Marriage

Gail Mackensen; R. Rocco Cottone

1992-01-01

162

Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

2010-01-01

163

The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2011-01-01

164

Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

165

Common dynamical signatures of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated structurally  

E-print Network

Common dynamical signatures of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated structurally familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) (2, 3). There are 100 distinct and structurally diverse FALS lateral sclerosis (FALS). Although SOD1 dimer dissociation is a known requirement for its aggregation

Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

166

Relation of Attachment Style and Family Structure In Homeless Girls and Effect of Family Therapy In Changing Their Attachment styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study as pretest_ posttest design attempts to assess family structure of runaway girls and their attachment styles at the first stage. The sample consists of 50 subjects from five centers including: juvenile justice system, crisis intervention of welfare center, counseling center of educational system, Reihaneh halfway and the prisoners of juvenile delinquencies. At the second stage 15 participants with

Farideh Hamidi

167

Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

2004-01-01

168

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN IN DIFFERENT FAMILY STRUCTURES IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 60 percent of ever married women in the reproductive age group live in nuclear or subnuclear families. Those who live in subnuclear families are generally widowed or separated. They are on the average older than others in the extended types. Women in subnuclear families have a low literacy level and poor economic condition and are generally employed in low

I. K. PADMINI; S. KRISHNAMOORTHY

1994-01-01

169

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

170

Teaching Economics to Undergraduates in Europe: Volume, Structure, and Contents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how much time is spent in economics and management sciences programs; how much time is allocated among different courses within programs; what common thematic denominators exist; and whether and in what way content in microeconomics and macroeconomics courses differs. (RLH)

Gartner, Manfred

2001-01-01

171

Presentation of structural component designs for the family of commuter airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to present the implementation of structural commonality in the family of commuter airplanes. One of the main goals is implementation of structural commonality to as high a degree as possible. The structural layouts of those parts of the airplanes in which commonality is possible with all members of the family will be presented. The following airplane sections, which are common on all of the airplanes in the family, will be presented: common nose cone design; common wing torque box design; and common tail cone design. A proposed production and manufacturing breakdown is described. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing structural commonality and recommendations for further work will be discussed.

Russell, Mark; Haddad, Raphael; Creighton, Tom; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Swift, Jerry

1987-01-01

172

Determinants of Role Structure in Family Financial Management  

E-print Network

Variables determining the role of husband and wife in family financial management are explored based on in-home, personal interviews. Financial tasks reflecting implementation activities and two groupings of decision ...

Rosen, Dennis L.; Granbois, Donald H.

1983-01-01

173

"Breaking the chain of poverty": family planning, community involvement, and the Population Council-Office of Economic Opportunity alliance.  

PubMed

The Office of Economic Opportunity-Population Council program is an example of a mid-twentieth-century federal government/private foundation cooperative effort to place family planning and maternal health at the center of a fight against entrenched poverty. These joint efforts were the trend in family planning and maternal health provision by the 1960s and had two overlapping but also contradictory goals. The first was to provide contraceptive services to poor women to reduce the numbers of poor children, thus relieving the poor of added mouths to feed. Popular fears of a population explosion, mounting welfare rolls, and an increase in the numbers of African Americans receiving welfare fueled this goal. The second aim, however, was to expand comprehensive maternal health services to help reduce poverty by increasing poor women's involvement in and control over the health institutions that could have significant impact on their lives. While the first goal pivoted on encouraging poor women to bear fewer children, the second sought to integrate poor women into community healthcare delivery systems. PMID:22700715

Nelson, Jennifer

2014-01-01

174

An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family  

PubMed Central

High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed. PMID:24189229

Mistry, Jaina; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Punta, Marco

2013-01-01

175

Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

2012-01-01

176

Financial structure and economic growth link in African countries: a panel cointegration analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to use the newly developed panel data cointegration analysis and the dynamic time series modeling approach to examine the linkages between financial structure (market-based vs bank-based) and economic growth in African economies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research investigates the dynamic relationship between financial structure and economic growth in a panel of a group of seven African

Abdullahi D. Ahmed; Abu N. M. Wahid

2011-01-01

177

De Novo Prediction of Three-dimensional Structures for Major Protein Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Rosetta de novo structure prediction method to produce three-dimensional structure models for all Pfam-A sequence families with average length under 150 residues and no link to any protein of known structure. To estimate the reliability of the predictions, the method was calibrated on 131 proteins of known structure. For approximately 60% of the proteins one of the

Richard Bonneau; Charlie E. M. Strauss; Carol A. Rohl; Dylan Chivian; Phillip Bradley; Lars Malmström; Tim Robertson; David Baker

2002-01-01

178

SCOP database in 2004: refinements integrate structure and sequence family data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. Protein domains in SCOP are hierarchically classified into families, superfamilies, folds and classes. The con- tinual accumulation of sequence and structural data allows more rigorous analysis and provides import- ant information for understanding the protein world

Antonina Andreeva; Dave Howorth; Steven E. Brenner; Tim J. P. Hubbard; Cyrus Chothia; Alexey G. Murzin

2004-01-01

179

Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic Site (AstDyS http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys )). The spectroscopic analysis is performed using spectra on the 0.44-0.92 ? m range observed by the SMASS Xu et al. 1995, SMASSII (Bus and Binzel, 2002) and 3OS2 (Lazzaro et al. 2002) surveys, which together total around 2140 asteroids with observed spectra. The asteroid taxonomy used is the Bus taxonomy (Bus et al. 2000). A total of 22 two families were analysed . The families of Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, and Koronis were found to be spectrally homogeneous, which confirms previous studies. The Veritas family, on the other hand, which is quoted in the literature as an heterogeneous family was found to be quite homogeneous in the present work. The Eos family is noteworthy for being at one time spectrally heterogeneous and quite different from the background population. References Bus, S. J., and R. P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey - The Observations. Icarus 158, 106-145. Bus, S. J., R. P. Binzel, and T. H. Burbine 2000. A New Generation of Asteroid Taxonomy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, vol. 35, Supplement, p.A36 35, 36 +. Lazzaro, D., C. A. Angeli, T. Mothe-Diniz, J. M. Carvano, R. Duffard, and M. Florczak 2002. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 34, 859 +. Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, and S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial results. Icarus 115, 1-35. Zappala, V., P. Bendjoya, A. Cellino, P. Farinella, and C. Froeschle 1995. Asteroid families: Search of a 12,487-asteroid sample using two different clustering techniques. Icarus 116, 291-314.

Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

180

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF WOMEN AND DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND FAMILY ROLES BETWEEN THE SEXES IN HUNGARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our century revolutionary changes took place in the social situation of women in developed and semideveloped countries, especially in the European socialist societies. From the sociological point of view female emancipation means ensuring equal possibilities for women in attaining equal status in the social structure with that of males. The realization of factual social equality requires political and legal

Laszlo Molnar

1975-01-01

181

Molecular structure and chromosome distribution of three repetitive DNA families in Anemone hortensis L. (Ranunculaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure, abundance and location of repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes can characterize the nature of higher plant\\u000a genomes. Here we report on three new repeat DNA families isolated from Anemone hortensis L.; (i) AhTR1, a family of satellite DNA (stDNA) composed of a 554–561 bp long EcoRV monomer; (ii) AhTR2, a stDNA family composed of a 743 bp long HindIII monomer

Jelena Mlinarec; Mike Chester; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Dražena Papeš; Andrew R. Leitch; Višnja Besendorfer

2009-01-01

182

Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China  

E-print Network

in China, research still shows that family structure in China is relatively stable compared to western countries. This dissertation investigates the effects of family structure on fertility in contemporary China. This dissertation had two main objectives...

He, Lei 1984-

2012-11-20

183

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

184

Perception of Incentives and Constraints by the Low Income Families in the Acceptance of New Ideas and Small Scale Economic Enterprises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase I of a more comprehensive project examined the perceived incentives and constraints related to acceptance of new ideas and small-scale economic enterprises by low income families. Six counties of northwest Florida were selected on the basis of their rurality, racial composition, and incidence of poverty. A multi-stage sampling procedure was…

Dhillon, Jogindar S.

185

Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

2013-01-01

186

Structure-based analysis of catalysis and substrate definition in the HIT protein family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histidine triad (HIT) protein family is among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved in nature, but a biological activity has not yet been identified for any member of the HIT family. Fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) and protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCL) were used in a structure-based approach to elucidate characteristics of in vivo ligands and reactions. Crystallographic

C. D. Lima; M. G. Klein; W. A. Hendrickson

1997-01-01

187

Evolving family structures, roles and relationships in light of ethnic and social change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This report is divided into two sections. In the first half, I provide an overview of the nature of change in family structures and relationships over the last few decades and up to the current 2000-2025 period, highlighting the major issues and challenges concerning black and minority ethnic families in the UK. In the second half, I indicate the

Robin Mann

188

Family structure and substance use problems in adolescence and early adulthood: examining explanations for the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Our study has two goals: to evaluate variation in symptoms of substance abuse\\/dependence by family structure and to examine several potential explanations for this association, including differences in socio-eco- nomic status, social support, social stress and perceived approval and use of substances by family and friends. Design Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is used to examine the association between

Anne E. Barrett; R. Jay Turner

2006-01-01

189

Structural insight into the evolution of a new chemokine family from zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The mammalian chemokine family is segregated into four families – CC, CXC, CX3C, and XC—based on the arrangement of cysteines and the corresponding disulfides. Sequencing of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome has identified more than double the amount of human chemokines with the absence of the CX3C family and the presence of a new family, CX. The only other family with a single cysteine in the N-terminal region is the XC family. Human lymphotactin (XCL1) has two interconverting structures due to dynamic changes that occur in the protein. Similar to an experiment with XCL1 that identified the two structural forms, we probed for multiple forms of zCXL1 using heparin affinity. The results suggest only a single form of CXL1 is present. We used sulfur-SAD phasing to determine the three-dimensional structure CXL1. Zebrafish CXL1 (zCXL1) has three disulfides that appear to be important for a stable structure. One disulfide is common to all chemokines except those that belong to the XC family, another is similar to a subset of CC chemokines containing three disulfides, but the third disulfide is unique to the CX family. We analyzed the electrostatic potential of the zCXL1 structure and identified the likely heparin-binding site for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). zCXL1 has a similar sequence identity with human CCL5 and CXCL12, but the structure is more related to CCL5. Our structural analysis supports the phylogenetic and genomic studies on the evolution of the CXL family. PMID:23900850

Rajasekaran, Deepa; Fan, Chengpeng; Meng, Wuyi; Pflugrath, James W.; Lolis, Elias J.

2014-01-01

190

Loss of quaternary structure is associated with rapid sequence divergence in the OSBS family  

PubMed Central

The rate of protein evolution is determined by a combination of selective pressure on protein function and biophysical constraints on protein folding and structure. Determining the relative contributions of these properties is an unsolved problem in molecular evolution with broad implications for protein engineering and function prediction. As a case study, we examined the structural divergence of the rapidly evolving o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) family, which catalyzes a step in menaquinone synthesis in diverse microorganisms and plants. On average, the OSBS family is much more divergent than other protein families from the same set of species, with the most divergent family members sharing <15% sequence identity. Comparing 11 representative structures revealed that loss of quaternary structure and large deletions or insertions are associated with the family’s rapid evolution. Neither of these properties has been investigated in previous studies to identify factors that affect the rate of protein evolution. Intriguingly, one subfamily retained a multimeric quaternary structure and has small insertions and deletions compared with related enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. Many proteins in this subfamily catalyze both OSBS and N-succinylamino acid racemization (NSAR). Retention of ancestral structural characteristics in the NSAR/OSBS subfamily suggests that the rate of protein evolution is not proportional to the capacity to evolve new protein functions. Instead, structural features that are conserved among proteins with diverse functions might contribute to the evolution of new functions. PMID:24872444

Odokonyero, Denis; Sakai, Ayano; Patskovsky, Yury; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Toro, Rafael; Agarwal, Rakhi; Wang, Chenxi; Ozerova, Nicole D. S.; Yew, Wen Shan; Sauder, J. Michael; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Glasner, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

191

Household income pooling and the demand for food: does family financial structure matter?  

E-print Network

Research on food consumption and expenditures usually employs the use of unitary models that do not account for type of family financial structure. This research presents two collective models of household behavior, conditional and unconditional...

Perusquia Corres, Ernesto

2009-06-02

192

Family Structure and Income During the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults’ prosocial behavior – charitable giving and volunteering – were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative sample of 1,011 American young adults. In the full sample, family structure transition during adolescence was negatively associated with subsequent charitable giving in young adulthood. Low income during adolescence was negatively associated with both giving and volunteering in young adulthood. European-American young men also exhibited a negative association between family structure transition during adolescence and subsequent volunteering. The results did not seem to describe African-American young adults. Keeping this qualification in mind, the results suggest that adolescence is a sensitive stage in the development of charitable giving and volunteering. PMID:22414561

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

193

The KCTD family of proteins: structure, function, disease relevance  

PubMed Central

The family of potassium channel tetramerizationdomain (KCTD) proteins consists of 26 members with mostly unknown functions. The name of the protein family is due to the sequence similarity between the conserved N-terminal region of KCTD proteins and the tetramerization domain in some voltage-gated potassium channels. Dozens of publications suggest that KCTD proteins have roles in various biological processes and diseases. In this review, we summarize the character of Bric-a-brack,Tram-track, Broad complex(BTB) of KCTD proteins, their roles in the ubiquitination pathway, and the roles of KCTD mutants in diseases. Furthermore, we review potential downstream signaling pathways and discuss future studies that should be performed. PMID:24268103

2013-01-01

194

[Structure and function analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana SRO protein family].  

PubMed

Many biotic and abiotic stresses can cause oxidative stress in plants. The identification of components involved in plant response to oxidative stress has attracted wide attention. The members of AtSRO family, including AtRCD1, AtSRO1, and AtSRO5, regulate plants' response to oxidative stress. AtSROs participate in plant normal growth and development, and play important roles in plant response to stresses, such as drought, salt, heavy metal, and so on. In addition, AtSROs possess some special domains, including PARP and RST. It is speculated that AtSROs may function in regulating protein transcription, adjustment, and modification. This review highlights some recent progresses, such as basic situation of AtSROs, effects of AtSRO family proteins on plant growth and response to abiotic stress, which will provide a theoretical basis for further studying on biological functions of AtSRO. PMID:24459892

Li, Bao-Zhu; Zhao, Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Peng, Lei

2013-10-01

195

The ATP-binding cassette family: a structural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette family is one of the largest groupings of membrane proteins, moving allocrites across lipid membranes,\\u000a using energy from ATP. In bacteria, they reside in the inner membrane and are involved in both uptake and export. In eukaryotes,\\u000a these transporters reside in the cell’s internal membranes as well as in the plasma membrane and are unidirectional—out of\\u000a the

Veronica Kos; Robert Curtis Ford

2009-01-01

196

Conservation and Variation of Structural Flexibility in Protein Families  

PubMed Central

Summary In this issue, Raimondi et al. (2010) now obtained interesting insights concerning structural flexibilities in the Ras superfamily that are essential to both function retention and function specialization, by analyzing the deformation patterns from physical models of protein structure and from crystal structures of homologous proteins. PMID:20223210

Van Wynsberghe, Adam; Cui, Qiang

2010-01-01

197

Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure and Economic Activities  

E-print Network

Philippine Management Review (Special Issue) 2011, Vol. 18, 97113. Banking Industry Structure, 87 031 Limoges Cedex, France This paper examines the link between banking industry structure analysis on regional banking and economic data for the period 1993 to 2005. We ranked the sixteen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers  

E-print Network

Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

199

Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.  

PubMed

Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's) PMID:12222474

Hsuing, P C

1988-06-01

200

Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project  

PubMed Central

There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

2014-01-01

201

Manganese oxide minerals: Crystal structures and economic and environmental significance  

PubMed Central

Manganese oxide minerals have been used for thousands of years—by the ancients for pigments and to clarify glass, and today as ores of Mn metal, catalysts, and battery material. More than 30 Mn oxide minerals occur in a wide variety of geological settings. They are major components of Mn nodules that pave huge areas of the ocean floor and bottoms of many fresh-water lakes. Mn oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and participate in a variety of chemical reactions that affect groundwater and bulk soil composition. Their typical occurrence as fine-grained mixtures makes it difficult to study their atomic structures and crystal chemistries. In recent years, however, investigations using transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray and neutron diffraction methods have provided important new insights into the structures and properties of these materials. The crystal structures for todorokite and birnessite, two of the more common Mn oxide minerals in terrestrial deposits and ocean nodules, were determined by using powder x-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement method. Because of the large tunnels in todorokite and related structures there is considerable interest in the use of these materials and synthetic analogues as catalysts and cation exchange agents. Birnessite-group minerals have layer structures and readily undergo oxidation reduction and cation-exchange reactions and play a major role in controlling groundwater chemistry. PMID:10097056

Post, Jeffrey E.

1999-01-01

202

Structure-based analysis of catalysis and substrate definition in the HIT protein family  

SciTech Connect

The histidine triad (HIT) protein family is among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved in nature, but a biological activity has not yet been identified for any member of the HIT family. Fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) and protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCL) were used in a structure-based approach to elucidate characteristics of in vivo ligands and reactions. Crystallographic structures of apo, substrate analog, pentacovalent transition-state analog, and product states of both enzymes reveal a catalytic mechanism and define substrate characteristics required for catalysis, thus unifying the HIT family as nucleotidyl hydrolases, transferases, or both. The approach described here may be useful in identifying structure-function relations between protein families identified through genomics. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lima, C.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Klein, M.G. [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States)] [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States); Hendrickson, W.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1997-10-10

203

Structure and expression of maize phytochrome family homeologs.  

PubMed Central

To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251

Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P

2004-01-01

204

Predictors of Global Quality in Family Child Care Homes: Structural and Belief Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…

Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna

2012-01-01

205

Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

2012-01-01

206

Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms.  

PubMed

Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers' behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers' positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families. PMID:24855327

Finlay, Andrea K; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Saenz, Delia S; Baham, Melinda E; Parke, Ross D; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

2014-03-01

207

Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure  

PubMed Central

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

208

Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam  

E-print Network

1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques those which have been slow to reform systems of administered prices. Such allocation mechanisms now of multiplier decomposition methods; make use of an up-to-date social accounting matrix (SAM) for Vietnam

Kammen, Daniel M.

209

Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

1981-01-01

210

High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic transition turns the inherited wage structure upside down. Changes are rapid and dramatic. The Polish example shows that even in the first year of market-oriented reforms, there was a marked increase in earnings inequality, a dramatic rise in the wage premium for white-collar skills, and a significant jump in the returns to education. In contrast, skills acquired under the

Jan Rutkowski

1996-01-01

211

Crystal structure of the Src family tyrosine kinase Hck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of the haematopoietic cell kinase Hck has been determined at 2.6\\/2.9 Å resolution. Inhibition of enzymatic activity is a consequence of intramolecular interactions of the enzyme's Src-homology domains SH2 and SH3, with concomitant displacement of elements of the catalytic domain. The conformation of the active site has similarities with that of inactive cyclin-dependent protein kinases.

Frank Sicheri; Ismail Moarefi; John Kuriyan

1997-01-01

212

The apolipoprotein multigene family: Structure, expression, evolution, and molecular genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The plasma apolipoproteins can be classified into two subgroups: the soluble apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E, and the apoBs including apoB-100 and apoB-48. The soluble apolipoproteins have very similar genomic structures, each having a total of three introns at the same locations; apoA-IV is an exception in that it has lost its

L. Chan

1989-01-01

213

Economic Pressure and Children's Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mediating role of family dynamics (marital quality, parental depression) in the link between economic pressure and child psychological functioning using the data from the National Survey of Family and Households (NSFH). From the initial multiethnic probability sample, we used a subsample of 2998 parents with a focal child 5 to 17 years of age. We used structural

Mihaela Robila; Ambika Krishnakumar

2006-01-01

214

The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce.  

PubMed

Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing. PMID:25473135

Anderson, Jane

2014-11-01

215

Structural, functional, and evolutionary analysis of the unusually large stilbene synthase gene family in grapevine.  

PubMed

Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed. PMID:22961129

Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A B; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe

2012-11-01

216

A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

2014-08-01

217

Sibling similarity in family formation.  

PubMed

Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality. PMID:25367282

Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

2014-12-01

218

The role of family structure and attachment in college student hookups.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between family structure and hooking up among emerging adults (N = 881) and the extent to which attachment moderated this relationship. Neither family structure nor number of structure transitions were related to the number of hookup partners in the past 12 months. Having an avoidant attachment, being an underclassman, consuming more alcohol, and not being in an exclusive relationship were related to having a greater number of hookup partners, and avoidant attachment was a stronger indicator of hooking up for men than for women. Among those who had hooked up in the past 12 months (63.8 %), family structure did not significantly differentiate those having a penetrative sex hookup (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) versus a non-penetrative sex hookup (i.e., kissing and/or sexual touching only). Findings were discussed in terms of their methodological implications for studying hookups, such as the collection of event level data and examining how family structure influences other correlates of hooking up. PMID:23733154

Garneau, Chelsea; Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

2013-11-01

219

Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.  

PubMed

Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

2013-02-01

220

The Pur protein family: Genetic and structural features in development and disease  

PubMed Central

The Pur proteins are an ancient family of sequence-specific single-stranded nucleic acid-binding proteins. They bind a G-rich element in either single- or double-stranded nucleic acids and are capable of displacing the complementary C-rich strand. Recently several reports have described Pur family member knockouts, mutations and disease aberrations. Together with a recent crystal structure of Pur?, these data reveal conserved structural features of these proteins that have been adapted to serve functions unique to higher eukaryotes. In humans Pur proteins are critical for myeloid cell development, muscle development, and brain development, including trafficking of mRNA to neuronal dendrites. Pur family members have been implicated in diseases as diverse as cancer, premature aging and fragile-X mental retardation syndrome. PMID:23018800

Johnson, Edward M.; Daniel, Dianne C.; Gordon, Jennifer

2013-01-01

221

The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules*  

E-print Network

The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules* Received involved in the protein-carbohydrate interaction is rotated by 90° compared with its position in CBM2a recognition of the absence or presence of functional groups. The molecular recognition of carbohydrates

Williamson, Mike P.

