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Sample records for family structure economic

  1. Impact of Family Structure on Parental Attitudes Toward the Economic Support of Adult Children Over the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilino, William S.

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…

  2. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  3. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  4. Ethnic family structure.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  5. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  6. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  7. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. PMID:26699446

  8. Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

    Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

  9. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  10. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  11. Marriage and Family Life. Vocational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Donna

    These course materials, designed to be used with students in the 11th and 12th grades and for adult students, are intended to provide basic knowledge of family life and adult living. The one-semester home economics course focuses on basic marriage and family skills, life choices, parenthood, and family changes. The guide contains 4 sections and 10…

  12. Family Support and Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines the interrelationship of sustainable community economic strategies and sustainable family units. The introductory section of the report consists of one article, "Integrating Community Development and Family Support." The second section, "Community Building: A Movement is Afoot,"…

  13. Consumer and Family Economics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This consumer and family economics curriculum guide was developed for use in home economics education in Texas. At the beginning is a list of the competencies and the subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. The conceptual outline as shown in the…

  14. How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and…

  15. Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bobbye

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

  16. Economic aspects of family planning.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1970-11-01

    The report of the mission sponsored by UNDP, IBRD and WHO in 1970 to develop a comprehensive family planning program for Indonesia omits the important role that commercial distribution of contraceptives can and must play if the desired effect is to be achieved. The government should provide contraceptives to interested traders at low wholesale prices. Every encouragement should be extended to heighten competition in the commercial sector. These initiatives would serve 2 purposes: 1) bring down the current erratic and unreasonable cost of commercially distributed contraceptives and 2) have the benefit of spreading the family planning message by means of traders' competitive promotion. Until this plan can be implemented, import duties on commercial importation of contraceptives should be lifted. In addition, free distribution of contraceptives in government clinics should be introduce d. PMID:12255554

  17. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  18. Management and Family Economics Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This document contains 73 performance-based modules for student use in high school home management and family economics courses. Each module is composed of an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a student self-check, recommended references, and an evaluator's final…

  19. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, Modupe M.; Irabor, Achiaka E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results The somatising patients were mostly females (70%), with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family) was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04). Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039). Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042) and more conflicts (p = 0.019) in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients. PMID:26245602

  20. Family Stability in the Context of Economic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odita, Florence C.; Janssens, Mary Ann

    1977-01-01

    This review is aimed at highlighting the impact of economic deprivation on the family, the nucleus of any social system. The low income families receiving "aid for families of the dependent children" (AFDC) are the focus. (Author)

  1. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  2. Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

  3. Vanishing Dreams: The Economic Plight of America's Young Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

    This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1990 with that of young families in the 1970s and 1980s. The report documents falling incomes and growing poverty among young families, factors underlying young families' economic…

  4. Realities and Choices: Helping States Enhance Family Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Sandra

    This document, which is designed to help state administrators and legislators formulate policies enhancing family economic security, summarizes research findings regarding barriers to economic self-sufficiency and policies used by various states to improve poor family's available work opportunities and economic security. Discussed in the…

  5. Family Structure and Voter Turnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Wolfinger, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Voting and Registration Supplement of the Current Population Survey to explore the effects of family structure on turnout in the 2000 presidential election. Our results indicate that family structure, defined as marital status and the presence of children, has substantial consequences for turnout. Married adults are more…

  6. Vanishing Dreams: The Growing Economic Plight of America's Young Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

    This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1986 with that of the preceding generation in 1973. An analysis of the widening gaps between young families with and without children, between young families headed by persons with…

  7. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  8. Economic Impact of Advanced Pediatric Cancer on Families

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Kira; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Russ; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. Objectives To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent or non-responsive cancer at three children’s hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. Results Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child’s illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child’s illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses due to work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P=0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously non-poor families fell from above to below the 200% FPL. Conclusion The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:23870843

  9. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  10. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  11. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  12. Family economic resources in the post-reform era.

    PubMed

    Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

  13. Family ties and economic stability concerns of migrant labour families in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Kamiar, M S; Ismail, H F

    1991-12-01

    74 labor migrant families from various socioeconomic classes in Amman, Jordan were interviewed to examine changes in relationships among family members, extended family, and neighbors and their concerns about economic stability in the host country, Jordan, and the world market. Another purpose was to determine how current migration policies of the Arab oil-producing countries which prohibit labor migrants from bringing their families to the host country affect labor migration among families. The families consisted of either those who did or did not accompany the labor migrant. Overall labor migration affected unaccompanied families more than accompanied families, e.g., only 19% of the unaccompanied families reported increased family unity compared with 56% of accompanied families. Problems within unaccompanied families increased in 43% of the cases but in only 6% of the accompanied families. Many of these problems resulted in children dropping out of school which reflected the control fathers had within the family, separation, or divorce. Yet labor migration reduced family ties with extended family members and neighbors almost equally for both groups. Accompanied families were not as concerned about economic stability in Jordan as unaccompanied families (38% vs. 50%). Perhaps these families tended not to invest remittances received from the labor migrants working in Arab oil-producing countries in Jordan. Both groups were quite concerned about the economic stability in the host countries (66% and 72%, respectively) and the world market (59% and 62%, respectively), however. Since family unity suffers when families do not accompany labor migrants, it is suggested that oil-producing nations that depend on foreign labor should guarantee family unity as a human right. PMID:12285111

