Sample records for family structure economic

  1. Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

  2. Economic forces, structural discrimination and black family instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Hill

    1989-01-01

    The social and economic gains achieved by black families during the 1960s were severely eroded during the seventies and eighties.\\u000a Unemployment, poverty, single-parent families, out-of-wedlock births, and adolescent pregnancies soared to alarming levels.\\u000a According to the thesis of the declining significance of race, this crisis is mainly concentrated among the black “underclass”\\u000a and it is broad societal trends, not racism,

  3. Family structure, Afro-Euro inequality and economic justice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Shulman

    2001-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the fraction of all Afro-American families headed by single women accounts for approximately two-fifths of the Afro-Euro family income gap. Examines the empirical objections to the conclusion that family structure is a major factor behind ethnic inequality and found to be largely without merit. Also critically examines the more normative and more important objection that the

  4. Family as Economic Socialization Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Kathryn Dalbey

    1983-01-01

    The family operates as an economic socialization agent through the provision of (1) economic information networks, (2) grants and exchanges of resources, (3) economic role models, and (4) an environment for the development of individual human resource attributes. (SK)

  5. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  6. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  7. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  8. Changes in Chinese Urban Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Ming

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence of urban nuclear and stem families in China and impact of government policies on urban family structure since 1949 through analysis of 1982 Five-City Family Survey of Chinese urban families (N=5,057). Concluded that rapid decrease in stem families is not soon likely because of traditional, social, political, and economic…

  9. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  10. Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Manijeh Sabi

    Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

  11. Family Support and Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines the interrelationship of sustainable community economic strategies and sustainable family units. The introductory section of the report consists of one article, "Integrating Community Development and Family Support." The second section, "Community Building: A Movement is Afoot,"…

  12. Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

  13. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  14. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Kalil; Rebecca M. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic challenges facing mothers in fragile families and describe the

  15. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Kalil; Rebecca M. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Summary:Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic challenges facing mothers in fragile families and describe the

  16. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  17. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  18. Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2010-01-01

    Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family…

  19. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic…

  20. Economic Status of Families Living with Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Marci; Weinert, Clarann

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 604 families living with multiple sclerosis found average duration of the disease was 10 years; family income was above the national median; in 28 percent of the families, health insurance was inadequate to cover illness costs; and, overall, factors other than income and amount of health insurance determined the economic…

  1. Effects of migration on family structure.

    PubMed

    Pekin, H

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the situation and problems of migration on family structure, with emphasis on family reunification. The study is based on conditions and practices in Western Europe and Mediterranean countries relating to temporary labor migration. Most migrant workers have no intention of settling permanently and return to their country within a few years. The International Labour Office estimated in 1974 that at least 1/2 the migrant workers in Western Europe live without their families. Generally, migrants send for their families only when they are employed, earning adequate wages, and have adequate housing. Some reasons why migrants live apart from their families include 1) the receiving country discourages family immigration because it does not coincide with the economic necessities of migration policy and 2) some sending countries discourage it to ensure that the migrant worker returns to his own country. The main danger arising from family separation is that it frequently leads to the break up of the family. The leading European authorities recognize as a fundamental right the freedom of a migrant worker and his family to lead a normal family life in the receiving country. The author outlines the conditions for admission for residence and employment of migrant spouses and children for the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom. All countries require that the head be in regular employment for some time and be able to provide his family with suitable housing. Other problems concerning the arrival of migrant spouses and children include 1) acquiring employment and social information and counseling, 2) education of children, 3) obtaining vocational training and adaptation and 4) achieving entitlement to social security benefits. The effects of migration in the family context in sending countries include 1) providing activities for migrants to maintain cultural links with their countries of origin and 2) acquiring the nationality of the receiving countries. Countries should facilitate the admission to employment of migrant spouses and children, by maintaining provisions for the reuniting of families and imposing no limits on admission to residence; and 2) by overcome obstacles to admission to employment, by observing existing recommendations. In conclusion, governments should give family cohesion 1st priority, regardless of regulations. PMID:12315899

  2. Economic disadvantage in complex family systems: expansion of family stress models.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Melissa A

    2008-09-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  3. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  4. Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

  5. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  6. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  7. Family structure and dating behavior of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M; Ganong, L H; Ellis, P

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of family structure on previous dating behavior of older adolescents, and examined the relationship of family structure, family relationship variables, and personal attributes to previous dating behaviors. Data were obtained from 96 males and 81 females enrolled in human development courses at two midwestern universities; 122 were from intact, nuclear families and 55 were from nonintact families. The Dating and Courtship Behavior Questionnaire, adapted from questionnaires by Winch (1949a) and Landis (1963), was administered to subjects during regular class periods. Family structure did not have an effect on number of partners or steadies, but adolescents from nonintact households began dating at younger ages than those from intact households. Personal attributes were more often related to dating behaviors than family structure or family relationship variables. Little support was found for the proposition that dating behaviors were affected by family structure. PMID:4083116

  8. Latinas without Work: Family, Occupational, and Economic Stress Following Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Gloria J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined stressors in family, occupational, and economic domains among 114 Latinas following job loss. Stressors from the occupational stress domain were the greatest source for these women. Women who valued the job they lost and who were older reported the highest level of occupational stress. (Author/BH)

  9. Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-05-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

  10. How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

  11. Family Structure and Child Well-being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families N=35,938 were used to examine the relationship between family structure and child well-being. I extended prior research by including children in two-biological-parent cohabiting families, as well as co-habiting stepfamilies, in an investigation of the roles of economic and parental resources…

  12. Structural Dynamics and Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Antonio Ocampo

    reasons for the economic success of East Asia, as well as other successful ‘late industrializes’, provide parallel analytical contributions. This richness and diversity of analytical paradigms contrasts with trends in policy design, where the triumph of a uniform liberal economics paradigm is the rule. After an era of considerable state intervention and protection of domestic markets, less interventionist, open economies

  13. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  14. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  15. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  16. Family Structure and Youths' Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.

    2000-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…

  17. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  18. The Network Structure of Economic Output

    E-print Network

    Hidalgo, Cesar A.

    Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

  19. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  20. Economic hardship and adolescent problem drinking: family processes as mediating influences.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Cornelius, Marie D

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used substance among adolescents in the United States, and adolescent drinking is associated with various health risk behaviors. Given the prevalence and consequences of adolescent drinking, understanding family factors that contribute to adolescent drinking is an important area for research. This study used three waves of data to evaluate a family stress model in which economic hardship is indirectly related to adolescent problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. Respondents included 300 mothers (71 % Black, 29 % White) and adolescents (51 % male) who were interviewed when adolescents were ages 10, 14, and 16. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model and findings supported our hypothesized model. Economic hardship was positively related to maternal psychological distress. Maternal psychological distress was negatively associated with supportive parenting, which in turn was negatively associated with externalizing problems. Externalizing problems were positively associated with problem drinking. In support of our hypothesis regarding indirect effects, economic hardship was indirectly related to problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing problems. The findings from this study highlight the role of family processes in adolescent problem drinking. PMID:24248327

  1. Family and Community Services. Module XII: The Family: Functions and Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrich, Beatrice

    This twelfth of 14 curriculum modules in the Family and Community Services Occupational Education Modules series deals with functions and structure of the family. Definitions of the family are compared, and students are helped to understand various forms, functions, and structures of families. The developmental stages of the family life cycle and…

  2. Family firms versus leveraged buyouts: a conceptual comparison of distinctive governance structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Braun; Larry Zacharias; Scott Latham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the governance structures of two distinctive governance forms: the family firm and the leveraged buyout (LBO). The paper also explores the relative performance of these two organizational forms over the course of the economic business cycle. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a theoretical treatment of the family firm and the

  3. Dynamic Aspects of of Children's Health, Intellectual Development, and Family Economic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Shakotko

    1980-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation of childhood and adolescent health and cognitive development as determined by family economic variables. The model proposed recognizes that these processes may be jointly dependent, and may in part be determined by common unobserved factors; these factors may also be correlated with the observed family economic variables. A two-factor model is estimated using panel

  4. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  5. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  6. Consumer-Directed Supports: Economic, Health, and Social Outcomes for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses,…

  7. Compositional Security Modelling Structure, Economics, and Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Pym, David J.

    Compositional Security Modelling Structure, Economics, and Behaviour Tristan Caulfield1 , David Pym and the behavioural choices of agents operating within the system. Models are executable, so allowing system- atic- ingful way with other stakeholders, such as operations managers, finance managers, or senior strategists

  8. The Future Information Structure in Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Goffe, William L.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to "start a debate in our profession," William L. Goffe and Robert P. Parks have recently uploaded "The Future Information Structure in Economics" to the Economics Working Paper Archive at Washington University at St. Louis. Although the paper uses the Economics profession as an example, the points it raises can be applied to almost any academic subject. The paper discusses the possible effects of networking on future scholarly publishing, imagining how scholars will share not only their research, but also data sets that served as the raw material for the research, enabling other researchers to verify theories "on the fly." Several possibilities for future research publishing are discussed, from electronic journals that charge for access to completely free electronic publishing. The paper is divided into sections discussing: academic principles that are independent of technology; the impact of networks on working papers, journals and libraries; the implications of increased access to data; new opportunities for scholarly publishing in a networked environment; and a "roadmap" to a possible future of scholarly publishing. "Future Information" is available in .pdf, postscript, and TeX formats, is twenty pages long, contains little economics jargon, and has over 40 references to other electronic and non-electronic sources of interest. Goffe is a Professor in the Department of Economics and International Business at the University of Southern Mississippi, and is the author of "Resources for Economists on the Internet," one of the best Internet subject guides available. Parks is the maintainer of the Economics Working Paper Archive, a large and well organized electronic working paper archive.

  9. Ownership structure and acquirers performance: Family vs. Non-family firms

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    no statistical significant effect. Keywords: Acquisitions, family firms, agency theory, stock performanceOwnership structure and acquirers performance: Family vs. Non-family firms · Houssam Bouzgarroua. Comparing both, short-term and long-term performance, we find that family-controlled firms outperform non

  10. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  11. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  12. Inter-relationships between the economic and emotional consequences of colorectal cancer for patients and their families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the evidence-base concerning the economic impact of cancer for patients and their families/carers has grown in recent years, there is little known about how emotional responses to cancer influence this economic impact. We investigated the economic costs of cancer in the context of patients’ emotions and how these both shaped the patient and family burden. Methods Health professionals from six hospitals invited patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (ICD10 C18-C20) within the previous year to take part in the study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients and, where available, a family member. Interviews covered medical and non-medical costs incurred as a result of cancer and the impact of these on the lives of the patient and their family. Interviews were audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and these data were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis. Results Twenty-two patients with colorectal cancer (17 colon and 5 rectal; 14 women and 8 men) were interviewed; 6 were accompanied by a family member. Important cancer-related financial outlays included: travel and parking associated with hospital appointments; costs of procedures; increased household bills; and new clothing. Cancer impacted on employed individuals’ ability to work and depressed their income. The opportunity cost of informal care for carers/family members, especially immediately post-diagnosis, was a strong theme. All patients spoke of the emotional burden of colorectal cancer and described how this burden could lead to further costs for themselves and their families by limiting work and hindering their ability to efficiently manage their expenses. Some patients also spoke of how economic and emotional burdens could interact with each other. Support from employers, family/carers and the state/health services and patients’ own attitudes influenced this inter-relationship. Conclusions The economic impact of colorectal cancer on patients and their families is complex. This study suggests that the economic costs and the emotional impact of cancer are often related and can exacerbate each other, but that various factors can meditate this inter-relationship. PMID:22676509

  13. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  14. Rescuing the American Dream: Halting the Economic Freefall of Today's Young Families with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Arloc

    Since 1973, families headed by someone younger than 30 years of age have experienced a collapse in the value of their incomes, a surge in poverty, and an erosion of employer-provided health benefits. This report details the deep economic losses among young families with children and warns of consequences from these losses for young and old…

  15. The Development of Interpersonal Aggression during Adolescence: The Importance of Parents, Siblings, and Family Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shannon Tierney; Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Blozis, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling employed data from a longitudinal study of 451 sibling families to examine parents, siblings, and family economics as factors in individual differences in the developmental course of interpersonal aggression during adolescence. Findings suggest that individual change in interpersonal aggression during adolescence can…

  16. Kin Networks, Race, and Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    1984-01-01

    Uses data from a national survey of 6,373 families to compare Black and White families' kin network participation. Results showed White families are more likely to receive money from outside relatives; Black families are more likely to live with others in an extended family household. (JAC)

  17. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  18. Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

  19. Family Structure versus Family Relationships for Predicting to Substance Use/Abuse and Illegal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…

  20. Core Family Process Measures in the NLSY97: Variation by Gender, Race, Income, and Family Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinckley A. Jones-Sanpei; Randal D. Day; Erin K. Holmes

    2009-01-01

    This article uses data from the NLSY97 to provide a descriptive portrait of core family process measures—family routines, parent–youth relationship, parental monitoring, control and autonomy in parenting adolescents, parenting style, and the parents' marital relationship. This research contributes to our understanding of how family processes vary by gender, race, household income, and family structure. The comparisons were performed using analysis

  1. EARLY HEAD START Effects of Fathers, Neighborhoods and Family Structure

    E-print Network

    EARLY HEAD START Effects of Fathers, Neighborhoods and Family Structure on Child and Program Outcomes Hiram E. Fitzgerald Associate Provost for University Outreach and Engagement Michigan State Start Currently · 664 programs · 55,000 low income families National evaluation · 3,001 families

  2. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. Berghout Austin; Belinda Blevins-Knabe; Cyle Nielsen de Aquino; Elizabeth Urbieta de Burró; Kyung-Eun Park; Bruce Bayley; Matthew Christensen; Spencer Leavitt; Junius Merrill; Denise Taylor; Anne Thomas George

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to assess socialization, and a Family Resource Survey to assess economic well-being. As has

  3. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being Among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Walton; David T. Takeuchi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on psychological distress. The only effects of family composition are

  4. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  5. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. PMID:22446725

  6. FAMILY STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS AND CHILD ACHIEVEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Anne Shaff; Nicholas H. Wolfinger; Lori Kowaleski-Jones; Ken R. Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article uses prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to investigate how children in divorced and never-married-mother families vary in reading and math achievement after parental remarriage. These are compared to children who remain in never-married, divorced, and continuously married families. Results based on growth curve modeling indicate that children remaining in single-parent families resulting from

  7. Measuring the Economic Well-Being of Families and Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Linda

    This Kids Count report assembles some of the indicators that describe the economic environment of Minnesota children and families. The report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers at the city, county, and state levels, as well as community advocates, parents, and those who work with children. Section 1 of the report presents…

  8. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about the Economics of Meeting Families' Shelter Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed 216 students in kindergarten through grade 3 about the economics of meeting families' needs for shelter. Responses indicated that most understood that people have to pay for shelter, but most were vague about renting apartments or mortgages. Discusses findings in reference to curriculum and instruction in the early grades. (SLD)

  9. Adding It Up: The Economic Impact of Incarceration on Individuals, Families, and Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Watts; Demetra Smith Nightingale

    Much has been written on the causes and negative consequences of arrest and incarceration on the employment and earnings of individuals. Research has documented the social and psychological effects of crime on families and children. But the impact of incarceration on communities has received little attention, other than to document the positive economic benefits of prison building and administration. This

  10. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  11. Food Stamp Participation of Hired Farmworker Families. Agriculture Economic Report No. 403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie Whitener; Rowe, Gene

    The Food Stamp Program allows low-income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet through normal channels of trade. Because of the generally low income of hired farmworkers, food stamp assistance is an important addition to the economic and nutritional status of these workers and their families. This report presents a socioeconomic…

  12. Gender, Work-Family Linkages, and Economic Success among Small Business Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loscocco, Karyn A.; Leicht, Kevin T.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated work-family connections and economic success among women and men small business owners. Analyses of data from 3-year panel survey of 99 women and 312 men showed considerable gender similarity in processes through which business and individual characteristics affect personal earnings, although women were disadvantaged in some…

  13. Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

  14. The economic impact of dengue hemorrhagic fever on family level in Southern Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Lønstrup Harving; Ho Chi

    Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti). WHO estimates that 40% of the world's population live in areas endemic for dengue fever, and that there are approximately 50 million cases of dengue in- fection worldwide every year. This study aims to measure the economic consequences of dengue hemor- rhagic fever in Southern Vietnam on family level.

  15. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  16. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…

  17. PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space

    PubMed Central

    Dessailly, Benoît H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space. PMID:19523904

  18. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  19. A profile of social security child beneficiaries and their families: sociodemographic and economic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Cupito, Emily; Shoffner, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich dataset that links the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation calendar-year 2004 file with Social Security benefit records, this article provides a portrait of the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of Social Security child beneficiaries. We find that the incidence ofbenefit receipt in the child population differs substantially across individual and family-level characteristics. Average benefit amounts also vary across subgroups and benefit types. The findings provide a better understanding of the importance of Social Security to families with beneficiary children. Social Security is a major source of family income for many child beneficiaries, particularly among those with low income or family heads with lower education and labor earnings. PMID:21466031

  20. The family in Romania: cultural and economic context and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Adriana; Butiu, Otilia

    2012-04-01

    The study of family structures, functioning, roles and values is fundamental in family therapist's activities for better understanding the psychological, cultural and social specificity of different clients and interventions. In this paper we describe the Romanian family and the family therapies which are available in Romania. We illustrate basic needs using demographic data and research available from Romania. The nuclear family remains dominant instead of other alternatives, the age of marriage is earlier than in western European countries and celibate and consensual living are exceptions or only for the transitional period before marriage. The role of marriage and childbirth within the marital setting is still important. The model of a single child appears increasingly common due to an improvement in financial resources and better living conditions. Relations with family of origin remain close. The difficulties for children with parents working in different countries raise problems and have implications for the extended family, educators and psychotherapists as well as mental health service providers. Family therapists should keep in mind the structure, function, role and values of the Romanian family for better understanding the issues and resources and use these accordingly in therapy. Policy-makers should be aware of the difficulties concerning availability and access to this therapeutic approach. PMID:22515463

  1. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zenaida R. Ravanera; Fernando Rajulton

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children’s well-being by family structure. That is, developmental\\u000a outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental\\u000a investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social capital. This proposition

  2. Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

  3. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  4. FAMILY POWER STRUCTURE IN CHILE: A SURVEY OF COUPLES WITH CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIA DE LA LUZ ALVAREZ

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the family power structure in couples of median and low socio-economic level, with children attending public schools,1 in the metropolitan area of Santiago. The main findings are: (i) that there is a strong tendency toward equality in decision-making between husband and wife; and (ii) that marital satisfaction of the wife is closely

  5. Structural analyses reveal two distinct families of nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Matthew J; Ealick, Steven E

    2002-01-01

    The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:11743878

  6. The Economics of the Family and Its Policy Implications: Why Should We Care About Fertility Outcomes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Werding

    This paper reviews potential explanations of the continued fertility decline in devel- oped countries that are provided by the economic theory of the family and discusses their implications regarding the appropriateness of public interventions. Theoretical approaches covered are the quantity-quality interaction in parental fertility deci- sions; time-allocation models with rising opportunity costs of domestic child care; models of intra-household bargaining

  7. Structural analysis of social behavior and structural family therapy: A search for the mechanisms of therapeutic change in families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Santisteban

    1991-01-01

    A group of 16 Hispanic conduct disorder children (ages 6-11) and families were selected from a larger group of subjects who had participated in a treatment outcome study. Eight of the 16 subjects had received Psychodynamic Child Therapy (PCT) while the other eight had received Structural Family Therapy (SFT). Of the eight cases in PCT, four represented the most improved

  8. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  9. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l<2000 is bigger than that with l>2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  10. Impact of youth injuries on the uninsured farm family's economic viability.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the impact of youth injuries on the uninsured farm family's economic viability. Using farm prototypes, we compared farm profits with costs of farm youth injuries. We built profit models for two types of farms, dairy and soybean farms. Then we estimated the cost impact of farm youth injuries of different levels of severity on a farm family with no health insurance. A severe child injury that requires at least 10 days of hospitalisation would cost almost equal to the operating profit of the average dairy farm with no health insurance and would turn the operating profit of the average soybean farm into a severe loss of $99,499. Prevention of child agricultural injuries would significantly improve the financial situation for farm families that lack health insurance. PMID:21819178

  11. [The economic-financial sustainability of the Family Health Strategy in large municipalities].

    PubMed

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2011-03-01

    The universalization of basic care and commitment budget of the Ministry of Health with the Family Health Strategy (ESF) through new systematic financing incentives have been highlighted in the Brazilian health policy scenario. One of the great problems observed is the expansion of the strategy for large urban centres. This paper studies the economic-financial sustainability of ESF in Brazilian municipalities of more than 100 thousand inhabitants according to some selected indicators, considering the geographical region to which they belong, their population size and participation in Project for the Expansion and Consolidation Family Health (Proesf). Municipalities belonging to the Southeast region, more developed of the country, have on average better economic-financial performance, but lower average values of coverage of ESF. Municipalities from the North and Northeast, with the lowest average for economic-financial sustainability indicators, were the ones that made more effort to developments in the period. Thus, we observed the dynamics between bigger fiscal capacity and budgetary commitment with the Health Sector for biggest municipalities and in more economically developed regions, and greater vulnerability and dependence of federative transferences for municipalities with less people, in less developed areas. PMID:21519663

  12. Supersymmetric Structure of two Families of Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2012-02-01

    Solitons have generated considerable interest in the cold atoms and condensed matter communities. We demonstrate that two families of n-soliton solutions (with n an integer) -- one for the attractive nonlinear Schr"odinger (NLS) equation, and one for the sine-Gordon (sG) equation -- originate from a quantum-mechanical supersymmetric (QM-SUSY) chain connecting a set of reflectionless operators Hn. The families consist of breather-type solitons for NLSootnotetextD. Schrader, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2221 (1995). and multi-(anti)kink solitons with specific velocities for sG. The operators Hn, which we refer to as Akulin`s HamiltoniansootnotetextV. M. Akulin, Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems (Springer, Heidelberg, 2006)., form reflectionless direct-scattering initial conditions for the inverse scattering method. Such a QM-SUSY chain is analogous to the known connection between QM-SUSY chains of P"oschl-Teller potentials and solitons of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equationootnotetextSukumar, J. Phys. A 19, 2297 (1986). The existence of QM-SUSY chains connecting soliton solutions, now for three different integrable nonlinear equations, sheds light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for soliton generation.

  13. Utilizing structural family therapy and systems theory in the business world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Deacon

    1996-01-01

    The structure of businesses and the structure of families are very similar, considering the fact that so many businesses are owned or operated by families. Structural family therapists who are knowledgeable in systems theory and have an adequate understanding of the underlying concepts of structural family theory (including hierarchy, boundaries, and coalitions) can translate their knowledge to the structure of

  14. Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

  15. Association between family structure and food group intake in children

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

  16. The Relations between Contextual Risk, Earned Income, and the School Adjustment of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relations between multiple risk indexes representing contextual adversity, income-to-needs ratios, and the elementary school adjustment of children from economically disadvantaged families. The results provide evidence for volatility in family circumstances over 2-year intervals from preschool to 5th grade, for…

  17. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Advantage*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    I examine whether the effect of parents’ education on children’s educational achievement and attainment varies by family structure and, if so, whether this can be explained by differential parenting practices. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that as parents’ education increases, children in single mother families experience a lower boost in their achievement test scores, likelihood of attending any post-secondary schooling, likelihood of completing a four-year college degree, and years of completed schooling relative to children living with both biological parents. Differences in parents’ educational expectations, intergenerational closure, and children’s involvement in structured leisure activities partially explain these status transmission differences by family structure. The findings imply that, among children with highly educated parents, children of single mothers are less likely to be highly educated themselves relative to children who grow up with both biological parents. PMID:23017695

  18. Family Structure and Children's Socioeconomic Attainment: A Canadian Sample.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2015-02-01

    With the proliferation of different family forms in many western countries over the last few decades, research investigating the influence of family structure on children's socioeconomic status attainment has expanded dramatically, especially in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative influence of family structure, maternal resources, and family mental health on predicting socioeconomic attainment in young adulthood. Data for this study were derived from a case-comparison, three-wave panel study of single-parent, and two-parent families living in London, Ontario, with interviews conducted in 1993 (wave 1), 1994 (wave 2), and between 2005 and 2008 (wave 3). There were virtually no differences in status attainment by family structure. Unexpectedly, however, we found that children raised in temporally stable single-parent families, and those whose mothers transitioned from a single-parent family to a two-parent family had higher socioeconomic status occupations for their longest job held than did children raised in temporally stable two-parent families. Maternal education was positively related to the likelihood that children would graduate from college/university. For those concerned with social policy, this implies that greater attention ought to be paid to addressing disparities in education and family income than to concerns with the kinds of families in which children grow up. Avec la prolifération de différentes formes de familles dans plusieurs pays occidentaux depuis quelques décennies, la recherche sur l'influence de la structure da la famille sur l'acquisition de statu socioéconomique des enfants s'est dramatiquement élargie, surtout aux Etats-Unis. L'intention de cette étude était d'estimer l'influence relative de la structure de famille, les ressources maternelles et la santé mentale de la famille sur la prédiction d'acquisition socioéconomique d'un jeune adulte. Les données de cette étude résultent d'une comparaison de cas, sur un échantillonnage de 3 séries de familles monoparentales et de familles à 2 parents vivant à London, Ontario, avec des entrevues réalisées en 1993 (série 1), 1994 (série 2) et entre 2005 et 2008 (série 3). Il n'y a avait virtuellement pas de différence d'acquisition de statu par structure de famille. De manière inattendue, cependant, nous avons établis que les enfants élevés de par des familles monoparentales stables dans le temps, ainsi que ceux dont la mère avait opéré une transition d'une structure monoparentale vers une structure à 2 parents, occupaient des fonctions d'un statu socioéconomique plus élevé durant leur période d'emploi la plus longue comparés aux enfants élevés dans des familles à 2 parents stables dans le temps. L'éducation maternelle était positivement liée à la probabilité que les enfants obtiendraient un diplôme d'un niveau post-secondaire (collège / université). Pour ceux concernés par les politiques sociales, cela induit qu'une plus grande attention devrait être accordée à la disparité entre l'éducation et les revenus de la famille plutôt que de s'attarder sur les types de famille dans lesquelles les enfants grandissent. PMID:25737465

  19. Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

    One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

  20. Divorce, Family Structure, and the Academic Success of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William

    The goal of this book is to examine the relationship between parental family structure, especially parental divorce and/or remarriage, and the academic achievement of children. Much has been written about the need to raise the academic achievement of students from minority backgrounds. However, minority is often defined in terms of skin color and…

  1. Family structure, neonatal infection, and hay fever in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Strachan; E M Taylor; R G Carpenter

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased numbers of siblings and infection in early life protect against allergic sensitisation. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Sheffield, UK. SUBJECTS: 11,765 children aged 11-16 years for whom a history of neonatal infectious illness had been recorded systematically at 1 month of age. METHODS: A history of hay fever and family structure was obtained by postal

  2. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…

  3. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6–10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth. PMID:26137429

  4. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Granovetter

    1985-01-01

    How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

  5. Comparative effects of high energy cost on black and white families at four economic income levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crumbly

    1983-01-01

    For both black and white families in Peach County and Fort Valley, Georgia, electrical energy consumption increased as the family income increased. White families consumed 23% more electrical energy than black families at the $23,500 income level. At the lowest income ($4500) level, black families consumed 55% more electrical energy than white families. Black families also used 5% more electrical

  6. The ?c receptor family - Structural insights and their functional implications.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Sophie E; Nero, Tracy L; Dhagat, Urmi; Kan, Winnie L; Hercus, Timothy R; Tvorogov, Denis; Lopez, Angel F; Parker, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-5 are members of a small family of cytokines that share a beta receptor subunit (?c). These cytokines regulate the growth, differentiation, migration and effector function activities of many hematopoietic cells in bone marrow, blood and sites of inflammation. Excessive or aberrant signaling can result in chronic inflammatory conditions and myeloid leukemias. The crystal structures of the GM-CSF ternary complex, the IL-5 binary complex and the very recent IL-3 receptor alpha subunit build upon decades of structure-function studies, giving new insights into cytokine-receptor specificity and signal transduction. Selective modulation of receptor function is now a real possibility and the structures of the ?c receptor family are being used to discover novel and disease-specific therapeutics. PMID:25982846

  7. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Uríen, I. Ruiz; Capitanio, R. S.