222

Combining Structure and Sequence Information Allows Automated Prediction of Substrate Specificities within Enzyme Families  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of the functional annotation of enzymes is not only the type of reaction catalysed by an enzyme, but also the substrate specificity, which can vary widely within the same family. In many cases, prediction of family membership and even substrate specificity is possible from enzyme sequence alone, using a nearest neighbour classification rule. However, the combination of structural information and sequence information can improve the interpretability and accuracy of predictive models. The method presented here, Active Site Classification (ASC), automatically extracts the residues lining the active site from one representative three-dimensional structure and the corresponding residues from sequences of other members of the family. From a set of representatives with known substrate specificity, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) can then learn a model of substrate specificity. Applied to a sequence of unknown specificity, the SVM can then predict the most likely substrate. The models can also be analysed to reveal the underlying structural reasons determining substrate specificities and thus yield valuable insights into mechanisms of enzyme specificity. We illustrate the high prediction accuracy achieved on two benchmark data sets and the structural insights gained from ASC by a detailed analysis of the family of decarboxylating dehydrogenases. The ASC web service is available at http://asc.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/. PMID:20072606

Röttig, Marc; Rausch, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver

2010-01-01

223

Butchered Brothers and Betrayed Families: Degenerating Kinship Structures in the Book of Judges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book of Judges depicts the general erosion of Israelite society in the pre-monarchic period. This erosion is multi-faceted and occurs at a variety of levels within the text, becoming more pronounced as one approaches the end of the book. The gradual and increasing degeneration of kinship structures within the book of Judges at the family, clan, and tribal levels

Gordon Oeste

2011-01-01

224

Adult Daughters' Family Structure and the Association between Reciprocity and Relationship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores whether family structure is a moderator of the associations between help exchange, reciprocity of this exchange, and the quality of the mother and adult daughter relationship. A total of 183 daughters (mean age = 42.13; SD = 4.91) are either in first marriage (n = 87), living with a new partner after divorce (n = 77), or…

Schwarz, Beate

2006-01-01

225

Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

2012-01-01

226

Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has recently posted Population Division Working Paper No. 23, on its website. This paper, Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP, by Jason M. Fields and Kristin E. Smith, examines the efficacy of SIPP as a measure of child well-being.

Fields, Jason M.

1998-01-01

227

Crystal Structure of a pol ? Family Replication DNA Polymerase from Bacteriophage RB69  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the bacteriophage RB69 gp43, a member of the eukaryotic pol ? family of replicative DNA polymerases, shares some similarities with other polymerases but shows many differences. Although its palm domain has the same topology as other polymerases, except rat DNA polymerase ?, one of the three carboxylates required for nucleotidyl transfer is located

J. Wang; A. K. M. A. Sattar; C. C. Wang; J. D. Karam; W. H. Konigsberg; T. A. Steitz

1997-01-01

228

A family of thermostable fungal cellulases created by structure-guided recombination  

E-print Network

A family of thermostable fungal cellulases created by structure-guided recombination Pete-guided recombination of 3 fungal class II cello- biohydrolases (CBH II cellulases) has yielded a collection of highly contains hundreds of highly stable cellulases. Twenty-five new sequences were designed based

Snow, Christopher

229

Immigrants, their children, and theories of assimilation: Family structure in the United States, 1880–1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs United States census data from 1880 to 1970 to assess the influence of ethnicity and generation on the family structure of Mexican, Irish, Swedish, Italian, Polish, and native white children. Using evidence for three generations, it tests two theories, linear assimilation and segmented assimilation. Assimilation theory makes no special claims for ethnic effects, but segmented assimilation proposes

Brian Gratton; Myron P. Gutmann; Emily Skop

2007-01-01

230

A Generation at Risk: Growing Up in an Era of Family Upheaval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last three decades, remarkable transformations have occurred in the American family, including changes in economic well-being, gender roles, family relationships, and family structure. Based on a 15-year study begun in 1980, this book examines young Americans coming of age in the 1980s and 1990s among families experiencing these social…

Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

231

The economic burden to families of HIV and HIV/tuberculosis coinfection in a subsidized HIV treatment program.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: The high cost of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has led to the initiation of subsidized HIV treatment programs in developing countries. The care of tuberculosis (TB), a common opportunistic infection, is not built into the subsidized program. The current study was done to evaluate the cost burden of HIV/AIDS, TB, and TB and HIV/AIDS coinfections to the family. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Consecutive families with 21 family member managed for HIV and or TB were recruited into three cohorts of HIV only, TB only and HIV/TB cohorts. The average monthly costs of treatment, transportation family income and percentage of income spent on care were computed for each family. The average monthly man-hours per family spent on clinic visitation were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 families consisting of 128 family members met the study criteria. The mean cost of treatment per month was significantly higher in families in the HIV/TB cohort than in other cohorts, P = 0.0001. The mean percentage of income spent on treatment was significantly higher in the HIV/TB cohort compared to other cohorts, P = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: The cost of managing TB/HIV coinfection significantly increased the costs to the families in the subsidized HIV treatment program. It is recommended that a comprehensive package of subsidized HIV care that is inclusive of TB treatment and care for other comorbidities be initiated in developing countries. PMID:17595931

Sadoh, Wilson E.; Oviawe, Osa

2007-01-01

232

The effect of incarceration rates on mate availability and its effect on the formation and structure of the African American family: a theoretical and empirical analysis  

E-print Network

Incarceration 45 Mate Availability 46 Family Formation and Family Structure 49 vii Page CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS-DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES IN INCARCERATION AND MATE AVAILABILITY 50 Incarceration 50 Trends in Sex Ratios 54 Age-Specific Sex Ratios 60 Labor... Force Sex Ratio Including School Enrollment 70 VII ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF INCARCERATION ON FAMILY FORMATION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE... 72 Direct Effects of Incarceration on Family Structure 73 Indirect Effects of Incarceration on Family Formation...

McGruder, Patricia Hollis

2012-06-07

233

School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects.  

PubMed

School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111464

O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

2014-08-11

234

Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program, SHCOST, was used to perform economic analyses of operational test sites. The program allows consideration of the economic parameters which are important to the solar system user. A life cycle cost and cash flow comparison is made between a solar heating system and a conventional system. The program assists in sizing the solar heating system. A sensitivity study and plot capability allow the user to select the most cost effective system configuration.

Forney, J. A.; Walker, D.; Lanier, M.

1979-01-01

235

Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

2014-01-01

236

[Perspective of genetic improvement of inflorescences structure in oil crops of Brassicaceae family].  

PubMed

The theoretical substantiation and new scientific decision of ability to genetic construction of agriculturally valuable inflorescence structure in oil crops of Brassicaceae family are proposed on the examples of A. thaliana genes AP1, BP1 and TFL1. New types of plants are more suitable to machine seed harvesting as a result of decreasing non-simultaneous ripeness of seeds within inflorescences. It has been determined that A. thaliana forms inflorescences with new combinations of untypical for family Brassicaceae features by the effects of recessive alleles ap1-1, bp-1 and tfl1-2 expression. PMID:19938632

Khablak, S G; Checheneva, T N

2009-01-01

237

Dysfunctional Family Structures and Aggression in Children: A Case for School-Based, Systemic Approaches With Violent Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract School counselors,may,be in the best position to identify troubled students,and intervene before an act of school violence occurs. Current education,literature challenges school counselors to expand their knowledge of social, environmental and family dynamics,and the influences of those dynamics,on student violence. This article will (a) introduce the structural elements,of a family system,(b) describe links between dysfunctional family structure and child

Charles R. McAdams III; Victoria A. Foster

238

Socialization or social structure: investigating predictors of attitudes toward filial responsibility among Chinese urban youth from one- and multiple-child families.  

PubMed

This study explores the influence of familial and social factors on the maturing cohort of China's one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibilities. Based on survey data collected in 1997 and 1998 among 777 Chinese young adults, this research found that family economic conditions had a significant impact on young adults' attitudes; higher family income was positively related to respondents' willingness toward accepting filial responsibility; higher educational levels, though positively related to respondents' attitudes toward xiao, were negatively related to their commitment to parent care when they foresaw job and care conflicts. Family socialization was not found to enhance young adults' attitudes toward filial responsibility. Sharing the same household with grandparents and having dependent grandparents in the family were negatively associated with respondents' sense of obligation for parental care. Further, only children born after the one-child policy implementation scored lower than other children in their willingness to provide parental care when they foresaw job and care conflicts. The author argues that social structure, rather than socialization, plays an increasingly important role in shaping one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibility in China, and will continue to do so in the future. PMID:15453140

Zhan, Heying Jenny

2004-01-01

239

Structural vibration passive control and economic analysis of a high-rise building in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance analysis of the Pangu Plaza under earthquake and wind loads is described in this paper. The plaza is a 39-story steel high-rise building, 191 m high, located in Beijing close to the 2008 Olympic main stadium. It has both fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) and buckling restrained braces or unbonded brace (BRB or UBB) installed. A repeated iteration procedure in its design and analysis was adopted for optimization. Results from the seismic response analysis in the horizontal and vertical directions show that the FVDs are highly effective in reducing the response of both the main structure and the secondary system. A comparative analysis of structural seismic performance and economic impact was conducted using traditional methods, i.e., increased size of steel columns and beams and/or use of an increased number of seismic braces versus using FVD. Both the structural response and economic analysis show that using FVD to absorb seismic energy not only satisfies the Chinese seismic design code for a “rare” earthquake, but is also the most economical way to improve seismic performance both for one-time direct investment and long term maintenance.

Chen, Yongqi; Cao, Tiezhu; Ma, Liangzhe; Luo, Chaoying

2009-12-01

240

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

Giguère, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

241

Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains  

SciTech Connect

Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

2010-01-01

242

Marital Transitions, Parenting, and Schooling: Exploring the Link between Family-Structure History and Adolescents' Academic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linkage between family structure and adolescents' academic experiences is part of a larger, dynamic process unfolding over time. To investigate this phenomenon, this study drew on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study. Logistic regressions revealed that family structure at…

Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Schiller, Kathryn S.; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

2006-01-01

243

Structural Elucidation of Dextran Degradation Mechanism by Streptococcus mutans Dextranase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 66*  

PubMed Central

Dextranase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes dextran ?-1,6 linkages. Streptococcus mutans dextranase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66, producing isomaltooligosaccharides of various sizes and consisting of at least five amino acid sequence regions. The crystal structure of the conserved fragment from Gln100 to Ile732 of S. mutans dextranase, devoid of its N- and C-terminal variable regions, was determined at 1.6 Å resolution and found to contain three structural domains. Domain N possessed an immunoglobulin-like ?-sandwich fold; domain A contained the enzyme's catalytic module, comprising a (?/?)8-barrel; and domain C formed a ?-sandwich structure containing two Greek key motifs. Two ligand complex structures were also determined, and, in the enzyme-isomaltotriose complex structure, the bound isomaltooligosaccharide with four glucose moieties was observed in the catalytic glycone cleft and considered to be the transglycosylation product of the enzyme, indicating the presence of four subsites, ?4 to ?1, in the catalytic cleft. The complexed structure with 4?,5?-epoxypentyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, revealed that the epoxide ring reacted to form a covalent bond with the Asp385 side chain. These structures collectively indicated that Asp385 was the catalytic nucleophile and that Glu453 was the acid/base of the double displacement mechanism, in which the enzyme showed a retaining catalytic character. This is the first structural report for the enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66, elucidating the enzyme's catalytic machinery. PMID:22337884

Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kim, Young-Min; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Kimura, Atsuo

2012-01-01

244

Fathering and Adolescent Adjustment: Variations by Family Structure and Ethnic Background  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated how fathering behaviors (acceptance, rejection, monitoring, consistent discipline, and involvement) are related to preadolescent adjustment in Mexican American and European American stepfamilies and intact families. Cross-sectional data from 393 7th graders, their schoolteachers, and parents were used to examine links between different dimensions of fathering and adolescent outcomes. Following an ecological multivariate model, family SES, marital satisfaction, and mothers’ parenting were included as controls. In all contexts, fathering had significant effects on adolescent adjustment. Both mothers’ parenting and adolescent gender moderated the associations, and we uncovered some provocative nonlinear relations between fathering and adolescent outcomes. The importance of ethnicity and family structure in studies of fathering are highlighted. PMID:24235877

Leidy, Melinda S.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Miller, Marie A.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford; Cookston, Jeffrey; Fabricius, William; Saenz, Delia; Adams, Michele

2013-01-01

245

Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors.  

PubMed

Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed. PMID:25427222

Bao, Wei

2015-01-21

246

Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed.

Bao, Wei

2015-01-01

247

Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase.  

PubMed

RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

2013-08-01

248

Stress: Family, Economic, and Management Considerations. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (28th, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 3-5, 1988). Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 16 papers, some of which are followed by discussants' comments. They include: "Growing Older in a Rural Retirement Community" (Brokaw, Peters, Tripple; discussants Olson, Tucker; "An Interactive Computer Model for Achieving Personal Financial Goals" (Dilbeck, Hinds, Ulivi; discussants Burton, Peterson); "The Economics

Holyoak, Arlene, Ed.

249

Effectiveness Trial of an Intensive Communication Structure for Families of Long-Stay ICU Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Formal family meetings have been recommended as a useful approach to assist in goal setting, facilitate decision making, and reduce use of ineffective resources in the ICU. We examined patient outcomes before and after implementation of an intensive communication system (ICS) to test the effect of regular, structured formal family meetings on patient outcomes among long-stay ICU patients. Methods: One hundred thirty-five patients receiving usual care and communication were enrolled as the control group, followed by enrollment of intervention patients (n = 346), from five ICUs. The ICS included a family meeting within 5 days of ICU admission and weekly thereafter. Each meeting discussed medical update, values and preferences, and goals of care; treatment plan; and milestones for judging effectiveness of treatment. Results: Using multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between control and intervention patients in length of stay (LOS), the primary end point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in indicators of aggressiveness of care or treatment limitation decisions (ICU mortality, LOS, duration of ventilation, treatment limitation orders, or use of tracheostomy or percutaneous gastrostomy). Exploratory analysis suggested that in the medical ICUs, the intervention was associated with a lower prevalence of tracheostomy among patients who died or had do-not-attempt-resuscitation orders in place. Conclusions: The negative findings of the main analysis, in combination with preliminary evidence of differences among types of unit, suggest that further examination of the influence of patient, family, and unit characteristics on the effects of a system of regular family meetings may be warranted. Despite the lack of influence on patient outcomes, structured family meetings may be an effective approach to meeting information and support needs. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01057238 ; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20576734

Douglas, Sara L.; O’Toole, Elizabeth; Gordon, Nahida H.; Hejal, Rana; Peerless, Joel; Rowbottom, James; Garland, Allan; Lilly, Craig; Wiencek, Clareen; Hickman, Ronald

2010-01-01

250

The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression  

PubMed Central

Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1–67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I–IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1–3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

2014-01-01

251

Female-Headed Families and Poverty in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 March supplements of the Current Population Surveys, this study examines changing household and family structure in metro and nonmetro areas and corresponding changes in poverty, emphasizing female-headed families with children under age 18. We also pay particular attention to the structure and economic

Snyder, Anastasia R.; McLaughlin, Diane K.

2004-01-01

252

Structural and Functional Evolution of Positively Selected Sites in Pine Glutathione S-Transferase Enzyme Family*  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses have identified positive selection as an important driver of protein evolution, both structural and functional. However, the lack of appropriate combined functional and structural assays has generally hindered attempts to elucidate patterns of positively selected sites and their effects on enzyme activity and substrate specificity. In this study we investigated the evolutionary divergence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family in Pinus tabuliformis, a pine that is widely distributed from northern to central China, including cold temperate and drought-stressed regions. GSTs play important roles in plant stress tolerance and detoxification. We cloned 44 GST genes from P. tabuliformis and found that 26 of the 44 belong to the largest (Tau) class of GSTs and are differentially expressed across tissues and developmental stages. Substitution models identified five positively selected sites in the Tau GSTs. To examine the functional significance of these positively selected sites, we applied protein structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. We found that four of the five positively selected sites significantly affect the enzyme activity and specificity; thus their variation broadens the GST family substrate spectrum. In addition, positive selection has mainly acted on secondary substrate binding sites or sites close to (but not directly at) the primary substrate binding site; thus their variation enables the acquisition of new catalytic functions without compromising the protein primary biochemical properties. Our study sheds light on selective aspects of the functional and structural divergence of the GST family in pine and other organisms. PMID:23846689

Lan, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Zeng, Qing-Yin

2013-01-01

253

Structural features of B family chorion sequences in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, and their evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Partial protein sequences, and DNA sequences of corresponding cDNA and genomic clones were obtained and analyzed to reveal the primary structural features of major, developmentally middle or late components of the B chorion multigene family in Bombyx mori. Comparisons with other types of sequences confirm and clarify the tripartite domain structure of chorion proteins. Glycine-, leucine- and tyrosine-containing, tandemly repetitive peptides form the bulk of the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains ('arms'). Extensive sequence homologies suggest a common evolutionary origin for the amino-terminal arms of some B. mori B sequences and the corresponding portions of members of a different (A) chorion multigene family in Antheraea polyphemus, a distantly related silkmoth. PMID:6571700

Tsitilou, S G; Rodakis, G C; Alexopoulou, M; Kafatos, F C; Ito, K; Iatrou, K

1983-01-01

254

Factor structure of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Family and Youth satisfaction surveys.  

PubMed

Two studies of the Mental Health Statics Improvement Project (MHSIP) Family and Youth consumer satisfaction surveys factor structure and psychometrics were conducted. In study 1, the 2002-2006 Youth Services Survey for Families (N = 6,007) was administered to parents of children receiving services, and in study 2, the 2002-2004 Youth Services Survey (N = 1,718) was administered to children age 12-18 receiving services. Factor analyses across both studies found five factors that strongly supported the hypothesized scale domains of outcomes, satisfaction, cultural sensitivity, participation, and access. Scales based on these factors had good reliability with an average coefficient alpha of 0.85. The average convergent validity correlation between scale scores from the parent and child surveys was r = 0.62. Overall, the results supported the structure, reliability, and validity of the surveys. PMID:23636620

Shafer, Alan B; Temple, Judith M

2013-07-01

255

Structural basis for the broad specificity of a new family of amino-acid racemases.  

PubMed

Broad-spectrum amino-acid racemases (Bsrs) enable bacteria to generate noncanonical D-amino acids, the roles of which in microbial physiology, including the modulation of cell-wall structure and the dissolution of biofilms, are just beginning to be appreciated. Here, extensive crystallographic, mutational, biochemical and bioinformatic studies were used to define the molecular features of the racemase BsrV that enable this enzyme to accommodate more diverse substrates than the related PLP-dependent alanine racemases. Conserved residues were identified that distinguish BsrV and a newly defined family of broad-spectrum racemases from alanine racemases, and these residues were found to be key mediators of the multispecificity of BrsV. Finally, the structural analysis of an additional Bsr that was identified in the bioinformatic analysis confirmed that the distinguishing features of BrsV are conserved among Bsr family members. PMID:24419381

Espaillat, Akbar; Carrasco-López, César; Bernardo-García, Noelia; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Otero, Lisandro H; Álvarez, Laura; de Pedro, Miguel A; Pazos, Florencio; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K; Hermoso, Juan A; Cava, Felipe

2014-01-01

256

A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

257

Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

258

Structural and kinetic features of family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, kinetic properties of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase of family I from Vibrio cholerae (V-PPase), intestinal pathogen and causative agent of human cholera, are characterized in detail, and the crystal structure\\u000a of a metal-free enzyme is reported. Hydrolytic activity of V-PPase has been studied as a function of pH, concentration of\\u000a metal cofactors (Mg2+ or Mn2+), and ionic

E. V. Rodina; V. R. Samygina; N. N. Vorobyeva; T. S. Sitnik; S. A. Kurilova; T. I. Nazarova

2009-01-01

259

Genomic Structure and Expression of STM2, the Chromosome 1 Familial Alzheimer Disease Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the gene STM2 result in autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer disease. To screen for mutations and to identify regulatory elements for this gene, the genomic DNA sequence and intron–exon structure were determined. Twelve exons including 10 coding exons were identified in a genomic region spanning 23,737 bp. The first 2 exons encode the 5?-untranslated region. Expression analysis of STM2

Ephrat Levy-Lahad; Parvoneh Poorkaj; Kai Wang; Ying Hui Fu; Junko Oshima; John Mulligan; Gerard D. Schellenberg

1996-01-01

260

Relation between parent psychiatric symptoms and youth problems: moderation through family structure and youth gender.  

PubMed

Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N?=?333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender. PMID:24014160

Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R

2014-02-01

261

Distinct structural features of Rex-family repressors to sense redox levels in anaerobes and aerobes.  

PubMed

The Rex-family repressors sense redox levels by alternative binding to NADH or NAD(+). Unlike other Rex proteins that regulate aerobic respiration, RSP controls ethanol fermentation in the obligate anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200(T). It is also found in other anaerobic microorganisms. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-RSP, RSP/NADH and RSP/NAD(+)/DNA, which are the first structures of Rex-family members from an obligate anaerobe. RSP functions as a homodimer. It assumes an open conformation when bound to the operator DNA and a closed conformation when not DNA-bound. The DNA binds to the N-terminal winged-helix domain and the dinucleotide, either reduced or oxidized, binds to the C-terminal Rossmann-fold domain. The two distinct orientations of nicotinamide ring, anti in NADH and syn in NAD(+), give rise to two sets of protein-ligand interactions. Consequently, NADH binding makes RSP into a closed conformation, which does not bind to DNA. Both the conserved residues and the DNA specificity of RSP show a number of variations from those of the aerobic Rex, reflecting different structural bases for redox-sensing by the anaerobic and aerobic Rex-family members. PMID:25463021

Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Sun, Hong; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Pei, Jianjun; Qiu, Riyong; Wang, Andrew H-J; Wiegel, Juergen; Shao, Weilan; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-12-01

262

[Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants. PMID:20462016

Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

2010-02-01

263

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases  

SciTech Connect

Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity.

Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Toronto); (Colorado)

2011-12-14

264

Heterologous Quaternary Structure of CXCL12 and its Relationship to the CC Chemokine Family  

SciTech Connect

X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that CXCL12 is able to form multiple dimer types, a traditional CXC dimer and a 'CC-like' form. Phylogenetic analysis of all known human chemokines demonstrates CXCL12 is more closely related to the CC chemokine class than other CXC chemokines. These observations indicate that CXCL12 contains genomic and structural elements characteristic of both CXC and CC chemokines.Chemokines are members of a superfamily of proteins involved in the migration of cells to the proper anatomical position during embryonic development or in response to infection or stress during an immune response. There are two major (CC and CXC) and two minor (CX3C and XC) families based on the sequence around the first conserved cysteine. The topology of all structures is essentially identical with a flexible N-terminal region of 3-8 amino acids, a 10-20 residue N-terminal loop, a short 3{sub 10}-helix, three {beta}-strands, and a {alpha}-helix. The major consequence of the subtle difference between the families occurs at the oligomeric level. Monomers of the CC, CXC, and CX3C families form dimers in a family-specific manner. The XCL1 chemokine is a monomer that can interconvert between two folded states. All chemokines activate GPCRs according to family-specificity, however there are a few examples of chemokines crossing the family boundary to function as antagonists. A two-stage mechanism for chemokine activation of GPCRs has been proposed. The N-terminal region of the receptor interacts with the chemokine, followed by receptor activation by the chemokine N-terminal region. Monomeric chemokines have been demonstrated to be the active form for receptor function. There are numerous examples of both chemokines and their receptors forming dimers. While family-specific dimerization may be an attractive explanation for why specific chemokines only activate GPCRs within their own family, the role of dimers in the function of chemokines has not been resolved. Given that CXCL12 is in the CXC family, the CXC dimer is considered the physiologic dimer in all previous studies based on crystallographic evidence. NMR and mutational studies agree with the CXC dimer form in solution. The CXC form of the dimer is seen in recent structures of CXCL12 bound to a heparin disaccharide and several CXCR4 peptides. In one case, crystals of the CXC-type dimer were soaked in a heparin disaccharide solution to determine the interactions between this dimer and bound disaccharide. In another case, in order to overcome NMR chemical shift line broadening when CXCR4 peptides are added, a 'locked' dimer was constructed by introducing a cysteine mutant that linked subunits as a CXC dimer through an inter-subunit disulfide bond. The solution structures of the locked CXC dimer with CXCR4 peptides were determined. The locked CXC dimer retained Ca{sup 2+} mobilization yet lost chemotaxis activity, presumably because the monomer is the active form. In addition to existing as a monomer and CXC dimer, CXCL12 is now demonstrated to have the capacity to form CC type dimers in the presence of a CXCR4 peptide.

Murphy, J.; Yuan, H; Kong, Y; Xiong, Y; Lolis, E

2010-01-01

265

Solution structure of family 21 carbohydrate-binding module from Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase  

PubMed Central

CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) function independently to assist carbohydrate-active enzymes. Family 21 CBMs contain approx. 100 amino acid residues, and some members have starchbinding functions or glycogen-binding activities. We report here the first structure of a family 21 CBM from the SBD (starch-binding domain) of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoCBM21) determined by NMR spectroscopy. This CBM has a ?-sandwich fold with an immunoglobulin-like structure. Ligand-binding properties of RoCBM21 were analysed by chemical-shift perturbations and automated docking. Structural comparisons with previously reported SBDs revealed two types of topologies, namely type I and type II, with CBM20, CBM25, CBM26 and CBM41 showing type I topology, with CBM21 and CBM34 showing type II topology. According to the chemical-shift perturbations, RoCBM21 contains two ligand-binding sites. Residues in site II are similar to those found in the family 20 CBM from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (AnCBM20). Site I, however, is embedded in a region with unique sequence motifs only found in some members of CBM21s. Additionally, docking of ?-cyclodextrin and malto-oligosaccharides highlights that side chains of Y83 and W47 (one-letter amino acid code) form the central part of the conserved binding platform in the SBD. The structure of RoCBM21 provides the first direct evidence of the structural features and the basis for protein–carbohydrate recognition from an SBD of CBM21. PMID:17117925

Liu, Yu-Nan; Lai, Yen-Ting; Chou, Wei-I; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

2006-01-01

266

Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. PMID:24627645

Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

2014-01-01

267

Shared structural features of the 9aaTAD family in complex with CBP.  

PubMed

A number of transactivation domains for transcription factors including p53, E2A/HEB, MLL, cMyb, CREB, FOXO3, Gcn4, Oaf1 and Pdr1 have been reported to interact with the KIX domain of general transcriptional mediators CBP, p300 or MED15. Most of those factors belong to the already established Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain (9aaTAD) family. By using available structural data, we found binding analogy for the 9aaTAD in the MLL-KIX and also E2A/HEB-KIX complexes. We recognized two distinct TAD formations in the KIX complex. In the E2A/HEB-KIX complex, the leucine position is determined by the prolonged helical structure including the 9aaTAD and the leucine (long-helical TAD). However in the MLL-KIX complex, the equal position of 9aaTAD and proximal leucine is achieved differently by leucine-turn-helix structural architecture. Furthermore, the FOXO3-KIX complex shares structural analogy with the E2A-KIX complex in respect of both 9aaTAD and proximal leucine. Next, from (i) sequence alignment of the identified 9aaTADs in p53, E2A/HEB and MLL proteins and (ii) the resolved structure of the MLL-KIX and E2A/HEB-KIX complexes, we generated a plausible structural model for p53 that could be used also for other members of the 9aaTAD family. The position of 9aaTADs in Oaf1-, Pdr1- and Gcn4-MED15 KIX complexes and 9aaTAD composition are in good agreement with E2A, MLL, FOXO3 and p53. Analyses of structural data in this study define fundamental structural requirements and shed more light on the ambiguous 9aaTAD domain. PMID:25564305

Piskacek, Martin; Vasku, Anna; Hajek, Roman; Knight, Andrea

2015-03-17

268

Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43 months)…

Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

2011-01-01

269

Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N-acetyl-glucosamine  

E-print Network

Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N-acetyl-glucosamine. A complex with the substrate analogue N-acetyl-glucosamine was refined to 2.25 A resolution, revealing by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Family 4 carbohydrate esterase; PdaA; N-Acetyl-glucosamine

van Aalten, Daan

270

How WASP-family proteins and the Arp2\\/3 complex convert intracellular signals into cytoskeletal structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most cells, the structure of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by Rho-family G proteins. Recent work has outlined a highly conserved signaling pathway from G protein activation to actin assembly. The key downstream components are WASP family proteins — adaptor molecules that bind multiple signaling and cytoskeletal proteins — and the Arp2\\/3 complex — a multi-functional protein complex that

R Dyche Mullins

2000-01-01

271

Accumulation of m, a structural member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes of perinatal myocytes  

E-print Network

Accumulation of m, a structural member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes of perinatal myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell in sarcoplasmic reticulum but is concen- trated in nuclear envelopes of both prenatal and postnatal skeletal

Brand, Paul H.

272

Substrate Specificity in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 10 STRUCTURAL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE STREPTOMYCES LIVIDANS XYLANASE 10A*  

E-print Network

OF THE STREPTOMYCES LIVIDANS XYLANASE 10A* Received for publication, January 7, 2000, and in revised form, March 24. The Streptomyces lividans xylanase Xyl10A is a family 10 enzyme, the native structure of which has previously been, shed new light on substrate specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 10. Endo-xylanases (EC 3

273

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

2012-01-01

274

Structural biology of the Bcl-2 family and its mimicry by viral proteins  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic apoptosis in mammals is regulated by protein–protein interactions among the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. The sequences, structures and binding specificity between pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins and their pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 motif only (BH3-only) protein antagonists are now well understood. In contrast, our understanding of the mode of action of Bax and Bak, the two necessary proteins for apoptosis is incomplete. Bax and Bak are isostructural with pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins and also interact with BH3-only proteins, albeit weakly. Two sites have been identified; the in-groove interaction analogous to the pro-survival BH3-only interaction and a site on the opposite molecular face. Interaction of Bax or Bak with activator BH3-only proteins and mitochondrial membranes triggers a series of ill-defined conformational changes initiating their oligomerization and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Many actions of the mammalian pro-survival Bcl-2 family are mimicked by viruses. By expressing proteins mimicking mammalian pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins, viruses neutralize death-inducing members of the Bcl-2 family and evade host cell apoptosis during replication. Remarkably, structural elements are preserved in viral Bcl-2 proteins even though there is in many cases little discernible sequence conservation with their mammalian counterparts. Some viral Bcl-2 proteins are dimeric, but they have distinct structures to those observed for mammalian Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, viral Bcl-2 proteins modulate innate immune responses regulated by NF-?B through an interface separate from the canonical BH3-binding groove. Our increasing structural understanding of the viral Bcl-2 proteins is leading to new insights in the cellular Bcl-2 network by exploring potential alternate functional modes in the cellular context. We compare the cellular and viral Bcl-2 proteins and discuss how alterations in their structure, sequence and binding specificity lead to differences in behavior, and together with the intrinsic structural plasticity in the Bcl-2 fold enable exquisite control over critical cellular signaling pathways. PMID:24201808

Kvansakul, M; Hinds, M G

2013-01-01

275

Structural and kinetic features of family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

In this paper, kinetic properties of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase of family I from Vibrio cholerae (V-PPase), intestinal pathogen and causative agent of human cholera, are characterized in detail, and the crystal structure of a metal-free enzyme is reported. Hydrolytic activity of V-PPase has been studied as a function of pH, concentration of metal cofactors (Mg2+ or Mn2+), and ionic strength. It has been found that, despite the high conservation of amino acid sequences for the known bacterial PPases of family I, V-PPase differs from the other enzymes of the same family in a number of parameters. Dissociation constants of V-PPase complexed with Mg2+ or Mn2+ were essentially the same as for Escherichia coli PPase (E-PPase). However, the pH optimum of MgPP(i) hydrolysis by V-PPase was shifted to more alkaline pH due to higher values of the pK(a) of ionizable groups for both the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex. The stability of a hexameric form of V-PPase has been studied as a function of pH. The corresponding pK(a) of a group that controls the stability of the hexamer at pH below 6 (pK(a) = 4.4) was significantly lower than in the other hexameric PPases. The crystal structure reported here is analyzed and compared with the structure of E-PPase. The location of amino acid residues that differ in V-PPase and E-PPase is discussed. Since V-PPase has been found to retain its hydrolytic activity in high ionic strength media, the observed structural and kinetic features are analyzed in view of the possible osmoadaptation of this protein. PMID:19747093

Rodina, E V; Samygina, V R; Vorobyeva, N N; Sitnik, T S; Kurilova, S A; Nazarova, T I

2009-07-01

276

Structure function analysis of serpin super-family: "a computational approach".  

PubMed

Serine Protease inhibitors (serpins) are a super-family of proteins that controls the proteinases involved in the inflammation, complementation, coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Serpins are prone to conformational diseases due to a complex inhibition mechanism that involves large scale conformational change, and their susceptibility to undergo point mutations might lead to functional defects. Serpins are associated with diseases like emphysema/cirrhosis, angioedema, familial dementia, chronic obstructive bronchitis and thrombosis. Serpin polymerization based pathologies are fairly widespread and devising a cure has been difficult due to lack of clarity regarding its mechanism. Serpin can exist in various conformational states and has a variable cofactor binding ability. It has a large genome and proteome database which can be utilized to gain critical insight into their structure, mechanism and defects. Comprehensive computational studies on the serpin family is lacking, most of the work done till date is limited and deals mostly with few individual serpins. We have tried to analyze few aspect of this family using diverse computational biology tools and have shown the following: a) the importance of residue burial linked shift in the conformational stability as a major factor in increasing the polymer propensity in serpins. b) Amino acids involved in the polymerization are in general completely buried in the native conformation. c) An isozyme specific antithrombin study showed the structural basis of improved heparin binding to beta antithrombin as compared to alpha-antithrombin. d) A comprehensive cavity analysis showed its importance in inhibition and polymerizaiton and finally e) an interface analysis of various serpin protease complexes identified critical evolutionary conserved residues in exosite that determines its protease specificity. This work introduces the problem and emphasizes on the need for in-depth computational studies of serpin superfamily. PMID:23855665

Singh, Poonam; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

2014-01-01

277

Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure

Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

2013-01-01

278

Structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors  

PubMed Central

Background The widespread protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. Among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ROPKs), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase ROP5. The extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood. Results In this study, we comprehensively catalogued the ROPK family in the genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Eimeria tenella, as well as portions of the unfinished genome of Sarcocystis neurona, and classified the identified genes into 42 distinct subfamilies. We systematically compared the rhoptry kinase protein sequences and structures to each other and to the broader superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases to study the patterns of diversification and neofunctionalization in the ROPK family and its subfamilies. We identified three ROPK sub-clades of particular interest: those bearing a structurally conserved N-terminal extension to the kinase domain (NTE), an E. tenella-specific expansion, and a basal cluster including ROP35 and BPK1 that we term ROPKL. Structural analysis in light of the solved structures ROP2, ROP5, ROP8 and in comparison to typical eukaryotic protein kinases revealed ROPK-specific conservation patterns in two key regions of the kinase domain, surrounding a ROPK-conserved insert in the kinase hinge region and a disulfide bridge in the kinase substrate-binding lobe. We also examined conservation patterns specific to the NTE-bearing clade. We discuss the possible functional consequences of each. Conclusions Our work sheds light on several important but previously unrecognized features shared among rhoptry kinases, as well as the essential differences between active and degenerate protein kinases. We identify the most distinctive ROPK-specific features conserved across both active kinases and pseudokinases, and discuss these in terms of sequence motifs, evolutionary context, structural impact and potential functional relevance. By characterizing the proteins that enable these parasites to invade the host cell and co-opt its signaling mechanisms, we provide guidance on potential therapeutic targets for the diseases caused by coccidian parasites. PMID:23742205

2013-01-01

279

Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters  

PubMed Central

An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed TA; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

2014-01-01

280

Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2013-01-31

281

New molecular structure offers first picture of a protein family vital to human health  

Cancer.gov

The 20 proteins in the Wnt family are some of the most important proteins in controlling how an organism develops and grows, but for 30 years scientists have not known what these vital proteins actually look like. The proteins have eluded standard visualization techniques, in large part because they do not dissolve well in the water-based liquids normally used for biochemical studies. But once a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and colleagues in his Stanford University School of Medicine lab thought of an approach to make the proteins behave better, they succeeded in solving the first structure of a Wnt protein.

282

Structure of MrsD, an FAD-binding protein of the HFCD family.  

PubMed

MrsD from Bacillus sp. HIL-Y85/54728 is a member of the HFCD (homo-oligomeric flavin-containing Cys decarboxylases) family of flavoproteins and is involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mersacidin. It catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of the C-terminal cysteine residue of the MrsA precursor peptide of mersacidin, yielding a (Z)-enethiol intermediate as the first step in the formation of the unusual amino acid S-[(Z)-2-aminovinyl]-methyl-D-cysteine. Surprisingly, MrsD was found to bind FAD, in contrast to the three other characterized members of the HFCD family, which bind FMN. To determine the molecular discriminators of FAD binding within the HFCD family, the crystal structure of MrsD was analyzed at a resolution of 2.54 A. Crystals of space group F432 contain one MrsD monomer in the asymmetric unit. However, a Patterson search with EpiD-derived models failed. Based on the consideration that the dodecameric MrsD particle of tetrahedral symmetry resembles the quaternary structure of EpiD, rotational and translational parameters were derived from the geometric consideration that the MrsD dodecamer is generated from a monomer by crystallographic symmetry around the position (1/4, 1/4, 1/4) of the unit cell. A structural comparison with the FMN-binding members of the HFCD family EpiD and AtHAL3a shows conserved sequence motifs in contact with the flavin's pyrimidine ring but divergent environments for the dimethylbenzene ring of the isoalloxazine moiety. The position of the ribityl chain differs in MrsD from that found in EpiD and AtHAL3a. However, the FMN-phosphate binding sites are also highly conserved in their exact positions. In all three cases, the flavin cofactor is bound to a structurally conserved region of the Rossmann-fold monomer, exposing its Re side for catalysis. The adenosyl phosphate of FAD is anchored in a well defined binding site and the adenosine moieties are oriented towards the interior of the hollow particle, where three of them pack against each other around the threefold axis of a trimeric facet. PMID:12876343

Blaesse, Michael; Kupke, Thomas; Huber, Robert; Steinbacher, Stefan

2003-08-01

283

The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

2011-01-01

284

Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

2014-11-10

285

Functional and Structural Divergence of an Unusual LTR Retrotransposon Family in Plants  

PubMed Central

Retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTRs) more than 3 kb are not frequent in most eukaryotic genomes. Rice LTR retrotransposon, Retrosat2, has LTRs greater than 3.2 kb and two open reading frames (ORF): ORF1 encodes enzymes for retrotransposition whereas no function can be assigned to ORF0 as it is not found in any other organism. A variety of experimental and in silico approaches were used to determine the origin of Retrosat2 and putative function of ORF0. Our data show that not only is Retrosat2 highly abundant in the Oryza genus, it may yet be active in rice. Homologs of Retrosat2 were identified in maize, sorghum, Arabidopsis and other plant genomes suggesting that the Retrosat2 family is of ancient origin. Several putatively cis-acting elements, some multicopy, that regulate retrotransposon replication or responsiveness to environmental factors were found in the LTRs of Retrosat2. Unlike the ORF1, the ORF0 sequences from Retrosat2 and homologs are divergent at the sequence level, 3D-structures and predicted biological functions. In contrast to other retrotransposon families, Retrosat2 and its homologs are dispersed throughout genomes and not concentrated in the specific chromosomal regions, such as centromeres. The genomic distribution of Retrosat2 homologs varies across species which likely reflects the differing evolutionary trajectories of this retrotransposon family across diverse species. PMID:23119066

Iwata, Aiko; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A.

2012-01-01

286

Intelligence and Family Marital Structure: The Case of Adolescents From Monogamous and Polygamous Families Among Bedouin Arabs in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of intelligence among Bedouin Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families living in the Negev region of Israel were examined. A shortened version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test (S. Elbedour, T. J. Bouchard, & Y. Hur, 1997; J. Raven, J. C. Raven, & J. H. Court, 1998) was used to assess intelligence. There were no significant

Salman Elbedour; William M. Bart; Joel Hektner

2003-01-01

287

The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

288

Effects of Parental Education Level and Economic Status on the Needs of Families of Hearing-Impaired Children in the Aural Rehabilitation Program  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The objectives of our study were to explore the information and support needs of parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and to investigate the effects of the parents’ level of education and economic status on the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing loss (53% girls, 47% boys; mean age 47.96 months) who used the Auditory-Verbal Therapy approach were asked to complete the parents’-needs questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information and hearing-loss history and covered six domains which evaluated the information or support needs of parents. Parental needs with regard to different domains were evaluated separately in all participants. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire with increasing level of education of the child’s parents (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the questionnaire score decreased as the parents’ economic status increased (P<0.0001). Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that most parents of hearing-impaired children need adequate and appropriate information in all domains, and these findings support the positive effect of creating an appropriate educational environment by considering individualized needs. Furthermore, parents’ levels of education and economic status have a significant effect on their parents’ needs. PMID:24303418

Eyalati, Nazanin; Jafari, Zahra; Ashayeri, Hassan; Salehi, Masoud; Kamali, Mohammad

2013-01-01

289

Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of a family 18 exo-chitinase  

PubMed Central

Chitinase B (ChiB) from Serratia marcescens is a family 18 exo-chitinase whose catalytic domain has a TIM-barrel fold with a tunnel-shaped active site. We have solved structures of three ChiB complexes that reveal details of substrate binding, substrate-assisted catalysis, and product displacement. The structure of an inactive ChiB mutant (E144Q) complexed with a pentameric substrate (binding in subsites ?2 to +3) shows closure of the “roof” of the active site tunnel. It also shows that the sugar in the ?1 position is distorted to a boat conformation, thus providing structural evidence in support of a previously proposed catalytic mechanism. The structures of the active enzyme complexed to allosamidin (an analogue of a proposed reaction intermediate) and of the active enzyme soaked with pentameric substrate show events after cleavage of the glycosidic bond. The latter structure shows reopening of the roof of the active site tunnel and enzyme-assisted product displacement in the +1 and +2 sites, allowing a water molecule to approach the reaction center. Catalysis is accompanied by correlated structural changes in the core of the TIM barrel that involve conserved polar residues whose functions were hitherto unknown. These changes simultaneously contribute to stabilization of the reaction intermediate and alternation of the pKa of the catalytic acid during the catalytic cycle. PMID:11481469

van Aalten, D. M. F.; Komander, D.; Synstad, B.; Gåseidnes, S.; Peter, M. G.; Eijsink, V. G. H.

2001-01-01

290

Variation of spectral, structural, and vibrational properties within the intrinsically fluorescent proteins family: a density functional study.  

PubMed

We report an extensive (time-dependent) density functional study of the whole series of the chromophores within the Intrinsically Fluorescent Protein family, in the relevant conformations and protonation states. Over 30 structures are considered, including three newly discovered chromophores (zFP, Kaede, and the Orange variant of DsRed). Ab initio calculations on selected structures are also performed in order to assess the performances of TDDFT along the family. The use of a uniform scheme for all structures allows to establish relationships between the absorption energy and electrostatic, structural or vibrational properties of the chromophores. PMID:17600852

Nifosí, Riccardo; Amat, Pietro; Tozzini, Valentina

2007-11-15

291

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

292

A class 2 weight assessment for the implementation of commonality and preliminary structural designs for the family of commuter airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of commonality objectives are determined. Commonality is discussed in terms of weight penalties that increase the take-off weight of several members of the family of airplanes. Preliminary designs of fuselage structural members and a discussion of weight penalties due to implementation of common fuselage structure throughout the family is examined. Wing torque box designs are discussed along with structural weight penalties incurred. A landing gear design study is contained along with the weight penalties that a common gear system will impose. Implementation of common power plants throughout the family and the weight penalties that occur are discussed. The weight penalties imposed by commonality on all the airplanes in the family are summarized. Class 2 breakdowns are also presented. The feasibility of commonality based on a percentage of take-off weight increase over the Class 2 baseline weights is then assessed.