  14. Income Tax Cuts: The Promises and Pitfalls for Families across the Economic Spectrum. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that recent economic news and slowed economic growth statistics are bad news for American families. Examines President Bush's efforts to implement tax cuts and finds that the proposed tax cut is skewed to the top of the income spectrum, not to the low- and middle-income families it is purported to assist most. (SD)

  15. Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

  16. Vocational Home Economics Education: Family Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawatzky, Joyce

    Intended for use by vocational home economics teachers in grades 11 and 12, this curriculum guide provides preparation for students to assume the roles of homemakers and wage earners. The seven sections included are subdivided into two or more units and consist of the following topics: (1) career planning, which also encompasses job search methods…

  17. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  18. Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.

    PubMed

    Chang, K S

    1991-07-01

    Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a

  19. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

  20. Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume III: Analyses of the First Six Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

    This volume focuses on the main issues to which the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was directed--the determinants of the changing economic fortunes of black and white families. The economic status of the families studied, patterns of transition, and changes in the structure of the families and their relationship to changes in economic activity are…

  1. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  2. Three Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4,898), this study investigates how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of three generation households vary by mother’s relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17 % of cohabiting, and 45% of single mothers live in a three generation family household at the birth of the child. Incidence over time is much higher and most common among single mother households, 60% live in a three generation family household in at least one wave. Economic need, culture, and generational needs are associated with living in a three generation household and correlates vary by mother’s relationship status. Three generation family households are short lived and transitions are frequent. Kin support through coresidence is an important source of support for families with young children and in particular families that are unwed at the birth of their child. PMID:24014117

  3. President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates…

  4. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  5. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  6. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  7. For love and money? The impact of family structure on family income.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and cohabiting households, for example, can benefit from economies of scale and from having two adult earners. The availability of child support for single-parent families and the marriage penalties in the tax and transfer system reduce but rarely completely offset the economic benefits of marriage. Consistent with these expectations, national data on family income show that across all races and for a variety of income measures, children in lone-parent families (single-parent households with no cohabiter) have less family income and are more likely to be poor than children in married-parent families. Cohabiting families are generally better off economically than lone-parent families, but considerably worse off than married-parent families. Thomas and Sawhill acknowledge the possibility that the link between famlily structure and family resources may not be causal. But new research that simulates niarriages between existing single mothers and unattached men with similar characteristics suggests that family structure does affect family resources and that child poverty rates would drop substantially if these mothers were to marry. It does not necessarily follow, however, that policymakers ought to, or even can, do anything about family structure. Marriage is not an economic cure-all for the complex problem of child poverty. It would be a mistake for policymakers to focus on promoting marriage to the exclusion of encouraging and rewarding work or addressing problems such as early out-of-wedlock childbearing. Still, Thomas and Sawhill conclude that a continuation of recent declines in single parenthood, linked most recently to declines in

  8. Management and Family Economics Student Modules. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This instructor's guide was designed to help teachers present a performance-based course in family management and economics to high school students. The guide contains a listing of the modules contained in the student modules with suggested levels and courses for teaching; additional learning experiences; lists of supplemental resources and…

  9. Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

  10. How economic development and family planning programs combined to reduce Indonesian fertility.

    PubMed

    Gertler, P J; Molyneaux, J W

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines the contributions of family planning programs, economic development, and women's status to Indonesian fertility decline from 1982 to 1987. Methodologically we unify seemingly conflicting demographic and economic frameworks into a single "structural" proximate-cause model as well as controlling statistically for the targeted (nonrandom) placement of family planning program inputs. The results are consistent with both frameworks: 75% of the fertility decline resulted from increased contraceptive use, but was induced primarily through economic development and improved education and economic opportunities for females. Even so, the dramatic impact of the changes in demand-side factors (education and economic development) on contraceptive use was possible only because there already existed a highly responsive contraceptive supply delivery system. PMID:8005342

  11. Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conger, R D; Ge, X; Elder, G H; Lorenz, F O; Simons, R L