    New trends in the frame of space applications lead to the necessity of using deployable/retractable structures, working either as beams (with payloads all along their length) or masts (loaded at their tip). SENER—under ESA/ESTEC and Spanish Space Program contracts—are developing a family of structures with deployment and retraction capabilities (LTS, SENERMAST, CTM) so as to cover all ranges of potential necessities in the space community (antennas, experiment support, solar arrays, heat rejection systems …). This paper consists of a summary of the performances and range of applications of LTS, SENERMAST and CTM, and pays special attention to the large truss structure (LTS) development and verification.

  8. Migration and Father Absence: Shifting Family Structure in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico—declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility—Mexican children’s family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father’s migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children’s living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children’s family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

  9. Migration and father absence: shifting family structure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Jenna

    2013-08-01

    Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico-declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility-Mexican children's family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father's migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children's living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children's family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

  10. Structural Optimization of an Energy Supply System from Economic Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamou, Satoshi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Yoshida, Shu

    An optimal planning method of system structure is proposed to determine kinds, numbers and capacities of equipment for an energy supply system installed in commercial and public buildings from economic viewpoint. In this method, they are determined together with maximum contract demands of utilities such as electricity and natural gas so as to minimize the annual total cost in consideration of system's annual operational strategies corresponding to seasonal and hourly energy demand requirements. A numerical study is carried out for an office building with total floor area of 15000m2. Through the study, the following are clarified: (a) the optimal system structure for the office building; (b) the economic effects of the optimal system compared to other typical energy supply systems; (c) the influence on the optimal system structure of the future efficiency improvement and initial capital cost reduction of equipment.

  11. The DAPK family: a structure-function analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Ruth; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2014-02-01

    DAP-kinase (DAPK) is the founding member of a family of highly related, death associated Ser/Thr kinases that belongs to the calmodulin (CaM)-regulated kinase superfamily. The family includes DRP-1 and ZIP-kinase (ZIPK), both of which share significant homology within the common N-terminal kinase domain, but differ in their extra-catalytic domains. Both DAPK and DRP-1 possess a conserved CaM autoregulatory domain, and are regulated by calcium-activated CaM and by an inhibitory auto-phosphorylation within the domain. ZIPK's activity is independent of CaM but can be activated by DAPK. The three kinases share some common functions and substrates, such as induction of autophagy and phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain leading to membrane blebbing. Furthermore, all can function as tumor suppressors. However, they also each possess unique functions and intracellular localizations, which may arise from the divergence in structure in their respective C-termini. In this review we will introduce the DAPK family, and present a structure/function analysis for each individual member, and for the family as a whole. Emphasis will be placed on the various domains, and how they mediate interactions with additional proteins and/or regulation of kinase function. PMID:24220854

  12. Structure of a Site2 Protease Family Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Feng; Hanchi Yan; Zhuoru Wu; Nieng Yan; Zhe Wang; Philip D. Jeffrey; Yigong Shi

    2007-01-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis by members of the site-2 protease (S2P) family is an important signaling mechanism conserved from bacteria to humans. Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane core domain of an S2P metalloprotease from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The protease consists of six transmembrane segments, with the catalytic zinc atom coordinated by two histidine residues and one aspartate residue

  13. Structure and signalling in the IL17 receptor family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Gaffen

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), the hallmark cytokine of the newly defined T helper 17 (TH17) cell subset, has important roles in protecting the host against extracellular pathogens, but also promotes inflammatory pathology in autoimmune disease. IL-17A and its receptor (IL-17RA) are the founding members of a newly described family of cytokines and receptors that have unique structural features which distinguish them from

  14. Sequence, Structure, and Evolution of Cellulases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 48*

    PubMed Central

    Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels (1). Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for “true” cellulases. PMID:23055526

  15. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Ddamulira, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty—in which most of the children represented in this study live—addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning.

  16. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient. PMID:25994545

  17. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating ...

  18. Functional and structural diversity of the human Dickkopf gene family.

    PubMed

    Krupnik, V E; Sharp, J D; Jiang, C; Robison, K; Chickering, T W; Amaravadi, L; Brown, D E; Guyot, D; Mays, G; Leiby, K; Chang, B; Duong, T; Goodearl, A D; Gearing, D P; Sokol, S Y; McCarthy, S A

    1999-10-01

    Wnt proteins influence many aspects of embryonic development, and their activity is regulated by several secreted antagonists, including the Xenopus Dickkopf-1 (xDkk-1) protein. xDkk-1 inhibits Wnt activities in Xenopus embryos and may play a role in induction of head structures. Here, we characterize a family of human Dkk-related genes composed of Dkk-1, Dkk-2, Dkk-3, and Dkk-4, together with a unique Dkk-3 related protein termed Soggy (Sgy). hDkks 1-4 contain two distinct cysteine-rich domains in which the positions of 10 cysteine residues are highly conserved between family members. Sgy is a novel secreted protein related to Dkk-3 but which lacks the cysteine-rich domains. Members of the Dkk-related family display unique patterns of mRNA expression in human and mouse tissues, and are secreted when expressed in 293T cells. Furthermore, secreted hDkk-2 and hDkk-4 undergo proteolytic processing which results in cleavage of the second cysteine-rich domain from the full-length protein. Members of the human Dkk-related family differ not only in their structures and expression patterns, but also in their abilities to inhibit Wnt signaling. hDkk-1 and hDkk-4, but not hDkk-2, hDkk-3 or Sgy, suppress Wnt-induced secondary axis induction in Xenopus embryos. hDkk-1 and hDkk-4 do not block axis induction triggered either by Xenopus Dishevelled (Xdsh) or Xenopus Frizzled-8 (Xfz8), both of which function to transduce signals from Wnt ligands. Thus, hDkks 1 and 4 may inhibit Wnt activity by a mechanism upstream of Frizzled. Our findings highlight the structural and functional heterogeneity of human Dkk-related proteins. PMID:10570958

  19. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2004-02-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation. PMID:15074125

  20. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  1. Structural and functional insight into the universal stress protein family

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Karolina L; A Shumilin, Igor; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2013-01-01

    We present the crystal structures of two universal stress proteins (USP) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Nitrosomonas europaea in both apo- and ligand-bound forms. This work is the first complete synthesis of the structural properties of 26 USP available in the Protein Data Bank, over 75% of which were determined by structure genomics centers with no additional information provided. The results of bioinformatic analyses of all available USP structures and their sequence homologs revealed that these two new USP structures share overall structural similarity with structures of USPs previously determined. Clustering and cladogram analyses, however, show how they diverge from other members of the USP superfamily and show greater similarity to USPs from organisms inhabiting extreme environments. We compared them with other archaeal and bacterial USPs and discuss their similarities and differences in context of structure, sequential motifs, and potential function. We also attempted to group all analyzed USPs into families, so that assignment of the potential function to those with no experimental data available would be possible by extrapolation. PMID:23745136

  2. Temporal Influences of Family Structure and Family Risk Factors on Drug Use Initiation in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescent Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres G. Gil; William A. Vega; Frank Biafora

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family structure and family environments on the initiation of illicit drug use among a sample of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic\\/Latino, African American, and White non-Hispanic adolescent boys (N = 3413). Bivariate and multivariate analyses with longitudinal data, three years, were used to assess transitional\\/temporal influences of family variables on the initiation of illicit drug

  3. Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and Methods: The families of 177 Cuban American and White non-Hispanic American caregivers of dementia patients were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Structural family theory and clinical experience were used to identify family interaction patterns believed to be related to caregiver emotional functioning. Factor analysis was used to refine subscales and develop a multiscale measure. Results: Six reliable subscales were related to caregiver distress and included in the SFSR-DC. There were two second-order factors. The SFSR-DC was provisionally cross-validated and showed invariance across the two ethnic groups. Implications: The SFSR-DC provides a method for examining specific and multiple interaction patterns in caregiver families and thus can advance knowledge regarding the role of the family in the stress processes of caregiving. These findings support the relevance of family interactions in caregiver distress and suggest that a treatment approach aimed at supporting family closeness and conflict resolution and reducing negativity might enhance caregiver well-being. PMID:16051907

  4. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

  5. Positron Excess, Luminous-Dark Matter Unification and Family Structure

    E-print Network

    Paul H. Frampton; Pham Q. Hung

    2009-04-16

    It is commonly assumed that dark matter may be composed of one or at most a few elementary particles. PAMELA data present a window of opportunity into a possible relationship between luminous and dark matter. Along with ATIC data the two positron excesses are interpreted as a reflection of dark matter family structure. In a unified model it is predicted that at least a third enhancement might show up at a different energy. The strength of the enhancements however depends on interfamily mixing angles.

  6. Family Structure and Self-Rated Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly E. Heard; Bridget K. Gorman; Carolyn A. Kapinus

    2008-01-01

    While the relationship between family structure and child well-being is well-established, little is known about the specific\\u000a impact of family structure on health in adolescence and young adulthood. Using data on 12,737 respondents from Waves I and\\u000a III of Add Health, we examine the association between family structure (two biological\\/adoptive, stepfather, and single mother\\u000a families at Wave I) and self-rated

  7. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  8. Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex

    E-print Network

    Dykhuis, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an ($e_\\text{P},a_\\text{P}$) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ~180 degrees with ejecta velocity $v_\\text{ej} \\sim 285$ m/s. The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of $\\delta a_{ej} = 0.005 \\pm 0.008$ AU, which constitutes only a small fraction (7\\%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to...

  9. Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J.D.; Nwachukwu, J.C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K.W.; LoGrasso, P.V.

    2012-12-05

    c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

  10. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  11. The Structure of Families' Ties to their Kin: The Shaping Role of Social Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Mary Ellen; Reiss, David

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of objectively-monitored problem-solving behavior of nuclear families with kinship network structure indicates strong parallels between intra-family and extra-family interaction processes. Findings are consistent with theory of variation in how families regulate their relationships with the social environment. (Author)

  12. Economic insecurity and access to the social safety net among Latino farmworker families.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Yolanda C; Scott, Jennifer L; Lopez, Olivia

    2014-04-01

    Farmworkers experience pervasive economic insecurity in part because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work and limited employment protections. Yet little is known about the adequacy of the social safety net in responding to farmworker needs. Using data from the 2005-2009 National Agricultural Workers Survey (N = 10,469), the current study analyzed predictors of social welfare participation among Latinos, who represent approximately 80 percent of all farmworkers. Nearly 95 percent are immigrants, although almost half of them have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Descriptive analyses showed that, even among farmworker households whose income fell below the poverty line or that were headed by legally documented individuals, social services use was very low. Logistic regression analyses revealed that degree of social integration influenced social welfare participation, controlling for education, poverty status, family composition, and employment characteristics. Latino farmworkers who were recent immigrants (that is, in the United States for less than five years) had significantly lower odds of access to social insurance and public assistance programs relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Low self-reported English ability significantly decreased access to most social insurance programs but not public assistance receipt. The findings indicate the need for social workers to engage in outreach efforts and policy advocacy to improve farmworkers access to social welfare. PMID:24855865

  13. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  14. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

  15. The concept of the ?-amylase family: Structural similarity and common catalytic mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Kuriki; Tadayuki Imanaka

    1999-01-01

    This review reconsiders the concept of the ?-amylase family in the light of the recent wealth of information on the structures, the catalytic mechanisms, and the classification of amylases. We proposed a general concept for an enzyme family, the ?-amylase family including most of the amylases and related enzymes in 1992, based on the structural similarity and the common catalytic

  16. Rural-Urban Differences in Black Family StructureAn Analysis of the 1990 Census

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAYWARD DERRICK HORTON; MELVIN E. THOMAS; CEDRIC HERRING

    1995-01-01

    The nature and structure of the African American family continues to be a topic of importance in sociology. Since the much-maligned Moynihan report of the 1960s, sociologists have linked Black family structure to persisting disadvantage. However, the overwhelming majority of past studies have focused on the urban Black family. Accordingly, this article employs data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata

  17. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  18. Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, B7-H3

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing

    Structure Article Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, B7-H3 Vladimir the recogni- tion of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member, engagement between the T cell receptor (TCR) and the antigenic peptide:major histocom- patibility complex (p

  19. The Family Structure Trajectory and Adolescent School Performance: Differential Effects by Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Holly E.

    2007-01-01

    The question of whether family structure consequences on school achievement are the same across racial and ethnic groups is examined using longitudinal data on 10,606 teens from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Based on life course theory, this article uses indicators of the family structure trajectory, such as family…

  20. Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

  1. Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequality: Parents’ Contribution to Children’s College Costs

    PubMed Central

    Henretta, John C.; Wolf, Douglas A.; Van Voorhis, Matthew F.; Soldo, Beth J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of family structure in the financial support parents provide for their children’s college education. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on aspects of family structure that affect parental support and estimate shared family variance in investments as well as within-family variation using a multilevel model. Family membership accounts for about 60% of the variance in payment of college costs. Small family size, living with both biological parents (compared to one biological parent and a stepparent), higher parental education, and having older parents are associated with greater parental expenditures. PMID:23017857

  2. Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

  3. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  4. Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudka, A. P.; Simonov, V. I.

    2011-11-01

    The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

  5. The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

  6. Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

  7. The CATH database: an extended protein family resource for structural and functional genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances M. G. Pearl; C. F. Bennett; James E. Bray; Andrew P. Harrison; Nigel J. Martin; Adrian J. Shepherd; Ian Sillitoe; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

    2003-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath_new) cur- rently contains 34 287 domain structures classified into 1383 superfamilies and 3285 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with domain sequence relatives recruited from GenBank using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended resource, known as the CATH-protein family database (CATH-PFDB) contains a total of

  8. Structural ceramics in transportation: fuel implications and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Johnson, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The potential application of structural ceramics in motor vehicle engines is described. The high temperature strength characteristic plus the properties of resistance to wear and corrosion make these high-tech ceramics excellent candidates for the harsh environment of the advanced engine systems being considered for automobiles and trucks. The critical role of ceramics in the adiabatic diesel, gas turbine and Stirling engine is discussed, along with an indication of the fuel efficiency potential and multi-fuel capability of each engine. A market penetration analysis of the advanced engines is reviewed and forms the basis of developing two alternative commercialization scenarios for ceramic component engines - one with the United States dominating the market and the other with Japan dominating. Changes in major national economic indicators are noted after simulating the economy with a macroeconomic model. Strategic materials impacts are also noted.

  9. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  10. Adoptees' portrayal of the development of family structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Sobol; Sharon Delaney; Brian M. Earn

    1994-01-01

    Young adult adoptees and nonadoptees provided retrospective accounts of family relationships from infancy to young adulthood. Adoptive families were portrayed as more cohesive and adaptable than nonadoptive families. Adoptive fathers were recalled as being closer to their children then were nonadoptive fathers in the years preceding adolescence. Within the same time frame, adoptive mothers were drawn in a less hierarchical

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Expectations for Children from Different Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grymes, Joanna M.; And Others

    Previous research, conducted when divorce was still relatively atypical, indicated that teachers have lower expectations for children from divorced families than for children from intact families. The purpose of this study was to identify current attitudes of preservice teachers toward children from different family structures. Student teachers…

  12. Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruycker, Trees

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

  13. Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

    The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

  14. Comparative effects of high energy cost on black and white families at four economic income levels

    SciTech Connect

    Crumbly, I.J.

    1983-12-01

    For both black and white families in Peach County and Fort Valley, Georgia, electrical energy consumption increased as the family income increased. White families consumed 23% more electrical energy than black families at the $23,500 income level. At the lowest income ($4500) level, black families consumed 55% more electrical energy than white families. Black families also used 5% more electrical energy than white families at both the $9,000 and $16,000 income levels. More electrical energy was consumed during the summer months than during the winter months. The greater consumption of electrical energy during the summer is associated with air conditioning. Although both black and white families consumed the greatest amount of gas energy at the highest income level, gas consumption was not as closely correlated with increase in income levels as electrical energy. For both black and white families, gas energy consumption was several times greater during the winter than during the summer months. In regards to the total cost of energy among black households, the $9000, $16,000 and $23,500 income levels spent 2%, 23% and 35% more money for the total cost of energy than the $4500 income level. Similarly, white households at the $9000, $16,000 and $23,500 income levels spent 33%, 30% and 101% more money for the total cost of energy, respectively, than the $4500 income level. One dollar out of every 6.4 dollars (or 15.6% of total income) was spent on energy at the $4500 income level in black households compared to one out of every 8.3 dollars (12.1% of total income) spent on energy at the same income level for white households. The lowest percentage of income spent on energy by black households was 4% at the $23,500 income level. For white families, the lowest percentage of income spent on energy was 4.4% at the $16,000 income level.

  15. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the expectation that developmental idealism has been disseminated to ordinary people and affects family behavior. Developmental idealism is a belief and value system that endorses societal and family development, views societal and family development as occurring together, and suggests that modern families are causes and consequences of societal development. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to examine the understandings of ordinary people and show that Nepalis can discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Nepal. Developmental idealism is related in predictable ways to education, work experience, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although research ascertaining the influence of developmental idealism on demographic decision-making and behavior would be valuable, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time crossectional data, but our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  16. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  18. The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically…

  19. Comprehensive Family-Centered Training Programs: Five Comparative Case Studies. Evaluation of the Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Richard L.; Sprague, C. Fremont

    The Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, which exemplifies the comprehensive, residential family-centered approach to serving the economically disadvantaged, was compared to four similar programs in the United States: Arizona Job Colleges (AJC) in Arizona; Madera Employment Training Center (METC) in California; Manpower,…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module III-D-1: Clothing the Individual and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Barbara

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on clothing the individual and family is the first in a set of two modules on textiles and clothing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see…

  1. Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate-Binding Module: Evidence for Significant

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    Structure of a Mannan-specific Family 35 Carbohydrate- Binding Module: Evidence for Significant generally contain non- catalytic, carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that function by attaching the enzyme: carbohydrate-binding module; NMR structure; mannan; binding specificity; decorated oligosaccharides

  2. Comparative structural analysis of the caspase family with other clan CD cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    McLuskey, Karen; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    Clan CD forms a structural group of cysteine peptidases, containing seven individual families and two subfamilies of structurally related enzymes. Historically, it is most notable for containing the mammalian caspases, on which the structures of the clan were founded. Interestingly, the caspase family is split into two subfamilies: the caspases, and a second subfamily containing both the paracaspases and the metacaspases. Structural data are now available for both the paracaspases and the metacaspases, allowing a comprehensive structural analysis of the entire caspase family. In addition, a relative plethora of structural data has recently become available for many of the other families in the clan, allowing both the structures and the structure–function relationships of clan CD to be fully explored. The present review compares the enzymes in the caspase subfamilies with each other, together with a comprehensive comparison of all the structural families in clan CD. This reveals a diverse group of structures with highly conserved structural elements that provide the peptidases with a variety of substrate specificities and activation mechanisms. It also reveals conserved structural elements involved in substrate binding, and potential autoinhibitory functions, throughout the clan, and confirms that the metacaspases are structurally diverse from the caspases (and paracaspases), suggesting that they should form a distinct family of clan CD peptidases. PMID:25697094

  3. Comparative structural analysis of the caspase family with other clan CD cysteine peptidases.

    PubMed

    McLuskey, Karen; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2015-03-01

    Clan CD forms a structural group of cysteine peptidases, containing seven individual families and two subfamilies of structurally related enzymes. Historically, it is most notable for containing the mammalian caspases, on which the structures of the clan were founded. Interestingly, the caspase family is split into two subfamilies: the caspases, and a second subfamily containing both the paracaspases and the metacaspases. Structural data are now available for both the paracaspases and the metacaspases, allowing a comprehensive structural analysis of the entire caspase family. In addition, a relative plethora of structural data has recently become available for many of the other families in the clan, allowing both the structures and the structure-function relationships of clan CD to be fully explored. The present review compares the enzymes in the caspase subfamilies with each other, together with a comprehensive comparison of all the structural families in clan CD. This reveals a diverse group of structures with highly conserved structural elements that provide the peptidases with a variety of substrate specificities and activation mechanisms. It also reveals conserved structural elements involved in substrate binding, and potential autoinhibitory functions, throughout the clan, and confirms that the metacaspases are structurally diverse from the caspases (and paracaspases), suggesting that they should form a distinct family of clan CD peptidases. PMID:25697094

  4. Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-03-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. PMID:24677648

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure

  6. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  7. Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

  8. A comprehensive classification of nucleic acid structural families based on strand direction and base pairing.

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, R; Zakrzewska, K; Sun, J S; Harvey, S C

    1992-01-01

    We propose a classification of DNA structures formed from 1 to 4 strands, based only on relative strand directions, base to strand orientation and base pairing geometries. This classification and its associated notation enable all nucleic acids to be grouped into structural families and bring to light possible structures which have not yet been observed experimentally. It also helps in understanding transitions between families and can assist in the design of multistrand structures. PMID:1383936

  9. The Economic Consequences of Absent Parents. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Stevens, Ann Huff

    In recent years, the belief that marriage bestows large economic gains has generated enthusiasm for policy proposals that encourage the formation and continuation of two-parent families. This study examined the effects of family structure on economic resources, controlling for unobservable family background characteristics. Data were drawn from…

  10. Family engagement in literacy activities: revised factor structure for The Familia – an instrument examining family support for early literacy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Buhs; Greg Welch; Jennifer Burt; Lisa Knoche

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data?set drawn using The Familia – a measure originally developed to evaluate shared?reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure\\/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43 months) participating in a longitudinal intervention study of

  11. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  12. The Effects of Family Structure, Family Responsibilities, and Family Closeness on the College Decisions of Hispanic High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Joanna Louise

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the differences between Hispanic high school graduates, both male and female, who chose not to attend college, who chose to initially enroll into a two-year college, or who chose to initially enroll into a four-year college or university. The 1994-1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to determine how family…

  13. Letter knowledge in parent–child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  14. CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF U.S.BASED FOOD PROCESSING FIRMS: A TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Sporleder; LeeAnn E. Moss

    A theoretical framework contributing to our understanding of capital structure decisions is em erging from transaction costs economics (TCE). Williamson initially proposed the economic drivers associated with debt versus equity financing. He suggests that debt and equity not be viewed primarily as financial instruments but as governance structures. An important concept within the TCE paradigm is asset specificity or idiosyncratic

  15. Structural funds and the evaluation of community economic development initiatives in the UK: A critical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Armstrong; Peter Wells

    2006-01-01

    Armstrong H. and Wells P. (2006) Structural Funds and the evaluation of community economic development initiatives in the UK: a critical perspective, Regional Studies40, 259–272. Since their inception within UK Structural Funds programmes in the 1990s, community economic development (CED) initiatives have experienced a rapid expansion. Evaluation methods have struggled to adapt to what was a radically new type of

  16. THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF SYSTEMS SECURITY ECONOMICS ADAM BEAUTEMENT AND DAVID PYM

    E-print Network

    Pym, David J.

    the security dynamics of the system and support utility calculations that inform design and investmentTHE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF SYSTEMS SECURITY ECONOMICS ADAM BEAUTEMENT AND DAVID PYM ABSTRACT. Structured systems security economics provides a conceptual framework, inspired by macroe- conomic models

  17. An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, Jaina [European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL–EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA (United Kingdom); Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard [Technical University Munich, Garching (Germany); New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Punta, Marco, E-mail: mpunta@ebi.ac.uk [European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL–EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA (United Kingdom); Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    This study uses the Pfam database to show that the sequence redundancy of protein structures deposited in the PDB is increasing. The possible reasons behind this trend are discussed. High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed.

  18. Presentation of structural component designs for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Mark; Haddad, Raphael; Creighton, Tom; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Swift, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to present the implementation of structural commonality in the family of commuter airplanes. One of the main goals is implementation of structural commonality to as high a degree as possible. The structural layouts of those parts of the airplanes in which commonality is possible with all members of the family will be presented. The following airplane sections, which are common on all of the airplanes in the family, will be presented: common nose cone design; common wing torque box design; and common tail cone design. A proposed production and manufacturing breakdown is described. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing structural commonality and recommendations for further work will be discussed.

  19. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Brian J.; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN ? lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3?-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs. PMID:21994249

  20. The economics of a stage-structured wildlife population model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Olaf Olaussen; Anders Skonhoft

    2005-01-01

    A four-stage model (calves, yearlings, adult female and adult male) of the Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) is formulated. Fecundity is density dependent while mortality is density independent. The paper aims to demonstrate the economic content of such a wildlife model and how this content may change under shifting economic and ecological conditions. Two different harvesting regimes are explored: hunting for

  1. Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-

    E-print Network

    Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

  2. An International Look at the Single-Parent: Family Structure Matters More for U.S. Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on…

  3. The Structure of Families who Adopt Children from Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach

    2009-01-01

    The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) gave incentives to states to expedite the adoption of children from foster care. Administrative data describe the changes in adoptive families from 1996 to 2003 in terms of the marital status and sex of the household head and in terms of the relationship of the parents to the child prior to adoption. Patterns in the way children with special needs were matched with different kinds of families are described. The data show that agencies have tapped the resources of families headed by single parents to provide permanency for older children and that older children adopted by fathers have spent more time as legal orphans than children adopted by single mothers. PMID:19890459

  4. Determinants of Role Structure in Family Financial Management

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Dennis L.; Granbois, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Variables determining the role of husband and wife in family financial management are explored based on in-home, personal interviews. Financial tasks reflecting implementation activities and two groupings of decision ...

  5. SCOP database in 2004: refinements integrate structure and sequence family data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonina Andreeva; Dave Howorth; Steven E. Brenner; Tim J. P. Hubbard; Cyrus Chothia; Alexey G. Murzin

    2004-01-01

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. Protein domains in SCOP are hierarchically classified into families, superfamilies, folds and classes. The con- tinual accumulation of sequence and structural data allows more rigorous analysis and provides import- ant information for understanding the protein world

  6. Children's Economic Well-Being in Married and Cohabiting Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Brown, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, children are living with cohabiting parents. Prior work on the material well-being of children living in cohabiting families is extended by including the biological relationship of children to adults, examining the racial and ethnic variations, and investigating the multiple indicators of material well-being. We draw on the 1999…

  7. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

  8. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Nebraska. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 230 Nebraska farm operators (a 23% response rate) and 222 spouses (a 22% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

  9. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Missouri. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl; Klein, Tanna

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 192 Missouri farm operators (a 21% response rate) and 166 spouses (an 18% response rate) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states.…

  10. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Ohio. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobao, Linda; Meyer, Katherine

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 388 Ohio farm operators (a 38.8% response rate) and 353 spouses as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The purpose of the survey…

  11. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  12. Making Ends Meet Developed by Dr. Joyce Cavanagh, Associate Professor and Extension Family Economics Specialist,

    E-print Network

    if they can justify their reasons. Play: Present the activity as an opportunity to practice budgeting without, genetic information or veteran status. #12;Goal: Participants will develop a family spending plan based participants the opportunity to practice making a budget by choosing how to spend their `income. 1. If you

  13. Lone-Parent Families. The Economic Challenge. OECD Social Policy Studies No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duskin, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This volume is based on papers presented at a conference of social policy experts that looked at the growth in lone-parent families, the problems that have emerged, and their policy implications. Chapter 1 is an "Overview" (Duskin). Three chapters look at demographic trends over time and over the life-cycle; they are: "Demographic Aspects of the…

  14. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  15. Economic Development and the Effects of Family Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Kathryn S.; Khmelkov, Vladimir T.; Wang, Xiao-Qing

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between nations' level of economic development and the influence of adolescents' social backgrounds on their academic achievement. Using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, results reveal that the positive effect of higher parents' education on middle-school students' mathematics test scores…

  16. Family, economics and the information society - How are they affecting each other?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Sophia Aguirre

    2001-01-01

    In the twentieth century many developed countries moved from an “agricultural-based industrial society” to an “information society.” The second part of the century saw a deterioration of social conditions in many industrialized countries. The combination of these two factors has posed to countries both serious challenges and economic burdens. There is concern about the effects of the breakdown of the

  17. The Relation Between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE A. KURDEK; MARK A. FINE

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents (mean age = 11.99 years) who lived with both biological parents (BP), a single divorced mother (DM), a single divorced father (DF), a mother and stepfather (SF), a father and a stepmother (SM), or a multiply divorced parent (MD) (ns = 681, 78, 21, 146, 36, and 55, respectively) appraised dimensions of family climate (supervision, warmth, conflict, and

  18. Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China

    E-print Network

    He, Lei 1984-

    2012-11-20

    in China, research still shows that family structure in China is relatively stable compared to western countries. This dissertation investigates the effects of family structure on fertility in contemporary China. This dissertation had two main objectives...