Creighton, Tom; Dragush, George; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Oxendine, Charles; Remen, John; Robinson, Terry; Russell, Mark; Swift, Jerry

1987-01-01

293

The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-06-24

294

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-05-11

295

Two Crystal Structures of Bombyx mori Lipoprotein 3 - Structural Characterization of a New 30-kDa Lipoprotein Family Member  

PubMed Central

The 30-kDa family of lipoproteins from insect hemolymph has been the focus of a number of studies over the last few years. Recently, four crystal structures of Bombyx mori lipoprotein 7 have been determined. Here we report two crystal structures of another member of the 30-kDa lipoprotein family, Bombyx mori lipoprotein 3 (Bmlp3). The protein was isolated from its natural source, mulberry silkworm hemolymph. It crystallized in two different crystal forms, Bmlp3-p21 (space group P21) and Bmlp3-c2 (space group C2). The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement using the coordinates of Bmlp7 as a starting model. The crystals of Bmlp3-p21 diffracted X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution and of Bmlp3-c2 to 2.1 Å resolution. Bmlp3 has an overall fold characteristic of 30-kDa lipoproteins, with a VHS-type N-terminal domain and ?-trefoil C-terminal domain. Structural comparison of Bmlp3 and Bmlp7 shows that the loops present in the C-terminal domain are flexible and participate in dimer formation. Additionally, new putative binding sites of Bmlp3 have been analyzed in detail and the electrostatic potential of the protein surface at physiological pH 7.4 conditions has been calculated. The results of these calculations are the starting point for an explanation of the recently reported cell-penetrating properties of the 30-kDa lipoproteins. PMID:23613829

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Lochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

296

Snf2 family ATPases and DExx box helicases: differences and unifying concepts from high-resolution crystal structures  

PubMed Central

Proteins with sequence similarity to the yeast Snf2 protein form a large family of ATPases that act to alter the structure of a diverse range of DNA–protein structures including chromatin. Snf2 family enzymes are related in sequence to DExx box helicases, yet they do not possess helicase activity. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that the mechanism by which these enzymes act involves ATP-dependent translocation on DNA. Crystal structures suggest that these enzymes travel along the minor groove, a process that can generate the torque or energy in remodelling processes. We review the recent structural and biochemical findings which suggest a common mechanistic basis underlies the action of many of both Snf2 family and DExx box helicases. PMID:16935875

Dürr, Harald; Flaus, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

2006-01-01

297

Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979-2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the…

Sim, Timothy

2008-01-01

298

The UDP-Glucuronate Decarboxylase Gene Family in Populus: Structure, Expression, and Association Genetics  

PubMed Central

In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7) encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7), consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp) and nucleotide diversity (?T?=?0.01033, ?w?=?0.01280). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10) and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals), with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10) were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23613749

Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

2013-01-01

299

The UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase gene family in Populus: structure, expression, and association genetics.  

PubMed

In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7) encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7), consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp) and nucleotide diversity (?T?=?0.01033, ?w?=?0.01280). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r (2)<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10) and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals), with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10) were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23613749

Du, Qingzhang; Pan, Wei; Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

2013-01-01

300

Structural recognition of DNA by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-like zinc finger families.  

PubMed

PARP-like zinc fingers (zf-PARPs) are protein domains apt to the recognition of multiple DNA secondary structures. They were initially described as the DNA-binding, nick-sensor domains of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs). It now appears that zf-PARPs are evolutionary conserved in the eukaryotic lineage and associated with various enzymes implicated in nucleic acid transactions. In the present study, we discuss the functional and structural data of zf-PARPSs in the light of a comparative analysis of the protein family. Sequence and structural analyses allow the definition of the conserved features of the zf-PARP domain and the identification of five distinct phylogenetic groups. Differences among the groups accumulate on the putative DNA binding surface of the PARP zinc-finger fold. These observations suggest that different zf-PARP types have distinctive recognition properties for DNA secondary structures. A comparison of various functional studies confirms that the different finger types can accomplish a selective recognition of DNA structures. PMID:18215166

Petrucco, Stefania; Percudani, Riccardo

2008-03-01

301

Socialization or Social Structure: Investigating Predictors of Attitudes toward Filial Responsibility among Chinese Urban Youth from One- And Multiple-Child Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the influence of familial and social factors on the maturing cohort of China's one-child generation students' attitudes toward filial responsibilities. Based on survey data collected in 1997 and 1998 among 777 Chinese young adults, this research found that family economic conditions had a significant impact on young adults'…

Zhan, Heying Jenny

2004-01-01

302

Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages  

PubMed Central

Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the “stability profiles” of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world. PMID:23028843

Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

303

Comparative Study on Sequence–Structure–Function Relationship of the Human Short-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases Protein Family  

PubMed Central

Human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) protein family has been the subject of recent studies for its critical role in human metabolism. Studies also found that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SDR protein family were responsible for a variety of genetic diseases, including type II diabetes. This study reports the effect of sequence variation on the structural and functional integrities of human SDR protein family using phylogenetics and correlated mutation analysis tools. Our results indicated that (i) tyrosine, serine, and lysine are signature protein residues that have direct contribution to the structural and functional stabilities of the SDR protein family, (ii) subgroups of SDR protein family have their own signature protein combination that represent their unique functionality, and (iii) mutations of the human SDR protein family showed high correlation in terms of evolutionary history. In combination, the results inferred that over evolutionary history, the SDR protein family was able to diverge itself in order to adapt with the changes in human nutritional demands. Our study reveals understanding of structural and functional scaffolds of specific SDR subgroups that may facilitate the design of specific inhibitor. PMID:25374450

Tang, Nu Thi Ngoc; Le, Ly

2014-01-01

304

A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.  

PubMed

The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

Carder, M

1974-01-01

305

A Content Analysis of the Family Structure in Children's Literature for the Periods between 1955-1970 and 1980-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the family structure has changed over time in contemporary realistic children's literature for middle readers. There is an ongoing debate in this country about what defines a family and whether it is in transformation or becoming extinct. Since 1960 there is evidence that the family structure has changed. The books selected in…

Gallo, Erminia Mina

306

Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken  

PubMed Central

Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34) and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development. Recently, PTH-like peptide (PTH-L) was identified in teleost fish raising questions about the evolution of these proteins. Although PTH and PTHrP have been intensively studied in mammals their function in other vertebrates is poorly documented. Amphibians and birds occupy unique phylogenetic positions, the former at the transition of aquatic to terrestrial life and the latter at the transition to homeothermy. Moreover, both organisms have characteristics indicative of a complex system in calcium regulation. This study investigated PTH family evolution in vertebrates with special emphasis on Xenopus and chicken. Results The PTH-L gene is present throughout the vertebrates with the exception of placental mammals. Gene structure of PTH and PTH-L seems to be conserved in vertebrates while PTHrP gene structure is divergent and has acquired new exons and alternative promoters. Splice variants of PTHrP and PTH-L are common in Xenopus and chicken and transcripts of the former have a widespread tissue distribution, although PTH-L is more restricted. PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland. The N-terminal (1-34) region of PTH, PTHrP and PTH-L in Xenopus and chicken share high sequence conservation and the capacity to modify calcium fluxes across epithelia suggesting a conserved role in calcium metabolism possibly via similar receptors. Conclusions The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L. In teleosts there are 5 genes which encode PTHrP (2), PTH (2) and PTH-L and in tetrapods there are 3 genes (PTHrP, PTH and PTH-L), the exception is placental mammals which have 2 genes and lack PTH-L. It is hypothesized that genes of the PTH family appeared at approximately the same time during the vertebrate radiation and evolved via gene duplication/deletion events. PTH-L was lost from the genome of eutherian mammals and PTH, which has a paracrine distribution in lower vertebrates, became the product of a specific endocrine tissue in Amphibia, the parathyroid gland. The PTHrP gene organisation diverged and became more complex in vertebrates and retained its widespread tissue distribution which is congruent with its paracrine nature. PMID:21122104

2010-01-01

307

Changing Economics in the South: Preparing Our Youth. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Nashville, TN, April 24, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met in Nashville, Tennessee, to gather information on the education and employment futures of youth in the South. Testimony was heard from experts in education, training, and economic development. Organizations represented included universities in the region, adolescent dropout and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

308

Investing in Human Capital. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (26th, San Francisco, California, November 13-15, 1986). Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings consist of 13 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or discussant comments. The papers include "Comparable Worth: Pay Equity or Road to Ruin?" (Ferber; discussants Braconi, Zick); "Measuring Financial Satisfaction" (Davis; discussant Lown); "Can Tools for Regional Economics Be Used to Assess the Export of Family

Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

309

The XMAP215 family drives microtubule polymerization using a structurally diverse TOG array  

PubMed Central

XMAP215 family members are potent microtubule (MT) polymerases, with mutants displaying reduced MT growth rates and aberrant spindle morphologies. XMAP215 proteins contain arrayed tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains that bind tubulin. Whether these TOG domains are architecturally equivalent is unknown. Here we present crystal structures of TOG4 from Drosophila Msps and human ch-TOG. These TOG4 structures architecturally depart from the structures of TOG domains 1 and 2, revealing a conserved domain bend that predicts a novel engagement with ?-tubulin. In vitro assays show differential tubulin-binding affinities across the TOG array, as well as differential effects on MT polymerization. We used Drosophila S2 cells depleted of endogenous Msps to assess the importance of individual TOG domains. Whereas a TOG1-4 array largely rescues MT polymerization rates, mutating tubulin-binding determinants in any single TOG domain dramatically reduces rescue activity. Our work highlights the structurally diverse yet positionally conserved TOG array that drives MT polymerization. PMID:24966168

Fox, Jaime C.; Howard, Amy E.; Currie, Joshua D.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Slep, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

310

The structure and mode of action of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase in biomass deconstruction.  

PubMed

The unique active site of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase catalytic module (PL3-cat) has been structurally described and synergistic digestion studies with C. bescii cellulase A have been performed on unpretreated biomass. The X-ray structure of PL3-cat was determined at 1.6 Å resolution (PDB entry 4ew9) in complex with the products of trigalacturonic acid. Comparison with family 1 pectate lyase (PL1) structures shows that the active site of the PL3 catalytic module is considerably different. However, on superimposing the identical sugar rings at the -2 subsites conserved interactions could be identified. Interestingly, only one catalytic residue, the lysine that donates the proton to the carboxylate group in the ?-elimination reaction of PL1 (Lys108 in PL3-cat), is conserved in PL3 and there is no arginine to abstract the proton from the C5 carbon of the galactouronate ring. This suggests that the reaction mechanism of PL3 requires different catalytic residues. Most interestingly, comparison with other proton-abstraction reactions reveals that in PL3 the ?-proton is abstracted by a lysine, in a striking similarity to enolases. These observations led us to propose that in PL3-cat Lys108 is the catalytic base, Glu84 is the catalytic acid and an acidified water molecule completes the anti ?-elimination reaction by protonating the O4 atom of the substrate. Also, our digestion experiments with unpretreated switchgrass show that the loadings of C. bescii cellobiohydrolase A (CelA) can be lowered by the addition of PL3 to the reaction mixture. This result suggests that PL3 can significantly improve the deconstruction of unpretreated biomass by allowing other enzymes to better access their preferred substrates. PMID:23519661

Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Chandrayan, Puja; Kataeva, Irina; Adams, Michael W W; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V

2013-04-01

311

Boxy/peanut `bulges': comparing the structure of galaxies with the underlying families of periodic orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical profiles of disc galaxies are built by the material trapped around stable periodic orbits, which form their `skeletons'. Therefore, knowledge of the stability of the main families of periodic orbits in appropriate 3D models enables one to predict possible morphologies for edge-on disc galaxies. In a pilot survey we compare the orbital structures that lead to the appearance of `peanut'- and `X'-like features with the edge-on profiles of three disc galaxies (IC 2531, NGC 4013 and UGC 2048). The subtraction from the images of a model representing the axisymmetric component of the galaxies reveals the contribution of the non-axisymmetric terms. We find a direct correspondence between the orbital profiles of 3D bars in models and the observed main morphological features of the residuals. We also apply a simple unsharp masking technique in order to study the sharpest features of the images. Our basic conclusion is that the morphology of the boxy `bulges' of these galaxies can be explained by considering disc material trapped around stable 3D periodic orbits. In most models, these building-block periodic orbits are bifurcated from the planar central family of a non-axisymmetric component, usually a bar, at low-order vertical resonances. In such a case, the boxy `bulges' are parts of bars seen edge-on. For the three galaxies we study, the families associated with the `peanut' or `X'-shape morphology are probably bifurcations at the vertical 2/1 or 4/1 resonance.

Patsis, P. A.; Xilouris, E. M.

2006-03-01

312

Boxy/peanut "bulges": comparing the structure of galaxies with the underlying families of periodic orbits  

E-print Network

The vertical profiles of disc galaxies are built by the material trapped around stable periodic orbits, which form their "skeletons". According to this, the knowledge of the stability of the main families of periodic orbits in appropriate 3D models, can predict possible morphologies for edge-on disc galaxies. In a pilot survey we compare the orbital structures which lead to the appearance of "peanuts" and "X"-like features with the edge-on profiles of three disc galaxies (IC 2531, NGC 4013 and UGC 2048). The subtraction from the images of a model representing the axisymmetric component of the galaxies reveals the contribution of the non-axisymmetric terms. We find a direct correspondence between the orbital profiles of 3D bars in models and the observed main morphological features of the residuals. We also apply a simple unsharp masking technique in order to study the sharpest features of the images. Our basic conclusion is that the morphology of the boxy "bulges" of these galaxies can be explained by considering disc material trapped around stable 3D periodic orbits. In most models these building-blocks periodic orbits are bifurcated from the planar central family of a non-axisymmetric component, usually a bar, at low order vertical resonances. In such a case the boxy "bulges" are parts of bars seen edge-on. For the three galaxies we study the families associated with the "peanut" or "X"-shape morphology are most probably bifurcations at the vertical 2/1 or 4/1 resonance.

P. A. Patsis; E. M. Xilouris

2005-12-09

313

On the Analytic Structure of a Family of Hyperboloidal Beams of Potential Interest for Advanced LIGO  

E-print Network

For the baseline design of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), use of optical cavities with non-spherical mirrors supporting flat-top ("mesa") beams, potentially capable of mitigating the thermal noise of the mirrors, has recently drawn a considerable attention. To reduce the severe tilt-instability problems affecting the originally conceived nearly-flat, "Mexican-hat-shaped" mirror configuration, K. S. Thorne proposed a nearly-concentric mirror configuration capable of producing the same mesa beam profile on the mirror surfaces. Subsequently, Bondarescu and Thorne introduced a generalized construction that leads to a one-parameter family of "hyperboloidal" beams which allows continuous spanning from the nearly-flat to the nearly-concentric mesa beam configurations. This paper is concerned with a study of the analytic structure of the above family of hyperboloidal beams. Capitalizing on certain results from the applied optics literature on flat-top beams, a physically-insightful and computationally-effective representation is derived in terms of rapidly-converging Gauss-Laguerre expansions. Moreover, the functional relation between two generic hyperboloidal beams is investigated. This leads to a generalization (involving fractional Fourier transform operators of complex order) of some recently discovered duality relations between the nearly-flat and nearly-concentric mesa configurations. Possible implications and perspectives for the advanced LIGO optical cavity design are discussed.

Vincenzo Galdi; Giuseppe Castaldi; Vincenzo Pierro; Innocenzo M. Pinto; Juri Agresti; Erika D'Ambrosio; Riccardo DeSalvo

2006-02-20

314

Structure-Function Analysis of the Bestrophin Family of Anion Channels*  

PubMed Central

The bestrophins are a newly described family of anion channels unrelated in primary sequence to any previously characterized channel proteins. The human genome codes for four bestrophins, each of which confers a distinctive plasma membrane conductance on transfected 293 cells. Extracellular treatment with methanethiosulfonate ethyltrimethylammonium (MTSET) of a series of substitution mutants that eliminate one or more cysteines from human bestrophin1 demonstrates that cysteine 69 is the single endogenous cysteine responsible for MTSET inhibition of whole-cell current. Cysteines introduced between positions 78–99 and 223–226 are also accessible to external MTSET, with MTSET modification at positions 79, 80, 83, and 90 producing a 2–6-fold increase in whole-cell current. The latter set of four cysteine-substitution mutants define a region that appears to mediate allosteric control of channel activity. Mapping of transmembrane topography by insertion of N-linked glycosylation sites and tobacco etch virus protease cleavage sites provides evidence for cytosolic N and C termini and an unexpected transmembrane topography with at least three extracellular loops that include positions 60–63, 212–227, and 261–267. These experiments provide the first structural analysis of the bestrophin channel family. PMID:12907679

Tsunenari, Takashi; Sun, Hui; Williams, John; Cahill, Hugh; Smallwood, Philip; Yau, King-Wai; Nathans, Jeremy

2010-01-01

315

Observations of families in structured interactions: Parenting therapists provide reliable ratings of mothers’ parenting  

PubMed Central

The reliability of observations of parenting by parenting therapists was assessed. An important predictor of externalizing behavior in children is quality of parenting. Data were videotapes of structured interactions in families with a child age 8–12 years referred to the evidence based Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) treatment program for child behavior problems. The therapists had clinical PMTO training but no training in systematic observation. PMTO observational coders with specific coder training were included as a reference for the therapists. Five therapists and two coders observed videotapes of 10 families and performed global evaluations of mothers’ parenting skills. They used the coder’s impression measure used in PMTO research. Scores were analyzed in a generalizability theory framework for the two groups of observers separately. Both observer types reliably rank-ordered the mothers and assessed the level of parenting skills. PMTO therapists without coder training provided reliable ratings of parenting constructs relevant to the clinical PMTO program in a manner comparable to that of the trained reference coders. PMID:24237459

Storå, Bent; Hagtvet, Knut A; Heyerdahl, Sonja

2014-01-01

316

Nectin family of cell-adhesion molecules: structural and molecular aspects of function and specificity.  

PubMed

Cell-cell adhesive processes are central to the physiology of multicellular organisms. A number of cell surface molecules contribute to cell-cell adhesion, and the dysfunction of adhesive processes underlies numerous developmental defects and inherited diseases. The nectins, a family of four immunoglobulin superfamily members (nectin-1 to -4), interact through their extracellular domains to support cell-cell adhesion. While both homophilic and heterophilic interactions among the nectins are implicated in cell-cell adhesion, cell-based and biochemical studies suggest heterophilic interactions are stronger than homophilic interactions and control a range of physiological processes. In addition to interactions within the nectin family, heterophilic associations with nectin-like molecules, immune receptors, and viral glycoproteins support a wide range of biological functions, including immune modulation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion. We review current structural and molecular knowledge of nectin recognition processes, with a focus on the biochemical and biophysical determinants of affinity and selectivity that drive distinct nectin associations. These proteins and interactions are discussed as potential targets for immunotherapy. PMID:25326769

Samanta, Dibyendu; Almo, Steven C

2015-02-01

317

Structural Features and Biological Properties of Ellagitannins in Some Plant Families of the Order Myrtales  

PubMed Central

Plant tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed varieties, are well known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits. Their diverse biological properties and potential for disease prevention have been demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo assays. A number of ellagitannins, the largest group of hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from dicotyledoneous angiosperms and characterized. This diverse class of tannins is sub-grouped into simple ellagitannins, C-glycosidic ellagitannins, complex tannins (condensates of C-glycosidic tannins with flavan-3-ol), and oligomers up to pentamers. This review outlines and describes the chemotaxonomic significance of structural features in various types of ellagitannins found in plants belonging to the Myrtaceae, Onagraceae, and Melastomataceae families, which are all included in the order Myrtales. Any biological activities that have been reported, including antitumor and antibacterial effects as well as enzyme inhibition, are also reviewed. PMID:20162003

Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio

2010-01-01

318

The structure of MESD45-184 brings light into the mechanism of LDLR family folding.  

PubMed

Mesoderm development (MESD) is a 224 amino acid mouse protein that acts as a molecular chaperone for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Here, we provide evidence that the region 45-184 of MESD is essential and sufficient for this function and suggest a model for its mode of action. NMR studies reveal a ?-?-?-?-?-? core domain with an ?-helical N-terminal extension that interacts with the ? sheet in a dynamic manner. As a result, the structural ensemble contains open (active) and closed (inactive) forms, allowing for regulation of chaperone activity through substrate binding. The mutant W61R, which is lethal in Drosophila, adopts only the open state. The receptor motif recognized by MESD was identified by in vitro-binding studies. Furthermore, in vivo functional evidence for the relevance of the identified contact sites in MESD is provided. PMID:21397185

Köhler, Christian; Lighthouse, Janet K; Werther, Tobias; Andersen, Olav M; Diehl, Annette; Schmieder, Peter; Du, Jianguang; Holdener, Bernadette C; Oschkinat, Hartmut

2011-03-01

319

New crystal structural families of lanthanide chloride alcohol/water complexes  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of lanthanide chloride compounds as possible scintillation materials for gamma ray and neutron detection has led to the discovery of several new families of crystal structures with the general formula LnCl3(CH3OH)x(H2O)y. The specific crystal structure depends on the water/methanol content and lanthanide ion. The coordination of the light (large) lanthanides is the typical value of 8 and reduces to 7 for the heavier (small) lanthanides. The binding energy of water versus alcohol ligands is comparable, so that if water is present in the system, it is typically incorporated as a ligand in the crystal. In these crystals, the molecular adducts occur as monomers, dimers, and dichloro-bridged chains. These, in turn, form 3-D frameworks through H-bonds to the Cl atoms. Other distinct crystal structures are predicted, given the volume changes due to the lanthanide contraction, the water content of the crystal growth solutions, and the specific halide.

Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

2012-01-01

320

Structural Basis for WDR5 Interaction (Win) Motif Recognition in Human SET1 Family Histone Methyltransferases*  

PubMed Central

Translocations and amplifications of the mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) gene are associated with aggressive myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias in humans. MLL1 is a member of the SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases, which are required for transcription of genes involved in hematopoiesis and development. MLL1 associates with a subcomplex containing WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30 (WRAD), which together form the MLL1 core complex that is required for sequential mono- and dimethylation of H3K4. We previously demonstrated that WDR5 binds the conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif of MLL1 in vitro, an interaction that is required for the H3K4 dimethylation activity of the MLL1 core complex. In this investigation, we demonstrate that arginine 3765 of the MLL1 Win motif is required to co-immunoprecipitate WRAD from mammalian cells, suggesting that the WDR5-Win motif interaction is important for the assembly of the MLL1 core complex in vivo. We also demonstrate that peptides that mimic SET1 family Win motif sequences inhibit H3K4 dimethylation by the MLL1 core complex with varying degrees of efficiency. To understand the structural basis for these differences, we determined structures of WDR5 bound to six different naturally occurring Win motif sequences at resolutions ranging from 1.9 to 1.2 ?. Our results reveal that binding energy differences result from interactions between non-conserved residues C-terminal to the Win motif and to a lesser extent from subtle variation of residues within the Win motif. These results highlight a new class of methylation inhibitors that may be useful for the treatment of MLL1-related malignancies. PMID:22665483

Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Patel, Anamika; Skalnik, David G.; Cosgrove, Michael S.

2012-01-01

321

Work-family conflict in context: The impact of structural and perceived neighborhood disadvantage on work-family conflict.  

PubMed

Despite increasing levels of work-family conflict (WFC) among North Americans, few scholars examine the broader contexts in which these conflicts occur. I address this gap by examining how the neighborhood of residence impacts WFC, with a focus on social inequality and disadvantage across neighborhoods. I hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage may impact WFC directly-by introducing ambient stressors that inhibit individuals from successfully balancing competing domain demands, and indirectly-by undermining the psychological resources that would combat the harmful effects of disadvantaged contexts. Using individual and census-level data from Canada, I consider both objective and subjective measures of neighborhood disadvantage and find that, overall, individuals in more disadvantaged neighborhoods are worse off because these contexts increase WFC, while reducing the psychological resources that would otherwise buffer these deleterious effects. However, some of these associations vary by gender. I discuss the broader implications of these findings for neighborhood effects and WFC research. PMID:25592939

Young, Marisa

2015-03-01

322

Structural and Functional Analysis of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 97 Enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron*  

PubMed Central

SusB, an 84-kDa ?-glucoside hydrolase involved in the starch utilization system (sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 97. We have determined the enzymatic characteristics and the crystal structures in free and acarbose-bound form at 1.6Å resolution. SusB hydrolyzes the ?-glucosidic linkage, with inversion of anomeric configuration liberating the ?-anomer of glucose as the reaction product. The substrate specificity of SusB, hydrolyzing not only ?-1,4-glucosidic linkages but also ?-1,6-, ?-1,3-, and ?-1,2-glucosidic linkages, is clearly different from other well known glucoamylases belonging to GH15. The structure of SusB was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method with sulfur atoms as anomalous scatterers using an in-house x-ray source. SusB includes three domains as follows: the N-terminal, catalytic, and C-terminal domains. The structure of the SusB-acarbose complex shows a constellation of carboxyl groups at the catalytic center; Glu532 is positioned to provide protonic assistance to leaving group departure, with Glu439 and Glu508 both positioned to provide base-catalyzed assistance for inverting nucleophilic attack by water. A structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed significant similarity between the catalytic domain of SusB and those of ?-retaining glycoside hydrolases belonging to GH27, -36, and -31 despite the differences in catalytic mechanism. SusB and the other retaining enzymes appear to have diverged from a common ancestor and individually acquired the functional carboxyl groups during the process of evolution. Furthermore, sequence comparison of the active site based on the structure of SusB indicated that GH97 included both retaining and inverting enzymes. PMID:18981178

Kitamura, Momoyo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Mori, Haruhide; Kitago, Yu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Atsuo; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

2008-01-01

323

Parental Division of Labor, Coordination, and the Effects of Family Structure on Parenting in Monogamous Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)  

PubMed Central

Family relationships help shape species-typical social and emotional development, but our understanding of how this shaping occurs is still relatively limited. Prairie voles are a socially monogamous and biparental species that is well situated to complement traditional animal models, such as rats and mice, in investigating the effects of family experience. In this series of studies, we aimed to test hypotheses relating to how prairie vole families function under undisturbed, standard laboratory conditions. In the first study, we compared the parental behavior of primiparous biparental (BP) and single-mother (SM) prairie vole family units for 12 postnatal days and then tested for sex differences, behavioral coordination, and family structure effects. Under BP conditions, nest attendance was coordinated and shared equally by both sexes, while pup-directed and partner-directed licking and grooming (LG) were coordinated in a sex and social-context-dependent manner. Contrary to our expectations, SMs showed no evidence of strong parental compensation in response to the lack of the father, indicating a minimal effect of family structure on maternal behavior but a large effect on pup care. In the second study, we examined the effects of these BP and SM rearing conditions on family dynamics in the next generation and found that SM-reared adult parents exhibited lower rates of pup-directed LG in comparison to BP-reared counterparts. Situated in the context of human family dynamics and psychology, these results suggest that the study in prairie voles may help improve our understanding of family systems and how perturbations to these systems can affect adults and offspring. PMID:20945408

Hammock, Elizabeth A.D.; Young, Larry J.

2011-01-01

324

Parental division of labor, coordination, and the effects of family structure on parenting in monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Family relationships help shape species-typical social and emotional development, but our understanding of how this shaping occurs is still relatively limited. Prairie voles are a socially monogamous and biparental species that is well situated to complement traditional animal models, such as rats and mice, in investigating the effects of family experience. In this series of studies, we aimed to test hypotheses relating to how prairie vole families function under undisturbed, standard laboratory conditions. In the first study, we compared the parental behavior of primiparous biparental (BP) and single-mother (SM) prairie vole family units for 12 postnatal days and then tested for sex differences, behavioral coordination, and family structure effects. Under BP conditions, nest attendance was coordinated and shared equally by both sexes, while pup-directed and partner-directed licking and grooming (LG) were coordinated in a sex and social-context-dependent manner. Contrary to our expectations, SMs showed no evidence of strong parental compensation in response to the lack of the father, indicating a minimal effect of family structure on maternal behavior but a large effect on pup care. In the second study, we examined the effects of these BP and SM rearing conditions on family dynamics in the next generation and found that SM-reared adult parents exhibited lower rates of pup-directed LG in comparison to BP-reared counterparts. Situated in the context of human family dynamics and psychology, these results suggest that the study in prairie voles may help improve our understanding of family systems and how perturbations to these systems can affect adults and offspring. PMID:20945408

Ahern, Todd H; Hammock, Elizabeth A D; Young, Larry J

2011-03-01

325

Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation analysis and structure-function correlation in an Omani arab family with familial hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder typified by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Previously, we reported a novel mutation in the exon-3 of LDLR gene, observed in a 9-year-old Omani Arab female. Here, we investigated the mode of inheritance of this mutation and confirmed that FH in this family is due to mutation only in the LDLR and not PCSK9 and ApoB genes. Further, the effect of the mutation has been appraised in silico on the tertiary structure of LDLR. A model of the mutant LDLR has been constructed using the coordinates of the wild-type LDLR extracellular domain. Based on the model, we present a mechanistic justification behind the observed detrimental effect of the mutation on LDL-C levels. PMID:24249837

Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zidi, Ward Al-Muna; Al-Abri, Abdul Rahim; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al-Tobi, Sheikha; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Zadjali, Fahad; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Banerjee, Yajnavalka

2014-11-01

326

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

327

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

328

FixingTIM: interactive exploration of sequence and structural data to identify functional mutations in protein families  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the 3D structure and functionality of proteins can lead to insight into the associated cellular processes, speed up the creation of pharmaceutical products, and develop drugs that are more effective in combating disease. Methods We present the design and implementation of a visual mining and analysis tool to help identify protein mutations across a family of structural models and to help discover the effect of these mutations on protein function. We integrate 3D structure and sequence information in a common visual interface; multiple linked views and a computational backbone allow comparison at the molecular and atomic levels, while a novel trend-image visual abstraction allows for the sorting and mining of large collections of sequences and of their residues. Results We evaluate our approach on the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) family structural models and sequence data and show that our tool provides an effective, scalable way to navigate a family of proteins, as well as a means to inspect the structure and sequence of individual proteins. Conclusions The TIM application shows that our tool can assist in the navigation of families of proteins, as well as in the exploration of individual protein structures. In conjunction with domain expert knowledge, this interactive tool can help provide biophysical insight into why specific mutations affect function and potentially suggest additional modifications to the protein that could be used to rescue functionality. PMID:25237390

2014-01-01

329

Novel structural features in the GMC family of oxidoreductases revealed by the crystal structure of fungal aryl-alcohol oxidase.  

PubMed

Lignin biodegradation, a key step in carbon recycling in land ecosystems, is carried out by white-rot fungi through an H(2)O(2)-dependent process defined as enzymatic combustion. Pleurotus eryngii is a selective lignin-degrading fungus that produces H(2)O(2) during redox cycling of p-anisylic compounds involving the secreted flavoenzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). Here, the 2.4 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of this oxidoreductase, which catalyzes dehydrogenation reactions on various primary polyunsaturated alcohols, yielding the corresponding aldehydes, is reported. The AAO crystal structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction of a selenomethionine derivative obtained by Escherichia coli expression and in vitro folding. This monomeric enzyme is composed of two domains, the overall folding of which places it into the GMC (glucose-methanol-choline oxidase) oxidoreductase family, and a noncovalently bound FAD cofactor. However, two additional structural elements exist in the surroundings of its active site that modulate the access of substrates; these are absent in the structure of the model GMC oxidoreductase glucose oxidase. The folding of these novel elements gives rise to a funnel-like hydrophobic channel that connects the solvent region to the buried active-site cavity of AAO. This putative active-site cavity is located in front of the re side of the FAD isoalloxazine ring and near two histidines (His502 and His546) that could contribute to alcohol activation as catalytic bases. Moreover, three aromatic side chains from two phenylalanines (Phe397 and Phe502) and one tyrosine (Tyr92) at the inner region of the channel form an aromatic gate that may regulate the access of the enzyme substrates to the active site as well as contribute to the recognition of the alcohols that can effectively be oxidized by AAO. PMID:19923715

Fernández, Israel S; Ruíz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Santillana, Elena; Ferreira, Patricia; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T; Romero, Antonio

2009-11-01

330

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

331

Crystal Structures of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 20 Lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum *  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-? resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a ?2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near 4E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a 4C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed. PMID:23479733

Ito, Tasuku; Katayama, Takane; Hattie, Mitchell; Sakurama, Haruko; Wada, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ashida, Hisashi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Stubbs, Keith A.; Fushinobu, Shinya

2013-01-01

332

Serotype-Specific Structural Differences in the Protease-Cofactor Complexes of the Dengue Virus Family  

SciTech Connect

With an estimated 40% of the world population at risk, dengue poses a significant threat to human health, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Preventative and curative efforts, such as vaccine development and drug discovery, face additional challenges due to the occurrence of four antigenically distinct serotypes of the causative dengue virus (DEN1 to -4). Complex immune responses resulting from repeat assaults by the different serotypes necessitate simultaneous targeting of all forms of the virus. One of the promising targets for drug development is the highly conserved two-component viral protease NS2B-NS3, which plays an essential role in viral replication by processing the viral precursor polyprotein into functional proteins. In this paper, we report the 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of the DEN1 NS2B hydrophilic core (residues 49 to 95) in complex with the NS3 protease domain (residues 1 to 186) carrying an internal deletion in the N terminus (residues 11 to 20). While the overall folds within the protease core are similar to those of DEN2 and DEN4 proteases, the conformation of the cofactor NS2B is dramatically different from those of other flaviviral apoprotease structures. The differences are especially apparent within its C-terminal region, implicated in substrate binding. The structure reveals for the first time serotype-specific structural elements in the dengue virus family, with the reported alternate conformation resulting from a unique metal-binding site within the DEN1 sequence. We also report the identification of a 10-residue stretch within NS3pro that separates the substrate-binding function from the catalytic turnover rate of the enzyme. Implications for broad-spectrum drug discovery are discussed.

Chandramouli, Sumana; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Daudenarde, Sophie; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Kuhn, Peter (Scripps)

2010-03-04

333

Canadian Portrait of Changes in Family Structure and Preschool Children's Behavioral Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas US-based data have contributed to our understanding of family composition changes over the last decades, data on Canadian families are limited, and previous studies have stressed the need for in depth, longitudinal investigations. This article begins to fill this gap in the literature by providing a current and detailed portrait of family

Gosselin, Julie; Romano, Elisa; Bell, Tessa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Hudon-ven der Buhs, Isabelle; Gagné, Annie; Gosselin, Natasha

2014-01-01

334

Social Structure and Black Family Life: An Analysis of Current Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crisis of the Black family is actually the crisis of the Black male and his inability to carry out the normative responsibilities of husband and father in the nuclear family. The family's disintegration is a symptom of the institutional decimation of Black males, the legacy of institutional racism. (LHW)

Staples, Robert

1987-01-01

335

Families: An Expanding Role for Professional Counselors. Proceedings of the Conference (San Antonio, Texas, February 1-3, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers from a conference which targeted the needs and interests of counselors working with families. Individual papers in the book include: (1) "Economic, Social and Political Influences on Families" (Lynda Henley Walters); (2) "Family Structures and Stresses: A Counseling Perspective" (Edwin Herr); (3) "Cultural Diversity…

Cohen, George M.; And Others

336

The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

2014-11-01

337

Functional Proteomic And Structural Insights Into Molecular Recognition in the Nitrilase Family Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Nitrilases are a large and diverse family of nonpeptidic C-N hydrolases. The mammalian genome encodes eight nitrilase enzymes, several of which remain poorly characterized. Prominent among these are nitrilase-1 (Nit1) and nitrilase-2 (Nit2), which, despite having been shown to exert effects on cell growth and possibly serving as tumor suppressor genes, are without known substrates or selective inhibitors. In previous studies, we identified several nitrilases, including Nit1 and Nit2, as targets for dipeptide-chloroacetamide activity-based proteomics probes. Here, we have used these probes, in combination with high-resolution crystallography and molecular modeling, to systematically map the active site of Nit2 and identify residues involved in molecular recognition. We report the 1.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of mouse Nit2 and use this structure to identify residues that discriminate probe labeling between the Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes. Interestingly, some of these residues are conserved across all vertebrate Nit2 enzymes and, conversely, not found in any vertebrate Nit1 enzymes, suggesting that they are key discriminators of molecular recognition between these otherwise highly homologous enzymes. Our findings thus point to a limited set of active site residues that establish distinct patterns of molecular recognition among nitrilases and provide chemical probes to selectively perturb the function of these enzymes in biological systems.

Barglow, K.T.; Saikatendu, K.; Bracey, M.H.; Huey, R.; Morris, G.M.; Olson, A.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Cravatt, B.F.

2009-05-11

338

Structure and function of a peptide pheromone family that stimulate the vomeronasal sensory system in mice.  

PubMed

Mammals use pheromones to communicate with other animals of the same species. In mice, the VNO (vomeronasal organ) has a pivotal role in pheromone detection. We discovered a 7 kDa peptide, ESP1 (exocrine-gland-secreting peptide 1), in tear fluids from male mice that enhances the sexual behaviour of female mice via the VNO. NMR studies demonstrate that ESP1 adopts a compact structure with a helical fold stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Functional analysis in combination with docking simulation indicates that ESP1 is recognized by a specific G-protein-coupled vomeronasal receptor, V2Rp5, via charge-charge interactions in the large extracellular region of the receptor. ESP1 is a member of the ESP family, which comprises 38 homologous genes in mice, and some of these genes are expressed in a sex- or age-dependent manner. Most recently, ESP22 was found to be released specifically in juvenile tear fluids and to inhibit the sexual behaviour of adult male mice. These studies demonstrate that peptide pheromones are used for chemical communication in mice, and they indicate a structural basis for the narrowly tuned perception of mammalian peptide pheromones by vomeronasal receptors. PMID:25109971

Abe, Takayuki; Touhara, Kazushige

2014-08-01

339

Tertiary Structure and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum? †  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and ?-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C. acetobutylicum cellulosome. It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a 10-min assay of 55°C and an optimal pH of 5.0. PMID:19915043

Warner, Christopher D.; Hoy, Julie A.; Shilling, Taran C.; Linnen, Michael J.; Ginder, Nathaniel D.; Ford, Clark F.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Reilly, Peter J.

2010-01-01

340

Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

341

Multiple Mating and Family Structure of the Western Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale: Impact on Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of genetic diversity can strongly influence the dynamics and evolutionary changes of natural populations. Survival and disease resistance have been linked to levels of genetic diversity in eusocial insects, yet these relationships remain untested in gregarious insects where disease transmission can be high and selection for resistance is likely to be strong. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we use 8 microsatellite loci to examine genetic variation in 12 families of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale from four different island populations to determine the relationship of genetic variability to survival and disease resistance. In addition these genetic markers were used to elucidate the population structure of western tent caterpillars. Multiple paternity was revealed by microsatellite markers, with the number of sires estimated to range from one to three per family (mean ± SE ?=?1.92±0.23). Observed heterozygosity (HO) of families was not associated to the resistance of families to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) (r?=?0.161, F1,12 ?=?0.271, P?=?0.614), a major cause of mortality in high-density populations, but was positively associated with larval survival (r?=?0.635, F1,10 ?=?5.412, P?=?0.048). Genetic differentiation among the families was high (FST?=?0.269, P<0.0001), and families from the same island were as differentiated as were families from other islands. Conclusion/Significance We have been able to describe and characterize 8 microsatellite loci, which demonstrate patterns of variation within and between families of western tent caterpillars. We have discovered an association between larval survival and family-level heterozygosity that may be relevant to the population dynamics of this cyclic forest lepidopteran, and this will be the topic of future work. PMID:22655050

Franklin, Michelle T.; Ritland, Carol E.; Myers, Judith H.; Cory, Jenny S.

2012-01-01

342

Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1  

SciTech Connect

The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D. (Sinai); (MSKCC); (Emory)

2010-07-20

343

Parent-Child Relations and Peer Associations as Mediators of the Family Structure--Substance Use Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988, the authors assess the extent to which adolescents' levels of parental attachment and opportunities for participating in delinquent activities mediate the family structure--substance use relationship. A series of hierarchical regressions supported the hypotheses that high levels…

Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

2008-01-01

344

Structure-critical distribution of aromatic residues in the fibronectin type III protein family.  

PubMed

Over a thousand individual Fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain sequences, extracted from more than 60 different FnIII-dependent protein super-structures, were downloaded from curated database resources. Three regions of extreme sequence conservation within the well-characterized FnIII ?-sandwich structure were respectively defined by near absolute conservation of a tryptophan (Trp) in ?-strand-B, tyrosines (Tyr) in both ?-strand-C and ?-strand-F, and a leucine (Leu) residue in the unstructured region immediately preceding ?-strand-F. Employing these four conserved landmarks, the entire FnIII sequence dataset was vertically registered to align the three conserved regions, and the cumulative distribution of all other amino acid functionality was determined and plotted relative to these landmark residues. Conserved aromatic sites were each found to be flanked by aliphatic residues that assure localization of these sites to the inaccessible hydrophobic interface between major sheet structures. Mapping the location of conserved aromatic sites in numerous PDB structures demonstrated the consistent pair-wise co-localization of the indole side-chain of the conserved strand-B Trp site to within 0.35 nm of the phenolic side-chain of the strand-C Tyr site located 8-14 amino acids distal. Likewise, the side-chain of the strand-F Tyr site co-localized to within 0.45 nm of the aliphatic side-chain of the conserved Leu that uniformly precedes it by six residues. While classic hydropathy-based theories would deem the "burying" of Tyr and Trp side-chains and/or their association with hydrophobic FnIII core residues thermodynamically unnecessary, alternative contributions of conserved Trp and Tyr residues, and particularly the role of the absolutely conserved tyrosine phenolic -OH in native FnIII structure-function are considered. A more global role for conserved FnIII aromaticity is also discussed in light of the aromatic conservation observed in other well-established protein families. PMID:24563228

Hoxha, Ema; Campion, Stephen R

2014-04-01

345

Consumer Economic Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the concept of consumer economic socialization as it has developed in the literature. Specifically,\\u000a it covers the context in which the following have been studied: economic socialization; children and adolescents’ developmental\\u000a competencies in understanding and participating in economic and consumer processes; and major agents of economic socialization,\\u000a including culture, media, schools, peers, and families. Needs for further

Beutler Ivan; Lori Dickson

346

Computer-Based Annotation of Putative AraC/XylS-Family Transcription Factors of Known Structure but Unknown Function  

PubMed Central

Currently, about 20 crystal structures per day are released and deposited in the Protein Data Bank. A significant fraction of these structures is produced by research groups associated with the structural genomics consortium. The biological function of many of these proteins is generally unknown or not validated by experiment. Therefore, a growing need for functional prediction of protein structures has emerged. Here we present an integrated bioinformatics method that combines sequence-based relationships and three-dimensional (3D) structural similarity of transcriptional regulators with computer prediction of their cognate DNA binding sequences. We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors, which is a large family of transcriptional regulators found in many bacteria controlling the expression of genes involved in diverse biological functions. Three putative new members of this family with known 3D structure but unknown function were identified for which a probable functional classification is provided. Our bioinformatics analyses suggest that they could be involved in plant cell wall degradation (Lin2118 protein from Listeria innocua, PDB code 3oou), symbiotic nitrogen fixation (protein from Chromobacterium violaceum, PDB code 3oio), and either metabolism of plant-derived biomass or nitrogen fixation (protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, PDB code 3mn2). PMID:22505803

Schüller, Andreas; Slater, Alex W.; Norambuena, Tomás; Cifuentes, Juan J.; Almonacid, Leonardo I.; Melo, Francisco

2012-01-01

347

Pathways among exposure to violence, maternal depression, family structure, and child outcomes through parenting: a multigroup analysis.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of proximal (maternal depression, family structure) and distal (exposure to violence) risk factors on parenting characteristics (warmth, control), which were in turn hypothesized to affect child social-emotional functioning. Using the Family and Child Experiences Study (FACES) 2000 cohort, findings revealed that study variables were significant predictors of child social-emotional functioning. Despite limited significant pathways in the structural equation models, the cumulative effect of the variables resulted in models accounting for 21%-37% of the outcome. Multigroup analysis revealed that although the amount of variance explained varied, the model held across subgroups. Findings support theories such as the family stress model that suggest that family risk factors negatively influencing children's development through influencing parenting behaviors. Findings also support considering both warmth and control as key parenting dimensions. It may be impractical for practitioners to address the myriad of potential risks encountered by low-income families, but parents can be equipped with mental health services, parent education, and other assistance to help them maintain positive parenting practices in the face of challenges. PMID:20636944

Westbrook, T'pring R; Harden, Brenda Jones

2010-07-01

348

Structural characterization of a family of cytochromes c{sub 7} involved in Fe(III) respiration by Geobacter sulfurreducens.  

SciTech Connect

Periplasmic cytochromes c{sub 7} are important in electron transfer pathway(s) in Fe(III) respiration by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The genome of G. sulfurreducens encodes a family of five 10-kDa, three-heme cytochromes c{sub 7}. The sequence identity between the five proteins (designated PpcA, PpcB, PpcC, PpcD, and PpcE) varies between 45% and 77%. Here, we report the high-resolution structures of PpcC, PpcD, and PpcE determined by X-ray diffraction. This new information made it possible to compare the sequences and structures of the entire family. The triheme cores are largely conserved but are not identical. We observed changes, due to different crystal packing, in the relative positions of the hemes between two molecules in the crystal. The overall protein fold of the cytochromes is similar. The structure of PpcD differs most from that of the other homologs, which is not obvious from the sequence comparisons of the family. Interestingly, PpcD is the only cytochrome c{sub 7} within the family that has higher abundance when G. sulfurreducens is grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide compared to ferric citrate. The structures have the highest degree of conservation around 'heme IV'; the protein surface around this heme is positively charged in all of the proteins, and therefore all cytochromes c{sub 7} could interact with similar molecules involving this region. The structures and surface characteristics of the proteins near the other two hemes, 'heme I' and 'heme III', differ within the family. The above observations suggest that each of the five cytochromes c{sub 7} could interact with its own redox partner via an interface involving the regions of heme I and/or heme III; this provides a possible rationalization for the existence of five similar proteins in G. sulfurreducens.

Pokkuluri, P. R.; Londer, Y. Y.; Yang, X.; Duke, N. E. C.; Erickson, J.; Orshonsky, V.; Johnson, G.; Schiffer, M.; Biosciences Division

2010-02-01

349

Boxy/peanut "bulges": comparing the structure of galaxies with the underlying families of periodic orbits  

E-print Network

The vertical profiles of disc galaxies are built by the material trapped around stable periodic orbits, which form their "skeletons". According to this, the knowledge of the stability of the main families of periodic orbits in appropriate 3D models, can predict possible morphologies for edge-on disc galaxies. In a pilot survey we compare the orbital structures which lead to the appearance of "peanuts" and "X"-like features with the edge-on profiles of three disc galaxies (IC 2531, NGC 4013 and UGC 2048). The subtraction from the images of a model representing the axisymmetric component of the galaxies reveals the contribution of the non-axisymmetric terms. We find a direct correspondence between the orbital profiles of 3D bars in models and the observed main morphological features of the residuals. We also apply a simple unsharp masking technique in order to study the sharpest features of the images. Our basic conclusion is that the morphology of the boxy "bulges" of these galaxies can be explained by conside...

Patsis, P A

2006-01-01

350

Structure and Promoter Characterization of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 B10 Gene  

PubMed Central

Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5?-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from ?145 to ?140 bp and ?193 to ?190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4,091 bp of the 5?-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5?-deletions revealed that a ?255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity. PMID:19236911

Liu, Ziwen; Zhong, Linlin; Krishack, Paulette A; Robbins, Sarah; Cao, Julia X; Zhao, Yupei; Chung, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

2009-01-01

351

Genomic structure and expression of STM2, the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer disease gene  

SciTech Connect

Mutations in the gene STM2 result in autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer disease. To screen for mutations and to identify regulatory elements for this gene, the genomic DNA sequence and intron-exon structure were determined. Twelve exons including 10 coding exons were identified in a genomic region spanning 23, 737 bp. The first 2 exons encode the 5{prime}-untranslated region. Expression analysis of STM2 indicates that two transcripts of 2.4 and 2.8 kb are found in skeletal muscle, pancreas, and heart. In addition, a splice variant of the 2.4-kb transcript was identified that is the result of the use of an alternative splice acceptor site located in exon 10. The use of this site results in a transcript lacking a single glutamate. The promotor for this gene and the alternatively spliced exons leading to the 2.8-kb form of the gene remain to be identified. Expression of STM2 was high in skeletal muscle and pancreas, with comparatively low levels observed in brain. This expression pattern is intriguing since in Alzheimer disease, pathology and degeneration are observed only in the central nervous system. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Levy-Lahad, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Kai; Fu, Ying Hui [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States)] [and others] [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States); and others

1996-06-01

352

Structural and biochemical characterization of glycoside hydrolase family 79 ?-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum.  

PubMed

We present the first structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 79 ?-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum, both as a product complex with ?-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and as its trapped covalent 2-fluoroglucuronyl intermediate. This enzyme consists of a catalytic (?/?)(8)-barrel domain and a ?-domain with irregular Greek key motifs that is of unknown function. The enzyme showed ?-glucuronidase activity and trace levels of ?-glucosidase and ?-xylosidase activities. In conjunction with mutagenesis studies, these structures identify the catalytic residues as Glu(173) (acid base) and Glu(287) (nucleophile), consistent with the retaining mechanism demonstrated by (1)H NMR analysis. Glu(45), Tyr(243), Tyr(292)-Gly(294), and Tyr(334) form the catalytic pocket and provide substrate discrimination. Consistent with this, the Y292A mutation, which affects the interaction between the main chains of Gln(293) and Gly(294) and the GlcA carboxyl group, resulted in significant loss of ?-glucuronidase activity while retaining the side activities at wild-type levels. Likewise, although the ?-glucuronidase activity of the Y334F mutant is ~200-fold lower (k(cat)/K(m)) than that of the wild-type enzyme, the ?-glucosidase activity is actually 3 times higher and the ?-xylosidase activity is only 2.5-fold lower than the equivalent parameters for wild type, consistent with a role for Tyr(334) in recognition of the C6 position of GlcA. The involvement of Glu(45) in discriminating against binding of the O-methyl group at the C4 position of GlcA is revealed in the fact that the E45D mutant hydrolyzes PNP-?-GlcA approximately 300-fold slower (k(cat)/K(m)) than does the wild-type enzyme, whereas 4-O-methyl-GlcA-containing oligosaccharides are hydrolyzed only 7-fold slower. PMID:22367201

Michikawa, Mari; Ichinose, Hitomi; Momma, Mitsuru; Biely, Peter; Jongkees, Seino; Yoshida, Makoto; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Withers, Stephen G; Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi

2012-04-20

353

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 79 ?-Glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum  

PubMed Central

We present the first structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 79 ?-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum, both as a product complex with ?-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and as its trapped covalent 2-fluoroglucuronyl intermediate. This enzyme consists of a catalytic (?/?)8-barrel domain and a ?-domain with irregular Greek key motifs that is of unknown function. The enzyme showed ?-glucuronidase activity and trace levels of ?-glucosidase and ?-xylosidase activities. In conjunction with mutagenesis studies, these structures identify the catalytic residues as Glu173 (acid base) and Glu287 (nucleophile), consistent with the retaining mechanism demonstrated by 1H NMR analysis. Glu45, Tyr243, Tyr292–Gly294, and Tyr334 form the catalytic pocket and provide substrate discrimination. Consistent with this, the Y292A mutation, which affects the interaction between the main chains of Gln293 and Gly294 and the GlcA carboxyl group, resulted in significant loss of ?-glucuronidase activity while retaining the side activities at wild-type levels. Likewise, although the ?-glucuronidase activity of the Y334F mutant is ?200-fold lower (kcat/Km) than that of the wild-type enzyme, the ?-glucosidase activity is actually 3 times higher and the ?-xylosidase activity is only 2.5-fold lower than the equivalent parameters for wild type, consistent with a role for Tyr334 in recognition of the C6 position of GlcA. The involvement of Glu45 in discriminating against binding of the O-methyl group at the C4 position of GlcA is revealed in the fact that the E45D mutant hydrolyzes PNP-?-GlcA approximately 300-fold slower (kcat/Km) than does the wild-type enzyme, whereas 4-O-methyl-GlcA-containing oligosaccharides are hydrolyzed only 7-fold slower. PMID:22367201

Michikawa, Mari; Ichinose, Hitomi; Momma, Mitsuru; Biely, Peter; Jongkees, Seino; Yoshida, Makoto; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Withers, Stephen G.; Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi

2012-01-01

354

Common structural basis for constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor family.  

PubMed

Three members of the ghrelin receptor family were characterized in parallel: the ghrelin receptor, the neurotensin receptor 2 and the orphan receptor GPR39. In transiently transfected COS-7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, all three receptors displayed a high degree of ligand-independent signaling activity. The structurally homologous motilin receptor served as a constitutively silent control; upon agonist stimulation, however, it signaled with a similar efficacy to the three related receptors. The constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor and of neurotensin receptor 2 through the G(q), phospholipase C pathway was approximately 50% of their maximal capacity as determined through inositol phosphate accumulation. These two receptors also showed very high constitutive activity in activation of cAMP response element-driven transcription. GPR39 displayed a clear but lower degree of constitutive activity through the inositol phosphate and cAMP response element pathways. In contrast, GPR39 signaled with the highest constitutive activity in respect of activation of serum response element-dependent transcription, in part, possibly, through G(12/13) and Rho kinase. Antibody feeding experiments demonstrated that the epitope-tagged ghrelin receptor was constitutively internalized but could be trapped at the cell surface by an inverse agonist, whereas GPR39 remained at the cell surface. Mutational analysis showed that the constitutive activity of both the ghrelin receptor and GPR39 could systematically be tuned up and down depending on the size and hydrophobicity of the side chain in position VI:16 in the context of an aromatic residue at VII:09 and a large hydrophobic residue at VII:06. It is concluded that the three ghrelin-like receptors display an unusually high degree of constitutive activity, the structural basis for which is determined by an aromatic cluster on the inner face of the extracellular ends of TMs VI and VII. PMID:15383539

Holst, Birgitte; Holliday, Nicholas D; Bach, Anders; Elling, Christian E; Cox, Helen M; Schwartz, Thue W

2004-12-17

355

What accounts for depressive symptoms among mothers? The impact of socioeconomic status, family structure and psychosocial stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Based on a cross-sectional population survey of 3,129 women with minor children, it was analyzed how socioeconomic status,\\u000a family structure and perceived psychosocial stress are linked and how they contributed to women’s self-reported depressive\\u000a symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pearson’s ?2 test and multi-factor analysis of variance were used for investigating relationships between social status, family characteristics\\u000a and psychosocial stress. Logistic regression models were

Stefanie Sperlich; Sonja Arnhold-Kerri; Siegfried Geyer

2011-01-01

356

Impact of family structure and common environment on heritability estimation for neuroimaging genetics studies using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines  

PubMed Central

Imaging genetics is an emerging methodological field that combines genetic information with medical imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a reasonable phenotype in an imaging genetics study, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. The Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) imaging genetics software can estimate the heritability of a trait in complex pedigrees. We investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability and common environmental effects on simulated imaging phenotypes in various family structures. We found that heritability is reliably estimated with small family-based studies of 40 to 80 individuals, though subtle differences remain between the family structures. In an imaging application analysis, we found that with 80 subjects in any of the family structures, estimated heritability of white matter fractional anisotropy was biased by <10% for every region of interest. Results from these studies can be used when investigators are evaluating power in planning genetic analyzes.

Koran, Mary Ellen; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Jahanshad, Neda; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E.; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A.

2014-01-01

357

Analyzing Economic Structure and Comparing the Results of the Predicted Economic Growth Based on Solow, Fuzzy-Logic and Neural-Fuzzy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating the factors effective on economic growth is of great importance for most economists. Although lots of studies have been done on economic growth in the world, it has less been regarded in Iran. In this article, by estimating growth regression, we attempt to investigate the supply side of economic growth in Iran. Then we compare the predictive results of

Mirnaser Mirbagheri; Namiq Tagiev

2011-01-01

358

X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J. (BMS)

2012-06-27

359

Structure and functional investigation of ligand binding by a family 35 carbohydrate binding module (CtCBM35) of ?-mannanase of family 26 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum.  

PubMed

Functional attributes of recombinant CtCBM35 (family 35 carbohydrate binding module) of ?-mannanase of family 26 Glycoside Hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum were deduced by biochemical and in silico approaches. Ligand-binding analysis of expressed CtCBM35 analyzed by affinity-gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibited association constants Ka ~ 1.2·10(5) and 3.0·10(5) M(-1) with locust bean galactomannan and mannotriose, respectively. However, CtCBM35 showed low ligand-binding affinity with insoluble ivory nut mannan with Ka of 5.0·10(-5) M(-1). Unfolding transition analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy explained the conformational changes of CtCBM35 in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (5 M) and urea (6.25 M). This explained that CtCBM35 has good conformational stability and requires higher free energy of denaturation to invoke unfolding. The three-dimensional (3-D) model of CtCBM35 from C. thermocellum generated by Modeller9v8 displayed predominance of ?-sheets arranged as ?-jelly-roll fold. The secondary structure of CtCBM35 by PredictProtein showed the presence of two ?-helices (3%), 12 ?-sheets (45%), and 15 random coils (52%). Secondary structural element analysis of cloned, expressed, and purified recombinant CtCBM35 by circular dichroism also corroborated the in silico predicted secondary structure. Multiple sequence alignment of CtCBM35 showed conserved residues (Tyr123, Gly124, and Phe125), which are commonly observed in mannan specific CBMs. Docking analysis of CtCBM35 with manno-oligosaccharide displayed the involvement of Tyr26, Gln29, Asn43, Trp66, Tyr68, Leu69, Arg76, and Leu127 residues, making polar contact with the ligand molecules. Ligand docking analysis of CtCBM35 exhibiting higher binding affinity with mannotriose and galactomannan (Man-Gal-Man moiety) substantiated the affinity binding and fluorescence results, displaying similar values of Ka. PMID:25108330

Ghosh, A; Verma, A K; Gautam, S; Gupta, M N; Goyal, A

2014-07-01

360

A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.  

PubMed

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7 Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6 Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

2014-05-01

361

Evolution, structure, and activation mechanism of family 3\\/C G-protein-coupled receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest gene families in the animal genome. These receptors can be classified into several groups based on the sequence similarity of their common heptahelical domain. The family 3 (or C) GPCRs are receptors for the main neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid, for Ca2+, for sweet and amino acid taste compounds, and for some

Jean-Philippe Pin; Thierry Galvez; Laurent Prézeau

2003-01-01

362

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2012-01-01

363

Family Structure, School Context, and Eighth-Grade Math and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews existing theoretical perspective on how single-parent families and stepfamilies affect student achievement by examining math and reading achievement scores. Results show that schools predominated by students from single-parent families and stepfamilies negatively affect student's achievement. These negative effects are countervailed when…

Pong, Suet-Ling

1997-01-01

364

Family structure influences mate choice in white-fronted bee-eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-fronted bee-eaters live in patrilocal, extended family groups in which several pairs may breed simultaneously and in which helping behavior by nonbreeders is common. The composition of a male's family, and his social position within it, are major predictors of his expected reproductive success. For females, the dispersing sex, a decision to pair necessitates forfeiting any potential fitness benefits available

Peter H. Wrege; Stephen T. Emlen

1994-01-01

365

Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

2008-01-01

366

Structures of the first representatives of Pfam family PF06938 (DUF1285) reveal a new fold with repeated structural motifs and possible involvement in signal transduction  

PubMed Central

The crystal structures of SPO0140 and Sbal_2486 were determined using the semiautomated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The structures revealed a conserved core with domain duplication and a superficial similarity of the C-terminal domain to pleckstrin homology-like folds. The conservation of the domain interface indicates a potential binding site that is likely to involve a nucleotide-based ligand, with genome-context and gene-fusion analyses additionally supporting a role for this family in signal transduction, possibly during oxidative stress. PMID:20944214

Han, Gye Won; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Miller, Mitchell D.; Kumar, Abhinav; Carlton, Dennis; Najmanovich, Rafael J.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

367

Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes (sands, steep slopes etc.), 0.51 M ha on heavily eroded lands and 0.49 M ha of liner stands (field protective and run off - protective shelterbelts). Such a development has a solid economic background within post Kyoto international policies. Suggested measures in the forest sector are considered as a first step in transition to sustainable forest management, implementation of urgent adaptation activities to climate change and would allow substantially intensified multi-service use of forests (including impacts on major biogeochemical cycles, increasing wood harvest at ~25% etc.). We present major indicators of the carbon budget of forest and agro-forest ecosystems for the last two decades and for the next 20 years in the framework of the two above scenarios. This research was supported by the European Community's Framework Programme (FP7) via GESAPU project (n°247645).

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

2013-04-01

368

Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif identification, which currently is lacking for this family in plants. Third, the plant-specific expansion resulting in Groups 8 and 9 evolved coincident to the early primary radiation of plants onto land, suggesting these families may have been important for early land colonization. PMID:21435223

2011-01-01

369

[Family ideology].  

PubMed

This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

Kornblit, A

1982-06-01

370

Essays on development economics  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent papers in empirical development economics. The first chapter studies the effect of a family planning program in Bangladesh, which successfully reduced fertility, on ...

Ruthbah, Ummul Hasanath

2007-01-01

371

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions  

PubMed Central

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-01-01

372

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Family accommodation of symptoms conflicts with the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can be an obstacle to positive outcomes.… (more)

Caporino, Nicole Elise

2011-01-01

373

Speeding Up the Process of Modeling Temporary Structures in a Building Information Model Using Predefined Families  

E-print Network

. During the modeling process, time has been recorded as well as other observations describing obstacles, advantages, and disadvantages of both methods. The results show that the usage of predefined parametric families speeds up the process of modeling...

Sabahi, Parsa

2012-02-14

374

Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12–24 at the 1st wave, it is examined\\u000a whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems.\\u000a Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring from intact and postdivorce\\u000a families are examined, i.e., possible differences in growth

Inge VanderValk; Ed Spruijt; Martijn de Goede; Cora Maas; Wim Meeus

2005-01-01

375

Uracil-DNA glycosylases-Structural and functional perspectives on an essential family of DNA repair enzymes.  

PubMed

Uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDGs) are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes that initiate the base excision repair pathway and remove uracil from DNA. The UDG superfamily is classified into six families based on their substrate specificity. This review focuses on the family I enzymes since these are the most extensively studied members of the superfamily. The structural basis for substrate specificity and base recognition as well as for DNA binding, nucleotide flipping and catalytic mechanism is discussed in detail. Other topics include the mechanism of lesion search and molecular mimicry through interaction with uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitors. The latest studies and findings detailing structure and function in the UDG superfamily are presented. PMID:25252105

Schormann, N; Ricciardi, R; Chattopadhyay, D

2014-12-01

376

I-O study of the economic structure of Appalachian Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The economic problems of Appalachian Kentucky are closely linked to the problems of the coal industry. The boom-and-bust cycles of the coal industry influence poverty, unemployment, out-migration, and capital flight from the area. For over a decade, national economic policy has been to develop a diversified economy in Appalachia capable of supporting the population with increased employment opportunities and rising real incomes. Increases in the export demand for coal should stimulate Appalachia's economic growth. In this paper, the impact of the demand for coal on the 18 coal-producing counties in Appalachian Kentucky are discussed, and the implications for dependence on a single extractive export industry are identified. A regional input-output (I-O) model was constructed in order to provide insight into the flow of goods and services within the regional economy as well as into output, income, and employment effects of the existing industry. In order to investigate the alternative growth patterns of the region, the model projects economic data for the regional economy to the year 1990 under alternative assumptions about coal-industry growth. 16 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Pagoulatos, A.; Anschel, K.R.

1981-10-01

377

Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

Heady, Earl O.

378

Keep it in the family.  

PubMed

The article will give an insight into family nursing, a fairly new role in the UK. It aims to show the writer's role transition from being a midwife to a family nurse. Family nursing is a role that supports young parents to grow socially and emotionally while helping the parents to develop a strong bond and attachment with their children. It is a licensed, structured programme, developed over 25 years in the US. The programme goals are to improve antenatal health, child health and development, and parents' economic self-sufficiency. The writer explores factors that have assisted in the role transition: skill development, supervision, behaviour change, therapeutic relationships and parenting skills. Lessons learnt from previous midwifery roles are also addressed as paramount in the role transition. PMID:21323081

Vika, Caroline

2011-01-01

379

Crystal Structure of the YDR533c S. cerevisiae Protein, a Class II Member of the Hsp31 Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORF YDR533c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a 25.5 kDa protein of unknown biochemical function. Transcriptome analysis of yeast has shown that this gene is activated in response to various stress conditions together with proteins belonging to the heat shock family. In order to clarify its biochemical function, we determined the crystal structure of YDR533c to 1.85 Å resolution

Marc Graille; Sophie Quevillon-Cheruel; Nicolas Leulliot; Cong-Zhao Zhou; Ines Li de La Sierra Gallay; Lilian Jacquamet; Jean-Luc Ferrer; Dominique Liger; Anne Poupon; Joel Janin; Herman van Tilbeurgh

2004-01-01

380

Quantum Chemical Studies of Structures and Binding in Noncanonical RNA Base pairs: The Trans Watson-Crick:Watson-Crick Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trans Watson-Crick\\/Watson-Crick family of base pairs represent a geometric class that play important structural and possible functional roles in the ribosome, tRNA, and other functional RNA molecules. They nucleate base triplets and quartets, participate as loop closing terminal base pairs in hair pin motifs and are also responsible for several tertiary interactions that enable sequentially distant regions to interact

Purshotam Sharma; Abhijit Mitra; Sitansh Sharma; Harjinder Singh; Dhananjay Bhattacharyya

2008-01-01

381

Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n?=?1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n?=?11?337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR)?=?2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI)?=?1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR?=?0.57, 95% CI?=?0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR?=?0.66, 95% CI?=?0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR?=?2.34, 95% CI?=?1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR?=?1.92, 95% CI?=?1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914

Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

2014-11-13

382

The Amt/MEP/Rh Family: Structure of AmtB and the Mechanism of Ammonia Gas Conduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The atomic structures of the first members of the Amt/MEP/Rh family show that they are 11-crossing membrane proteins that form trimers in the membrane. Each monomer supports a hydrophobic channel that conducts NH3 but not any water or ions. The reprotonation of NH3 on the receiving side raises the pH on that side in the absence of metabolism of NH3, and there is no transfer of protons through the protein.