  19. Molecular structure and chromosome distribution of three repetitive DNA families in Anemone hortensis L. (Ranunculaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Mlinarec; Mike Chester; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Dražena Papeš; Andrew R. Leitch; Višnja Besendorfer

    2009-01-01

    The structure, abundance and location of repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes can characterize the nature of higher plant\\u000a genomes. Here we report on three new repeat DNA families isolated from Anemone hortensis L.; (i) AhTR1, a family of satellite DNA (stDNA) composed of a 554–561 bp long EcoRV monomer; (ii) AhTR2, a stDNA family composed of a 743 bp long HindIII monomer

  20. Structural family therapy in a multidisciplinary facial pain center: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela G. Boll; Margaret L. DuVall; Louis G. Mercuri

    1983-01-01

    To date structural family therapy has not been reported in the evaluation and multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain patients. This article describes the three-session treatment of a 28-year-old woman with degenerative joint disease and the medical, psychological, and family therapy interventions with this patient. The pain symptom is examined within the family system to determine the function of the symptom,

  1. Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

    In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic Site (AstDyS http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys )). The spectroscopic analysis is performed using spectra on the 0.44-0.92 ? m range observed by the SMASS Xu et al. 1995, SMASSII (Bus and Binzel, 2002) and 3OS2 (Lazzaro et al. 2002) surveys, which together total around 2140 asteroids with observed spectra. The asteroid taxonomy used is the Bus taxonomy (Bus et al. 2000). A total of 22 two families were analysed . The families of Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, and Koronis were found to be spectrally homogeneous, which confirms previous studies. The Veritas family, on the other hand, which is quoted in the literature as an heterogeneous family was found to be quite homogeneous in the present work. The Eos family is noteworthy for being at one time spectrally heterogeneous and quite different from the background population. References Bus, S. J., and R. P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey - The Observations. Icarus 158, 106-145. Bus, S. J., R. P. Binzel, and T. H. Burbine 2000. A New Generation of Asteroid Taxonomy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, vol. 35, Supplement, p.A36 35, 36 +. Lazzaro, D., C. A. Angeli, T. Mothe-Diniz, J. M. Carvano, R. Duffard, and M. Florczak 2002. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 34, 859 +. Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, and S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial results. Icarus 115, 1-35. Zappala, V., P. Bendjoya, A. Cellino, P. Farinella, and C. Froeschle 1995. Asteroid families: Search of a 12,487-asteroid sample using two different clustering techniques. Icarus 116, 291-314.

  2. Techniques of structural family assessment: a qualitative analysis of how experts promote a systemic perspective.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael; Tafuri, Sydney

    2013-06-01

    The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model. PMID:23763681

  3. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  4. "Structured Spontaneity": The Thoughtful Art of Integrative Family Therapy at BFI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhl, Frederick J.; Duhl, Bunny S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the "structured spontaneity" approach to family therapy training at the Boston Family Institute as it exists after ten years, considering the context of training as well as the flavor of the program. Reward for trainers is a kind of competent and creative independent thinking, focused on unjamming a deadlocked system. (Author/BEF)

  5. STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROBLEMS OF FAMILY POULTRY PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. MSAMI

    STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROBLEMS OF FAMILY POULTRY PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA. In order to identify the major disease conditions and factors limiting family chicken production in Coast and Dar-es-Salaam regions of Tanzania a survey was undertaken in six villages in two zones involving a total of 43 households. Field data were collected through identified farmer interviews in the wet

  6. The Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase ( ASK) gene family: structure, organization and evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas; Bernard Lejeune; Michel Dron; Martin Kreis

    1998-01-01

    Higher plants contain a multigene family encoding proteins that share a highly conserved catalytic protein kinase domain about 70% identical to SHAGGY protein kinase (SGG) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), respectively, from Drosophila and mammals. In this study we have characterized the structure and evolution of the Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase (ASK) gene family. At least ten ASK genes are

  7. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  8. Engaging Adolescent Drug Abusers and Their Families in Treatment: A Strategic Structural Systems Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Szapocznik; Angel Perez-Vidal; Andrew L. Brickman; Franklin H. Foote; Daniel Santisteban; Olga Hervis; William M. Kurtines

    1988-01-01

    This article presents evidence for the effectiveness of a strategy for engaging adolescent drug users and their families in therapy. The intervention method is based on strategic, structural, and systems concepts. To overcome resistance, the identified pattern of interactions that interferes with entry into treatment is restructured. Subjects were 108 Hispanic families in which an adolescent was suspected of, or

  9. How economic integration affects the vertical structure of the public sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Liberati; Antonio Sciala

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of economic integration on the vertical structure of the public sector within a country.\\u000a To tackle this issue we set up a model of fiscal federalism, where economic integration is assumed to affect central government\\u000a tax revenues. The main findings are that when an increase of the impact of economic integration brings about a reduction

  10. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  11. Loss of quaternary structure is associated with rapid sequence divergence in the OSBS family

    PubMed Central

    Odokonyero, Denis; Sakai, Ayano; Patskovsky, Yury; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Toro, Rafael; Agarwal, Rakhi; Wang, Chenxi; Ozerova, Nicole D. S.; Yew, Wen Shan; Sauder, J. Michael; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Glasner, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of protein evolution is determined by a combination of selective pressure on protein function and biophysical constraints on protein folding and structure. Determining the relative contributions of these properties is an unsolved problem in molecular evolution with broad implications for protein engineering and function prediction. As a case study, we examined the structural divergence of the rapidly evolving o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) family, which catalyzes a step in menaquinone synthesis in diverse microorganisms and plants. On average, the OSBS family is much more divergent than other protein families from the same set of species, with the most divergent family members sharing <15% sequence identity. Comparing 11 representative structures revealed that loss of quaternary structure and large deletions or insertions are associated with the family’s rapid evolution. Neither of these properties has been investigated in previous studies to identify factors that affect the rate of protein evolution. Intriguingly, one subfamily retained a multimeric quaternary structure and has small insertions and deletions compared with related enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. Many proteins in this subfamily catalyze both OSBS and N-succinylamino acid racemization (NSAR). Retention of ancestral structural characteristics in the NSAR/OSBS subfamily suggests that the rate of protein evolution is not proportional to the capacity to evolve new protein functions. Instead, structural features that are conserved among proteins with diverse functions might contribute to the evolution of new functions. PMID:24872444

  12. Variation in Family Structure Among Urban Adolescents and Its Effects on Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Family structure is one factor that can help explain drug use among adolescents. In 2005 a study was conducted with 255 ninth-grade students from an urban, predominantly Latino Los Angeles area high school. Students were 83% Latino, 58% female, and from mostly low SES households. Half of all students reported having ever used alcohol, 30% had ever smoked a cigarette, and 18% had ever used marijuana. Family structure was measured using a single open-ended question and logistic regression was employed to determine the effects of various family structures on the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. The presence of older siblings in the home was associated with alcohol and marijuana use, and living with a cousin was associated with marijuana use. Results suggest that influential others, including siblings and cousins, should be included in measures of family structure. Study limitations are noted. PMID:18570026

  13. Household income pooling and the demand for food: does family financial structure matter? 

    E-print Network

    Perusquia Corres, Ernesto

    2009-06-02

    Research on food consumption and expenditures usually employs the use of unitary models that do not account for type of family financial structure. This research presents two collective models of household behavior, ...

  14. CEE 812 Structural Engineering Seminar Series A Family of MEMS Sensors

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    CEE 812 ­ Structural Engineering Seminar Series A Family of MEMS Sensors for Redundant Structural 2305 GGBL ABSTRACT: Understanding the physical state of structural components is essential to diagnose accommodating acoustic emission and strain sensor on a small footprint will be introduced with the goal

  15. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  16. The contribution of family structure and differentiation to identity development in females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Perosa; Sandra L. Perosa; Hak Ping Tam

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development. One hundred sixty-four female undergraduate students completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relationship Inventory (PRI), and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS) scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the SFIS-R and PRI scales indicated that two factors, Proximity-Differentiation and Generational

  17. Tryin’ to Make It During the Transition From High School: The Role of Family Obligation Attitudes and Economic Context for Latino-Emerging Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadette Sánchez; Patricia Esparza; Yarí Colón; Katrina E. Davis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of familial and economic context in the decisions and behaviors of low-income, urban Latinos during the transition from high school. Thirty-two Latino emerging adults who graduated from a public high school participated in one-on-one in-depth interviews about their transition. Participants discussed family obligation attitudes as a central theme in

  18. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    PubMed

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's) PMID:12222474

  19. Conservation and variation of structural flexibility in protein families.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberghe, Adam W; Cui, Qiang

    2010-03-10

    In this issue, Raimondi et al. (2010) obtained interesting insights concerning structural flexibilities in the Ras superfamily that are essential to both function retention and specialization by analyzing the deformation patterns from physical models of protein structure and from crystal structures of homologous proteins. PMID:20223210

  20. Shame, Guilt and Emotional Intensity in Relation to Family Structure and Process in Late Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.; And Others

    This study explored relations between emotions (including shame, guilt, and the intensity of positive and negative affects), family structure (alliances between family members and boundaries between family members), and family process (disengagement, enmeshment, and cohesiveness). The sample consisted of either students enrolled in a general…

  1. Family structure and health, how companionship acts as a buffer against ill health

    PubMed Central

    Turagabeci, Amelia R; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2007-01-01

    Background Health and well-being are the result of synergistic interactions among a variety of determinants. Family structure and composition are social determinants that may also affect health behaviours and outcomes. This study was performed to examine the associations between family structure and health and to determine the protective effects of support mechanisms to improve quality of health outcome. Methods Six hundred people, selected by multistage sampling to obtain a representative population of men and women aged 20–60 living in communities in Japan, were included in this study. Data regarding subjective views of one's own health, family structure, lifestyle and social support were collected through structured face-to-face interviews on home visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, height and weight were measured by trained examiners. The associations between family structure and health after controlling for demographics, lifestyle and social support were examined using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Subjects living alone were significantly more likely to be in ill health, as determined using the General Health Questionnaire, in comparison to those in extended families (OR = 3.14). Subjects living alone or as couples were significantly more likely to suffer from severe hypertension in comparison to those living in extended families (OR = 8.25, OR = 4.90). These associations remained after controlling for the influence of lifestyle. Subjects living only with spouse or in nuclear family had higher probabilities of mental ill health in the absence than in the presence of people showing concern for their well-being. Conclusion The results of this study infers that a support mechanism consisting of companionship and the presence of family or other people concerned for one's well being acts as a buffer against deleterious influence of living in small family that will lead to improved quality of health outcome. PMID:18036211

  2. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  3. Structure-based analysis of catalysis and substrate definition in the HIT protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, C.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Klein, M.G. [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States)] [Herbert Irving Cancer Center and Institute of Human Nutrition, New York, NY (United States); Hendrickson, W.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1997-10-10

    The histidine triad (HIT) protein family is among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved in nature, but a biological activity has not yet been identified for any member of the HIT family. Fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) and protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCL) were used in a structure-based approach to elucidate characteristics of in vivo ligands and reactions. Crystallographic structures of apo, substrate analog, pentacovalent transition-state analog, and product states of both enzymes reveal a catalytic mechanism and define substrate characteristics required for catalysis, thus unifying the HIT family as nucleotidyl hydrolases, transferases, or both. The approach described here may be useful in identifying structure-function relations between protein families identified through genomics. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Changes in Young Children’s Family Structures and Child Care Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Prickett, Kate Chambers; Smith, Chelsea; Cavanagh, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Family structure change can disrupt the settings of children’s daily lives. Most scholarship focuses on disruption in the home environment. Moving beyond the home, this study explores the association between changes in family structure and changes in several dimensions of early child care. With longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1,298), first-difference models reveal that family structure transitions are associated with changes in the type and quantity of early care as well as the number of care arrangements used, especially during the latter part of infancy. Given prior evidence linking these child care dimensions to behavioral and cognitive outcomes, these results suggest a policy-relevant mechanism by which family change may create inequalities among children. PMID:24243268

  5. Coverage of protein domain families with structural protein-protein interactions: current progress and future trends.

    PubMed

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Zhang, Dachuan; Sarychev, Alexey; Panchenko, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions have evolved into highly precise and regulated networks adding an immense layer of complexity to cellular systems. The most accurate atomistic description of protein binding sites can be obtained directly from structures of protein complexes. The availability of structurally characterized protein interfaces significantly improves our understanding of interactomes, and the progress in structural characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can be measured by calculating the structural coverage of protein domain families. We analyze the coverage of protein domain families (defined according to CDD and Pfam databases) by structures, structural protein-protein complexes and unique protein binding sites. Structural PPI coverage of currently available protein families is about 30% without any signs of saturation in coverage growth dynamics. Given the current growth rates of domain databases and structural PPI deposition, complete domain coverage with PPIs is not expected in the near future. As a result of this study we identify families without any protein-protein interaction evidence (listed on a supporting website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/ibis/coverage/) and propose them as potential targets for structural studies with a focus on protein interactions. PMID:24931138

  6. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  7. Advanced structural similarity rules for the BGA package family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Van Driel; A. Mavinkurve; M. A. J. Van Gils; G. Q. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    To efficiently select qualification and reliability monitoring programs, structural similarity rules for Integrated Circuit designs, wafer fabrication processes and\\/or package designs are currently used by the industry. By following the package structural similarity rules, the numbers of reliability qualification tests may be greatly reduced. However, when looking at the present rules it is clear that they are not reliably defined.

  8. Structure and expression of maize phytochrome family homeologs.

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2004-01-01

    To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251

  9. Crystal Structure of Bombyx mori Lipoprotein 6: Comparative Structural Analysis of the 30-kDa Lipoprotein Family

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; ?ochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The 30-kDa lipoprotein (LP) family of mulberry silkworm comprises major hemolymph proteins specific to the fifth instar larvae. The family consists of 46 members, 24 of which are referred to as typical 30-kDa LPs. To date, two crystal structures of 30-kDa LPs from Bombyx mori have been described (Bmlp3 and Bmlp7). Here, we present the crystal structure of Bmlp6, another 30-kDa LP member. Bmlp6 is comprised of two domains characteristic of this family, the VHS-type N-terminal domain and ?-trefoil C-terminal domain. The structures of the three 30-kDa LPs have been compared and a number of differences are noted, including loop conformation, the surface electrostatic potential, and the potential binding cavities. We discuss the observed structural differences in the light of the potential different roles of the particular 30-kDa LP members in silkworm physiology. PMID:25379889

  10. Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

    This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

  11. Tryin' to Make It during the Transition from High School: The Role of Family Obligation Attitudes and Economic Context for Latino-Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Bernadette; Esparza, Patricia; Colon, Yari; Davis, Katrina E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of familial and economic context in the decisions and behaviors of low-income, urban Latinos during the transition from high school. Thirty-two Latino emerging adults who graduated from a public high school participated in one-on-one in-depth interviews about their transition. Participants…

  12. Parents' Reliance on the Web to Find Information about Children and Families: Socio-Economic Differences in Use, Skills and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbaum, Fred; Martland, Nancy; Jannsen, Joanne Beswick

    2008-01-01

    This research examines socio-economic status (SES) differences in parents' Web use, skills, and satisfaction. A total of 120 parents were interviewed about their use of the Web to find child and family information, and they provided feedback as they searched for information online. Findings indicate that the higher the SES level (a) the greater…

  13. Interrelationships between Work Life and Family Life. Proceedings, Silver Jubilee Conference, Illinois Teacher of Home Economics (Urbana, Illinois, April l8-2l, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor, Ed.

    These conference proceedings examine the interrelationships between work life and family life and explore ways in which home economics education can contribute to the solution of attendant problems. The opening session includes a welcome and an introduction to the topic. Other papers address (1) the evolution of the role of women; (2) inflation…

  14. Behavioral Economics and Social Policy: Designing Innovative Solutions for Programs Supported by the Administration for Children and Families. OPRE Report No. 2014-16a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Anzelone, Caitlin; Dechausay, Nadine; Datta, Saugato; Fiorillo, Alexandra; Potok, Louis; Darling, Matthew; Balz, John

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) project is the first major opportunity to use a behavioral economics lens to look at programs that serve poor and vulnerable people in the United States. Sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S.…

  15. Crystal Structure and Characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 62 ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces coelicolor*

    PubMed Central

    Maehara, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Zui; Ichinose, Hitomi; Michikawa, Mari; Harazono, Koichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    ?-l-Arabinofuranosidase, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62), hydrolyzes arabinoxylan but not arabinan or arabinogalactan. The crystal structures of several ?-l-arabinofuranosidases have been determined, although the structures, catalytic mechanisms, and substrate specificities of GH62 enzymes remain unclear. To evaluate the substrate specificity of a GH62 enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, which comprises a carbohydrate-binding module family 13 domain at its N terminus and a catalytic domain at its C terminus, from Streptomyces coelicolor. The catalytic domain was a five-bladed ?-propeller consisting of five radially oriented anti-parallel ?-sheets. Sugar complex structures with l-arabinose, xylotriose, and xylohexaose revealed five subsites in the catalytic cleft and an l-arabinose-binding pocket at the bottom of the cleft. The entire structure of this GH62 family enzyme was very similar to that of glycoside hydrolase 43 family enzymes, and the catalytically important acidic residues found in family 43 enzymes were conserved in GH62. Mutagenesis studies revealed that Asp202 and Glu361 were catalytic residues, and Trp270, Tyr461, and Asn462 were involved in the substrate-binding site for discriminating the substrate structures. In particular, hydrogen bonding between Asn462 and xylose at the nonreducing end subsite +2 was important for the higher activity of substituted arabinofuranosyl residues than that for terminal arabinofuranoses. PMID:24482228

  16. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  17. Age-Gapped and Age-Condensed Lineages: Patterns of Intergenerational Age Structure among Canadian Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Martin-Matthews; Karen M. Kobayashi; Carolyn J. Rosenthal; Sarah H. Matthews

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines intergenerational connections within Canadian families. Its focus is on intergenerational age structure, the interval or 'gap' in years that separates one generation from the next. Intergenerational age structure is measured in terms of the age of a mother at the birth of her first child. Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey of Canada, the study

  18. Elucidation of the structures of all members of the Avsunviroidae family

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    . This family includes four members, and the type species is the Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd). That said-Mignault, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, J1E 4K8 SUMMARY Viroids are small single-stranded RNA pathogens which cause on their structure for their propagation. The elucidation of the secondary structures of viroids has been limited

  19. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  20. The shikimate dehydrogenase family: functional diversity within a conserved structural and mechanistic framework.

    PubMed

    Peek, James; Christendat, Dinesh

    2015-01-15

    Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-deydroshikimate to shikimate, an essential reaction in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids and a large number of other secondary metabolites in plants and microbes. The indispensible nature of this enzyme makes it a potential target for herbicides and antimicrobials. SDH is the archetypal member of a large protein family, which contains at least four additional functional classes with diverse metabolic roles. The different members of the SDH family share a highly similar three-dimensional structure and utilize a conserved catalytic mechanism, but exhibit distinct substrate preferences, making the family a particularly interesting system for studying modes of substrate recognition used by enzymes. Here, we review our current understanding of the biochemical and structural properties of each of the five previously identified SDH family functional classes. PMID:25524738

  1. (CTP): a new structural family of near-zero expansion ceramics. [Caâ. âTiâPâOââ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Roy; K. Agrawal; J. Alamo

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the authors report the discovery of a new structural family for use in ultralow '..cap alpha..' ceramics. The prototype composition is Ca \\/sub 0.5\\/ TiâPâOââ, abbreviated (CTP), after which the structural family is named. The importance of this family, in contrast to the eucryptitespodumene family, is the enormous range of substitutions which are possible, permitting one to

  2. Relationships Among Minuchin's Structural Family Model, Identity Achievement, and Coping Style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Perosa; Linda M. Perosa

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine S. Minuchin's (1974) contention that a balance between enmeshment and disengagement in the family is associated with healthy adolescent development. One hundred eighty-two college students completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale—Revised, the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale, and the Ego Identity Scale. The results of canonical analyses suggested that clear boundaries

  3. Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; G Neil Thomas; C Mary Schooling; Sarah M McGhee; Tai-Hing Lam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US) Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain

  4. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Elise Caporino; Jessica Morgan; Jason Beckstead; Vicky Phares; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch

    2011-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family\\u000a accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating\\/moderating\\u000a effects. This study examined a structural equation model

  5. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence. PMID:12266446

  6. A structural equation analysis of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21842196

  7. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Urien, I. R.; Capitanio, R. S.

    1992-08-01

    A structural system for space applications is described that incorporates deployment and retraction capabilities for equipment such as antennas, solar arrays, heat-rejection systems, and experiment support. The structures described are: (1) collapsible tube masts (CTMs) that can be flattened and rolled; (2) the modular Large Truss Structure (LTS); and (3) a sequentially deployable/retractable mast for intermediate payloads. The CTMs can be used for monopole and dipole antennas on scientific satellites and as a conductive element. The LTS can be sequentially deployed and used for supporting large elements such as payloads attached externally to a space station. The sequentially deployable/retractable masts provide the means for supporting payloads in a mass range between those associated with the CTM and the LTS.

  8. Structural Basis of Membrane Targeting by the Dock180 Family of Rho Family Guanine Exchange Factors (Rho-GEFs)*

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Patel, Manishha; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Bankston, Laurie A.; Stec, Boguslaw; Vuori, Kristiina; Côté, Jean-Francois; Liddington, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180. PMID:20167601

  9. Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure

    PubMed Central

    Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

  10. Economic feasibility of reduced ventilation in poultry structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hellickson, M.L.; Baker, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is indicated that the predicted fuel savings associated with reduced ventilation in broiler structures during the first three weeks of brooding may be from 50 to 68 percent or more depending upon ambient conditions.

  11. Structural and Economic Limits to the Dimensions of Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocco, G A

    1924-01-01

    In opposition to the advantage of larger dimensions, there is one disadvantage, namely, the weight of the structure increases more rapidly than the buoyancy. It is not possible, however, to determine a general law. In order to formulate one having the merit of simplicity, we will divide the structure into two parts: one subject to tensile and compressive stresses, varying directly as the ascensional or lifting forces; the other subject to varying stresses of the surface areas.

  12. p53 family genes: structural comparison, expression and mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ikawa; A Nakagawara; Y Ikawa

    1999-01-01

    The p53-related genes, p51\\/p63 and p73, have been isolated respectively from cDNA libraries of skeletal muscle and the brain, and their structural features and biological functions have been compared. High expression of p51A (TAp63?) in the skeletal muscle tissue drove us to investigate a differentiation-inducible myoblastic cell line which showed increased p51A expression after differentiation induction. Tissue-specific expression was further

  13. The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing. PMID:25473135

  14. Changes in the Formation and Structure of Black Families: The Impact on Black Women. Working Paper No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    This paper attempts to dispel stereotypes about black family structures through an examination of the impact of demographic trends on black women. Topics covered include the following: (1) the structure of black families from the arrival of black slaves in North America through the 1950's; (2) the impact that the historical structure and…

  15. Economic structure and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1300-1800

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT C. ALLEN

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of employment structure, agricultural output, and agricultural labour productivity are developed for the leading European countries from 1300 to 1800. The employment estimates are developed from estimates of the total, urban, and rural populations. The output estimates are derived by positing a demand curve for agricultural goods.

  16. A family IIb xylan-binding domain has a similar secondary structure to a homologous family IIa cellulose-binding domain but different ligand specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Simpson; David N Bolam; Alan Cooper; Antonio Ciruela; Geoffrey P Hazlewood; Harry J Gilbert; Michael P Williamson

    1999-01-01

    Background: Many enzymes that digest polysaccharides contain separate polysaccharide-binding domains. Structures have been previously determined for a number of cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) from cellulases.Results: The family IIb xylan-binding domain 1 (XBD1) from Cellulomonas fimi xylanase D is shown to bind xylan but not cellulose. Its structure is similar to that of the homologous family IIa CBD from C. fimi Cex,

  17. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-01-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

  18. Identification, structure, and differential expression of members of a BURP domain containing protein family in soybean.

    PubMed

    Granger, Cheryl; Coryell, Virginia; Khanna, Anupama; Keim, Paul; Vodkin, Lila; Shoemaker, Randy C

    2002-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) exhibiting homology to a BURP domain containing gene family were identified from the Glycine max (L.) Merr. EST database. These ESTs were assembled into 16 contigs of variable sizes and lengths. Consistent with the structure of known BURP domain containing proteins, the translation products exhibit a modular structure consisting of a C-terminal BURP domain, an N-terminal signal sequence, and a variable internal region. The soybean family members exhibit 35-98% similarity in a -100-amino-acid C-terminal region, and a phylogenetic tree constructed using this region shows that some soybean family members group together in closely related pairs, triplets, and quartets, whereas others remain as singletons. The structure of these groups suggests that multiple gene duplication events occurred during the evolutionary history of this family. The depth and diversity of G. max EST libraries allowed tissue-specific expression patterns of the putative soybean BURPs to be examined. Consistent with known BURP proteins, the newly identified soybean BURPs have diverse expression patterns. Furthermore, putative paralogs can have both spatially and quantitatively distinct expression patterns. We discuss the functional and evolutionary implications of these findings, as well as the utility of EST-based analyses for identifying and characterizing gene families. PMID:12175072

  19. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  20. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  1. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…

  2. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  3. Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-02-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  4. Structure of a family IIIa scaffoldin CBD from the cellulosome of Clostridium cellulolyticum at 2.2 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Shimon, L J; Pagès, S; Belaich, A; Belaich, J P; Bayer, E A; Lamed, R; Shoham, Y; Frolow, F

    2000-12-01

    The crystal structure of the family IIIa cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit (CipC) of Clostridium cellulolyticum has been determined. The structure reveals a nine-stranded jelly-roll topology which exhibits distinctive structural elements consistent with family III CBDs that bind crystalline cellulose. These include a well conserved calcium-binding site, a putative cellulose-binding surface and a conserved shallow groove of unknown function. The CipC CBD structure is very similar to the previously elucidated family IIIa CBD from the CipA scaffoldin of C. thermocellum, with some minor differences. The CipC CBD structure was also compared with other previously described CBD structures from families IIIc and IV derived from the endoglucanases of Thermomonospora fusca and Cellulomonas fimi, respectively. The possible functional consequences of structural similarities and differences in the shallow groove and cellulose-binding faces among various CBD families and subfamilies are discussed. PMID:11092922

  5. Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers.

    PubMed

    Miller, P

    1997-04-14

    Data from a survey of 7722 15-16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families, it made little further difference whether the mother, the father or both were absent. The effects were reduced on controlling four other variables. The latter were: psychological symptoms, social support, involvement in hobbies and reading, and engagement in behaviours such as riding mopeds, going out with friends, aggression and delinquency. It is suggested that these variables may mediate the effects of family structure. PMID:9179514

  6. Age-structured optimal control in population economics.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Gustav; Prskawetz, Alexia; Veliov, Vladimir M

    2004-06-01

    This paper brings both intertemporal and age-dependent features to a theory of population policy at the macro-level. A Lotka-type renewal model of population dynamics is combined with a Solow/Ramsey economy. We consider a social planner who maximizes an aggregate intertemporal utility function which depends on per capita consumption. As control policies we consider migration and saving rate (both age-dependent). By using a new maximum principle for age-structured control systems we derive meaningful results for the optimal migration and saving rate in an aging population. The model used in the numerical calculations is calibrated for Austria. PMID:15136012

  7. The effect of incarceration rates on mate availability and its effect on the formation and structure of the African American family: a theoretical and empirical analysis 

    E-print Network

    McGruder, Patricia Hollis

    1995-01-01

    Incarceration 45 Mate Availability 46 Family Formation and Family Structure 49 vii Page CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS-DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES IN INCARCERATION AND MATE AVAILABILITY 50 Incarceration 50 Trends in Sex Ratios 54 Age-Specific Sex Ratios 60 Labor... Force Sex Ratio Including School Enrollment 70 VII ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF INCARCERATION ON FAMILY FORMATION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE... 72 Direct Effects of Incarceration on Family Structure 73 Indirect Effects of Incarceration on Family Formation...

  8. Combining Structure and Sequence Information Allows Automated Prediction of Substrate Specificities within Enzyme Families

    PubMed Central

    Röttig, Marc; Rausch, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of the functional annotation of enzymes is not only the type of reaction catalysed by an enzyme, but also the substrate specificity, which can vary widely within the same family. In many cases, prediction of family membership and even substrate specificity is possible from enzyme sequence alone, using a nearest neighbour classification rule. However, the combination of structural information and sequence information can improve the interpretability and accuracy of predictive models. The method presented here, Active Site Classification (ASC), automatically extracts the residues lining the active site from one representative three-dimensional structure and the corresponding residues from sequences of other members of the family. From a set of representatives with known substrate specificity, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) can then learn a model of substrate specificity. Applied to a sequence of unknown specificity, the SVM can then predict the most likely substrate. The models can also be analysed to reveal the underlying structural reasons determining substrate specificities and thus yield valuable insights into mechanisms of enzyme specificity. We illustrate the high prediction accuracy achieved on two benchmark data sets and the structural insights gained from ASC by a detailed analysis of the family of decarboxylating dehydrogenases. The ASC web service is available at http://asc.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/. PMID:20072606

  9. Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fields, Jason M.

    1998-01-01

    The Census Bureau has recently posted Population Division Working Paper No. 23, on its website. This paper, Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP, by Jason M. Fields and Kristin E. Smith, examines the efficacy of SIPP as a measure of child well-being.

  10. Family Structure, Parental Investment, and Educational Outcomes among Black South Africans. Population Studies Center Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.

    This study examined the relationship between family structure, expenditures on education, and children's educational outcomes for black South Africans, using the nationally representative 1995 October Household Survey. The analyses focused on 28,215 individuals, ages 10 to 24 years, who had not completed secondary schools. The findings indicated…

  11. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  12. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  13. Is There a Relationship between Family Structure and Substance Use among Public Middle School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between family structure and substance use in a sample of 2,138 public middle school students in a southern state. The CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey was utilized and adjusted logistic regression models were created separately for four race/gender categories (African American females/males, and…

  14. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  15. A Guide to Establishing and Directing a Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maethner, Judith A.

    This is the teacher's manual of the Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity, a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Developer/Demonstration Project in Saint Cloud, Minnesota. The program attempts to mold the expertise of the parent with the expertise of the professional educator in order to enhance the child's development. It is…

  16. Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

  17. The Contribution of Family Structure and Differentiation to Identity Development in Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Relationships among S. Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development were studied with 164 female undergraduates. Factor analysis of results from measures of ego identity support Minuchin's model and provide a framework for understanding individuation in the adolescent female. (SLD)

  18. The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules*

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    The Structural Basis for the Ligand Specificity of Family 2 Carbohydrate-binding Modules* Received involved in the protein-carbohydrate interaction is rotated by 90° compared with its position in CBM2a recognition of the absence or presence of functional groups. The molecular recognition of carbohydrates

  19. Adult Daughters' Family Structure and the Association between Reciprocity and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Beate

    2006-01-01

    The study explores whether family structure is a moderator of the associations between help exchange, reciprocity of this exchange, and the quality of the mother and adult daughter relationship. A total of 183 daughters (mean age = 42.13; SD = 4.91) are either in first marriage (n = 87), living with a new partner after divorce (n = 77), or…

  20. The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred P. Davis; Andrej Sali

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also

  1. Evaluation of energy-related and economic aspects of heating a family house with dendromass in the north-east of Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stolarski; M. Krzy?aniak; ?. Graban

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of energy-related and economic aspects of production of thermal energy to heat a family house with wood briquette. The object of the study was a detached house with an area of 247m2, situated in Olsztyn, in the north-east of Poland. The study lasted three years, from October 2006 to September 2009. The highest monthly consumption

  2. Family Structure and Adolescent Physical Health, Behavior, and Emotional Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821

  3. Impact of Family Structure on Stimulant Use among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Atonu; Alexander, G Caleb

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of family structure on pharmacologic stimulant use among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data Source Nationally representative, population-based sample of the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2003 linked with drug event files from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 1998 to 2005. Study Design Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of stimulant use for each individual during 2 years of observation after adjustment for sociodemographic, health, and family characteristics. Stratified analyses were also conducted to examine whether family characteristics had different impacts within single-mother and dual-parent households. Principal Findings Stimulant use varied based on children's sociodemographic and health characteristics. In multivariate analyses, associations between children's household structure, parental education, and stimulant use appeared to be mediated by children's access to care and health status. However, in full multivariate models, there remained a robust positive association between family size and stimulant use. Conclusions These findings highlight the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children. PMID:19732168

  4. Economic Evaluation of the Familial Cancer Programme in Western Australia: Predictive Genetic Testing for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Breheny; E. Geelhoed; J. Goldblatt; H. Ee; P. O’Leary

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate costs and outcomes of genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer through services provided by Genetic Services of Western Australia (GSWA). Methods: Costs and outcomes of predictive DNA-based testing for inherited colorectal cancers (CRC) were assessed, specifically for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis CRC (HNPCC) using a decision-analysis model. Costs were assigned according to standards of

  5. Structural-ceramic research program: a preliminary economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Hill, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced power systems for vehicles can potentially produce fuel efficiencies that greatly exceed those of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Recent work has focused on adiabatic diesel engines, gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and electric vehicle batteries. The heat engine technologies, however, are limited by problems involving mechanical strength at high temperatures. Structural ceramics, if they can be reliably mass-produced, can make possible improved vehicle fuel efficiencies through higher-temperature operation and reduced vehicle weight. In this report, the macroeconomic impacts (effects on gross national product, employment, fuel imports, and balance of trade) are modeled for two scenarios, one in which the US dominates the commercialization of ceramics in heat engines throughout the 1990s and the other in which Japan dominates. The positive effects of US dominance were forecast to be substantially greater than the negative effects of foreign dominance due to two assumptions: (1) Japanese ceramic commercialization does not include the truck and stationary engine markets because of a lack of historical presence in these areas and (2) imports of Japanese cars with ceramic engines are legislatively limited to 30% of new car sales. Improved ceramics can also be substituted for superalloys containing strategic materials and thus reduce US dependence on foreign suppliers.

  6. Wood fuel for power generation at Wendel, California. Volume 2. Business structure and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The business structure and operating approach recommended for economic procurement of wood fuel for the proposed Honey Lake hybrid power plant are covered including: (a) constraints, (b) availability of wood fuel, (c) business approach and organization, (d) cost of wood fuel, and (e) socioeconomic considerations.

  7. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  8. High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Rutkowski

    1996-01-01

    Economic transition turns the inherited wage structure upside down. Changes are rapid and dramatic. The Polish example shows that even in the first year of market-oriented reforms, there was a marked increase in earnings inequality, a dramatic rise in the wage premium for white-collar skills, and a significant jump in the returns to education. In contrast, skills acquired under the

  9. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND ECONOMIC REFORM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: STRUCTURAL CHANGE OR DEINDUSTRIALIZATION?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. SHAFAEDDIN

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses economic performance of a sample of developing countries that have undertaken trade liberalization and structural reforms since the early 1980s with the objective of expansion of exports and diversification in favour of manufacturing sector. The results obtained are varied. Forty per cent of the sample countries experienced rapid expansion of exports of manufactured goods. In a minority

  10. Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

  11. Associations between Family Structure Changes and Children's Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effects of Timing and Marital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Claessens, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal…

  12. Common and Distant Structural Characteristics of Feruloyl Esterase Families from Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Mapelli, Valeria; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. Conclusions/Significance Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for short listing the putative substrates prior to docking studies or for post-processing docking results to remove false positives. Our study exemplifies how computational predictions can complement to the information obtained through experimental methods. PMID:22745763

  13. Fathering and Adolescent Adjustment: Variations by Family Structure and Ethnic Background

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Miller, Marie A.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford; Cookston, Jeffrey; Fabricius, William; Saenz, Delia; Adams, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated how fathering behaviors (acceptance, rejection, monitoring, consistent discipline, and involvement) are related to preadolescent adjustment in Mexican American and European American stepfamilies and intact families. Cross-sectional data from 393 7th graders, their schoolteachers, and parents were used to examine links between different dimensions of fathering and adolescent outcomes. Following an ecological multivariate model, family SES, marital satisfaction, and mothers’ parenting were included as controls. In all contexts, fathering had significant effects on adolescent adjustment. Both mothers’ parenting and adolescent gender moderated the associations, and we uncovered some provocative nonlinear relations between fathering and adolescent outcomes. The importance of ethnicity and family structure in studies of fathering are highlighted. PMID:24235877

  14. Family-wide chemical profiling and structural analysis of PARP and tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Elisabet; Karlberg, Tobias; Kouznetsova, Ekaterina; Markova, Natalia; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Pol, Ewa; Frostell, Åsa; Ekblad, Torun; Öncü, Delal; Kull, Björn; Robertson, Graeme Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Schüler, Herwig; Weigelt, Johan

    2012-03-01

    Inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family proteins are currently in clinical trials as cancer therapeutics, yet the specificity of many of these compounds is unknown. Here we evaluated a series of 185 small-molecule inhibitors, including research reagents and compounds being tested clinically, for the ability to bind to the catalytic domains of 13 of the 17 human PARP family members including the tankyrases, TNKS1 and TNKS2. Many of the best-known inhibitors, including TIQ-A, 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, olaparib, ABT-888 and rucaparib, bound to several PARP family members, suggesting that these molecules lack specificity and have promiscuous inhibitory activity. We also determined X-ray crystal structures for five TNKS2 ligand complexes and four PARP14 ligand complexes. In addition to showing that the majority of PARP inhibitors bind multiple targets, these results provide insight into the design of new inhibitors. PMID:22343925

  15. The Effects of Mexican origin family structure on parental monitoring and pre-adolescent substance use expectancies and substance use

    PubMed Central

    WARREN, JENNIFER R.; WAGSTAFF, DAVID A.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.; ELEK, ELVIRA

    2010-01-01

    Substance use among Mexican origin, low-income youths is a serious, but under-studied problem. This study examines the relationship between the structure of Mexican origin families (i.e. nuclear, single-parent, blended or extended), and the parental monitoring, substance use expectancies, and substance use reported by pre-adolescents. Family structure did not differentiate the substance use prevalence, expectancies or parental monitoring among the 1224 low-income, Mexican-origin fifth grade participants. Parents from all family types demonstrated similar levels of parental monitoring. More importantly, family composition was not related to pre-adolescents’ substance use. Other analyses showed that the relationship between substance use and certain demographic variables (e.g. gender, country of birth, language use) did not differ across family structures. The report concludes by discussing possible developmental and resiliency factors in Mexican origin families that would account for these findings. PMID:20703368

  16. Families' social backgrounds matter: socio?economic factors, home learning and young children's language, literacy and social outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitra Hartas

    2010-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio?economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio?economic status and their impact on young children's language\\/literacy and socio?emotional competence. The findings consistently showed that, irrespective of socio?economic status, parents

  17. iProClass: an integrated database of protein family, function and structure information.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongzhan; Barker, Winona C; Chen, Yongxing; Wu, Cathy H

    2003-01-01

    The iProClass database provides comprehensive, value-added descriptions of proteins and serves as a framework for data integration in a distributed networking environment. The protein information in iProClass includes family relationships as well as structural and functional classifications and features. The current version consists of about 830 000 non-redundant PIR-PSD, SWISS-PROT, and TrEMBL proteins organized with more than 36 000 PIR superfamilies, 145 000 families, 4000 domains, 1300 motifs and 550 000 FASTA similarity clusters. It provides rich links to over 50 database of protein sequences, families, functions and pathways, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, protein expressions, structures and structural classifications, genes and genomes, ontologies, literature and taxonomy. Protein and superfamily summary reports present extensive annotation information and include membership statistics and graphical display of domains and motifs. iProClass employs an open and modular architecture for interoperability and scalability. It is implemented in the Oracle object-relational database system and is updated biweekly. The database is freely accessible from the web site at http://pir.georgetown.edu/iproclass/ and searchable by sequence or text string. The data integration in iProClass supports exploration of protein relationships. Such knowledge is fundamental to the understanding of protein evolution, structure and function and crucial to functional genomic and proteomic research. PMID:12520030

  18. Crystal structure of a putative quorum sensing-regulated protein (PA3611) from the Pseudomonas-specific DUF4146 family.

    PubMed

    Das, Debanu; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Grant, Joanna C; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Tien, Henry J; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in humans and other organisms and is an important cause of infection especially in patients with compromised immune defense mechanisms. The PA3611 gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a secreted protein of unknown function, which has been recently classified into a small Pseudomonas-specific protein family called DUF4146. As part of our effort to extend structural coverage of novel protein space and provide a structure-based functional insight into new protein families, we report the crystal structure of PA3611, the first structural representative of the DUF4146 protein family. PMID:24174223

  19. Female-Headed Families and Poverty in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; McLaughlin, Diane K.

    2004-01-01

    Employing data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 March supplements of the Current Population Surveys, this study examines changing household and family structure in metro and nonmetro areas and corresponding changes in poverty, emphasizing female-headed families with children under age 18. We also pay particular attention to the structure and economic…

  20. Structural features of B family chorion sequences in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Tsitilou, S G; Rodakis, G C; Alexopoulou, M; Kafatos, F C; Ito, K; Iatrou, K

    1983-01-01

    Partial protein sequences, and DNA sequences of corresponding cDNA and genomic clones were obtained and analyzed to reveal the primary structural features of major, developmentally middle or late components of the B chorion multigene family in Bombyx mori. Comparisons with other types of sequences confirm and clarify the tripartite domain structure of chorion proteins. Glycine-, leucine- and tyrosine-containing, tandemly repetitive peptides form the bulk of the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains ('arms'). Extensive sequence homologies suggest a common evolutionary origin for the amino-terminal arms of some B. mori B sequences and the corresponding portions of members of a different (A) chorion multigene family in Antheraea polyphemus, a distantly related silkmoth. PMID:6571700

  1. Factor structure of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Family and Youth satisfaction surveys.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Alan B; Temple, Judith M

    2013-07-01

    Two studies of the Mental Health Statics Improvement Project (MHSIP) Family and Youth consumer satisfaction surveys factor structure and psychometrics were conducted. In study 1, the 2002-2006 Youth Services Survey for Families (N = 6,007) was administered to parents of children receiving services, and in study 2, the 2002-2004 Youth Services Survey (N = 1,718) was administered to children age 12-18 receiving services. Factor analyses across both studies found five factors that strongly supported the hypothesized scale domains of outcomes, satisfaction, cultural sensitivity, participation, and access. Scales based on these factors had good reliability with an average coefficient alpha of 0.85. The average convergent validity correlation between scale scores from the parent and child surveys was r = 0.62. Overall, the results supported the structure, reliability, and validity of the surveys. PMID:23636620

  2. Does Adolescent Family Structure Predict Military Enlistment? A Comparison of Post-High School Activities

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Naomi J.; Henderson, Kathryn A.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between adolescent family structure and the likelihood of military enlistment in young adulthood, as compared to alternative post-high school activities. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multinomial logistic regression analyses to compare the odds of military enlistment with college attendance or labor force involvement. We find that alternative family structures predict enlistment relative to college attendance. Living in a single-parent household during adolescence increased odds of military enlistment, but the effect is accounted for by socioeconomic status and early feelings of social isolation. Living with a stepparent or with neither biological parent more than doubles the odds of enlistment, independent of socioeconomic status, characteristics of parent-child relationships, or feelings of social isolation. Although college attendance is widely promoted as a valued post-high school activity, military service may offer a route to independence and a greater sense of belonging. PMID:24000268

  3. Does Adolescent Family Structure Predict Military Enlistment? A Comparison of Post-High School Activities.

    PubMed

    Spence, Naomi J; Henderson, Kathryn A; Elder, Glen H

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the link between adolescent family structure and the likelihood of military enlistment in young adulthood, as compared to alternative post-high school activities. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multinomial logistic regression analyses to compare the odds of military enlistment with college attendance or labor force involvement. We find that alternative family structures predict enlistment relative to college attendance. Living in a single-parent household during adolescence increased odds of military enlistment, but the effect is accounted for by socioeconomic status and early feelings of social isolation. Living with a stepparent or with neither biological parent more than doubles the odds of enlistment, independent of socioeconomic status, characteristics of parent-child relationships, or feelings of social isolation. Although college attendance is widely promoted as a valued post-high school activity, military service may offer a route to independence and a greater sense of belonging. PMID:24000268

  4. Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

  5. Socio-Economic Status and Related Variables That Influence the Initiation of Professional Medical Care among Montana Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Jack J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine for a sample of Montana families if a positive relationship existed between the family's socioeconomic status and its medical initiation behavior, and then, controlling for socioeconomic status, to determine if a relationship existed between initiation of professional medical care and a number of…

  6. A Structure-Based Classification and Analysis of Protein Domain Family Binding Sites and Their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ghoorah, Anisah W.; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Alborzi, Seyed Ziaeddin; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Ritchie, David W.

    2015-01-01

    While the number of solved 3D protein structures continues to grow rapidly, the structural rules that distinguish protein-protein interactions between different structural families are still not clear. Here, we classify and analyse the secondary structural features and promiscuity of a comprehensive non-redundant set of domain family binding sites (DFBSs) and hetero domain-domain interactions (DDIs) extracted from our updated KBDOCK resource. We have partitioned 4001 DFBSs into five classes using their propensities for three types of secondary structural elements (“?” for helices, “?” for strands, and “?” for irregular structure) and we have analysed how frequently these classes occur in DDIs. Our results show that ? elements are not highly represented in DFBSs compared to ? and ? elements. At the DDI level, all classes of binding sites tend to preferentially bind to the same class of binding sites and ?/? contacts are significantly disfavored. Very few DFBSs are promiscuous: 80% of them interact with just one Pfam domain. About 50% of our Pfam domains bear only one single-partner DFBS and are therefore monogamous in their interactions with other domains. Conversely, promiscuous Pfam domains bear several DFBSs among which one or two are promiscuous, thereby multiplying the promiscuity of the concerned protein. PMID:25860777

  7. Structural Insights into the UbiD Protein Family from the Crystal Structure of PA0254 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Agata; Izumi, Atsushi; Brunner, Katharina; Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    The 3-polyprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase (UbiD) catalyzes the conversion of 3-polyprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate to 2-polyprenylphenol in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains two genes (PA0254 and PA5237) that are related in sequence to putative UbiD enzymes. A bioinformatics analysis suggests that the UbiD sequence family can be divided into two subclasses, with PA5237 and PA0254 belonging to different branches of this family. The three-dimensional structure of PA0254 has been determined using single wavelength anomalous diffraction and molecular replacement in two different crystal forms to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.3 Å, respectively. The subunit of PA0254 consists of three domains, an N-terminal ?/? domain, a split ?-barrel with a similar fold of a family of flavin reductases and a C-terminal ?/? domain with a topology characteristic for the UbiD protein family. The middle domain contains a metal binding site adjacent to a large open cleft that may represent the active site. The two protein ligands binding a magnesium ion, His188 and Glu229, invariant in the PA0254 subclass, are also conserved in a corresponding metal site found in one of the FMN binding proteins from the split ?-barrel fold family. PA0254 forms, in contrast to the hexameric UbiD from E. coli and P. aeruginosa, a homo-dimer. Insertion of four residues in a loop region in the PA0254 type enzymes results in structural differences that are incompatible with hexamer assembly. PMID:23671667

  8. Structural insights into a new homodimeric self-activated GTPase family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Gras; Valérie Chaumont; Bernard Fernandez; Philippe Carpentier; Fabienne Charrier-Savournin; Sophie Schmitt; Charles Pineau; Didier Flament; Arnaud Hecker; Patrick Forterre; Jean Armengaud; Dominique Housset

    2007-01-01

    The human XAB1\\/MBDin GTPase and its close homologues form one of the ten phylogenetically distinct families of the SIMIBI (after signal recognition particle, MinD and BioD) class of phosphate-binding loop NTPases. The genomic context and the partners identified for the archaeal and eukaryotic homologues indicate that they are involved in genome maintenance—DNA repair or replication. The crystal structure of PAB0955

  9. Genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of the penaeidin gene family from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuala A. O'Leary; Paul S. Gross

    2006-01-01

    Penaeidins are a family of shrimp antimicrobial peptides that have a unique molecular structure consisting of a highly conserved leader peptide followed by an N-terminal proline-rich domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. Three distinct classes of penaeidins, named PEN2, PEN3, and PEN4, are expressed in the hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple isoforms, generated by substitutions and

  10. Structural and functional insights into the AmtB\\/Mep\\/Rh protein family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-D. Li; D. Lupo; L. Zheng; F. Winkler

    2006-01-01

    X-ray crystallography revealed a similar architecture of the ammonium transport protein AmtB from Escherichia coli and the homologous protein Amt-1 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Furthermore, the atomic structures suggest that the proteins conduct ammonia (NH3) rather than ammonium ions (NH4+). These findings indicate that the more than 350 members of the ammonium transporter\\/methylamine permease\\/Rhesus (Amt\\/Mep\\/Rh) protein family found in archaea, bacteria,

  11. Crystal chemistry of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , NZP or CTP, structure family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Alamo; Rustum Roy

    1986-01-01

    The NaZr2(PO4)3 type structure (abbreviated as NZP or CTP, CaTi4(PO4)6), has emerged as a new family, which has extraordinary technological utility in three fields: fast-ion conductors, radwaste solidification and zero expansion ceramics. NZP or CTP is formed by an extraordinary range of discrete compositions and crystalline solutions. In this paper these compositions are classified according to their crystal chemical substitution

  12. Distinct structural features of Rex-family repressors to sense redox levels in anaerobes and aerobes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Sun, Hong; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Pei, Jianjun; Qiu, Riyong; Wang, Andrew H-J; Wiegel, Juergen; Shao, Weilan; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The Rex-family repressors sense redox levels by alternative binding to NADH or NAD(+). Unlike other Rex proteins that regulate aerobic respiration, RSP controls ethanol fermentation in the obligate anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200(T). It is also found in other anaerobic microorganisms. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-RSP, RSP/NADH and RSP/NAD(+)/DNA, which are the first structures of Rex-family members from an obligate anaerobe. RSP functions as a homodimer. It assumes an open conformation when bound to the operator DNA and a closed conformation when not DNA-bound. The DNA binds to the N-terminal winged-helix domain and the dinucleotide, either reduced or oxidized, binds to the C-terminal Rossmann-fold domain. The two distinct orientations of nicotinamide ring, anti in NADH and syn in NAD(+), give rise to two sets of protein-ligand interactions. Consequently, NADH binding makes RSP into a closed conformation, which does not bind to DNA. Both the conserved residues and the DNA specificity of RSP show a number of variations from those of the aerobic Rex, reflecting different structural bases for redox-sensing by the anaerobic and aerobic Rex-family members. PMID:25463021

  13. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Shew, M L; Bearinger, L H; Sieving, R E; Resnick, M D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement with violence, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual intercourse. METHODS: Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A nationally representative sample of 7th to 12th graders participated in in-home interviews, as did a resident parent for 85.6% of the adolescent subjects. The final sample included 10,803 White, Black, and Hispanic 7th to 12th graders. RESULTS: White adolescents were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and attempt suicide in the younger years than were Black and Hispanic youths. Black youths were more likely to have had sexual intercourse; both Black and Hispanic youths were more likely than White teens to engage in violence. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure together explained no more than 10% of the variance in each of the 5 risk behaviors among younger adolescents and no more than 7% among older youths. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that when taken together, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure provide only limited understanding of adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:11111260

  14. Role of the Candida albicans MNN1 gene family in cell wall structure and virulence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Candida albicans cell wall is the first point of contact with the host, and its outer surface is heavily enriched in mannoproteins modified through the addition of N- and O-mannan. Previous work, using mutants with gross defects in glycosylation, has clearly identified the importance of mannan in the host-pathogen interaction, immune recognition and virulence. Here we report the first analysis of the MNN1 gene family, which contains six members predicted to act as ?-1,3 mannosyltransferases in the terminal stages of glycosylation. Findings We generated single null mutants in all members of the C. albicans MNN1 gene family, and disruption of MNN14 led to both in vitro and in vivo defects. Null mutants in other members of the family demonstrated no phenotypic defects, suggesting that these members may display functional redundancy. The mnn14? null mutant displayed hypersensitivity to agents associated with cell wall and glycosylation defects, suggesting an altered cell wall structure. However, no gross changes in cell wall composition or N-glycosylation were identified in this mutant, although an extension of phosphomannan chain length was apparent. Although the cell wall defects associated with the mnn14? mutant were subtle, this mutant displayed a severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Mnn14 plays a distinct role from other members of the MNN1 family, demonstrating that specific N-glycan outer chain epitopes are required in the host-pathogen interaction and virulence. PMID:23886038

  15. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

  16. Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.; Walker, D.; Lanier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Computer program, SHCOST, was used to perform economic analyses of operational test sites. The program allows consideration of the economic parameters which are important to the solar system user. A life cycle cost and cash flow comparison is made between a solar heating system and a conventional system. The program assists in sizing the solar heating system. A sensitivity study and plot capability allow the user to select the most cost effective system configuration.

  17. Structural family therapy vs individual child psychodynamic therapy: Mediating variables and symptom reduction in a clinical sample of Hispanic boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J W. Mcintosh

    1993-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the role and action, if any, of mediating variables in a therapeutic outcome study with Hispanic boys. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Structural Family Therapy, Individual Child Psychodynamic Therapy, or a Recreational Therapy control group. The mediating variables were assessed with measures of functioning in two domains: family

  18. The crystal structure of the TetR family transcriptional repressor SimR bound to DNA

    E-print Network

    Buttner, Mark

    of the majority of TFRs. Comparison of the SimR­DNA and SimR­simocyclinone complexes revealsThe crystal structure of the TetR family transcriptional repressor SimR bound to DNA and the role and Accepted July 21, 2011 ABSTRACT SimR, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator (TFR), controls the export

  19. How WASP-family proteins and the Arp2\\/3 complex convert intracellular signals into cytoskeletal structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Dyche Mullins

    2000-01-01

    In most cells, the structure of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by Rho-family G proteins. Recent work has outlined a highly conserved signaling pathway from G protein activation to actin assembly. The key downstream components are WASP family proteins — adaptor molecules that bind multiple signaling and cytoskeletal proteins — and the Arp2\\/3 complex — a multi-functional protein complex that

  20. PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties, and evolution by gene duplication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties-type lectin-like domain but possess additional highly conserved amino acids. By studying human databases and FII families, respectively. REG I and PAP IB share 50% sequence identity. After cloning PAP IB

  1. A structural econometric model of family valuation and choice of employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Vanness

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates a fully structural unitary household model of employment and health insurance decisions for dual wage-earner families with children in the United States, using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Families choose hours of work and the breakdown of compensation between cash wages and health insurance benefits for each wage earner in order to maximize expected

  2. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of an Eis Family Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance. PMID:25928210

  3. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. PMID:24627645

  4. Structure and function of the mammalian fibrillin gene family: implications for human connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Davis, Margaret R; Summers, Kim M

    2012-12-01

    Fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor ? binding proteins (LTBPs) are components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. While fibrillins are integral to the 10nm microfibrils, and often associated with elastin, all family members are likely to have an additional role in regulating the bioavailability of transforming growth factor ? (TGB?). Both fibrillins and LTBPs are large glycoproteins, containing a series of calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains as well as a number of copies of a unique 8 cysteine domain found only in this protein superfamily. There are three mammalian fibrillins and four LTBPs. Fibrillin monomers link head to tail in microfibrils which can then form two and three dimensional structures. In some tissues elastin is recruited to the fibrillin microfibrils to provide elasticity to the tissue. LTBPs are part of the TGB? large latent complex which sequesters TGB? in the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 appears to bind to LTBPs to assist in this process and is thus involved in regulating the bioavailability of TGB?. Mutation of fibrillin genes results in connective tissue phenotypes which reflect both the increased level of active TGB? and the structural failure of the extracellular matrix due to the absence or abnormality of fibrillin protein. Fibrillinopathies include Marfan syndrome, familial ectopia lentis, familial thoracic aneurysm (mutations of FBN1) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (mutation of FBN2). There are no diseases currently associated with mutation of FBN3 in humans, and this gene is no longer active in rodents. Expression patterns of fibrillin genes are consistent with their role in extracellular matrix structure of connective tissue. FBN1 expression is high in most cell types of mesenchymal origin, particularly bone. Human and mouse FBN2 expression is high in fetal cells and has more restricted expression in mesenchymal cell types postnatally. FBN3 is expressed early in development (embryonic and fetal tissues) in humans. The fibrillins are thus important in maintaining the structure and integrity of the extracellular matrix and, in combination with their sequence family members the LTBPs, also contribute to the regulation of the TGF? family of major growth factors. PMID:22921888

  5. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  6. User's manual for SMACS: a family of codes for probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S; Shukla, S N; O'Connell, W J; Gerhard, M A

    1982-03-01

    SMACS is a code which links the seismic input, soil-structure interaction and structural response calculations to obtain response vectors, which in turn are used as input for risk analysis. Inherently, there are uncertainties involved in various links of the seismic methodology chain. SMACS incorporates the uncertainty in the seismic input by using a suite of possible earthquakes. Uncertainties in the soil-structure interaction (SSI) are incorporated by using a range of values of soil shear modulus and soil material damping at a given site. Similarly a range of probable values of modal frequency and damping of the structure are used to account for uncertainties in structural modelling. The following pre-processor codes are available, as a package, to create necessary input files for the SMACS program: SIMQ (for generating seimic input); GLAY and CLAF (for soil-structure interaction analysis); and SAP4 (for modal analysis of the structures). The post-processor codes available are: PRESTO (to plot probability distributions for the response vectors or basic events); and CHANGO (to plot comparisons of basic events from different analyses). The code, SMACS, and the nature of the problem it solves are discussed. The way that SMACS is executed is explained. Manuals are provided that explain how to create the necessary input files for different subprograms of the SMACS family. An example problem illustrating an SSI analysis for a containment structure is presented.