2006-12-01

383

Family Structure and The Freshmen Year: Influence of Parental Marital Status and Custody Arrangement on First-Year College Adjustment  

E-print Network

"Family Structure and The Freshmen Year: Influence of Parental Marital Status and Custody Arrangement on First-Year College Adjustment" By Lauren Patricia Parrish Submitted to the graduate degree program in Counseling Psychology... to be solely the concern of educators and administrators, but this issue is also a concern for college campus counseling centers. The most prevalent function of college counseling centers is to provide therapeutic interventions when a student’s personal...

Parrish, Lauren Patricia

2012-05-31

384

Redefining the PF06864 Pfam Family Based on Burkholderia pseudomallei PilO2Bp S-SAD Crystal Structure  

PubMed Central

Type IV pili are surface-exposed filaments and bacterial virulence factors, represented by the Tfpa and Tfpb types, which assemble via specific machineries. The Tfpb group is further divided into seven variants, linked to heterogeneity in the assembly machineries. Here we focus on PilO2Bp, a protein component of the Tfpb R64 thin pilus variant assembly machinery from the pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. PilO2Bp belongs to the PF06864 Pfam family, for which an improved definition is presented based on newly derived Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles. The 3D structure of the N-terminal domain of PilO2Bp (N-PilO2Bp), here reported, is the first structural representative of the PF06864 family. N-PilO2Bp presents an actin-like ATPase fold that is shown to be present in BfpC, a different variant assembly protein; the new HMM profiles classify BfpC as a PF06864 member. Our results provide structural insight into the PF06864 family and on the Type IV pili assembly machinery. PMID:24728008

Manjasetty, Babu A.; Yero, Daniel; Perletti, Lucia; Belrhali, Hassan; Daura, Xavier; Gourlay, Louise J.; Bolognesi, Martino

2014-01-01

385

Structural and mechanistic characterization of L-histidinol phosphate phosphatase from the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase family of proteins.  

PubMed

L-Histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-histidinol phosphate to L-histidinol and inorganic phosphate, the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of L-histidine. HPP from the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) family of proteins possesses a trinuclear active site and a distorted (?/?)(7)-barrel protein fold. This group of enzymes is closely related to the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The mechanism of phosphomonoester bond hydrolysis by the PHP family of HPP enzymes was addressed. Recombinant HPP from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis that was expressed in Escherichia coli contained a mixture of iron and zinc in the active site and had a catalytic efficiency of ~10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Expression of the protein under iron-free conditions resulted in the production of an enzyme with a 2 order of magnitude improvement in catalytic efficiency and a mixture of zinc and manganese in the active site. Solvent isotope and viscosity effects demonstrated that proton transfer steps and product dissociation steps are not rate-limiting. X-ray structures of HPP were determined with sulfate, L-histidinol phosphate, and a complex of L-histidinol and arsenate bound in the active site. These crystal structures and the catalytic properties of variants were used to identify the structural elements required for catalysis and substrate recognition by the HPP family of enzymes within the amidohydrolase superfamily. PMID:23327428

Ghodge, Swapnil V; Fedorov, Alexander A; Fedorov, Elena V; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ronald; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

2013-02-12

386

Children in Immigrant Families--The U.S. and 50 States: Economic Need beyond the Official Poverty Measure. Research Brief Series. Publication #2009-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Research Brief, the second in Child Trends series on immigrant children, draws on new results from Census 2000 data to examine differences in the poverty rates between children in immigrant families and children in native-born families. The brief reports results for the official poverty measure, but also for two alternatives to the official…

Hernandez, Donald J.; Denton, Nancy A.; Macartney, Suzanne

2009-01-01

387

Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics of the Bivalve Family Ostreidae Based on rRNA Sequence-Structure Models and Multilocus Species Tree  

PubMed Central

The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassotreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics. PMID:25250663

Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

2014-01-01

388

Families of transposable elements, population structure and the origin of species  

PubMed Central

Background Eukaryotic genomes harbor diverse families of repetitive DNA derived from transposable elements (TEs) that are able to replicate and insert into genomic DNA. The biological role of TEs remains unclear, although they have profound mutagenic impact on eukaryotic genomes and the origin of repetitive families often correlates with speciation events. We present a new hypothesis to explain the observed correlations based on classical concepts of population genetics. Presentation of the hypothesis The main thesis presented in this paper is that the TE-derived repetitive families originate primarily by genetic drift in small populations derived mostly by subdivisions of large populations into subpopulations. We outline the potential impact of the emerging repetitive families on genetic diversification of different subpopulations, and discuss implications of such diversification for the origin of new species. Testing the hypothesis Several testable predictions of the hypothesis are examined. First, we focus on the prediction that the number of diverse families of TEs fixed in a representative genome of a particular species positively correlates with the cumulative number of subpopulations (demes) in the historical metapopulation from which the species has emerged. Furthermore, we present evidence indicating that human AluYa5 and AluYb8 families might have originated in separate proto-human subpopulations. We also revisit prior evidence linking the origin of repetitive families to mammalian phylogeny and present additional evidence linking repetitive families to speciation based on mammalian taxonomy. Finally, we discuss evidence that mammalian orders represented by the largest numbers of species may be subject to relatively recent population subdivisions and speciation events. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis implies that subdivision of a population into small subpopulations is the major step in the origin of new families of TEs as well as of new species. The origin of new subpopulations is likely to be driven by the availability of new biological niches, consistent with the hypothesis of punctuated equilibria. The hypothesis also has implications for the ongoing debate on the role of genetic drift in genome evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Juergen Brosius and I. King Jordan. PMID:21929767

2011-01-01

389

Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions. PMID:23028019

Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K.

2012-01-01

390

Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement. PMID:18402586

Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

2008-04-01

391

Crystal Structures of Trypanosoma brucei Oligopeptidase B Broaden the Paradigm of Catalytic Regulation in Prolyl Oligopeptidase Family Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Oligopeptidase B cleaves after basic amino acids in peptides up to 30 residues. As a virulence factor in bacteria and trypanosomatid pathogens that is absent in higher eukaryotes, this is a promising drug target. Here we present ligand-free open state and inhibitor-bound closed state crystal structures of oligopeptidase B from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. These (and related) structures show the importance of structural dynamics, governed by a fine enthalpic and entropic balance, in substrate size selectivity and catalysis. Peptides over 30 residues cannot fit the enzyme cavity, preventing the complete domain closure required for a key propeller Asp/Glu to fix the catalytic His and Arg in the catalytically competent conformation. This size exclusion mechanism protects larger peptides and proteins from degradation. Similar bacterial prolyl endopeptidase and archael acylaminoacyl peptidase structures demonstrate this mechanism is conserved among oligopeptidase family enzymes across all three domains of life. PMID:24265767

Morty, Rory E.; Fülöp, Vilmos

2013-01-01

392

The structure of allophanate hydrolase from Granulibacter bethesdensis provides insights into substrate specificity in the amidase signature family  

PubMed Central

Allophanate hydrolase (AH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanate, an intermediate in atrazine degradation and urea catabolism pathways, to NH3 and CO2. AH belongs to the amidase signature family, which is characterized by a conserved block of 130 amino acids rich in Gly and Ser and a Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad. In the present study, the first structures of AH were solved from Granulibacter bethesdensis, with and without the substrate analog malonate, to 2.2 Å and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures confirm the identity of the catalytic triad residues and reveal an altered dimerization interface that is not conserved in the amidase signature family. The structures also provide insights into previously unrecognized substrate specificity determinants in AH. Two residues, Tyr299 and Arg307, are within hydrogen bonding distance to a carboxylate moiety of malonate. Both Tyr299 and Arg307 were mutated and the resulting modified enzymes revealed greater than three orders of magnitude reductions in both catalytic efficiency and substrate stringency. It is proposed that Tyr299 and Arg307 serve to anchor and orient the substrate for attack by the catalytic nucleophile, Ser172. The structure further suggests the presence of a unique C-terminal domain in AH. While this domain is conserved, it does not contribute to catalysis or to the structural integrity of the core domain, suggesting that it may play a role in mediating transient and specific interactions with the urea carboxylase component of urea amidolyase. Analysis of the AH active site architecture offers new insights into common determinants of catalysis and specificity among divergent members of the amidase signature family. PMID:23282241

Lin, Yi; St. Maurice, Martin

2013-01-01

393

Children's nutrition in Jamaica: do household structure and household economic resources matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the influence of household structure and resource dilution characteristics on children's nutritional status in Jamaica. The study has two objectives: (1) to compare the impact of different types of household structures (e.g. single parent, two parent, cohabiting and extended) on child nutrition (low height for age); and (2) to examine whether household structure and household resources interact

Jacinta Bronte-Tinkew; Gordon DeJong

2004-01-01

394

The Economics of Solar Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SHCOST program assesses economic feasibility of solar energy for single-family residences and light commercial applications. Program analyzes life-cycle costs as well as sensitivity studies to aid designer in selecting most economically attractive solar system for single-family residence or light commercial application. SHCOST includes fairly comprehensive list of cost elements from which user may select.

Forney, J. A.

1982-01-01

395

Structure of CfaA Suggests a New Family of Chaperones Essential for Assembly of Class 5 Fimbriae  

PubMed Central

Adhesive pili on the surface of pathogenic bacteria comprise polymerized pilin subunits and are essential for initiation of infections. Pili assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) require periplasmic chaperones that assist subunit folding, maintain their stability, and escort them to the site of bioassembly. Until now, CUP chaperones have been classified into two families, FGS and FGL, based on the short and long length of the subunit-interacting loops between its F1 and G1 ?-strands, respectively. CfaA is the chaperone for assembly of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) pili of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), a cause of diarrhea in travelers and young children. Here, the crystal structure of CfaA along with sequence analyses reveals some unique structural and functional features, leading us to propose a separate family for CfaA and closely related chaperones. Phenotypic changes resulting from mutations in regions unique to this chaperone family provide insight into their function, consistent with involvement of these regions in interactions with cognate subunits and usher proteins during pilus assembly. PMID:25122114

Bao, Rui; Fordyce, April; Chen, Yu-Xing; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

2014-01-01

396

Analysis of the peroxiredoxin family: using active-site structure and sequence information for global classification and residue analysis.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a widespread and highly expressed family of cysteine-based peroxidases that react very rapidly with H?O?, organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Correct subfamily classification has been problematic because Prx subfamilies are frequently not correlated with phylogenetic distribution and diverge in their preferred reductant, oligomerization state, and tendency toward overoxidation. We have developed a method that uses the Deacon Active Site Profiler (DASP) tool to extract functional-site profiles from structurally characterized proteins to computationally define subfamilies and to identify new Prx subfamily members from GenBank(nr). For the 58 literature-defined Prx test proteins, 57 were correctly assigned, and none were assigned to the incorrect subfamily. The >3500 putative Prx sequences identified were then used to analyze residue conservation in the active site of each Prx subfamily. Our results indicate that the existence and location of the resolving cysteine vary in some subfamilies (e.g., Prx5) to a greater degree than previously appreciated and that interactions at the A interface (common to Prx5, Tpx, and higher order AhpC/Prx1 structures) are important for stabilization of the correct active-site geometry. Interestingly, this method also allows us to further divide the AhpC/Prx1 into four groups that are correlated with functional characteristics. The DASP method provides more accurate subfamily classification than PSI-BLAST for members of the Prx family and can now readily be applied to other large protein families. PMID:21287625

Nelson, Kimberly J; Knutson, Stacy T; Soito, Laura; Klomsiri, Chananat; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

2011-03-01

397

Analysis of the peroxiredoxin family: using active site structure and sequence information for global classification and residue analysis  

PubMed Central

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a widespread and highly expressed family of cysteine-based peroxidases that react very rapidly with H2O2, organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Correct subfamily classification has been problematic since Prx subfamilies are frequently not correlated with phylogenetic distribution and diverge in their preferred reductant, oligomerization state, and tendency towards overoxidation. We have developed a method that uses the Deacon Active Site Profiler (DASP) tool to extract functional site profiles from structurally characterized proteins, to computationally define subfamilies, and to identify new Prx subfamily members from GenBank(nr). For the 58 literature-defined Prx test proteins, 57 were correctly assigned and none were assigned to the incorrect subfamily. The >3500 putative Prx sequences identified were then used to analyze residue conservation in the active site of each Prx subfamily. Our results indicate that the existence and location of the resolving cysteine varies in some subfamilies (e.g. Prx5) to a greater degree than previously appreciated and that interactions at the A interface (common to Prx5, Tpx and higher order AhpC/Prx1 structures) are important for stabilization of the correct active site geometry. Interestingly, this method also allows us to further divide the AhpC/Prx1 into four groups that are correlated with functional characteristics. The DASP method provides more accurate subfamily classification than PSI-BLAST for members of the Prx family and can now readily be applied to other large protein families. PMID:21287625

Nelson, Kimberly J.; Knutson, Stacy T.; Soito, Laura; Klomsiri, Chananat; Poole, Leslie B.; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.

2010-01-01

398

Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546  

E-print Network

EXTENSION Agriculture and Natural Resources · Family and Consumer Sciences · 4-H Youth Development percent butanol could be used to power a spark ignition engine, it probably has a more realistic potential

Hayes, Jane E.

399

The Influence of Financial, Human and Social Capital on Japanese Men's and Women's Health in Single- and Two-Parent Family Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large-scale demographic changes have been occurring in Japan over the last few decades. During this time, the proportion of two-parent (nuclear) and single-parent families have doubled. Despite this rapid increase, the health of individuals in these family structures have received limited attention, as the focus has been directed towards the…

Bassani, Cherylynn

2008-01-01

400

Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12-24 at the 1st wave, it is examined whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring…

VanderValk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; de Goede, Matijn; Maas, Cora; Meeus, Wim

2005-01-01

401

Avidin related protein 2 shows unique structural and functional features among the avidin protein family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The chicken avidin gene family consists of avidin and several avidin related genes (AVRs). Of these gene products, avidin is the best characterized and is known for its extremely high affinity for D-biotin, a property that is utilized in numerous modern life science applications. Recently, the AVR genes have been expressed as recombinant proteins, which have shown different biotin-binding

Vesa P Hytönen; Juha AE Määttä; Heidi Kidron; Katrin K Halling; Jarno Hörhä; Tuomas Kulomaa; Thomas KM Nyholm; Mark S Johnson; Tiina A Salminen; Markku S Kulomaa; Tomi T Airenne

2005-01-01

402

Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in re- sponse to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2\\/ERF domain were identified from 63 676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean

Gaiyun Zhang; Ming Chen; Xueping Chen; Zhaoshi Xu; Shan Guan; Lian-Cheng Li; Aili Li; Jiaming Guo; Long Mao; Youzhi Ma

2010-01-01

403

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

404

Structural and Dynamic Process Family Risk Factors: Consequences for Holistic Adolescent Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized a dynamic cumulative family risk model to explain changes in adolescent functioning. We used a person-centered approach to detect patterns of academic, emotional, and behavioral functioning and the stability of these patterns using two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,173). Four adjustment…

Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Ernst, Jody L.

2007-01-01

405

Extreme structural heterogeneity among the members of a maize retrotransposon family.  

PubMed Central

A few families of retrotransposons characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs) have amplified relatively recently in maize and account for >50% of the genome. Surprisingly, none of these elements have been shown to cause a single mutation. In contrast, most of the retrotransposon-induced mutations isolated in maize are caused by the insertion of elements that are present in the genome at 2-50 copies. To begin to understand what limits the amplification of this mutagenic class of LTR-retrotransposons, we are focusing on five elements previously identified among 17 mutations of the maize waxy gene. One of these elements, Stonor, has sustained a deletion of the entire gag region and part of the protease domain. Missing sequences were recovered from larger members of the Stonor family and indicate that the deletion probably occurred during retrotransposition. These large elements have an exceptionally long leader of 2 kb that includes a highly variable region of approximately 1 kb that has not been seen in previously characterized retrotransposons. This region serves to distinguish each member of the Stonor family and indicates that no single element has yet evolved that can attain the very high copy numbers characteristic of other element families in maize. PMID:9799276

Marillonnet, S; Wessler, S R

1998-01-01

406

Oxidative structural modifications of low density lipoprotein in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), as a result of the increased levels and prolonged residence time of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, have a strong tendency toward accumulation of LDL-cholesterol in the arterial wall, causing premature atherosclerosis. This phenomenon may enhance per se the physiological degradation of both protein and lipid component of LDL, which be more susceptible

Claudio Napoli; Alfredo Postiglione; Massimo Triggiani; Gaetano Corso; Giuseppe Palumbo; Virginia Carbone; Antonio Ruocco; Giuseppe Ambrosio; Silvana Montefusco; Antonio Malorni; Mario Condorelli; Massimo Chiariello

1995-01-01

407

Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a bacterial cellulase belonging to family 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cellulases are glycosyl hydrolases — enzymes that hydrolyze glycosidic bonds. They have been widely studied using biochemical and microbiological techniques and have attracted industrial interest because of their potential in biomass conversion and in the paper and textile industries. Glycosyl hydrolases have lately been assigned to specific families on the basis of similarities in their amino acid sequences. The

Valérie Ducros; Mirjam Czjzek; Anne Belaich; Christian Gaudin; Henri-Pierre Fierobe; Jean-Pierre Belaich; Gideon J Davies; Richard Haser

1995-01-01

408

Relationship of sequence and structure to specificity in the ?-amylase family of enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolases and transferases that constitute the ?-amylase family are multidomain proteins, but each has a catalytic domain in the form of a (?\\/?)8-barrel, with the active site being at the C-terminal end of the barrel ?-strands. Although the enzymes are believed to share the same catalytic acids and a common mechanism of action, they have been assigned to three

E. Ann MacGregor; Štefan Jane?ek; Birte Svensson

2001-01-01

409

Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

2013-01-01

410

Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

2013-01-01

411

Topological properties of large-scale structural brain networks in children with familial risk for reading difficulties  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological deficit characterized by persistent difficulty in learning to read in children and adults who otherwise possess normal intelligence. Functional and structural connectivity data suggest that developmental dyslexia could be a disconnection syndrome. However, whether abnormalities in connectivity exist in beginning readers at-risk for reading difficulties is unknown. Using graphtheoretical analysis, we investigated differences in global and regional topological properties of structural brain networks in 42 beginning readers with (FH+) and without (FH?) familial risk for reading difficulties. We constructed separate structural correlation networks based on measures of surface area and cortical thickness. Results revealed changes in topological properties in brain regions known to be abnormal in dyslexia (left supramarginal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus) in the FH+ group mainly in the network constructed from measures of cortical surface area. We also found alterations in topological properties in regions that are not often advertised as dyslexia but nonetheless play important role in reading (left posterior cingulate, hippocampus, and left precentral gyrus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered topological properties of structural correlation networks in children at risk for reading difficulty, and motivates future studies that examine the mechanisms underlying how these brain networks may mediate the influences of family history on reading outcome. PMID:23333415

Hosseini, S.M. Hadi; Black, Jessica M.; Soriano, Teresa; Bugescu, Nicolle; Martinez, Rociel; Raman, Mira M.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Hoeft, Fumiko

2013-01-01

412

The Conservation of Structure and Mechanism of Catalytic Action in a Family of Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent Enzymes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzymes are a divergent family of TPP and metal ion binding proteins that perform a wide range of functions with the common decarboxylation steps of a -(O=)C-C(OH)- fragment of alpha-ketoacids and alpha- hydroxyaldehydes. To determine how structure and catalytic action are conserved in the context of large sequence differences existing within this family of enzymes, we have carried out an analysis of TPP-dependent enzymes of known structures. The common structure of TPP-dependent enzymes is formed at the interface of four alpha/beta domains from at least two subunits, which provide for two metal and TPP-binding sites. Residues around these catalytic sites are conserved for functional purpose, while those further away from TPP are conserved for structural reasons. Together they provide a network of contacts required for flip-flop catalytic action within TPP-dependent enzymes. Thus our analysis defines a TPP-action motif that is proposed for annotating TPP-dependent enzymes for advancing functional proteomics.

Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, Ewa

2004-01-01

413

Family and nation revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the promise of the sixties, the condition of families and children in the United State has deteriorated. However, the subject of family policy seems relevant once more. Establishing social policy conducive to the stability and well?being of family life will require an honest addressing of issues including family structure, poverty, drugs, and race. Fiscal policies also must be

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

1990-01-01

414

Participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation  

PubMed Central

Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group.

Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero

2014-01-01

415

Loop Motions Important to Product Expulsion in the Thermobifida fusca Glycoside Hydrolase Family 6 Cellobiohydrolase from Structural and Computational Studies*  

PubMed Central

Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are typically major components of natural enzyme cocktails for biomass degradation. Their active sites are enclosed in a tunnel, enabling processive hydrolysis of cellulose chains. Glycoside hydrolase Family 6 (GH6) CBHs act from nonreducing ends by an inverting mechanism and are present in many cellulolytic fungi and bacteria. The bacterial Thermobifida fusca Cel6B (TfuCel6B) exhibits a longer and more enclosed active site tunnel than its fungal counterparts. Here, we determine the structures of two TfuCel6B mutants co-crystallized with cellobiose, D274A (catalytic acid), and the double mutant D226A/S232A, which targets the putative catalytic base and a conserved serine that binds the nucleophilic water. The ligand binding and the structure of the active site are retained when compared with the wild type structure, supporting the hypothesis that these residues are directly involved in catalysis. One structure exhibits crystallographic waters that enable construction of a model of the ?-anomer product after hydrolysis. Interestingly, the product sites of TfuCel6B are completely enclosed by an “exit loop” not present in fungal GH6 CBHs and by an extended “bottom loop”. From the structures, we hypothesize that either of the loops enclosing the product subsites in the TfuCel6B active site tunnel must open substantially for product release. With simulation, we demonstrate that both loops can readily open to allow product release with equal probability in solution or when the enzyme is engaged on cellulose. Overall, this study reveals new structural details of GH6 CBHs likely important for functional differences among enzymes from this important family. PMID:24085303

Wu, Miao; Bu, Lintao; Vuong, Thu V.; Wilson, David B.; Crowley, Michael F.; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Beckham, Gregg T.; Hansson, Henrik

2013-01-01

416

The Crystal Structure of Bacteriophage HK97 gp6: Defining a Large Family of Head?Tail Connector Proteins  

SciTech Connect

The final step in the morphogenesis of long-tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is the joining of the DNA-filled head to the tail. The connector is a specialized structure of the head that serves as the interface for tail attachment and the point of egress for DNA from the head during infection. Here, we report the determination of a 2.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of gp6 of bacteriophage HK97. Through structural comparisons, functional studies, and bioinformatic analysis, gp6 has been determined to be a component of the connector of phage HK97 that is evolutionarily related to gp15, a well-characterized connector component of bacteriophage SPP1. Whereas the structure of gp15 was solved in a monomeric form, gp6 crystallized as an oligomeric ring with the dimensions expected for a connector protein. Although this ring is composed of 13 subunits, which does not match the symmetry of the connector within the phage, sequence conservation and modeling of this structure into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the SPP1 connector indicate that this oligomeric structure represents the arrangement of gp6 subunits within the mature phage particle. Through sequence searches and genomic position analysis, we determined that gp6 is a member of a large family of connector proteins that are present in long-tailed phages. We have also identified gp7 of HK97 as a homologue of gp16 of phage SPP1, which is the second component of the connector of this phage. These proteins are members of another large protein family involved in connector assembly.