  7. Sexual coercion among adolescent women in Rakai, Uganda: does family structure matter?

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred K; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2013-04-01

    Studies on adolescent girls' vulnerability to sexual coercion in Sub-Saharan Africa have focused mainly on individual and partner risk factors, rarely investigating the role the family might play in their vulnerability. This study examined whether household family structure and parental vital status were associated with adolescent girls' risk of sexual coercion in Rakai, Uganda. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk of sexual coercion in the prior 12 months among 1,985 unmarried and married adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 who were participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study between 2001 and 2008. Among sexually active girls, 11% reported coercion in a given past year. Unexpectedly, living with a single mother was protective against experiencing coercion. As much as 4.1% of never-married girls living with single mothers reported coercion, compared to 7.8% of girls living with biological fathers (adj. relative risk [RR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-5.08) and 20% of girls living in stepfather households (adj. RR = 4.73, 95% CI: 1.78-12.53). Ever-married girls whose mothers alone were deceased were more likely to report coercion than those with both parents alive (adj. RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08-2.30). Protecting adolescent girls from sexual coercion requires prevention approaches that incorporate the family, with particular emphasis on including the men (e.g. fathers) who might play an influential role in young girls' sexual development. Understanding the family dynamics underlying the risk and protective effects of a given household structure might highlight new ways in which to prevent sexual coercion. PMID:23295373

  8. Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph A; Parker, Joanne L; Solcan, Nicolae; Brinth, Alette; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Caffrey, Martin; Newstead, Simon

    2014-08-01

    An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di- and tripeptide-bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co-crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal that biochemically distinct peptide-binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton-coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport. PMID:24916388

  9. Structural basis for membrane recruitment and allosteric activation of cytohesin family Arf GTPase exchange factors

    PubMed Central

    Malaby, Andrew W.; van den Berg, Bert; Lambright, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane recruitment of cytohesin family Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors depends on interactions with phosphoinositides and active Arf GTPases that, in turn, relieve autoinhibition of the catalytic Sec7 domain through an unknown structural mechanism. Here, we show that Arf6-GTP relieves autoinhibition by binding to an allosteric site that includes the autoinhibitory elements in addition to the PH domain. The crystal structure of a cytohesin-3 construct encompassing the allosteric site in complex with the head group of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and N-terminally truncated Arf6-GTP reveals a large conformational rearrangement, whereby autoinhibition can be relieved by competitive sequestration of the autoinhibitory elements in grooves at the Arf6/PH domain interface. Disposition of the known membrane targeting determinants on a common surface is compatible with multivalent membrane docking and subsequent activation of Arf substrates, suggesting a plausible model through which membrane recruitment and allosteric activation could be structurally integrated. PMID:23940353

  10. The first structure of pectate lyase belonging to polysaccharide lyase family 3.

    PubMed

    Akita, M; Suzuki, A; Kobayashi, T; Ito, S; Yamane, T

    2001-12-01

    The crystal structure of a highly alkaline low molecular weight pectate lyase (Pel-15) was determined at 1.5 A resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) method. This is the first pectate lyase structure from polysaccharide lyase family 3. The overall structure is a simple eight-turn right-handed parallel beta-helix domain with one long loop protruding from one side of the beta-helix. The low molecular weight of Pel-15 derives from the lack of N- and C-terminal extensions that are found in many beta-helix proteins. Although the structure has one calcium ion at pH 6.7, raising the pH to 9.5 results in the binding of an additional calcium ion. The common calcium ion found in both the pH 6.5 and 9.5 structures seems to stabilize both the beta-helix structure and the long protruding loop. The additional calcium ion found in the pH 9.5 structure alone may neutralize the acidic substrate. The region around the additional calcium ion is thought to bind to the substrate, as this region is rich in charged amino-acid residues which are required in catalysis. PMID:11717490

  11. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa. PMID:19941674

  12. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Flexibility and Structure May Enhance Implementation of Family-Focused Therapy in Community Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Mikesell, Lisa; Miklowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    This study elicited provider and administrator preferences in implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) for bipolar disorder or psychosis, family-focused therapy (FFT). Providers (n=35) and administrators (n= 5) from three community mental health centers took part in FFT training and participated in pre- and post-training focus groups. Transcripts were examined using conventional content analysis. Providers and administrators discussed barriers to implementing EBPs. Successful EBPs were described as incorporating flexibility and close supervision to maximize provider adherence. Providers expressed preferences for structured EBPs like FFT that have both explicit implementation steps and built-in flexibility. PMID:24810982

  14. Flexibility and structure may enhance implementation of family-focused therapy in community mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Mikesell, Lisa; Miklowitz, David

    2014-10-01

    This study elicited provider and administrator preferences in implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) for bipolar disorder or psychosis, family-focused therapy (FFT). Providers (n = 35) and administrators (n = 5) from three community mental health centers took part in FFT training and participated in pre- and post-training focus groups. Transcripts were examined using conventional content analysis. Providers and administrators discussed barriers to implementing EBPs. Successful EBPs were described as incorporating flexibility and close supervision to maximize provider adherence. Providers expressed preferences for structured EBPs like FFT that have both explicit implementation steps and built-in flexibility. PMID:24810982

  15. A family of carbon-based nanocomposite tubular structures created by in situ electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jie; Ni, Yong; Fan, Feng-Jia; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-05-22

    We report a unique approach for the fabrication of a family of curling tubular nanostructures rapidly created by a rolling up of carbon membranes under in situ TEM electron beam irradiation. Multiwall tubes can also be created if irradiation by electron beam is performed long enough. This general approach can be extended to curve the conductive carbon film loaded with various functional nanomaterials, such as nanocrystals, nanorods, nanowires, and nanosheets, providing a unique strategy to make composite tubular structures and composite materials by a combination of desired optical, electronic, and magnetic properties, which could find potential applications, including fluid transportation, encapsulation, and capillarity on the nanometer scale. PMID:22530775

  16. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Cohen; C. A. Goldman; J. P. Harris

    1991-01-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous

  17. The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Schooling on Economic Success. Volume III. Supplementary Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher; And Others

    This volume contains eleven appendixes, varying from 5 to 165 pages, which describe the sample used in the analysis of ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and earnings in maturity. The appendixes are (1) 1970 Census 1/1000 Sample; (2) 1962…

  18. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  19. Differential Effects of Economic Factors on Specialist and Family Physician Distribution in Illinois: A County-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Uneven distribution of physicians across geographic areas of the United States remains a significant problem that may have implications for health. Purpose: To develop a statistical model of physician distribution in Illinois counties that predicts where specialists and family physicians practice, and to suggest policy strategies for…

  20. Planning for Free Lives: Curriculum Materials for Combatting Sex Stereotyping in Home Economics, Family Living, and Career Awareness Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feminists Northwest, Seattle, WA.

    Classroom activities for high-school students in home economics are provided. Designed to help male and female students gain home management skills without the usual limits of traditional sex-role stereotyping, the activities aim at assisting members of both sexes realize their potential as independent, thoughtful, cooperative, and assertive…

  1. Genetic influence on left ventricular structure and function: a korean twin and family study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Lee, Sang Cheol; Park, Seung Woo; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Genetic factors have been suggested to be one of the determinants of the variation of left ventricular (LV) structure and function. However, the heritability range of LV structure varies across studies and the influence of genetics on LV function is not well established, especially in Asian populations. Study subjects were 1,642 healthy Korean adults from 426 families, consisting of 298 pairs of monozygotic twins, 62 pairs of dizygotic twins, one set of triplets, 567 siblings, and 354 parents. LV structure and function were measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography, and conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Pairwise intra-class correlations for various familial relationships and heritability were estimated for LV structure and function. The heritability of LV mass, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index, the ratio between early and late diastolic velocity of mitral inflow (E/A ratio), and the ratio between early diastolic velocity of mitral inflow and early diastolic mitral annular velocities (E/Ea ratio) was 0.44, 0.27, 0.44, 0.25, and 0.33, respectively. Bivariate genetic analysis showed that LV structural and functional traits had significant genetic correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. Additive genetic correlation (?G) of LV mass with body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were 0.49, 0.42, and -0.15 respectively. LVEF (?G = 0.33) and left atrial volume index (?G = 0.24) also had a significant genetic correlation with systolic blood pressure. These findings support the theory that genetic factors have significant influence on these traits and necessitate further work to identify the specific genes involved. PMID:25871282

  2. The Structure and Enzymatic Properties of a Novel RNase II family enzyme from Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Schmier, Brad J.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Deutscher, Murray P.; Hunt, John F.; Malhotra, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Exoribonucleases are vital in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA maturation, end-turnover, and degradation. RNase II and RNase R are paralogous members of the RNR superfamily of non-specific, 3’->5’, processive exoribonucleases. In Escherichia coli, RNase II plays a primary role in mRNA decay, and has a preference for unstructured RNA. RNase R, in contrast, is capable of digesting structured RNA and plays a role in the degradation of both mRNA and stable RNA. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant bacterium, contains two RNR family members. The shorter of these, DrR63, includes a sequence signature typical of RNase R, but we show here that this enzyme is an RNase II-type exonuclease and cannot degrade structured RNA. We also report the crystal structure of this protein, now termed DrII. The DrII structure reveals a truncated RNA binding region in which the N-terminal cold shock domains, typical of most RNR family nucleases, are replaced by an unusual winged helix-turnhelix domain, where the “wing” is contributed by the C-terminal S1 domain. Consistent with its truncated RNA binding region, DrII is able to remove 3’ overhangs from RNA molecules closer to duplexes than do other RNase II type enzymes. DrII also displays distinct sensitivity to pyrimidine-rich regions of ssRNA, and is able to process tRNA precursors with adenosine rich 3’ extensions in vitro. These data indicate that DrII is the RNase II of D. radiodurans, and that its structure and catalytic properties are distinct from those of other related enzymes. PMID:22133431

  3. A class 2 weight assessment for the implementation of commonality and preliminary structural designs for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Tom; Dragush, George; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Oxendine, Charles; Remen, John; Robinson, Terry; Russell, Mark; Swift, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of commonality objectives are determined. Commonality is discussed in terms of weight penalties that increase the take-off weight of several members of the family of airplanes. Preliminary designs of fuselage structural members and a discussion of weight penalties due to implementation of common fuselage structure throughout the family is examined. Wing torque box designs are discussed along with structural weight penalties incurred. A landing gear design study is contained along with the weight penalties that a common gear system will impose. Implementation of common power plants throughout the family and the weight penalties that occur are discussed. The weight penalties imposed by commonality on all the airplanes in the family are summarized. Class 2 breakdowns are also presented. The feasibility of commonality based on a percentage of take-off weight increase over the Class 2 baseline weights is then assessed.

  4. Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

  5. Crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B reveal a dynamic, modular architecture of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2007-05-29

    Catrocollastatin/vascular apoptosis-inducing protein (VAP)2B is a metalloproteinase from Crotalus atrox venom, possessing metalloproteinase/disintegrin/cysteine-rich (MDC) domains that bear the typical domain architecture of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. Here we describe crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B in three different crystal forms, representing the first reported crystal structures of a member of the monomeric class of this family of proteins. The overall structures show good agreement with both monomers of atypical homodimeric VAP1. Comparison of the six catrocollastatin/VAP2B monomer structures and the structures of VAP1 reveals a dynamic, modular architecture that may be important for the functions of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. PMID:17485084

  6. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure?function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity. Enhanced version This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a Web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1. PMID:20676357

  7. Structural insight into the TRIAP1/PRELI-like domain family of mitochondrial phospholipid transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Miliara, Xeni; Garnett, James A; Tatsuta, Takashi; Abid Ali, Ferdos; Baldie, Heather; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Simpson, Peter; Yague, Ernesto; Langer, Thomas; Matthews, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial membrane is important for its architecture and proper function. Mitochondria depend on a tightly regulated supply of phospholipid via intra-mitochondrial synthesis and by direct import from the endoplasmic reticulum. The Ups1/PRELI-like family together with its mitochondrial chaperones (TRIAP1/Mdm35) represent a unique heterodimeric lipid transfer system that is evolutionary conserved from yeast to man. Work presented here provides new atomic resolution insight into the function of a human member of this system. Crystal structures of free TRIAP1 and the TRIAP1-SLMO1 complex reveal how the PRELI domain is chaperoned during import into the intermembrane mitochondrial space. The structural resemblance of PRELI-like domain of SLMO1 with that of mammalian phoshatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) suggest that they share similar lipid transfer mechanisms, in which access to a buried phospholipid-binding cavity is regulated by conformationally adaptable loops. PMID:26071602

  8. Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

    2013-01-01

    A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins. PMID:23372681

  9. Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages

    PubMed Central

    Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the “stability profiles” of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world. PMID:23028843

  10. Comparative Study on Sequence–Structure–Function Relationship of the Human Short-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nu Thi Ngoc; Le, Ly

    2014-01-01

    Human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) protein family has been the subject of recent studies for its critical role in human metabolism. Studies also found that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SDR protein family were responsible for a variety of genetic diseases, including type II diabetes. This study reports the effect of sequence variation on the structural and functional integrities of human SDR protein family using phylogenetics and correlated mutation analysis tools. Our results indicated that (i) tyrosine, serine, and lysine are signature protein residues that have direct contribution to the structural and functional stabilities of the SDR protein family, (ii) subgroups of SDR protein family have their own signature protein combination that represent their unique functionality, and (iii) mutations of the human SDR protein family showed high correlation in terms of evolutionary history. In combination, the results inferred that over evolutionary history, the SDR protein family was able to diverge itself in order to adapt with the changes in human nutritional demands. Our study reveals understanding of structural and functional scaffolds of specific SDR subgroups that may facilitate the design of specific inhibitor. PMID:25374450

  11. Growth, structure and electrical properties of aluminum substituted langasite family crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Yamaura, J.; Hoshina, T.; Tsusrumi, T.

    2011-10-01

    We report aluminium substitution effect on structure and electric properties of langasite (La3Ga5SiO14) family crystals. Quasi-congruent melting composition of La3Ga5-xAlxSiO14 (LGAS), La3Nb0.5Ga5.5-xAlxO14 (LNGA), and La3Ta0.5Ga5.5-xAlxO14 (LTGA) crystals are x = 0.9, 0.2, and 0.5, respectively. A single-crystal x-ray structure analysis reveals that Al atoms are distributed in all cation sites except for the decahedral one occupied by La, by rather favoring the smallest tetrahedral one. The electrical properties of the Al-substituted crystals are compared with those of pure ones. By Al substitution, all langasite family crystals show higher piezoelectric constant d11 and higher electric resistivity ?. Among them, the LTGA crystal with lower temperature dependence of d11 and highest ? is a promising material for high temperature piezoelectric application.

  12. Crystal structure and mechanistic determinants of SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 define an endoribonuclease family

    PubMed Central

    Ricagno, Stefano; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ulferts, Rachel; Coutard, Bruno; Nurizzo, Didier; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian; Ziebuhr, John; Canard, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The ?30-kb coronavirus (+)RNA genome is replicated and transcribed by a membrane-bound replicase complex made up of 16 viral nonstructural proteins (nsp) with multiple enzymatic activities. The complex includes an RNA endonuclease, NendoU, that is conserved among nidoviruses but no other RNA virus, making it a genetic marker of this virus order. NendoU (nsp15) is a Mn2+-dependent, uridylate-specific enzyme, which leaves 2?–3?-cyclic phosphates 5? to the cleaved bond. Neither biochemical nor sequence homology criteria allow a classification of nsp15 into existing endonuclease families. Here, we report the crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp15 at 2.6-Å resolution. Nsp15 exhibits a unique fold and assembles into a toric hexamer with six potentially active, peripheric catalytic sites. The structure and the spatial arrangement of the catalytic residues into an RNase A-like active site define a separate endonuclease family, endoU, and represent another spectacular example of convergent evolution toward an enzymatic function that is critically involved in the coronavirus replication cycle. PMID:16882730

  13. Crystal structure and mechanistic determinants of SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 define an endoribonuclease family.

    PubMed

    Ricagno, Stefano; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ulferts, Rachel; Coutard, Bruno; Nurizzo, Didier; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian; Ziebuhr, John; Canard, Bruno

    2006-08-01

    The approximately 30-kb coronavirus (+)RNA genome is replicated and transcribed by a membrane-bound replicase complex made up of 16 viral nonstructural proteins (nsp) with multiple enzymatic activities. The complex includes an RNA endonuclease, NendoU, that is conserved among nidoviruses but no other RNA virus, making it a genetic marker of this virus order. NendoU (nsp15) is a Mn(2+)-dependent, uridylate-specific enzyme, which leaves 2'-3'-cyclic phosphates 5' to the cleaved bond. Neither biochemical nor sequence homology criteria allow a classification of nsp15 into existing endonuclease families. Here, we report the crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp15 at 2.6-A resolution. Nsp15 exhibits a unique fold and assembles into a toric hexamer with six potentially active, peripheric catalytic sites. The structure and the spatial arrangement of the catalytic residues into an RNase A-like active site define a separate endonuclease family, endoU, and represent another spectacular example of convergent evolution toward an enzymatic function that is critically involved in the coronavirus replication cycle. PMID:16882730

  14. Revisiting the structural setting of the Glueckstadt Graben salt stock family, North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykulov, Mikhail; Brink, Heinz-Jürgen; Gajewski, Dirk; Yoon, Mi-Kyung

    2009-05-01

    Reprocessing of seismic data of a salt stock family from the North German Basin provided new insights into the structural evolution of this area. The Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack technique was applied to reprocess the reflection data acquired by the hydrocarbon industry in the 1980s. Due to the low fold of these data and the complex geology in the study area severe imaging challenges were encountered when the data were initially processed using conventional CMP stack. The CRS stack technique is particularly suited for low fold data in complex areas since it builds physically correct super gathers even if dipping structures are present. This leads to a considerably improved signal-to-noise ratio in the CRS stack compared to CMP stack sections. Moreover, the CRS stack parameters obtained during the stack form the foundation for a robust reflection tomography used for velocity model building. These models allowed the application of pre-stack and post-stack depth migration. The obtained depth images provided structural details not seen before, motivating an alternative view on the structural setting of the area. The image of the Jurassic salt plug indicates tectonics similar to observations in the Allertal region, where reverse faulting plays a major role in the evolution of the salt structures. As a consequence, shortening of the Mesozoic strata was included into the revised interpretation of the Glueckstadt Graben area. The new depth images also allowed an updated look on the petroleum system of this graben, which indicates new possible exploration targets.

  15. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF DENGUE FEVER\\/DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN THAILAND AT THE FAMILY AND POPULATION LEVELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIELLE V. CLARK; MAMMEN P. MAMMEN JR.; ANANDA NISALAK; VIRAT PUTHIMETHEE; TIMOTHY P. ENDY

    2005-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever constitute a substantial health burden on the population in Thailand. In this study, the impact of symptomatic dengue virus infection on the families of patients hospitalized at the Kamphaeng Phet Provincial Hospital with laboratory-confirmed dengue in 2001 was assessed, and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost for fatal and non-fatal cases of dengue were

  16. A Content Analysis of the Family Structure in Children's Literature for the Periods between 1955-1970 and 1980-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Erminia Mina

    A study examined how the family structure has changed over time in contemporary realistic children's literature for middle readers. There is an ongoing debate in this country about what defines a family and whether it is in transformation or becoming extinct. Since 1960 there is evidence that the family structure has changed. The books selected in…

  17. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Song, Weibo; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. To gain insight into the structural and functional evolution of the HIF family, we characterized the HIF? gene from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, and identified several alternatively spliced HIF? isoforms. Whereas HIF? Ia, the full-length isoform, contained a complete oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain, the isoforms Ib, Ic, and Id had 1 or 2 deletions in the ODD domain. When tagged with GFP and tested in mammalian cells, the amphioxus HIF? Ia protein level increased in response to hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment, whereas HIF? Ib, Ic, and Id showed reduced or no hypoxia regulation. Deletion of the ODD sequence in HIF? Ia up-regulated the HIF? Ia levels under normoxia. Gene expression analysis revealed HIF? Ic to be the predominant isoform in embryos and larvae, whereas isoform Ia was the most abundant form in the adult stage. The expression levels of Ib and Id were very low. Hypoxia treatment of adults had no effect on the mRNA levels of these HIF? isoforms. Functional analyses in mammalian cells showed all 4 HIF? isoforms capable of entering the nucleus and activating hypoxia response element–dependent reporter gene expression. The functional nuclear location signal (NLS) mapped to 3 clusters of basic residues. 775KKARL functioned as the primary NLS, but 737KRK and 754KK also contributed to the nuclear localization. All amphioxus HIF? isoforms had 2 functional transactivation domains (TADs). Its C-terminal transactivation (C-TAD) shared high sequence identity with the human HIF-1? and HIF-2? C-TAD. This domain contained a conserved asparagine, and its mutation resulted in an increase in transcriptional activity. These findings reveal many ancient features of the HIF? family and provide novel insights into the evolution of the HIF? family.—Gao, S., Lu, L., Bai, Y., Zhang, P., Song, W., Duan, C. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family. PMID:24174425

  18. Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N-acetyl-glucosamine

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    Structures of Bacillus subtilis PdaA, a family 4 carbohydrate esterase, and a complex with N carbohydrate esterases deacetylate poly- meric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan carbohydrate esterases in a structural context and represents a first step towards understanding the reaction

  19. Economic costs and benefits associated with investments in pollution prevention structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Both fertilizers and pesticides are primary sources of surface and groundwater contamination in the US. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. The general objective of these programs is to provide research, development, and application of pollution prevention technologies and strategies for industries which market or use fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals. From an economic perspective, the installation of pollution prevention structures, as well as adherence to other regulatory requirements carries a real cost to the agrichemical retailer. However, there may also be benefits tied to the adoption of new technology that would offset some or all of the additional operating costs accrued as a result of investment in the environmental technology. This paper attempts to document the economic costs associated with investments in pollution prevention technologies and adherence to environmental regulations at TVA demonstrator sites; as well as the potential benefits an agribusiness dealer may accrue as a result of the environmental investment.

  20. Strengthening Our Military Families

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PSD-9. With the involvement of the National Economic Council, Office of the First Lady, and the ... goal of the program is to mitigate the economic hardship of deployed members and their families. The ...

  1. Structural and functional analysis of chitinase gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Pandey, Bharati; Tyagi, Chetna; Chakraborty, Ohika; Kumar, Amrender; Jain, A K

    2015-04-01

    Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming a helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants. PMID:26118129

  2. The transthyretin-related protein: structural investigation of a novel protein family.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Erik; Bäckström, Stefan; Sauer, Uwe H; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2006-09-01

    The transthyretin-related protein (TRP) family comprises proteins predicted to be structurally related to the homotetrameric transport protein transthyretin (TTR). The function of TRPs is not yet fully established, but recent data suggest that they are involved in purine catabolism. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the Escherichia coli TRP in two crystal forms; one at 1.65 A resolution in the presence of zinc, and the other at 2.1 A resolution in the presence of zinc and bromide. The structures revealed five zinc-ion-binding sites per monomer. Of these, the zinc ions bound at sites I and II are coordinated in tetrahedral geometries to the side chains of residues His9, His96, His98, Ser114, and three water molecules at the putative ligand-binding site. Of these four residues, His9, His98, and Ser114 are conserved. His9 and His98 bind the central zinc (site I) together with two water molecules. The side chain of His98 also binds to the zinc ion at site II. Bromide ions bind at site I only, replacing one of the water molecules coordinated to the zinc ion. The C-terminal four amino acid sequence motif Y-[RK]-G-[ST] constitutes the signature sequence of the TRP family. Two Tyr111 residues form direct hydrogen bonds to each other over the tetramer interface at the area, which in TTR constitutes the rear part of its thyroxine-binding channel. The putative substrate/ligand-binding channel of TRP is consequently shallower and broader than its counterpart in TTR. PMID:16723258

  3. The structure and mode of action of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase in biomass deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Chandrayan, Puja; Kataeva, Irina; Adams, Michael W W; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V

    2013-04-01

    The unique active site of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase catalytic module (PL3-cat) has been structurally described and synergistic digestion studies with C. bescii cellulase A have been performed on unpretreated biomass. The X-ray structure of PL3-cat was determined at 1.6 Å resolution (PDB entry 4ew9) in complex with the products of trigalacturonic acid. Comparison with family 1 pectate lyase (PL1) structures shows that the active site of the PL3 catalytic module is considerably different. However, on superimposing the identical sugar rings at the -2 subsites conserved interactions could be identified. Interestingly, only one catalytic residue, the lysine that donates the proton to the carboxylate group in the ?-elimination reaction of PL1 (Lys108 in PL3-cat), is conserved in PL3 and there is no arginine to abstract the proton from the C5 carbon of the galactouronate ring. This suggests that the reaction mechanism of PL3 requires different catalytic residues. Most interestingly, comparison with other proton-abstraction reactions reveals that in PL3 the ?-proton is abstracted by a lysine, in a striking similarity to enolases. These observations led us to propose that in PL3-cat Lys108 is the catalytic base, Glu84 is the catalytic acid and an acidified water molecule completes the anti ?-elimination reaction by protonating the O4 atom of the substrate. Also, our digestion experiments with unpretreated switchgrass show that the loadings of C. bescii cellobiohydrolase A (CelA) can be lowered by the addition of PL3 to the reaction mixture. This result suggests that PL3 can significantly improve the deconstruction of unpretreated biomass by allowing other enzymes to better access their preferred substrates. PMID:23519661

  4. The CATH Domain Structure Database and related resources Gene3D and DHS provide comprehensive domain family information for genome analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances M. G. Pearl; Annabel E. Todd; Ian Sillitoe; Mark Dibley; Oliver Redfern; Tony E. Lewis; Christopher Bennett; Russell L. Marsden; Alastair Grant; David Lee; Adrian Akpor; Michael Maibaum; Andrew P. Harrison; Timothy Dallman; Gabrielle A. Reeves; Ilhem Diboun; Sarah Addou; Stefano Lise; Caroline Johnston; Antonio Sillero; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo

    2005-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http:\\/\\/www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk\\/bsm\\/cath\\/) currently contains 43229 domains classified into 1467 super- families and 5107 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with sequence relatives from GenBank and completed genomes, using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended CATH protein family data- base contains 616470 domain sequences classified into 23876 sequence

  5. Mediators of Maternal Depression and Family Structure on Child BMI: Parenting Quality and Risk Factors for Child Overweight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina L. McConley; Sylvie Mrug; M. Janice Gilliland; Richard Lowry; Marc N. Elliott; Mark A. Schuster; Laura M. Bogart; Luisa Franzini; Soledad L. Escobar-Chaves; Frank A. Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers

  6. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family members. Additionally, while age had a relatively strong impact on all neurocognitive traits, the effects of age on cognition did not differ between diagnostic groups. Most brain-behaviour associations were also similar across the age range, with the exception of cortical and ventricular volume and lingual gyrus thickness, which showed weak correlations with verbal fluency and inhibitory control at younger ages that increased in magnitude in older subjects, regardless of diagnosis. Findings indicate that neuroanatomical traits potentially impacted by bipolar disorder are significantly associated with multiple neurobehavioural domains. Structure-function relationships are generally preserved across diagnostic groups, with the notable exception of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortex, volumetric increases in which may be associated with cognitive resilience specifically in individuals with bipolar disorder. Although age impacted all neurobehavioural traits, we did not find any evidence of accelerated cognitive decline specific to bipolar disorder subjects. Regardless of diagnosis, greater global brain volume may represent a protective factor for the effects of ageing on executive functioning. PMID:25943422

  7. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear ?-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  8. Structures and functions of protein disulfide isomerase family members involved in proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment in which an enormous number of secretory and cell surface membrane proteins are synthesized and subjected to cotranslational or posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and disulfide bond formation. Proper maintenance of ER protein homeostasis (sometimes termed proteostasis) is essential to avoid cellular stresses and diseases caused by abnormal proteins. Accumulating knowledge of cysteine-based redox reactions catalyzed by members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family has revealed that these enzymes play pivotal roles in productive protein folding accompanied by disulfide formation, as well as efficient ER-associated degradation accompanied by disulfide reduction. Each of PDI family members forms a protein-protein interaction with a preferential partner to fulfill a distinct function. Multiple redox pathways that utilize PDIs appear to function synergistically to attain the highest quality and productivity of the ER, even under various stress conditions. This review describes the structures, physiological functions, and cooperative actions of several essential PDIs, and provides important insights into the elaborate proteostatic mechanisms that have evolved in the extremely active and stress-sensitive ER. PMID:25697777

  9. Structural analysis of a MIP family protein from the digestive tract of Cicadella viridis.

    PubMed

    Beuron, F; Le Cahérec, F; Guillam, M T; Cavalier, A; Garret, A; Tassan, J P; Delamarche, C; Schultz, P; Mallouh, V; Rolland, J P

    1995-07-21

    Homopteran insects, and especially Cicadella viridis, display in their digestive tract a specialized epithelial differentiation, the filter chamber (FC) acting as a water-shunting complex. The main intrinsic membrane protein of the FC is a 25,000-Da polypeptide (P25). In this paper we demonstrate that this P25 polypeptide is a member of the MIP family of membrane channel proteins, and that P25 forms homotetramers in the native membranes. Using polymerase chain reaction, a 360-base pair cDNA, named cic, was isolated from RNA of the FC. cic encodes a 119-amino acid polypeptide (CIC) whose homologies with MIP26, AQP1 (CHIP), AQP2, and gamma-TIP are 38, 38, 34, and 20%, respectively. Using a specific antibody raised against a 15-amino acid peptide from the CIC sequence, we concluded that CIC and P25 are identical entities, and hence that P25 belongs to the MIP family. We investigated the quaternary structure of P25 in the membranes of the FC using biophysical analysis of P25 nondenaturing detergent micelles, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and image processing of conventional transmission electron microscopic images. All those different approaches converged to the conclusion that P25 exists as an homotetramer forming a regular two-dimensional array in the membranes. PMID:7542238

  10. Observations of families in structured interactions: Parenting therapists provide reliable ratings of mothers’ parenting

    PubMed Central

    Storå, Bent; Hagtvet, Knut A; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of observations of parenting by parenting therapists was assessed. An important predictor of externalizing behavior in children is quality of parenting. Data were videotapes of structured interactions in families with a child age 8–12 years referred to the evidence based Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) treatment program for child behavior problems. The therapists had clinical PMTO training but no training in systematic observation. PMTO observational coders with specific coder training were included as a reference for the therapists. Five therapists and two coders observed videotapes of 10 families and performed global evaluations of mothers’ parenting skills. They used the coder’s impression measure used in PMTO research. Scores were analyzed in a generalizability theory framework for the two groups of observers separately. Both observer types reliably rank-ordered the mothers and assessed the level of parenting skills. PMTO therapists without coder training provided reliable ratings of parenting constructs relevant to the clinical PMTO program in a manner comparable to that of the trained reference coders. PMID:24237459

  11. Legal responsiveness: a contribution to a structural theory of economic crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Hoffman

    2003-01-01

    Economic crime is too varied an activity to be explained by a single theory. Valuable insights are gained from theories that focus on individual characteristics and on the socio-economic context of crime, but these theories are not sufficient explanations of economically motivated crime. They are usefully supplemented by legal responsiveness theory, which focuses on the capacity of the economic system

  12. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a New Family of Layered Intergrowth Phases Based on Antimony(III) Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Ling; John G. Thompson; Ray L. Withers; Siegbert Schmid

    1996-01-01

    A new family of layered oxide phases, described by the general formula SbIIInSbVxAn?xTiO4n+2forn= 1, 2, 3 (A= Ta) andn= 1, 3 (A= Nb) is reported. Models for the structures of then= 1 andn= 2 members are presented, based on the previously reportedn= 3 structures, XRD, electron diffraction, and microanalytical data. The structures of all members are described as ordered intergrowths

  13. The structure of MESD45-184 brings light into the mechanism of LDLR family folding.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christian; Lighthouse, Janet K; Werther, Tobias; Andersen, Olav M; Diehl, Annette; Schmieder, Peter; Du, Jianguang; Holdener, Bernadette C; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    Mesoderm development (MESD) is a 224 amino acid mouse protein that acts as a molecular chaperone for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Here, we provide evidence that the region 45-184 of MESD is essential and sufficient for this function and suggest a model for its mode of action. NMR studies reveal a ?-?-?-?-?-? core domain with an ?-helical N-terminal extension that interacts with the ? sheet in a dynamic manner. As a result, the structural ensemble contains open (active) and closed (inactive) forms, allowing for regulation of chaperone activity through substrate binding. The mutant W61R, which is lethal in Drosophila, adopts only the open state. The receptor motif recognized by MESD was identified by in vitro-binding studies. Furthermore, in vivo functional evidence for the relevance of the identified contact sites in MESD is provided. PMID:21397185

  14. Structural evolution of glycan recognition by a family of potent HIV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Garces, Fernando; Sok, Devin; Kong, Leopold; McBride, Ryan; Kim, Helen J; Saye-Francisco, Karen F; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Hua, Yuanzi; Cupo, Albert; Moore, John P; Paulson, James C; Ward, Andrew B; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-09-25

    The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is densely covered with self-glycans that should help shield it from recognition by the human immune system. Here, we examine how a particularly potent family of broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) has evolved common and distinct structural features to counter the glycan shield and interact with both glycan and protein components of HIV Env. The inferred germline antibody already harbors potential binding pockets for a glycan and a short protein segment. Affinity maturation then leads to divergent evolutionary branches that either focus on a single glycan and protein segment (e.g., Ab PGT124) or engage multiple glycans (e.g., Abs PGT121-123). Furthermore, other surrounding glycans are avoided by selecting an appropriate initial antibody shape that prevents steric hindrance. Such molecular recognition lessons are important for engineering proteins that can recognize or accommodate glycans. PMID:25259921

  15. Features of graded category structure: Generalizing the family resemblance and polymorphous concept models.

    PubMed

    Dry, Matthew J; Storms, Gert

    2010-03-01

    Many real-world categories contain graded structure: certain category members are rated as more typical or representative of the category than others. Research has shown that this graded structure can be well predicted by the degree of commonality across the feature sets of category members. We demonstrate that two prominent feature-based models of graded structure, the family resemblance (Rosch & Mervis, 1975) and polymorphous concept models (Hampton, 1979), can be generalized via the contrast model (Tversky, 1977) to include both common and distinctive feature information, and apply the models to the prediction of typicality in 11 semantic categories. The results indicate that both types of feature information play a role in the prediction of typicality, with common features weighted more heavily for within-category predictions, and distinctive features weighted more heavily for contrast-category predictions. The same pattern of results was found in additional analyses employing rated goodness and exemplar generation frequency. It is suggested that these findings provide insight into the processes underlying category formation and representation. PMID:20053389

  16. Structural insights into glycoside hydrolase family 32 and 68 enzymes: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Willem; Le Roy, Katrien; Schroeven, Lindsey; Van Laere, André; Rabijns, Anja; Van den Ende, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GH) have been shown to play unique roles in various biological processes like the biosynthesis of glycans, cell wall metabolism, plant defence, signalling, and the mobilization of storage reserves. To date, GH are divided into more than 100 families based upon their overall structure. GH32 and GH68 are combined in clan GH-J, not only harbouring typical hydrolases but also non-Leloir type transferases (fructosyltransferases), involved in fructan biosynthesis. This review summarizes the recent structure-function research progress on plant GH32 enzymes, and highlights the similarities and differences compared with the microbial GH32 and GH68 enzymes. A profound analysis of ligand-bound structures and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identified key residues in substrate (or inhibitor) binding and recognition. In particular, sucrose can bind as inhibitor in Cichorium intybus 1-FEH IIa, whereas it binds as substrate in Bacillus subtilis levansucrase and Arabidopsis thaliana cell wall invertase (AtcwINV1). In plant GH32, a single residue, the equivalent of Asp239 in AtcwINV1, appears to be important for sucrose stabilization in the active site and essential in determining sucrose donor specificity. PMID:19129163

  17. New crystal structural families of lanthanide chloride alcohol/water complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of lanthanide chloride compounds as possible scintillation materials for gamma ray and neutron detection has led to the discovery of several new families of crystal structures with the general formula LnCl3(CH3OH)x(H2O)y. The specific crystal structure depends on the water/methanol content and lanthanide ion. The coordination of the light (large) lanthanides is the typical value of 8 and reduces to 7 for the heavier (small) lanthanides. The binding energy of water versus alcohol ligands is comparable, so that if water is present in the system, it is typically incorporated as a ligand in the crystal. In these crystals, the molecular adducts occur as monomers, dimers, and dichloro-bridged chains. These, in turn, form 3-D frameworks through H-bonds to the Cl atoms. Other distinct crystal structures are predicted, given the volume changes due to the lanthanide contraction, the water content of the crystal growth solutions, and the specific halide.

  18. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 97 Enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron*

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Momoyo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Mori, Haruhide; Kitago, Yu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Atsuo; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2008-01-01

    SusB, an 84-kDa ?-glucoside hydrolase involved in the starch utilization system (sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 97. We have determined the enzymatic characteristics and the crystal structures in free and acarbose-bound form at 1.6Å resolution. SusB hydrolyzes the ?-glucosidic linkage, with inversion of anomeric configuration liberating the ?-anomer of glucose as the reaction product. The substrate specificity of SusB, hydrolyzing not only ?-1,4-glucosidic linkages but also ?-1,6-, ?-1,3-, and ?-1,2-glucosidic linkages, is clearly different from other well known glucoamylases belonging to GH15. The structure of SusB was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method with sulfur atoms as anomalous scatterers using an in-house x-ray source. SusB includes three domains as follows: the N-terminal, catalytic, and C-terminal domains. The structure of the SusB-acarbose complex shows a constellation of carboxyl groups at the catalytic center; Glu532 is positioned to provide protonic assistance to leaving group departure, with Glu439 and Glu508 both positioned to provide base-catalyzed assistance for inverting nucleophilic attack by water. A structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed significant similarity between the catalytic domain of SusB and those of ?-retaining glycoside hydrolases belonging to GH27, -36, and -31 despite the differences in catalytic mechanism. SusB and the other retaining enzymes appear to have diverged from a common ancestor and individually acquired the functional carboxyl groups during the process of evolution. Furthermore, sequence comparison of the active site based on the structure of SusB indicated that GH97 included both retaining and inverting enzymes. PMID:18981178

  19. FixingTIM: interactive exploration of sequence and structural data to identify functional mutations in protein families

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the 3D structure and functionality of proteins can lead to insight into the associated cellular processes, speed up the creation of pharmaceutical products, and develop drugs that are more effective in combating disease. Methods We present the design and implementation of a visual mining and analysis tool to help identify protein mutations across a family of structural models and to help discover the effect of these mutations on protein function. We integrate 3D structure and sequence information in a common visual interface; multiple linked views and a computational backbone allow comparison at the molecular and atomic levels, while a novel trend-image visual abstraction allows for the sorting and mining of large collections of sequences and of their residues. Results We evaluate our approach on the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) family structural models and sequence data and show that our tool provides an effective, scalable way to navigate a family of proteins, as well as a means to inspect the structure and sequence of individual proteins. Conclusions The TIM application shows that our tool can assist in the navigation of families of proteins, as well as in the exploration of individual protein structures. In conjunction with domain expert knowledge, this interactive tool can help provide biophysical insight into why specific mutations affect function and potentially suggest additional modifications to the protein that could be used to rescue functionality. PMID:25237390

  20. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  1. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  2. On an economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electron structure calculations

    E-print Network

    Szilvia Nagy; János Pipek

    2015-02-28

    In wavelet based electron structure calculations introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refining solution scheme that determines the indices, where refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution we would like to determine, whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  3. On an economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electron structure calculations

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    In wavelet based electron structure calculations introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refining solution scheme that determines the indices, where refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution we would like to determine, whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  4. Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed. PMID:22961129

  5. Adaptations for economical bipedal running: the effect of limb structure on three-dimensional joint mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G.; Heliams, Denham B.; Besier, Thor F.; Fournier, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical adaptations linked to economical locomotion in cursorial bipeds. We addressed this question by comparing mass-matched humans and avian bipeds (ostriches), which exhibit marked differences in limb structure and running economy. We hypothesized that the nearly 50 per cent lower energy cost of running in ostriches is a result of: (i) lower limb-swing mechanical power, (ii) greater stance-phase storage and release of elastic energy, and (iii) lower total muscle power output. To test these hypotheses, we used three-dimensional joint mechanical measurements and a simple model to estimate the elastic and muscle contributions to joint work and power. Contradictory to our first hypothesis, we found that ostriches and humans generate the same amounts of mechanical power to swing the limbs at a similar self-selected running speed, indicating that limb swing probably does not contribute to the difference in energy cost of running between these species. In contrast, we estimated that ostriches generate 120 per cent more stance-phase mechanical joint power via release of elastic energy compared with humans. This elastic mechanical power occurs nearly exclusively at the tarsometatarso-phalangeal joint, demonstrating a shift of mechanical power generation to distal joints compared with humans. We also estimated that positive muscle fibre power is 35 per cent lower in ostriches compared with humans, and is accounted for primarily by higher capacity for storage and release of elastic energy. Furthermore, our analysis revealed much larger frontal and internal/external rotation joint loads during ostrich running than in humans. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that a primary limb structure specialization linked to economical running in cursorial species is an elevated storage and release of elastic energy in tendon. In the ostrich, energy-saving specializations may also include passive frontal and internal/external rotation load-bearing mechanisms. PMID:21030429

  6. Structural Analysis of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 11 Xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Luo, Wenhua; Huang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Je-Ruei; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic domain of XynCDBFV, a glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) xylanase from ruminal fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum previously engineered to exhibit higher specific activity and broader pH adaptability, holds great potential in commercial applications. Here, the crystal structures of XynCDBFV and its complex with substrate were determined to 1.27–1.43 ? resolution. These structures revealed a typical GH11 ?-jelly-roll fold and detailed interaction networks between the enzyme and ligands. Notably, an extended N-terminal region (NTR) consisting of 11 amino acids was identified in the XynCDBFV structure, which is found unique among GH11 xylanases. The NTR is attached to the catalytic core by hydrogen bonds and stacking forces along with a disulfide bond between Cys-4 and Cys-172. Interestingly, the NTR deletion mutant retained 61.5% and 19.5% enzymatic activity at 55 °C and 75 °C, respectively, compared with the wild-type enzyme, whereas the C4A/C172A mutant showed 86.8% and 23.3% activity. These results suggest that NTR plays a role in XynCDBFV thermostability, and the Cys-4/Cys-172 disulfide bond is critical to the NTR-mediated interactions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that Pichia pastoris produces XynCDBFV with higher catalytic activity at higher temperature than Escherichia coli, in which incorrect NTR folding and inefficient disulfide bond formation might have occurred. In conclusion, these structural and functional analyses of the industrially favored XynCDBFV provide a molecular basis of NTR contribution to its thermostability. PMID:24619408

  7. Crystal Structures of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 20 Lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum *

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tasuku; Katayama, Takane; Hattie, Mitchell; Sakurama, Haruko; Wada, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ashida, Hisashi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Stubbs, Keith A.; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-? resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a ?2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near 4E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a 4C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed. PMID:23479733

  8. A Novel Gene Family NBPF: Intricate Structure Generated by Gene Duplications During Primate Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Vandepoele; Nadine Van Roy; Katrien Staes; Frank Speleman; Frans van Roy

    2005-01-01

    Partial and complete genome duplications occurred during evolution and resulted in the creation of new genes and gene families. We identified a novel and intricate human gene family located primarily in regions of segmental duplications on human chromosome 1. We named it NBPF, for neuroblastoma breakpoint family, because one of its members is disrupted by a chromosomal translocation in a

  9. FAMILY STRUCTURE AND COLLEGE GRADUATION: IS THE STEPPARENT EFFECT MORE NEGATIVE THAN THE SINGLE PARENT EFFECT?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Wojtkiewicz; Mellisa Holtzman

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the National Longitudinal Education Study (NELS) to build upon previous research that considered the negative effects of living in mother-only families and stepparent families on the subsequent educational attainment of children. Our results break new ground in finding that although those who lived in a mother-only family are not less likely overall to graduate college than

  10. Conflict in Families of Adolescents: The Impact on Cohesion and Power Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Thomas M.; And Others

    Family-related conflict has been a central focus of theory as well as research on adolescent development, both with respect to the characteristics of nature of conflict and the influence it has on adaptational outcomes. Conflict in families of adolescents was studied by examining three characteristics of family conflict (locus, content, and…

  11. Multiple sexual partnerships among female adolescents in rural Uganda: the effects of family structure and school attendance.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2014-11-21

    Abstract Background: A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda. In addition, the study assessed whether the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by the school attendance status of the adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period of 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic and poisson regressions were used. Results: Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but it was significantly associated with the outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions: The findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  12. Structures of phi29 DNA Polymerase Complexed with Substrate: The Mechanism of Translocation in B-Family Polymerases

    SciTech Connect

    Berman,A.; Kamtekar, S.; Goodman, J.; Lazaro, J.; de Vega, M.; Blanco, L.; Salas, M.; Steitz, T.

    2007-01-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) move along template DNA in a processive manner. The structural basis of the mechanism of translocation has been better studied in the A-family of polymerases than in the B-family of replicative polymerases. To address this issue, we have determined the X-ray crystal structures of phi29 DNAP, a member of the protein-primed subgroup of the B-family of polymerases, complexed with primer-template DNA in the presence or absence of the incoming nucleoside triphosphate, the pre- and post-translocated states, respectively. Comparison of these structures reveals a mechanism of translocation that appears to be facilitated by the coordinated movement of two conserved tyrosine residues into the insertion site. This differs from the mechanism employed by the A-family polymerases, in which a conserved tyrosine moves into the templating and insertion sites during the translocation step. Polymerases from the two families also interact with downstream single-stranded template DNA in very different ways.

  13. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  14. Changing Economics in the South: Preparing Our Youth. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Nashville, TN, April 24, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met in Nashville, Tennessee, to gather information on the education and employment futures of youth in the South. Testimony was heard from experts in education, training, and economic development. Organizations represented included universities in the region, adolescent dropout and…

  15. Investing in Human Capital. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Western Region Home Management Family Economics Educators (26th, San Francisco, California, November 13-15, 1986). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 13 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or discussant comments. The papers include "Comparable Worth: Pay Equity or Road to Ruin?" (Ferber; discussants Braconi, Zick); "Measuring Financial Satisfaction" (Davis; discussant Lown); "Can Tools for Regional Economics Be Used to Assess the Export of Family…

  16. Structure, divergence, and distribution of the CRR centromeric retrotransposon family in rice.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Neumann, Pavel; Zhang, Dongfen; Ouyang, Shu; Buell, C Robin; Cheng, Zhukuan; Jiang, Jiming

    2005-04-01

    The centromeric retrotransposon (CR) family in the grass species is one of few Ty3-gypsy groups of retroelements that preferentially transpose into highly specialized chromosomal domains. It has been demonstrated in both rice and maize that CRR (CR of rice) and CRM (CR of maize) elements are intermingled with centromeric satellite DNA and are highly concentrated within cytologically defined centromeres. We collected all of the CRR elements from rice chromosomes 1, 4, 8, and 10 that have been sequenced to high quality. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CRR elements are structurally diverged into four subfamilies, including two autonomous subfamilies (CRR1 and CRR2) and two nonautonomous subfamilies (noaCRR1 and noaCRR2). The CRR1/CRR2 elements contain all characteristic protein domains required for retrotransposition. In contrast, the noaCRR elements have different structures, containing only a gag or gag-pro domain or no open reading frames. The CRR and noaCRR elements share substantial sequence similarity in regions required for DNA replication and for recognition by integrase during retrotransposition. These data, coupled with the presence of young noaCRR elements in the rice genome and similar chromosomal distribution patterns between noaCRR1 and CRR1/CRR2 elements, suggest that the noaCRR elements were likely mobilized through the retrotransposition machinery from the autonomous CRR elements. Mechanisms of the targeting specificity of the CRR elements, as well as their role in centromere function, are discussed. PMID:15616142

  17. Tertiary Structure and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum? †

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Christopher D.; Hoy, Julie A.; Shilling, Taran C.; Linnen, Michael J.; Ginder, Nathaniel D.; Ford, Clark F.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Reilly, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and ?-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C. acetobutylicum cellulosome. It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a 10-min assay of 55°C and an optimal pH of 5.0. PMID:19915043

  18. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo; Kim, Seonah; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Ishiwata, Akihiro; Kaeothip, Sophon; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Beckham, Gregg T; Ito, Yukishige; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2014-04-25

    Enzymes acting on ?-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of ?-l-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked ?-l-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and ?-l-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional ?-sandwich domains, with one ?-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn(2+) coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the ?-l-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. PMID:24680821

  19. Families: An Expanding Role for Professional Counselors. Proceedings of the Conference (San Antonio, Texas, February 1-3, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, George M.; And Others

    This document contains papers from a conference which targeted the needs and interests of counselors working with families. Individual papers in the book include: (1) "Economic, Social and Political Influences on Families" (Lynda Henley Walters); (2) "Family Structures and Stresses: A Counseling Perspective" (Edwin Herr); (3) "Cultural Diversity…

  20. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  1. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-print Network

    Judson, Ruth A.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.

    To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  2. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-print Network

    Judson, Ruth A.

    To deepen the understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  3. Powerful Husbands and Virtuous Wives: The Familial Structure in the Leadership of the New Life Movement, 1934-1938

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    Movement from 1934 to 1938 to show how this approach to women’s organizing Xiaoping SunSun History, UCSC municipal levels these organizations were named with the standard format of [Placename] New Life MovementSun History, UCSC Powerful Husbands and Virtuous Wives: The Familial Structure in the Leadership of the New Life Movement,

  4. Family Structure Transitions and Early Childhood Development in Taiwan: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…

  5. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  6. Effects of Family Background and Parental Involvement on Egyptian Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and School Disengagement: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabry M. Abd-El-Fattah

    2006-01-01

    A structural equation modelling analysis was used to investigate the notion that the effects of parents’ education and family\\u000a structure on students’ academic achievement and school disengagement would be mediated through students’ perception of parental\\u000a involvement. The Perception of Parental Involvement Scale was administered to a sample of 275 first-year students (147 males\\u000a and 128 females) enrolled in two high

  7. Computer-Based Annotation of Putative AraC/XylS-Family Transcription Factors of Known Structure but Unknown Function

    PubMed Central

    Schüller, Andreas; Slater, Alex W.; Norambuena, Tomás; Cifuentes, Juan J.; Almonacid, Leonardo I.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Currently, about 20 crystal structures per day are released and deposited in the Protein Data Bank. A significant fraction of these structures is produced by research groups associated with the structural genomics consortium. The biological function of many of these proteins is generally unknown or not validated by experiment. Therefore, a growing need for functional prediction of protein structures has emerged. Here we present an integrated bioinformatics method that combines sequence-based relationships and three-dimensional (3D) structural similarity of transcriptional regulators with computer prediction of their cognate DNA binding sequences. We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors, which is a large family of transcriptional regulators found in many bacteria controlling the expression of genes involved in diverse biological functions. Three putative new members of this family with known 3D structure but unknown function were identified for which a probable functional classification is provided. Our bioinformatics analyses suggest that they could be involved in plant cell wall degradation (Lin2118 protein from Listeria innocua, PDB code 3oou), symbiotic nitrogen fixation (protein from Chromobacterium violaceum, PDB code 3oio), and either metabolism of plant-derived biomass or nitrogen fixation (protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, PDB code 3mn2). PMID:22505803

  8. Ligand recognition and homophilic interactions in Tyro3: structural insights into the Axl/Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family.