Cardarelli, Lia; Lam, Robert; Tuite, Ashleigh; Baker, Lindsay A.; Sadowski, Paul D.; Radford, Devon R.; Rubinstein, John L.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Chirgadze, Nickolay; Maxwell, Karen L.; Davidson, Alan R. (UHN); (Toronto); (Hauptman)

2010-08-17

417

Occupational and Educational Structures of the Labour Force and Levels of Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify and quantify factors which determine the occupational and educational structure of the labor force, the 1960 and 1961 census data of 53 countries were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis showed output per worker and product per capita to be the best explanatory variables for occupational structure. The educational profile of the…

Jallade, Jean-Pierre; And Others

418

Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the phospholipase A2 gene family in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The phospholipase A (PLA)2 family is the most complex gene family of phospholipases and plays a crucial role in a number of physiological activities. However, the phylogenetic background of the PLA2 gene family and the amino acid residues of the PLA2G7 gene following positive selection gene remain undetermined. In this study, we downloaded 49 genomic data sets of PLA from different species, including the human, house mouse, Norway rat, pig, dog, chicken, cattle, African clawed frog, Sumatran orangutan and the zebrafish species. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using the neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, as well as the Bayesian information criterion. The results were then presented as phylogenetic trees. Positive selection sites were detected using site, branch and branch?site models. These methods led us to the following assumptions: i) closer lineages were observed between PLA2G16 and PLA2G6, PLA2G7 and PLA2G4, PLA2G3 and PLA2G12, as well as among PLA2G10, PLA2G5 and PLA2G15; ii) PLA2G5 appeared to be the origin of the PLA2 family, and PLA2G7 was one of the most evolutionarily distant PLA2 proteins; iii) 16 positive-selection sites were detected and were marked in the PLA2G7 protein sequence as 327D, 257Q, 276G, 34s, 66G, 67C, 319S, 28N, 50S, 54T, 58R, 75T, 88Q, 92R, 179H and 191K. PMID:25543670

Huang, Qi; Wu, Yuan; Qin, Chao; He, Wenwu; Wei, Xing

2015-03-01

419

Family Structure and Initiating Non-Medical Drug Use Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1991 and 1992 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of initiating non-medical drug use by 12-17-year-old adolescents living in families without both biological parents present compared to those living with both biological parents. To hold constant unmeasured socio-environmental confounding factors, we employed an epidemiological strategy

Tongwoo Suh; Christian G. Schütz; Chris-Ellyn Johanson

1997-01-01

420

Genome structure and expression of the ev/J family of avian endogenous viruses.  

PubMed

We recently reported the identification of sequences in the chicken genome that show over 95% identity to the novel envelope gene of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (S. J. Benson, B. L. Ruis, A. M. Fadly, and K. F. Conklin, J. Virol. 72:10157-10164, 1998). Based on the fact that the endogenous subgroup J-related env genes were associated with long terminal repeats (LTRs), we concluded that these LTR-env sequences defined a new family of avian endogenous viruses that we designated the ev/J family. In this report, we have further characterized the content and expression of the ev/J proviruses. The data obtained indicate that there are between 6 and 11 copies of ev/J proviruses in all chicken cells examined and that these proviruses fall into six classes. Of the 18 proviruses examined, all share a high degree of sequence identity and all contain an internal deletion that removes all of the pol gene and various amounts of gag and env gene sequences. Sequencing of the gag genes, LTRs, and untranslated regions of several ev/J proviruses revealed a high level of identity between isolates, indicating that they have not undergone significant sequence variation since their introduction into the avian germ line. Although the ev/J gag gene showed a relatively weak relationship (46% identity and 61% similarity at the amino acid level) to that of the avian leukosis-sarcoma virus family, it retains several sequences of demonstrated importance for virus assembly, budding, and/or infectivity. Finally, evidence was obtained that at least some members of the ev/J family are expressed and, if translated, could encode Gag- and Env-related polypeptides. PMID:10364281

Ruis, B L; Benson, S J; Conklin, K F

1999-07-01

421

Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the phospholipase A2 gene family in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The phospholipase A (PLA)2 family is the most complex gene family of phospholipases and plays a crucial role in a number of physiological activities. However, the phylogenetic background of the PLA2 gene family and the amino acid residues of the PLA2G7 gene following positive selection gene remain undetermined. In this study, we downloaded 49 genomic data sets of PLA from different species, including the human, house mouse, Norway rat, pig, dog, chicken, cattle, African clawed frog, Sumatran orangutan and the zebrafish species. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using the neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, as well as the Bayesian information criterion. The results were then presented as phylogenetic trees. Positive selection sites were detected using site, branch and branch-site models. These methods led us to the following assumptions: i) closer lineages were observed between PLA2G16 and PLA2G6, PLA2G7 and PLA2G4, PLA2G3 and PLA2G12, as well as among PLA2G10, PLA2G5 and PLA2G15; ii) PLA2G5 appeared to be the origin of the PLA2 family, and PLA2G7 was one of the most evolutionarily distant PLA2 proteins; iii) 16 positive-selection sites were detected and were marked in the PLA2G7 protein sequence as 327D, 257Q, 276G, 34s, 66G, 67C, 319S, 28N, 50S, 54T, 58R, 75T, 88Q, 92R, 179H and 191K. PMID:25543670

HUANG, QI; WU, YUAN; QIN, CHAO; HE, WENWU; WEI, XING

2015-01-01

422

Structural and Functional Analyses of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme with an Unexpected [beta]-Fucosidase Activity  

SciTech Connect

We present characterization of PbFucA, a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5) from Prevotella bryantii B{sub 1}4. While GH5 members typically are xylanases, PbFucA shows no activity toward xylan polysaccharides. A screen against a panel of p-nitrophenol coupled sugars identifies PbFucA as a {beta}-D-fucosidase. We also present the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution structure of PbFucA and use structure-based mutational analysis to confirm the role of catalytically essential residues. A comparison of the active sites of PbFucA with those of family 5 and 51 glycosidases reveals that while the essential catalytic framework is identical between these enzymes, the steric contours of the respective active site clefts are distinct and likely account for substrate discrimination. Our results show that members of this cluster of orthologous group (COG) 5520 have {beta}-D-fucosidase activities, despite showing an overall sequence and structural similarity to GH-5 xylanases.

Yoshida, Shosuke; Park, David S.; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick; Cann, Isaac K.O.; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC)

2012-02-15

423

Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: A mixed-methods analysis  

PubMed Central

Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009–2010). Even in Britain's leading ‘cycling city’, cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a ‘park-and-ride’ site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could ‘afford’ to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio-economic range. This suggests the importance of combining individual-level ‘healthy travel’ interventions with measures aimed at creating travel environments in which all social groups can pursue healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:22465380

Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R.; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

424

ECONOMIC STRAIN AND ADOLESCENT FUNCTIONING IN AT-RISK FAMILIES: THE MEDIATING ROLES OF STRESSFUL PARENT/CHILD RELATIONSHIPS AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS  

E-print Network

% of the federal poverty threshold is required to meet families’ basic needs (Cauthen & Fass, 2008; Gershoff et al., 2007). While both poor and low-income (i.e., within 100-200 % of the federal poverty guidelines) families experience similar financial hardship...) reporting yearly income of more than $60,000. The Federal Poverty Guidelines from 2008 and 2009 for income level and household size (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008, 2009) were used to calculate the percentage of poor (i.e., within 100...

Wilson, Mary Horn

2012-12-31

425

RNA pentaloop structures as effective targets of regulators belonging to the RsmA/CsrA protein family.  

PubMed

In the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, the dimeric RNA-binding proteins RsmA and RsmE, which belong to the vast bacterial RsmA/CsrA family, effectively repress translation of target mRNAs containing a typical recognition sequence near the translation start site. Three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, RsmZ) with clustered recognition sequences can sequester RsmA and RsmE and thereby relieve translational repression. According to a previously established structural model, the RsmE protein makes optimal contacts with an RNA sequence 5'- (A)/(U)CANGGANG(U)/(A)-3', in which the central ribonucleotides form a hexaloop. Here, we questioned the relevance of the hexaloop structure in target RNAs. We found that two predicted pentaloop structures, AGGGA (in pltA mRNA encoding a pyoluteorin biosynthetic enzyme) and AAGGA (in mutated pltA mRNA), allowed effective interaction with the RsmE protein in vivo. By contrast, ACGGA and AUGGA were poor targets. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements confirmed the strong binding of RsmE to the AGGGA pentaloop structure in an RNA oligomer. Modeling studies highlighted the crucial role of the second ribonucleotide in the loop structure. In conclusion, a refined structural model of RsmE-RNA interaction accommodates certain pentaloop RNAs among the preferred hexaloop RNAs. PMID:23635605

Lapouge, Karine; Perozzo, Remo; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Bertelli, Claire; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier; Scapozza, Leonardo; Haas, Dieter

2013-06-01

426

RNA pentaloop structures as effective targets of regulators belonging to the RsmA/CsrA protein family  

PubMed Central

In the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, the dimeric RNA-binding proteins RsmA and RsmE, which belong to the vast bacterial RsmA/CsrA family, effectively repress translation of target mRNAs containing a typical recognition sequence near the translation start site. Three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, RsmZ) with clustered recognition sequences can sequester RsmA and RsmE and thereby relieve translational repression. According to a previously established structural model, the RsmE protein makes optimal contacts with an RNA sequence 5?-A/UCANGGANGU/A-3?, in which the central ribonucleotides form a hexaloop. Here, we questioned the relevance of the hexaloop structure in target RNAs. We found that two predicted pentaloop structures, AGGGA (in pltA mRNA encoding a pyoluteorin biosynthetic enzyme) and AAGGA (in mutated pltA mRNA), allowed effective interaction with the RsmE protein in vivo. By contrast, ACGGA and AUGGA were poor targets. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements confirmed the strong binding of RsmE to the AGGGA pentaloop structure in an RNA oligomer. Modeling studies highlighted the crucial role of the second ribonucleotide in the loop structure. In conclusion, a refined structural model of RsmE-RNA interaction accommodates certain pentaloop RNAs among the preferred hexaloop RNAs. PMID:23635605

Lapouge, Karine; Perozzo, Remo; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Bertelli, Claire; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier; Scapozza, Leonardo; Haas, Dieter

2013-01-01

427

FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

428

Structural genomics analysis of uncharacterized protein families overrepresented in human gut bacteria identifies a novel glycoside hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteroides spp. form a significant part of our gut microbiome and are well known for optimized metabolism of diverse polysaccharides. Initial analysis of the archetypal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome identified 172 glycosyl hydrolases and a large number of uncharacterized proteins associated with polysaccharide metabolism. Results BT_1012 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 is a protein of unknown function and a member of a large protein family consisting entirely of uncharacterized proteins. Initial sequence analysis predicted that this protein has two domains, one on the N- and one on the C-terminal. A PSI-BLAST search found over 150 full length and over 90 half size homologs consisting only of the N-terminal domain. The experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the BT_1012 protein confirms its two-domain architecture and structural analysis of both domains suggests their specific functions. The N-terminal domain is a putative catalytic domain with significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, the C-terminal domain has a beta-sandwich fold typically found in C-terminal domains of other glycosyl hydrolases, however these domains are typically involved in substrate binding. We describe the structure of the BT_1012 protein and discuss its sequence-structure relationship and their possible functional implications. Conclusions Structural and sequence analyses of the BT_1012 protein identifies it as a glycosyl hydrolase, expanding an already impressive catalog of enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism in Bacteroides spp. Based on this we have renamed the Pfam families representing the two domains found in the BT_1012 protein, PF13204 and PF12904, as putative glycoside hydrolase and glycoside hydrolase-associated C-terminal domain respectively. PMID:24742328

2014-01-01

429

An Economic Analysis of Matrix Structure, Using Multinational Corporations as an Illustration  

E-print Network

This paper applies a comparative institutional perspective to the organizational design called matrix structure. After discussing the motivations for a multidimensional form of organization, the paper compares the transaction ...

Chi, Tailan; Nystrom, Paul

1998-01-01

430

Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

1980-01-01

431

Structural control of sedimentation patterns and implication for the economic potential of the East African Rift basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental rifts contain a significant proportion of world oil reserves. The Cenozoic rifts of Africa are no exception. In addition, the Africa rifts offer a potential for the accumulation of strata-bound economic resources which have not been fully investigated. Predicting the distribution of significant accumulations of metallic and non-metallic ores requires the development of depositional models that are related to basin-controlling variables such as crustal thickness, rates and degree of extension etc. Such model development relies upon observations made in areas of recent rifting, notably in East Africa. This paper offers a set of models for a spectrum of basin types that has been identified in the East African rift. They have been developed in the light of recent advances in our understanding of rift structure and development. Basins range in character from deep, narrow, structurally simple and volcanic-poor, e.g. the Tanganyika basin, through a less confined, volcanic but still simple Turkana-type basin, to the broad, shallow, volcanic-rich and structurally complex rift found in the region around Lake Baringo. Oil source rocks are accumulated in Tanganyika-type but the best reservoir rocks and seals are a product of Turkana-type settings. Turkana-type basins may also favour the accumulation of heavy minerals around lake shores and contain potentially exploitable sands and gravels. In contrast, the volcanic rocks and shallow lakes of Baringo-type rift basins encourage precipitation of economically useful evaporites (e.g. Lake Magadi) but have no oil potential.

Frostick, L. E.; Reid, I.

432

Business, Economics & Informatics  

E-print Network

Special Projects Birkbeck College: Management Structure College Secretariat September 2014 Library and Humanities Department of Economics, Mathematics and Statistics Department of Management Department

Crawford, Ian

433

R-Matrix Analysis of Structures in Economic Indices: from Nuclear Reactions to High-Frequency Trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the R-matrix theory of nuclear reactions is a viable mathematical theory for the description of the fine, intermediate and gross structure observed in the time-dependence of economic indices in general, and the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average in particular. A Lorentzian approximation to R-matrix theory is used to analyze the complex structures observed in the Dow Jones Industrial Average on a typical trading day. Resonant structures in excited nuclei are characterized by the values of their fundamental strength function, (average total width of the states)/(average spacing between adjacent states). Here, values of the ratios (average lifetime of individual states of a given component of the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average)/(average interval between the adjacent states) are determined. The ratios for the observed fine and intermediate structure of the index are found to be essentially constant throughout the trading day. These quantitative findings are characteristic of the highly statistical nature of many-body, strongly interacting systems, typified by daily trading. It is therefore proposed that the values of these ratios, determined in the first hour-or-so of trading, be used to provide valuable information concerning the likely performance of the fine and intermediate components of the index for the remainder of the trading day.

Firk, Frank W. K.

2014-03-01

434

Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family  

SciTech Connect

CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

2002-05-01

435

Structure, distribution, and expression of an ancient murine endogenous retroviruslike DNA family.  

PubMed Central

An endogenous retroviruslike DNA, B-26, was cloned from a BALB/c mouse embryo gene library by using a generalized murine leukemia virus DNA probe. Southern blot hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that B-26 DNA might be a novel member of the GLN DNA family (A. Itin and E. Keshet, J. Virol. 59:301-307, 1986) which contains murine leukemia virus-related pol and env sequences. Northern analysis indicated that B-26-related RNAs of 8.4 and 3.0 kilobases were transcribed in thymus, spleen, brain, and liver tissues of 6-week-old BALB/c mice. Images PMID:3172346

Obata, M M; Khan, A S

1988-01-01

436

The roles of role strain, economic resources and time demands in explaining mothers' life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time diary and questionnaire data from mothers who are full-time homemakers, members of dual-earner households, and heads of single-parent households are analyzed to determine the influence of family structure, economic resources, and time demands on their life satisfaction. The multivariate analysis reveals that family structure is moderately related to mothers' satisfaction with progress in life but not to satisfaction with

Jane McCullough; Cathleen D. Zick

1992-01-01

437

Magnetic and structural properties of the new double perovskite family Sr2GdRu1-xRexOy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the synthesis and structural and magnetic characterization of the new compound family Sr2GdRu1-xRexOy, with doping levels at 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%. X-ray diffractograms revealed that the samples crystallize in a monoclinic structure, and exhibit a strong distortion of the octahedron Ru(Re)O6/GdO6 lattice. Magnetic characterization revealed non-ideal antiferromagnetic behavior, with Néel temperatures close to 25 K, and an interesting metamagnetic feature below applied magnetic fields between 1.0 and 1.4 T. The existence of a Re doping level limit that favors an ideal antiferromagnetic character of the perovskite is discussed.

Corredor, L. T.; Roa-Rojas, J.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Beltrán, R.; Pureur, P.; Mesquita, F.; Albino Aguiar, J.

2013-05-01

438

Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases.  

PubMed

ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification, in which ADP-ribose is transferred from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to specific acceptors, thereby altering their activities. The ADP-ribose transfer reactions are divided into mono- and poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Cellular ADP-ribosylation levels are tightly regulated by enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins (e.g., ADP-ribosyltransferases, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP)) and those that cleave the linkage between ADP-ribose and acceptor (e.g., ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARH), poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARG)), thereby constituting an ADP-ribosylation cycle. This review summarizes current findings related to the ARH family of proteins. This family comprises three members (ARH1-3) with similar size (39kDa) and amino acid sequence. ARH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated arginine. ARH3 hydrolyzes poly-(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The different substrate specificities of ARH1 and ARH3 contribute to their unique roles in the cell. Based on a phenotype analysis of ARH1(-/-) and ARH3(-/-) mice, ARH1 is involved in the action by bacterial toxins as well as in tumorigenesis. ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos. PMID:24746921

Mashimo, Masato; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel

2014-11-01

439

Recognition of the Helical Structure of ?-1,4-Galactan by a New Family of Carbohydrate-binding Modules*  

PubMed Central

The microbial enzymes that depolymerize plant cell wall polysaccharides, ultimately promoting energy liberation and carbon recycling, are typically complex in their modularity and often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Here, through analysis of an unknown module from a Thermotoga maritima endo-?-1,4-galactanase, we identify a new family of CBMs that are most frequently found appended to proteins with ?-1,4-galactanase activity. Polysaccharide microarray screening, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical analysis of the isolated module demonstrate the specificity of the module, here called TmCBM61, for ?-1,4-linked galactose-containing ligands, making it the founding member of family CBM61. The ultra-high resolution x-ray crystal structures of TmCBM61 (0.95 and 1.4 ? resolution) in complex with ?-1,4-galactotriose reveal the molecular basis of the specificity of the CBM for ?-1,4-galactan. Analysis of these structures provides insight into the recognition of an unexpected helical galactan conformation through a mode of binding that resembles the recognition of starch. PMID:20826814

Cid, Melissa; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Kaneko, Satoshi; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Willats, William G. T.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2010-01-01

440

Crystal structure of a bacterial family-III cellulose-binding domain: a general mechanism for attachment to cellulose.  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of a family-III cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit of Clostridium thermocellum has been determined at 1.75 A resolution. The protein forms a nine-stranded beta sandwich with a jelly roll topology and binds a calcium ion. conserved, surface-exposed residues map into two defined surfaces located on opposite sides of the molecule. One of these faces is dominated by a planar linear strip of aromatic and polar residues which are proposed to interact with crystalline cellulose. The other conserved residues are contained in a shallow groove, the function of which is currently unknown, and which has not been observed previously in other families of CBDs. On the basis of modeling studies combined with comparisons of recently determined NMR structures for other CBDs, a general model for the binding of CBDs to cellulose is presented. Although the proposed binding of the CBD to cellulose is essentially a surface interaction, specific types and combinations of amino acids appear to interact selectively with glucose moieties positioned on three adjacent chains of the cellulose surface. The major interaction is characterized by the planar strip of aromatic residues, which align along one of the chains. In addition, polar amino acid residues are proposed to anchor the CBD molecule to two other adjacent chains of crystalline cellulose. Images PMID:8918451

Tormo, J; Lamed, R; Chirino, A J; Morag, E; Bayer, E A; Shoham, Y; Steitz, T A

1996-01-01

441

Economic sensor/actuator selection and its application to flexible structure control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic design method is proposed for the selecting of actuators and sensors in the structural control in order to minimize the instrumental cost. With actuators and sensors placed at all the admissible locations initially, an iterative minimization algorithm is carried out to identify the sensor/actuator that requires the least precision. By deleting the roughest sensor/actuator each time till loss of feasibility, one can conclude simultaneously the necessary number and type of sensor/actuator, and the location and precision for each sensor/actuator. A tensegrity structure example has been solved as an application of the proposed algorithm.

Skelton, Robert E.; Li, Faming

2004-07-01

442

Structural Basis of Conserved Cysteine in the Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Evidence for a  

E-print Network

(numbering scheme of the 140-residue form of FGF-1). Sequence and structure information suggests cysteine at position 83 in FGF-1, we constructed Ala, Ser, Thr, Val, and Ile mutations and determined their effects on structure and stability. These results show that position 83 in FGF-1 is thermodynamically

Blaber, Michael