    PubMed

    Heiring, Christoph; Dahlbäck, Björn; Muller, Yves A

    2004-02-20

    The receptor Tyro3 together with Axl and Mer form the Axl/Tyro3 family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Members of this family play essential roles in spermatogenesis, immunoregulation, and phagocytosis. Gas6, the product of growth arrest-specific gene, activates the kinase activity of all three receptors. Here, we report the first biochemical and structural characterization of a member of this family, namely of a fragment spanning the two N-terminal Ig domains of the extracellular part of human Tyro3. Its ligand binding specificity profile is identical to the activation profile of the native receptor. The 1.95-A crystal structure suggests a common ligand-binding site in this receptor family located at the interface of the Ig domains and unusually rich in cis-prolines. Furthermore, both in the crystal and in solution we observed the ligand-independent dimerization of the receptor fragment. This homophilic interaction emphasizes previous functional reports, which hinted that in addition to signal transduction, members of this family of receptors might participate in cell adhesion. PMID:14623883

  9. Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs: compromising on economic, carbon and structural diversity objectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emina Krcmara; G. Cornelis van Kooten; STN CSC

    In this paper, we use compromise programming to solve a multiple-objective land use and forest management planning model. Long- and short- ('fast') term carbon uptake, maintenance of structural diversity, and economic (net returns to forestry and agriculture) objectives are simultaneously achieved by minimizing the distance between current objective values and the ideal ones. Two distance metrics are used, representing a

  10. Mancur Olson and structural economic change: Vested interests and the industrial rise and fall of the great powers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Espen Moe

    2009-01-01

    The article examines Mancur Olson's claim that the rise and decline of nations is intrinsically intertwined with the build-up of vested interests in the economy. I contend that Olson must be supplemented with Joseph Schumpeter for a theoretical framework that enables us to examine processes of long-term structural economic change. The specific focus is on technological progress and industrial growth,

  11. Structure and Promoter Characterization of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 B10 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwen; Zhong, Linlin; Krishack, Paulette A; Robbins, Sarah; Cao, Julia X; Zhao, Yupei; Chung, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

    2009-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5?-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from ?145 to ?140 bp and ?193 to ?190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4,091 bp of the 5?-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5?-deletions revealed that a ?255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity. PMID:19236911

  12. The family of K2P channels: salient structural and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, Sylvain; Chatelain, Frank C; Bichet, Delphine; Lesage, Florian

    2015-06-15

    Potassium channels participate in many biological functions, from ion homeostasis to generation and modulation of the electrical membrane potential. They are involved in a large variety of diseases. In the human genome, 15 genes code for K(+) channels with two pore domains (K2P ). These channels form dimers of pore-forming subunits that produce background conductances finely regulated by a range of natural and chemical effectors, including signalling lipids, temperature, pressure, pH, antidepressants and volatile anaesthetics. Since the cloning of TWIK1, the prototypical member of this family, a lot of work has been carried out on their structure and biology. These studies are still in progress, but data gathered so far show that K2P channels are central players in many processes, including ion homeostasis, hormone secretion, cell development and excitability. A growing number of studies underline their implication in physiopathological mechanisms, such as vascular and pulmonary hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, nociception, neuroprotection and depression. This review gives a synthetic view of the most noticeable features of these channels. PMID:25530075

  13. Genomic structure and expression of STM2, the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Lahad, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Kai; Fu, Ying Hui [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States)] [and others] [Darwin Molecular, Bothell, WA (United States); and others

    1996-06-01

    Mutations in the gene STM2 result in autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer disease. To screen for mutations and to identify regulatory elements for this gene, the genomic DNA sequence and intron-exon structure were determined. Twelve exons including 10 coding exons were identified in a genomic region spanning 23, 737 bp. The first 2 exons encode the 5{prime}-untranslated region. Expression analysis of STM2 indicates that two transcripts of 2.4 and 2.8 kb are found in skeletal muscle, pancreas, and heart. In addition, a splice variant of the 2.4-kb transcript was identified that is the result of the use of an alternative splice acceptor site located in exon 10. The use of this site results in a transcript lacking a single glutamate. The promotor for this gene and the alternatively spliced exons leading to the 2.8-kb form of the gene remain to be identified. Expression of STM2 was high in skeletal muscle and pancreas, with comparatively low levels observed in brain. This expression pattern is intriguing since in Alzheimer disease, pathology and degeneration are observed only in the central nervous system. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A Structural Overview of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases from the Flaviviridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiqin; Liu, Weichi; Gong, Peng

    2015-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) from the Flaviviridae family are representatives of viral polymerases that carry out RNA synthesis through a de novo initiation mechanism. They share a ? 600-residue polymerase core that displays a canonical viral RdRP architecture resembling an encircled right hand with palm, fingers, and thumb domains surrounding the active site. Polymerase catalytic motifs A–E in the palm and motifs F/G in the fingers are shared by all viral RdRPs with sequence and/or structural conservations regardless of the mechanism of initiation. Different from RdRPs carrying out primer-dependent initiation, Flaviviridae and other de novo RdRPs utilize a priming element often integrated in the thumb domain to facilitate primer-independent initiation. Upon the transition to the elongation phase, this priming element needs to undergo currently unresolved conformational rearrangements to accommodate the growth of the template-product RNA duplex. In the genera of Flavivirus and Pestivirus, the polymerase module in the C-terminal part of the RdRP protein may be regulated in cis by the N-terminal region of the same polypeptide. Either being a methyltransferase in Flavivirus or a functionally unclarified module in Pestivirus, this region could play auxiliary roles for the canonical folding and/or the catalysis of the polymerase, through defined intra-molecular interactions. PMID:26062131

  15. Structure and function of the HMGI(Y) family of architectural transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R

    2000-10-01

    The three known members of the HMGI(Y) family of high-mobility group (HMG) mammalian nonhistone nuclear proteins (HMG-I, HMG-Y, and HMGI-C) are thought to participate in numerous biological processes (transcription, replication, retroviral integration, genetic recombination, etc.) by virtue of their ability to recognize and alter the structure of both DNA and chromatin substrates. In vitro and in vivo the HMGI(Y) proteins preferentially bind to the narrow minor groove of stretches of AT-rich DNA by means of highly conserved peptide motifs called AT hooks. In vitro the HMGI(Y) proteins also have the ability to selectively bind to distorted DNA structures and to bend, unwind, and supercoil DNA substrates. Additionally, the HMGI(Y) proteins have the ability to interact with various protein transcription factors both in vitro and in vivo. Specific protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions permit the HMGI(Y) proteins to function as architectural transcription factors that regulate gene expression in vivo by controlling the formation of stereospecific multiprotein complexes on the AT-rich regions of certain gene promoters. Transcriptional overexpression of the HMGI(Y) genes is highly correlated with both cancerous transformation and increased metastatic potential of a number of different cancers, and chromosomal rearrangements involving AT-hook motifs have been associated with various types of benign human mesenchymal tumors. The levels of HMGI(Y) proteins in human cells have been proposed to be sensitive diagnostic indicators of both neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression. Drugs based on the AT-hook motif offer the potential for development of new tumor therapeutic reagents. PMID:11035986

  16. Solution structure of Rv2377c - founding member of the MbtH-like protein family

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Kim, Chang-Yub; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv2377c (71 residues, MW = 8.4 kDa) has been characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Rv2377c was the first identified member of the MbtH-like family of proteins. MbtH-like proteins have been implicated in siderophore biosynthesis, however, their precise biochemical function remain unknown. Size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy show that Rv2377c is a monomer in solution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that Rv2377c unfolds upon heating and will reversibly fold into its native conformation upon cooling. Using NMR-based methods the solution structure of Rv2377c was determined and some of the dynamic properties of the protein studied. The protein contains a three-strand, anti-parallel ?-sheet (?3:?1:?2) nestled against one C-terminal ?-helix (S44-N55). Weak or absent amide cross peaks in the 1H-15N HSQC spectrum for many of the ?1 and ?2 residues suggest intermediate motion on the ms to ?s timescale at the ?1:?2 interface. Amide cross peaks in the 1H-15N HSQC spectrum are absent for all but one residue at the C-terminus (W56 - D71), a region that includes a highly conserved sequence WXDXR, suggesting this region is intrinsically disordered. The latter observation differs with the crystal structure of another MbtH-like protein, PA2412 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where a second ordered ?-helix was observed at the extreme C-terminus. PMID:20434955

  17. NTB-A Receptor Crystal Structure: Insights into Homophilic Interactions in the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor Family

    SciTech Connect

    Cao,E.; Ramagopal, U.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Yan, Q.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2006-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. The ectodomains of most SLAM family members are composed of an N-terminal IgV domain and a C-terminal IgC2 domain. NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A) is a homophilic receptor that stimulates cytotoxicity in natural killer (NK) cells, regulates bactericidal activities in neutrophils, and potentiates T helper 2 (Th2) responses. The 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete NTB-A ectodomain revealed a rod-like monomer that self-associates to form a highly kinked dimer spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}100 {angstrom}. The NTB-A homophilic and CD2-CD58 heterophilic dimers show overall structural similarities but differ in detailed organization and physicochemical properties of their respective interfaces. The NTB-A structure suggests a mechanism responsible for binding specificity within the SLAM family and imposes physical constraints relevant to the colocalization of SLAM-family proteins with other signaling molecules in the immunological synapse.

  18. From Soil to Structure, a Novel Dimeric ?-Glucosidase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 Isolated from Compost Using Metagenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Park, Joshua I.; Heins, Richard A.; Reindl, Wolfgang; Friedland, Gregory D.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Northen, Trent; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    A recent metagenomic analysis sequenced a switchgrass-adapted compost community to identify enzymes from microorganisms that were specifically adapted to switchgrass under thermophilic conditions. These enzymes are being examined as part of the pretreatment process for the production of “second-generation” biofuels. Among the enzymes discovered was JMB19063, a novel three-domain ?-glucosidase that belongs to the GH3 (glycoside hydrolase 3) family. Here, we report the structure of JMB19063 in complex with glucose and the catalytic variant D261N crystallized in the presence of cellopentaose. JMB19063 is first structure of a dimeric member of the GH3 family, and we demonstrate that dimerization is required for catalytic activity. Arg-587 and Phe-598 from the C-terminal domain of the opposing monomer are shown to interact with bound ligands in the D261N structure. Enzyme assays confirmed that these residues are absolutely essential for full catalytic activity. PMID:23580647

  19. Communication Processes that Mediate Family Communication Patterns and Mental Well-Being: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis of Young Adults from Divorced and Nondivorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrodt, Paul; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, demand/withdraw patterns and feeling caught were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and young adults' mental well-being. Participants included 567 young adults from divorced and nondivorced families. For young adults in nondivorced families, family conversation orientations had both a positive, direct effect on…

  20. Structure and functional investigation of ligand binding by a family 35 carbohydrate binding module (CtCBM35) of ?-mannanase of family 26 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Verma, A K; Gautam, S; Gupta, M N; Goyal, A

    2014-07-01

    Functional attributes of recombinant CtCBM35 (family 35 carbohydrate binding module) of ?-mannanase of family 26 Glycoside Hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum were deduced by biochemical and in silico approaches. Ligand-binding analysis of expressed CtCBM35 analyzed by affinity-gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibited association constants Ka ~ 1.2·10(5) and 3.0·10(5) M(-1) with locust bean galactomannan and mannotriose, respectively. However, CtCBM35 showed low ligand-binding affinity with insoluble ivory nut mannan with Ka of 5.0·10(-5) M(-1). Unfolding transition analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy explained the conformational changes of CtCBM35 in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (5 M) and urea (6.25 M). This explained that CtCBM35 has good conformational stability and requires higher free energy of denaturation to invoke unfolding. The three-dimensional (3-D) model of CtCBM35 from C. thermocellum generated by Modeller9v8 displayed predominance of ?-sheets arranged as ?-jelly-roll fold. The secondary structure of CtCBM35 by PredictProtein showed the presence of two ?-helices (3%), 12 ?-sheets (45%), and 15 random coils (52%). Secondary structural element analysis of cloned, expressed, and purified recombinant CtCBM35 by circular dichroism also corroborated the in silico predicted secondary structure. Multiple sequence alignment of CtCBM35 showed conserved residues (Tyr123, Gly124, and Phe125), which are commonly observed in mannan specific CBMs. Docking analysis of CtCBM35 with manno-oligosaccharide displayed the involvement of Tyr26, Gln29, Asn43, Trp66, Tyr68, Leu69, Arg76, and Leu127 residues, making polar contact with the ligand molecules. Ligand docking analysis of CtCBM35 exhibiting higher binding affinity with mannotriose and galactomannan (Man-Gal-Man moiety) substantiated the affinity binding and fluorescence results, displaying similar values of Ka. PMID:25108330

  1. An Exemplary Introduction to Structure and Application of Genetic Algorithms in Economic Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Riechmann

    \\u000a The goal of this chapter is to provide a simple introduction into the kind of genetic algorithms applied in economic theory.\\u000a The main focus will be on technical aspects, the economic example merely serves as an illustration. This means that in this\\u000a chapter new economic results will hardly be found. The model shown here is very simple and, more than

  2. Molecular structure and diversity of PBAN/Pyrokinin family peptides in ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/Pyrokinin f...

  3. Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2008-01-01

    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

  4. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  5. Family Structure, School Context, and Eighth-Grade Math and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    1997-01-01

    Reviews existing theoretical perspective on how single-parent families and stepfamilies affect student achievement by examining math and reading achievement scores. Results show that schools predominated by students from single-parent families and stepfamilies negatively affect student's achievement. These negative effects are countervailed when…

  6. Complementarity as a Function of Stage in Therapy: An Analysis of Minuchin's Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Heather; Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    1987-01-01

    Explored the level of family therapist complementarity in the early, middle and late stages of therapy performing a micro-analysis of Salvador Minuchin with one family in successful therapy. Level of therapist complementarity was signficantly greater in the early and late stages than in the middle stage, and was significantly correlated with…

  7. Family Issues for the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabelli, Alan

    This presentation reviews the characteristics of the Canadian family at present. Discussion focuses on divorce, family structure, reproductive technology, fertility, family size, family mobility, family support, government role, women's participation in the labor force, daily family routines, television viewing, work and the family, the need for…

  8. Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat (Kochi); (IIT); (UMBI)

    2010-03-12

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once a heterodimer emerged as the physiological form of the enzyme. As a consequence, the homodimer interface (either solely {alpha} or solely {beta} chains) has been corrupted. In the unbound state, GK exhibits an open conformation analogous to that observed with ligand-free CK or AK. Upon binding the transition state analogue, both subunits of GK undergo the same closure motion that clasps the transition state analogue, in contrast to the transition state analogue complexes of CK, where the corresponding transition state analogue occupies only one subunit, which undergoes domain closure. The active site environments of the GK, CK, and AK at the bound states reveal the structural determinants of substrate specificity. Despite the equivalent binding in both active sites of the GK dimer, the conformational asymmetry of the N-termini is retained. Thus, the coupling between the structural asymmetry and negative cooperativity previously proposed for CK is not supported in the case of GK.

  9. MARSHA A. GOETTING Agricultural Economics & Economics Department 422 West Cutting

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Master of Science Degree: Home Economics. Kansas State University, Manhattan, May 1973. Major: Family. Major: Consumer Interests EMPLOYMENT HISTORY Professor, MSU Extension Family Economics Specialist of Philosophy. Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, May 1996. Major

  10. The Varieties of Resource Experience: Natural Resource Export Structures and the Political Economy of Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Isham; Michael Woolcock; Lant Pritchett; Gwen Busby

    2005-01-01

    Many oil, mineral, and plantation crop--based economies experienced a substantial deceleration in growth following the commodity boom and bust of the 1970s and early 1980s. This article illustrates how countries dependent on point source natural resources (those extracted from a narrow geographic or economic base, such as oil and minerals) and plantation crops are predisposed to heightened economic and social

  11. Structure, function, and evolution of the family of superoxide dismutase proteins from halophilic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, P; Dennis, P P

    1993-01-01

    The protein sequences of seven members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) family from halophilic archaebacteria have been aligned and compared with each other and with the homologous Mn and Fe SOD sequences from eubacteria and the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Of 199 common residues in the SOD proteins from halophilic archaebacteria, 125 are conserved in all seven sequences, and 64 of these are encoded by single unique triplets. The 74 remaining positions exhibit a high degree of variability, and for almost half of these, the encoding triplets are connected by at least two nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. The majority of nucleotide substitutions within the seven genes are nonsynonymous and result in amino acid replacement in the respective protein; silent third-codon-position (synonymous) substitutions are unexpectedly rare. Halophilic SODs contain 30 specific residues that are not found at the corresponding positions of the methanogenic or eubacterial SOD proteins. Seven of these are replacements of highly conserved amino acids in eubacterial SODs that are believed to play an important role in the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Residues implicated in formation of the active site, catalysis, and metal ion binding are conserved in all Mn and Fe SODs. Molecular phylogenies based on parsimony and neighbor-joining methods coherently group the halophile sequences but surprisingly fail to distinguish between the Mn SOD of Escherichia coli and the Fe SOD of M. thermoautotrophicum as the outgroup. These comparisons indicate that as a group, the SODs of halophilic archaebacteria have many unique and characteristic features. At the same time, the patterns of nucleotide substitution and amino acid replacement indicate that these genes and the proteins that they encode continue to be subject to strong and changing selection. This selection may be related to the presence of oxygen radicals and the inter- and intracellular composition and concentration of metal cations. PMID:8449866

  12. The dual nature of the wheat xylanase protein inhibitor XIP-I: structural basis for the inhibition of family 10 and family 11 xylanases.

    PubMed

    Payan, Françoise; Leone, Philippe; Porciero, Sophie; Furniss, Caroline; Tahir, Tariq; Williamson, Gary; Durand, Anne; Manzanares, Paloma; Gilbert, Harry J; Juge, Nathalie; Roussel, Alain

    2004-08-20

    The xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I) from wheat Triticum aestivum is the prototype of a novel class of cereal protein inhibitors that inhibit fungal xylanases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 10 (GH10) and 11 (GH11). The crystal structures of XIP-I in complex with Aspergillus nidulans (GH10) and Penicillium funiculosum (GH11) xylanases have been solved at 1.7 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The inhibition strategy is novel because XIP-I possesses two independent enzyme-binding sites, allowing binding to two glycoside hydrolases that display a different fold. Inhibition of the GH11 xylanase is mediated by the insertion of an XIP-I Pi-shaped loop (Lalpha(4)beta(5)) into the enzyme active site, whereas residues in the helix alpha7 of XIP-I, pointing into the four central active site subsites, are mainly responsible for the reversible inactivation of GH10 xylanases. The XIP-I strategy for inhibition of xylanases involves substrate-mimetic contacts and interactions occluding the active site. The structural determinants of XIP-I specificity demonstrate that the inhibitor is able to interact with GH10 and GH11 xylanases of both fungal and bacterial origin. The biological role of the xylanase inhibitors is discussed in light of the present structural data. PMID:15181003

  13. Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

  14. [Family ideology].

    PubMed

    Kornblit, A

    1982-06-01

    This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

  15. Three structural representatives of the PF06855 protein domain family from Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis have SAM domain-like folds and different functions

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, G.V.T.; Rossi, Paolo; Montelione, Alexander F.; Benach, Jordi; Yu, Bomina; Abashidze, Mariam; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Tong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Protein domain family PF06855 (DUF1250) is a family of small domains of unknown function found only in bacteria, and mostly in the order Bacillales and Lactobacillales. Here we describe the solution NMR or X-ray crystal structures of three representatives of this domain family, MW0776 and MW1311 from Staphyloccocus aureus and yozE from Bacillus subtilis. All three proteins adopt a four-helix motif similar to sterile alpha motif (SAM) domains. Phylogenetic analysis classifies MW1311 and yozE as functionally equivalent proteins of the UPF0346 family of unknown function, but excludes MW0776, which likely has a different biological function. Our structural characterization of the three domains supports this separation of function. The structures of MW0776, MW1311, and yozE constitute the first structural representatives from this protein domain family. PMID:22843344

  16. A structural econometric model of family valuation and choice of employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vanness, David J

    2003-09-01

    This paper estimates a fully structural unitary household model of employment and health insurance decisions for dual wage-earner families with children in the United States, using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Families choose hours of work and the breakdown of compensation between cash wages and health insurance benefits for each wage earner in order to maximize expected utility under uncertain need for medical care. Heterogeneous demand for the employer-sponsored health insurance is thus generated directly from variations in health status and earning potential. The paper concludes by discussing the benefits of using structural models for simulating welfare effects of insurance reform relative to the costly assumptions that must be imposed for identification. PMID:12950095

  17. Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

  18. Predictive Bcl-2 Family Binding Models Rooted in Experiment or Structure

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Sanjib

    Proteins of the Bcl-2 family either enhance or suppress programmed cell death and are centrally involved in cancer development and resistance to chemotherapy. BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 proteins promote cell death ...

  19. Flavin Amine Oxidases from the Monoamine Oxidase Structural Family Utilize a Hydride Transfer Mechanism 

    E-print Network

    Henderson Pozzi, Michelle

    2011-08-08

    The amine oxidase family of enzymes has been the center of numerous mechanistic studies because of the medical relevance of the reactions they catalyze. This study describes transient and steady-state kinetic analyses of ...

  20. Structural Basis and Mechanism of Autoregulation in 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Grp1 Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. DiNitto; Anna M. Delprato; Meng-Tse Gabe Lee; Thomas Charles Cronin; Shaohui Huang; Adilson L. Guilherme; Michael P. Czech; David G. Lambright

    2007-01-01

    Arf GTPases regulate membrane trafficking and actin dynamics. Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1 comprise a family of phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GTPase exchange factors with a Sec7-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain tandem. Here, we report that the exchange activity of the Sec7 domain is potently autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. The crystal structure of the Grp1 Sec7-PH tandem reveals a

  1. The wheat ?-gliadin genes: characterization of ten new sequences and further understanding of ?-gliadin gene family structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Anderson; C. C. Hsia

    2001-01-01

    Ten new wheat ?-gliadin gene sequences are reported and an analysis of ?-gliadin gene family structure is carried out using\\u000a all known ?-gliadin sequences. The new sequences comprise four genomic clones with significantly more flanking DNA than previously\\u000a reported, and six cDNA clones from a wheat endosperm EST project. Analysis of extended flanking DNA from the genomic clones\\u000a indicates the

  2. The internal structure of Jupiter family cometary nuclei from Deep Impact observations: The “talps” or “layered pile” model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. S. Belton; Peter Thomas; J. Veverka; Peter Schultz; Michael F. A'Hearn; Lori Feaga; Tony Farnham; Olivier Groussin; Jian-Yang Li; Casey Lisse; Lucy McFadden; Jessica Sunshine; Karen J. Meech; W. Alan Delamere; Jochen Kissel

    2007-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that the layering observed on the surface of Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1 from the Deep Impact spacecraft and identified on other comet nuclei imaged by spacecraft (i.e., 19P\\/Borrelly and 81P\\/Wild 2) is ubiquitous on Jupiter family cometary nuclei and is an essential element of their internal structure. The observational characteristics of the layers on 9P\\/Tempel 1 are

  3. Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge VanderValk; Ed Spruijt; Martijn de Goede; Cora Maas; Wim Meeus

    2005-01-01

    In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12–24 at the 1st wave, it is examined\\u000a whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems.\\u000a Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring from intact and postdivorce\\u000a families are examined, i.e., possible differences in growth

  4. FISH - family identification of sequence homologues using structure anchored hidden Markov models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette Tångrot; Lixiao Wang; Bo Kågström; Uwe H. Sauer

    2006-01-01

    The FISH server is highly accurate in identifying the family membership of domains in a query protein sequence, even in the case of very low sequence iden- tities to known homologues. A performance test using SCOP sequences and an E-value cut-off of 0.1 showed that 99.3% of the top hits are to the correct family saHMM. Matches to a query

  5. Treating troubled families: therapeutic scenario in India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bino

    2012-04-01

    India, a country of diverse cultures, languages, life styles, and ethnicities, is becoming a land of economic change, political stability, technological advancement, and changing traditional structures of relationships as well as health consciousness. Being known for its ancient traditions, rituals, religious orientation, spiritual outlook and folk beliefs, Indian families attempt to continue certain healthy and traditional elements such as warmth, strong bond, hierarchy, extended support, cultural orientation, shared values and time, tolerance, respect for the aged and inculcation of religious teachings and traditions in families. These factors, or practices, in fact have strong therapeutic value in supplementing the growth and development of individuals in the family system in spite of its transitional position. This paper deals with the review of family-based mental health services and focuses on the changing trends of those practices in India and the advancement of Indian families in their engaging ability with mentally ill members as well as with the treating team. PMID:22515456

  6. Redefining the PF06864 Pfam Family Based on Burkholderia pseudomallei PilO2Bp S-SAD Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Manjasetty, Babu A.; Yero, Daniel; Perletti, Lucia; Belrhali, Hassan; Daura, Xavier; Gourlay, Louise J.; Bolognesi, Martino

    2014-01-01

    Type IV pili are surface-exposed filaments and bacterial virulence factors, represented by the Tfpa and Tfpb types, which assemble via specific machineries. The Tfpb group is further divided into seven variants, linked to heterogeneity in the assembly machineries. Here we focus on PilO2Bp, a protein component of the Tfpb R64 thin pilus variant assembly machinery from the pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. PilO2Bp belongs to the PF06864 Pfam family, for which an improved definition is presented based on newly derived Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles. The 3D structure of the N-terminal domain of PilO2Bp (N-PilO2Bp), here reported, is the first structural representative of the PF06864 family. N-PilO2Bp presents an actin-like ATPase fold that is shown to be present in BfpC, a different variant assembly protein; the new HMM profiles classify BfpC as a PF06864 member. Our results provide structural insight into the PF06864 family and on the Type IV pili assembly machinery. PMID:24728008

  7. The Farmer Looks at His Economic Security: A Study of Provisions Made for Old Age by Farm Families in Wharton County, Texas.

    E-print Network

    Motheral, Joe R.; Adkins, William G.

    1954-01-01

    and children alone. Because of few occurrences, other family types were combined, as shown in Table 2. Net worth averaged higher for families com- posed of the operator and his spouse alone than for any other family type. Only 29 percent of this type...

  8. The social and family correlates of successful reunification of children in foster care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loring Jones

    1998-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an exploratory effort to describe the social and environmental characteristics of families that prevent successful reunification efforts. Social and environmental include income, economic, housing, social support, and family structure variables. It was hypothesized that these variables would show significant associations with reunification outcomes. Study data were derived from case record review and from

  9. Families, Their Children's Education, and the Public School: An Historical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana B. Hiatt-Michael

    2008-01-01

    This analysis focuses on parent involvement in public schooling within the United States of America from the colonial period to present. The analysis is framed by four major forces that influence the kind and degree of parent involvement: the cultural beliefs of families; the social structure of families; economic influences; and political pressures within the nation. The contemporary institutional and

  10. Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics of the Bivalve Family Ostreidae Based on rRNA Sequence-Structure Models and Multilocus Species Tree

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassotreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics. PMID:25250663

  11. Lending behavior and community structure in an online peer-to-peer economic network

    E-print Network

    Krumme, Katherine Ann

    Increasingly, economic transactions are taking place over social networks. We study the static and dynamic characteristics of a peer-to-peer lending network through 350,000 loan listings and accompanying member profiles ...

  12. Genome-wide identification of BURP domain-containing genes in rice reveals a gene family with diverse structures and responses to abiotic stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xipeng Ding; Xin Hou; Kabin Xie; Lizhong Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a gene family encoding proteins containing BURP domains have diverse functions in plants,\\u000a but systematic characterization of this gene family have not been reported. In this study, 17 BURP family genes (OsBURP01–17) were identified and analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L.). These genes have diverse exon–intron structures and distinct organization of putative motifs. Based on the

  13. F-BAR family proteins, emerging regulators for cell membrane dynamic changes-from structure to human diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suxuan; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhao, Xianxian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell membrane dynamics change in curvature during physiological and pathological processes. In the past ten years, a novel protein family, Fes/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins, has been identified to be the most important coordinators in membrane curvature regulation. The F-BAR domain family is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily that is associated with dynamic changes in cell membrane. However, the molecular basis in membrane structure regulation and the biological functions of F-BAR protein are unclear. The pathophysiological role of F-BAR protein is unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of structure and function in the BAR domain superfamily, classifies F-BAR family proteins into nine subfamilies based on domain structure, and characterizes F-BAR protein structure, domain interaction, and functional relevance. In general, F-BAR protein binds to cell membrane via F-BAR domain association with membrane phospholipids and initiates membrane curvature and scission via Src homology-3 (SH3) domain interaction with its partner proteins. This process causes membrane dynamic changes and leads to seven important cellular biological functions, which include endocytosis, phagocytosis, filopodium, lamellipodium, cytokinesis, adhesion, and podosome formation, via distinct signaling pathways determined by specific domain-binding partners. These cellular functions play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We further summarize F-BAR protein expression and mutation changes observed in various diseases and developmental disorders. Considering the structure feature and functional implication of F-BAR proteins, we anticipate that F-BAR proteins modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes via transferring extracellular materials, regulating cell trafficking and mobility, presenting antigens, mediating extracellular matrix degradation, and transmitting signaling for cell proliferation. PMID:25956236

  14. Structural analysis of the rat T-cell receptor Tcra V4 gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Stangel, M.; Giegerich, G.; Hartung, H.P.; Torres-Nagel, N.E.; Huenig, T. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1995-01-11

    The rat Tcra V gene locus is only poorly characterized, although rats are widely used in a variety of T-cell-mediated experimental animal models. Recently, we described the first monoclonal antibody, G99, directed against a rat Tcra V4 segment. We examined cDNA transcripts of G99-positively sorted T cells and show that the monoclonal antibody G99 most likely recognizes at least two members of the Tcra V4 family. Moreover, we analyzed the genomic repertoire of this VA family and report 15 novel Tcra V4 DNA sequences. Based on sequence and Southern blot analysis, the Tcra V4 family could be divided into four subgroups, which were also detected in mice. These findings corroborate previous findings of a similar genetic organization of the Tcra V loci in both species. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Influence of Financial, Human and Social Capital on Japanese Men's and Women's Health in Single- and Two-Parent Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassani, Cherylynn

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale demographic changes have been occurring in Japan over the last few decades. During this time, the proportion of two-parent (nuclear) and single-parent families have doubled. Despite this rapid increase, the health of individuals in these family structures have received limited attention, as the focus has been directed towards the…

  16. Structure of CfaA Suggests a New Family of Chaperones Essential for Assembly of Class 5 Fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Rui; Fordyce, April; Chen, Yu-Xing; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive pili on the surface of pathogenic bacteria comprise polymerized pilin subunits and are essential for initiation of infections. Pili assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) require periplasmic chaperones that assist subunit folding, maintain their stability, and escort them to the site of bioassembly. Until now, CUP chaperones have been classified into two families, FGS and FGL, based on the short and long length of the subunit-interacting loops between its F1 and G1 ?-strands, respectively. CfaA is the chaperone for assembly of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) pili of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), a cause of diarrhea in travelers and young children. Here, the crystal structure of CfaA along with sequence analyses reveals some unique structural and functional features, leading us to propose a separate family for CfaA and closely related chaperones. Phenotypic changes resulting from mutations in regions unique to this chaperone family provide insight into their function, consistent with involvement of these regions in interactions with cognate subunits and usher proteins during pilus assembly. PMID:25122114

  17. Structural Insight into and Mutational Analysis of Family 11 Xylanases: Implications for Mechanisms of Higher pH Catalytic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wenqin; Zhou, Cheng; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases, we compared the structures of alkaline, neutral, and acidic active xylanases and analyzed mutants of xylanase Xyn11A-LC from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. SN5. It was revealed that alkaline active xylanases have increased charged residue content, an increased ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, and decreased Ser, Thr, and Tyr residue content relative to non-alkaline active counterparts. Between strands ?6 and ?7, alkaline xylanases substitute an ?-helix for a coil or turn found in their non-alkaline counterparts. Compared with non-alkaline xylanases, alkaline active enzymes have an inserted stretch of seven amino acids rich in charged residues, which may be beneficial for xylanase function in alkaline conditions. Positively charged residues on the molecular surface and ionic bonds may play important roles in higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases. By structure comparison, sequence alignment and mutational analysis, six amino acids (Glu16, Trp18, Asn44, Leu46, Arg48, and Ser187, numbering based on Xyn11A-LC) adjacent to the acid/base catalyst were found to be responsible for xylanase function in higher pH conditions. Our results will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of higher pH catalytic adaptation in family 11 xylanases and engineering xylanases to suit industrial applications. PMID:26161643

  18. Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana At1g77540 Protein, a Minimal Acetyltransferase from the COG2388 Family †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Robert C.; Bitto, Eduard; Berndsen, Christopher E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Singh, Shanteri; Lee, Min S.; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Denu, John M.; Phillips, George N.; Markley, John L.

    2008-01-01

    We describe X-ray crystal and NMR solution structures of the protein coded for by Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g77540.1 (At1g77540). The crystal structure was determined to 1.15 Å with an R factor of 14.9% (Rfree = 17.0%) by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction using sodium bromide derivatized crystals. The ensemble of NMR conformers was determined with protein samples labeled with 15N and 13C+15N. The X-ray structure and NMR ensemble were closely similar with r.m.s.d 1.4 Å for residues 8–93. At1g77540 was found to adopt a fold similar to that of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases. Enzymatic activity assays established that At1g77540 possesses weak acetyltransferase activity against histones H3 and H4. Chemical shift perturbations observed in 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of CoA indicated that the cofactor binds and identified its binding site. The molecular details of this interaction were further elucidated by solving the X-ray structure of the At1g77540–CoA complex. This work establishes that the domain family COG2388 represents a novel class of acetyltransferase and provides insight into possible mechanistic roles of the conserved Cys76 and His41 residues of this family. PMID:17128971

  19. A novel family of RNA tetraloop structure forms the recognition site for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase III

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haihong; Yang, Pok K.; Butcher, Samuel E.; Kang, Sundeep; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Feigon, Juli

    2001-01-01

    RNases III are a family of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) endoribonucleases involved in the processing and decay of a large number of cellular RNAs as well as in RNA interference. The dsRNA substrates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase III (Rnt1p) are capped by tetraloops with the consensus sequence AGNN, which act as the primary docking site for the RNase. We have solved the solution structures of two RNA hairpins capped by AGNN tetraloops, AGAA and AGUU, using NMR spectroscopy. Both tetraloops have the same overall structure, in which the backbone turn occurs on the 3? side of the syn G residue in the loop, with the first A and G in a 5? stack and the last two residues in a 3? stack. A non-bridging phosphate oxygen and the universal G which are essential for Rnt1p binding are strongly exposed. The compared biochemical and structural analysis of various tetraloop sequences defines a novel family of RNA tetraloop fold with the consensus (U/A)GNN and implicates this conserved structure as the primary determinant for specific recognition of Rnt1p substrates. PMID:11743000

  20. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

  1. Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

  2. Participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group.

  3. Relationship of sequence and structure to specificity in the ?-amylase family of enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ann MacGregor; Štefan Jane?ek; Birte Svensson

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolases and transferases that constitute the ?-amylase family are multidomain proteins, but each has a catalytic domain in the form of a (?\\/?)8-barrel, with the active site being at the C-terminal end of the barrel ?-strands. Although the enzymes are believed to share the same catalytic acids and a common mechanism of action, they have been assigned to three

  4. Effects of Family Structure Type and Stability on Children's Academic Performance Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2011-01-01

    Using five waves of panel data from 8,008 children in the ECLS-K, the current study compared children's academic performance growth curves from kindergarten through fifth grade among three types of nondisrupted and three types of disrupted families. The analyses found that children in nondisrupted two-biological-parent and nondisrupted stepparent…

  5. Structure, Evolution, and Expression of the Two Invertase Gene Families of Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Ji; Wim Van den Ende; Andre Van Laere; Shihua Cheng; John Bennett

    2005-01-01

    Invertases catalyze the irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose. Plants contain two unrelated families of these enzymes: acid forms that derive from periplasmic invertases of eubacteria and are found in cell wall and vacuole, and neutral\\/alkaline forms evolved from the cytosolic invertases of cyanobacteria. Genomes of rice (Oryza sativa) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain multiple genes encoding

  6. The Differences in Financial Structure Between Women and Men-Owned Family Businesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Haynes; Barbara R. Rowe; Rosemary Walker; Gong-Soog Hong

    2000-01-01

    Lenders often are faced with the challenge of evaluating the financial success of a business or a proposed business by examining the financial records of the household, reasoning that an assessment of the household's financial position should be a plausible indicator of the financial status of the business. Utilizing data from the recently released Family Business Survey, this study uses

  7. Avidin related protein 2 shows unique structural and functional features among the avidin protein family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesa P Hytönen; Juha AE Määttä; Heidi Kidron; Katrin K Halling; Jarno Hörhä; Tuomas Kulomaa; Thomas KM Nyholm; Mark S Johnson; Tiina A Salminen; Markku S Kulomaa; Tomi T Airenne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chicken avidin gene family consists of avidin and several avidin related genes (AVRs). Of these gene products, avidin is the best characterized and is known for its extremely high affinity for D-biotin, a property that is utilized in numerous modern life science applications. Recently, the AVR genes have been expressed as recombinant proteins, which have shown different biotin-binding

  8. Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaiyun Zhang; Ming Chen; Xueping Chen; Zhaoshi Xu; Shan Guan; Lian-Cheng Li; Aili Li; Jiaming Guo; Long Mao; Youzhi Ma

    2010-01-01

    Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in re- sponse to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2\\/ERF domain were identified from 63 676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean

  9. Diversity in Structure and Function of the Ets Family PNT Domains

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Chemistry and The Biotechnology Laboratory, University Overhauser effect; HSQC, heteronuclear single quantum correlation; MWCO, molecular weight cut-off; rms, root-wise combination. Thus these latter Ets family PNT domains likely mediate interactions with additional components

  10. Children’s Mental Health Task 11 FY 2007: Family-Directed Structural Therapy Training

    E-print Network

    McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Petr, Chris

    2007-07-01

    - Division of Health Care Policy, KU School of Social Welfare completed an evaluation of FDST as utilized in this family camp. Building on the success of this project, a FDST training project began in two Kansas Community Mental Health Centers in July 2005...

  11. Ethnic differences in child care selection: the influence of family structure, parental practices, and home language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Liang; Bruce Fuller; Judith D Singer

    2000-01-01

    Recent work reveals sharp disparities in which types of children participate in centers and preschools. Enrollment rates are especially low for Latino children, relative to Black and Anglo preschoolers, a gap that remains after taking into account maternal employment and family income. Early attempts to model parents’ likelihood of enrolling their youngster in a center have drawn heavily from the

  12. Structural and Dynamic Process Family Risk Factors: Consequences for Holistic Adolescent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Ernst, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    This study utilized a dynamic cumulative family risk model to explain changes in adolescent functioning. We used a person-centered approach to detect patterns of academic, emotional, and behavioral functioning and the stability of these patterns using two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,173). Four adjustment…

  13. Wave Structures and Nonlinear Balances in a Family of 1+1 Evolutionary PDEs

    E-print Network

    Darryl D. Holm; Martin F. Staley

    2002-02-26

    We study the following family of evolutionary 1+1 PDEs that describe the balance between convection and stretching for small viscosity in the dynamics of 1D nonlinear waves in fluids: \\[ m_t + \\underbrace{um_x \\} _{(-2mm)\\hbox{convection}(-2mm)} + \\underbrace{b u_xm \\} _{(-2mm)\\hbox{stretching}(-2mm)} = \\underbrace{\

  14. Canadian Families (Les Familles Canadiennes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Structural changes that have taken place in Canadian families in recent decades are described in this booklet. Topical sections are as follows: (1) What Counts in Canadian Families (importance of (importance of family); (2) The Family--Variations on a Theme origins, family structure, seniors aged 60 and over, how lives are spent, religion); (3)…

  15. A critical review of model-based economic studies of depression: modelling techniques, model structure and data sources.

    PubMed

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Karnon, Jonathan; Gray, Jodi

    2012-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder and is recognized as a chronic disease characterized by multiple acute episodes/relapses. Although modelling techniques play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of depression interventions, comparatively little attention has been paid to issues around modelling studies with a focus on potential biases. This, however, is important as different modelling approaches, variations in model structure and input parameters may produce different results, and hence different policy decisions. This paper presents a critical review of literature on recently published model-based cost-utility studies of depression. Taking depression as an illustrative example, through this review, we discuss a number of specific issues in relation to the use of decision-analytic models including the type of modelling techniques, structure of models and data sources. The potential benefits and limitations of each modelling technique are discussed and factors influencing the choice of modelling techniques are addressed. This review found that model-based studies of depression used various simulation techniques. We note that a discrete-event simulation may be the preferred technique for the economic evaluation of depression due to the greater flexibility with respect to handling time compared with other individual-based modelling techniques. Considering prognosis and management of depression, the structure of the reviewed models are discussed. We argue that a few reviewed models did not include some important structural aspects such as the possibility of relapse or the increased risk of suicide in patients with depression. Finally, the appropriateness of data sources used to estimate input parameters with a focus on transition probabilities is addressed. We argue that the above issues can potentially bias results and reduce the comparability of economic evaluations. PMID:22462694

  16. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  17. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: With over 1 million children served by the US Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of…

  18. STRUCTURAL SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE: FINDINGS OF EMPIRICAL FARM DATA IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Wolz; Jana Fritzsch; Jitka Pencakova

    2006-01-01

    With the change of the political regime in Central and Eastern Europe, both managers of corporate farms and newly established private farmers had to adjust to the rules of the market economy. Among both groups, some are economically more successful than others. In general, a varying adoption of production factors is identified as being of influence. Whether their ability to

  19. Essays on development economics

    E-print Network

    Ruthbah, Ummul Hasanath

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three independent papers in empirical development economics. The first chapter studies the effect of a family planning program in Bangladesh, which successfully reduced fertility, on ...

  20. Children in Immigrant Families--The U.S. and 50 States: Economic Need beyond the Official Poverty Measure. Research Brief Series. Publication #2009-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Donald J.; Denton, Nancy A.; Macartney, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This Research Brief, the second in Child Trends series on immigrant children, draws on new results from Census 2000 data to examine differences in the poverty rates between children in immigrant families and children in native-born families. The brief reports results for the official poverty measure, but also for two alternatives to the official…

  1. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Implications of Recent Legislative and Economic Changes for State Programs and Work Participation Rates. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-525

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA) reauthorized the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant and made modifications expected to strengthen work requirements for families receiving cash assistance through state TANF programs. Both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and states were required to take steps to…

  2. Effect of Family Structure and Behavioral and Eyesight Problems on Caries Severity in Pupils by Using an Ordinal Logistic Model

    PubMed Central

    JAHANI, Yunes; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi FOROUSHANI, Abbas; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; SHAHRAVAN, Arash; ALAM, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most preventable yet prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of family structure and behavioral and eyesight problems as they relate to caries severity in schoolchildren. Methods: This research was carried out on 845 primary schoolchildren aged 9 yr in Kerman, Iran, in 2012. Ten variables, including health records, family structure information and a dmft/DMFT index, were collected. Children were categorized into three groups based on the WHO caries severity classification. Low caries level was defined as dmft/DMFT<2.6, moderate as dmft/DMFT of 2.7–4.4 and high as dmft/DMFT>4.4. The Cochran–Armitage test and ordinal logistic regression were employed for data analysis. Results: Almost half of pupils had moderate or high caries severity. The odds of being in a higher caries severity category in pupils with behavioral problems (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.29–4.38) and girls (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.22–2.06) were higher than in other categories. In addition, pupils with eyesight problems (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37–0.90) and overweight pupils (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.31–0.71) had lower caries severity than others. The effects of parents’ education, birth rank, living with parents and consanguineous relationship between parents were not significant on caries severity (P>0.05). Conclusions: Female pupils with behavioral problems were at a higher risk of caries severity than other pupils. These pupils need to be educated and coached on proper dental care. In addition, overweight pupils and those with eyesight problems had less caries severity than others. Family structure in this study did not have an effect on the severity of dental caries.

  3. Complete structure of the human alpha-albumin gene, a new member of the serum albumin multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, H; Dugaiczyk, A

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human alpha-albumin gene, including 887 bp of the 5'-flanking region and 1311 bp of the 3-flanking region (24,454 in total), was determined from three overlapping lambda phage clones. The sequence spans 22,256 bp from the cap site to the polyadenylylation site, revealing a gene structure of 15 exons separated by 14 introns. The methionine initiation codon ATG is within exon 1; the termination codon TGA is within exon 14. Exon 15 is entirely untranslated and contains the polyadenylylation signal AATAAA. The deduced polypeptide chain is composed of a 21-amino-acid leader peptide, followed by 578 amino acids of the mature protein. There are seven repetitive DNA elements (Alu and Kpn) in the introns and 3-flanking region. The sizes of the 15 alpha-albumin exons match closely those of the albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein genes. The exons are symmetrically placed within the three domains of the individual proteins, and they share a characteristic codon splitting pattern that is conserved among members of the gene family. The results provide strong evidence that alpha-albumin belongs to, and most likely completes with, the serum albumin gene family. Based on structural similarity, alpha-albumin appears to be most closely related to alpha-fetoprotein. The complete structure of this family of four tandemly linked genes provides a well-characterized approximately 200 kb locus in the 4q subcentromeric region of the human genome. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755513

  4. The mucin-like glycoprotein super-family of Trypanosoma cruzi: structure and biological roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Acosta-Serrano; Igor C. Almeida; Lucio H. Freitas-Junior; Nobuko Yoshida; Sergio Schenkman

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi expresses at its surface large amounts of mucin-like glycoproteins. The T. cruzi mucins (TcMUC), a group of highly glycosylated GPI-anchored proteins rich in Thr, Ser, and Pro residues, are expressed in high copy numbers in both insect and mammalian stages of the parasite. These molecules are encoded by a multigene family and contain a unique type of glycosylation

  5. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the phospholipase A2 gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QI; WU, YUAN; QIN, CHAO; HE, WENWU; WEI, XING

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipase A (PLA)2 family is the most complex gene family of phospholipases and plays a crucial role in a number of physiological activities. However, the phylogenetic background of the PLA2 gene family and the amino acid residues of the PLA2G7 gene following positive selection gene remain undetermined. In this study, we downloaded 49 genomic data sets of PLA from different species, including the human, house mouse, Norway rat, pig, dog, chicken, cattle, African clawed frog, Sumatran orangutan and the zebrafish species. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using the neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, as well as the Bayesian information criterion. The results were then presented as phylogenetic trees. Positive selection sites were detected using site, branch and branch-site models. These methods led us to the following assumptions: i) closer lineages were observed between PLA2G16 and PLA2G6, PLA2G7 and PLA2G4, PLA2G3 and PLA2G12, as well as among PLA2G10, PLA2G5 and PLA2G15; ii) PLA2G5 appeared to be the origin of the PLA2 family, and PLA2G7 was one of the most evolutionarily distant PLA2 proteins; iii) 16 positive-selection sites were detected and were marked in the PLA2G7 protein sequence as 327D, 257Q, 276G, 34s, 66G, 67C, 319S, 28N, 50S, 54T, 58R, 75T, 88Q, 92R, 179H and 191K. PMID:25543670

  6. Structural genomics analysis of uncharacterized protein families overrepresented in human gut bacteria identifies a novel glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteroides spp. form a significant part of our gut microbiome and are well known for optimized metabolism of diverse polysaccharides. Initial analysis of the archetypal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome identified 172 glycosyl hydrolases and a large number of uncharacterized proteins associated with polysaccharide metabolism. Results BT_1012 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 is a protein of unknown function and a member of a large protein family consisting entirely of uncharacterized proteins. Initial sequence analysis predicted that this protein has two domains, one on the N- and one on the C-terminal. A PSI-BLAST search found over 150 full length and over 90 half size homologs consisting only of the N-terminal domain. The experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the BT_1012 protein confirms its two-domain architecture and structural analysis of both domains suggests their specific functions. The N-terminal domain is a putative catalytic domain with significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, the C-terminal domain has a beta-sandwich fold typically found in C-terminal domains of other glycosyl hydrolases, however these domains are typically involved in substrate binding. We describe the structure of the BT_1012 protein and discuss its sequence-structure relationship and their possible functional implications. Conclusions Structural and sequence analyses of the BT_1012 protein identifies it as a glycosyl hydrolase, expanding an already impressive catalog of enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism in Bacteroides spp. Based on this we have renamed the Pfam families representing the two domains found in the BT_1012 protein, PF13204 and PF12904, as putative glycoside hydrolase and glycoside hydrolase-associated C-terminal domain respectively. PMID:24742328

  7. Family/Individual Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on personal and family health. The units cover: (1) personal health and wellness (including the decisions and other factors that influence health, principles of personal health, and stress management); (2) family health (including coping…

  8. The UlaG protein family defines novel structural and functional motifs grafted on an ancient RNase fold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial populations are highly successful at colonizing new habitats and adapting to changing environmental conditions, partly due to their capacity to evolve novel virulence and metabolic pathways in response to stress conditions and to shuffle them by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). A common theme in the evolution of new functions consists of gene duplication followed by functional divergence. UlaG, a unique manganese-dependent metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) enzyme involved in L-ascorbate metabolism by commensal and symbiotic enterobacteria, provides a model for the study of the emergence of new catalytic activities from the modification of an ancient fold. Furthermore, UlaG is the founding member of the so-called UlaG-like (UlaGL) protein family, a recently established and poorly characterized family comprising divalent (and perhaps trivalent) metal-binding MBLs that catalyze transformations on phosphorylated sugars and nucleotides. Results Here we combined protein structure-guided and sequence-only molecular phylogenetic analyses to dissect the molecular evolution of UlaG and to study its phylogenomic distribution, its relatedness with present-day UlaGL protein sequences and functional conservation. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that UlaGL sequences are present in Bacteria and Archaea, with bona fide orthologs found mainly in mammalian and plant-associated Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The incongruence between the UlaGL tree and known species trees indicates exchange by HGT and suggests that the UlaGL-encoding genes provided a growth advantage under changing conditions. Our search for more distantly related protein sequences aided by structural homology has uncovered that UlaGL sequences have a common evolutionary origin with present-day RNA processing and metabolizing MBL enzymes widespread in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. This observation suggests an ancient origin for the UlaGL family within the broader trunk of the MBL superfamily by duplication, neofunctionalization and fixation. Conclusions Our results suggest that the forerunner of UlaG was present as an RNA metabolizing enzyme in the last common ancestor, and that the modern descendants of that ancestral gene have a wide phylogenetic distribution and functional roles. We propose that the UlaGL family evolved new metabolic roles among bacterial and possibly archeal phyla in the setting of a close association with metazoans, such as in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract or in animal and plant pathogens, as well as in environmental settings. Accordingly, the major evolutionary forces shaping the UlaGL family include vertical inheritance and lineage-specific duplication and acquisition of novel metabolic functions, followed by HGT and numerous lineage-specific gene loss events. PMID:21943130

  9. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  10. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement. PMID:18402586

  11. Investigations of the electronic structure of d 0 transition metal oxides belonging to the perovskite family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank W. Eng; Paris W. Barnes; Benjamin M. Auer; Patrick M. Woodward

    2003-01-01

    Computational and experimental studies using linear muffin tin orbital methods and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively, were performed to quantitatively probe the relationships between composition, crystal structure and the electronic structure of oxides containing octahedrally coordinated d0 transition metal ions. The ions investigated in this study (Ti4+, Nb5+, Ta5+, Mo6+, and W6+) were examined primarily in perovskite and perovskite-related structures.

  12. Primary structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase establishes a new family of eukaryotic protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Popov, K M; Kedishvili, N Y; Zhao, Y; Shimomura, Y; Crabb, D W; Harris, R A

    1993-12-15

    We recently reported molecular cloning of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, the first mitochondrial protein kinase to be cloned (Popov, K. M., Zhao, Y., Shimomura, Y., Kuntz, M. J., and Harris, R. A. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 13127-13130). From a search for proteins related to the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, a cDNA encoding the 434 amino acid residues corresponding to pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase has been cloned from a rat heart cDNA library. Evidence that the clone codes for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase includes: (a) the deduced amino acid sequence is identical to the partial sequence of the kinase determined by direct sequencing; (b) expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli resulted in synthesis of a protein that phosphorylated and inactivated the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; (c) kinase activity of the recombinant protein is sensitive to inhibition by a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; and (d) antiserum raised against the recombinant protein recognized the protein subunit known to correspond to pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in a highly purified preparation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Like the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase lacks motifs usually associated with eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein kinases. Considerable sequence similarity exists between these mitochondrial protein kinases and members of the prokaryotic histidine kinase family, a diverse set of sensing and response systems important in the regulation of bacterial processes. Thus, molecular cloning of these proteins establishes a new eukaryotic family of protein kinases that is related to a prokaryotic family of protein kinases. PMID:8253790

  13. Class 2 design update for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creighton, Thomas R.; Hendrich, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the final report of seven on the design of a family of commuter airplanes. This design effort was performed in fulfillment of NASA/USRA grant NGT-8001. Its contents are as follows: (1) the class 1 baseline designs for the commuter airplane family; (2) a study of takeoff weight penalties imposed on the commuter family due to implementing commonality objectives; (3) component structural designs common to the commuter family; (4) details of the acquisition and operating economics of the commuter family, i.e., savings due to production commonality and handling qualities commonality are determined; (5) discussion of the selection of an advanced turboprop propulsion system for the family of commuter airplanes, and (6) a proposed design for an SSSA controller design to achieve similar handling for all airplanes. Final class 2 commuter airplane designs are also presented.

  14. Crystal structure of a bacterial family-III cellulose-binding domain: a general mechanism for attachment to cellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Tormo, J; Lamed, R; Chirino, A J; Morag, E; Bayer, E A; Shoham, Y; Steitz, T A

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of a family-III cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit of Clostridium thermocellum has been determined at 1.75 A resolution. The protein forms a nine-stranded beta sandwich with a jelly roll topology and binds a calcium ion. conserved, surface-exposed residues map into two defined surfaces located on opposite sides of the molecule. One of these faces is dominated by a planar linear strip of aromatic and polar residues which are proposed to interact with crystalline cellulose. The other conserved residues are contained in a shallow groove, the function of which is currently unknown, and which has not been observed previously in other families of CBDs. On the basis of modeling studies combined with comparisons of recently determined NMR structures for other CBDs, a general model for the binding of CBDs to cellulose is presented. Although the proposed binding of the CBD to cellulose is essentially a surface interaction, specific types and combinations of amino acids appear to interact selectively with glucose moieties positioned on three adjacent chains of the cellulose surface. The major interaction is characterized by the planar strip of aromatic residues, which align along one of the chains. In addition, polar amino acid residues are proposed to anchor the CBD molecule to two other adjacent chains of crystalline cellulose. Images PMID:8918451

  15. Theoretical prediction of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis missense mutation effects on Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase structural stability

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.; Tu, Y. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficiency is associated with the progressive paralytic disorder familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fifteen missense mutations in the SOD gene were identified in several patients. These mutations may prevent correct promoter folding or hamper homodimer formation necessary for SOD activity. To understand the effect of the missense mutations on SOD structure and function, we used a theoretical analysis of structural effects based on two predictive methods using the modeled tertiary structure of human SOD. The first method uses the TORSO program which optimizes amino acid side-chains repacking in both wild-type and mutant SODs and calculates protein internal packing energy. The second method uses a hydrophobicity scale of the amino acid residues and considers both solvent accessibility and hydrophobic nature of residue substitutions to compute a stabilization energy change ({delta}E). These predictive methods have been tested in 187 single and multiple missense mutants of 8 proteins (T4 lysozyme, human carbonic anhydrase II, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, f1 gene V protein, barnase, {lambda}-repressor, chicken and human lysozymes) with experimentally determined thermostability. The overall prediction accuracy with these proteins was 88%. Analysis of FALS missense mutations {delta}E predicts that 14 of 15 mutations destabilize the SOD structure. The other missense mutation is located at the homodimer interface and may hinder dimer formation. This approach is applicable to any protein with known tertiary structure to predict missense mutation effects on protein stability.

  16. Structural prototypes for an extended family of flavoprotein reductases: comparison of phthalate dioxygenase reductase with ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Correll, C. C.; Ludwig, M. L.; Bruns, C. M.; Karplus, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of phthalate dioxygenase reductase (PDR), a monomeric iron-sulfur flavoprotein that delivers electrons from NADH to phthalate dioxygenase, is compared to ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin, the proteins that reduce NADP+ in the final reaction of photosystem I. The folding patterns of the domains that bind flavin, NAD(P), and [2Fe-2S] are very similar in the two systems. Alignment of the X-ray structures of PDR and FNR substantiates the assignment of features that characterize a family of flavoprotein reductases whose members include cytochrome P-450 reductase, sulfite and nitrate reductases, and nitric oxide synthase. Hallmarks of this subfamily of flavoproteins, here termed the FNR family, are an antiparallel beta-barrel that binds the flavin prosthetic group, and a characteristic variant of the classic pyridine nucleotide-binding fold. Despite the similarities between FNR and PDR, attempts to model the structure of a dissociable FNR:ferredoxin complex by analogy with PDR reveal features that are at odds with chemical crosslinking studies (Zanetti, G., Morelli, D., Ronchi, S., Negri, A., Aliverti, A., & Curti, B., 1988, Biochemistry 27, 3753-3759). Differences in the binding sites for flavin and pyridine nucleotides determine the nucleotide specificities of FNR and PDR. The specificity of FNR for NADP+ arises primarily from substitutions in FNR that favor interactions with the 2' phosphate of NADP+. Variations in the conformation and sequences of the loop adjoining the flavin phosphate affect the selectivity for FAD versus FMN. The midpoint potentials for reduction of the flavin and [2Fe-2S] groups in PDR are higher than their counterparts in FNR and spinach ferredoxin, by about 120 mV and 260 mV, respectively. Comparisons of the structure of PDR with spinach FNR and with ferredoxin from Anabaena 7120, along with calculations of electrostatic potentials, suggest that local interactions, including hydrogen bonds, are the dominant contributors to these differences in potential. PMID:8298460

  17. Modeling Correlation of Family Holiday Activities Based on Structural Equation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin ZHAO; Hongzhi GUAN; Liyuan GONG

    2011-01-01

    Previous researches in activities-decision have more in-depth study in context of individuals, while less work has been done within household activity decisions. The structural equation model is applied to analyze the relationship of three household activity categories on holiday using data from 2009 Jinan travel survey. Six attributes were first chosen as exogenous variables for the structural equation model. Meanwhile,

  18. Structures of peptide families by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, J.H.

    1989-12-01

    The three dimensional structures of several small peptides were determined using a combination of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and distance geometry calculations. These techniques were found to be particularly helpful for analyzing structural differences between related peptides since all of the peptides' {sup 1}H NMR spectra are very similar. The structures of peptides from two separate classes are presented. Peptides in the first class are related to apamin, an 18 amino acid peptide toxin from honey bee venom. The {sup 1}H NMR assignments and secondary structure determination of apamin were done previously. Quantitative NMR measurements and distance geometry calculations were done to calculate apamin's three dimensional structure. Peptides in the second class are 48 amino acid toxins from the sea anemone Radianthus paumotensis. The {sup 1}H NMR assignments of toxin II were done previously. The {sup 1}H NMR assignments of toxin III and the distance geometry calculations for both peptides are presented.

  19. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic

  20. The Economics of Solar Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    SHCOST program assesses economic feasibility of solar energy for single-family residences and light commercial applications. Program analyzes life-cycle costs as well as sensitivity studies to aid designer in selecting most economically attractive solar system for single-family residence or light commercial application. SHCOST includes fairly comprehensive list of cost elements from which user may select.