    1994-04-01

    We propose a model of family conflict and coercion that links economic stress in family life to adolescent symptoms of internalizing and externalizing emotions and behaviors. The 180 boys and 198 girls in the study were living in intact families in the rural Midwest, an area characterized by economic decline and uncertainty. Theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. These adolescents and their parents were interviewed each year for 3 years during the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Our theoretical model proposes that economic pressure experienced by parents increases parental dysphoria and marital conflict as well as conflicts between parents and children over money. High levels of spousal irritability, coupled with coercive exchanges over money matters, were expected to be associated with greater hostility in general by parents toward their children. These hostile/coercive exchanges were expected to increase the likelihood of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems. Overall, results were consistent with the proposed model. Moreover, the hypothesized processes applied equally well to the behavior of mothers and fathers, as well as sons and daughters. PMID:8013239

  12. Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…

  13. Ecological Structural Family Therapy with Cuban Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.; And Others

    Research and clinical practice at the Spanish Family Guidance Clinic (Miami, Florida) has suggested that ecological structural family therapy might be a treatment of choice for Cuban immigrants. Such a treatment approach was found to be consistent with the values of this population and was particularly helpful in addressing special problems…

  14. Social and economic change, intergenerational relationships, and family formation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A; Chang, M C; Sun, T H

    1984-11-01

    This paper examines the influence of social change and economic growth on intergenerational relationships and the formation of families in Taiwan. Using data from two island-wide surveys in 1973 and 1980, the analysis shows that, as expected, social change has been accompanied by rapid changes in family structure and relationships, including the spread of schooling, the employment of young people outside the family, increasing separation of the residences of parents and children before and after marriage, growing independence of young people, and increases in premarital sex and pregnancies. The position of a family in the social structure also influences the way young people interact with their parents and form their own families: women with educated fathers have more nonfamilial experiences than others, and farm origins tend to exert a traditional influence on the life course. Finally, experiences early in the life course have important ramifications for later behavior and transitions. PMID:6519319

  15. Discrimination, Sex Roles, and Changing Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giele, Janet Zollinger

    The problem of discrimination against families within the context of changing sex roles and the growing diversity of family structure is discussed in this paper. It begins with an analysis of underlying social trends, then focuses on sex discrimination and discrimination against different family types and concludes with an interpretation of…

  16. Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-05-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

  17. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  18. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  19. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  20. Family Structure and Child Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Ibarra, Gabriel Lara; Garasky, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether food insecurity was different for children in cohabiting or repartnered families versus those in single-mother or married-parent (biological) families. Methods. We compared probabilities of child food insecurity (CFI) across different family structures in 4 national data sets: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS). Results. Unadjusted probabilities of CFI in cohabiting or repartnered families were generally higher than in married-biological-parent families and often statistically indistinguishable from those of single-mother families. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, most differences between family types were attenuated and most were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions. Although children whose biological parents are cohabiting or whose biological mothers have repartnered have risks for food insecurity comparable to those in single-mother families, the probability of CFI does not differ by family structure when household income, family size, and maternal race, ethnicity, education, and age were held at mean levels. PMID:24832438

  1. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  2. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  3. Four RNA families with functional transient structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5′ flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5′ UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM

  4. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  5. Combining Individual Psychodynamics with Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melito, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Presents integrative framework for combining central aspects of individual psychodynamics with structural family therapy in meaningful way. Explains how framework derives from developmental perspective. Presents case example to illustrate combined approach and demonstrate its utility. (Author/NB)

  6. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  7. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  8. Family economic hardship and Chinese adolescents' sleep quality: A moderated mediation model involving perceived economic discrimination and coping strategy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping; Lai, Xuefen

    2016-07-01

    The association between family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment outcomes, including sleep quality, is well-established. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relation between family economic hardship and adolescents' sleep quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family economic hardship on Chinese adolescents' sleep quality, as well as the role of perceived economic discrimination as a mediator and the role of coping strategy as a moderator. Survey data from a cross-sectional sample of 997 Chinese adolescents (45% male, mean age = 15.04 years) were analyzed using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. The results of this study indicated that family economic hardship was significantly associated with adolescents' sleep quality. This association was mediated by adolescents' perceived economic discrimination. In addition, adolescents' coping strategy significantly moderated the path from perceived economic discrimination to sleep quality, with the "shift" coping strategy as a protective factor. The present study contributes to our understanding of key mechanisms underlying the association between family economic hardship and adolescent sleep quality and highlights the importance of improving sleep quality for adolescents exposed to economic hardship. PMID:27232103

  9. Family and Community Services. Module XII: The Family: Functions and Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrich, Beatrice

    This twelfth of 14 curriculum modules in the Family and Community Services Occupational Education Modules series deals with functions and structure of the family. Definitions of the family are compared, and students are helped to understand various forms, functions, and structures of families. The developmental stages of the family life cycle and…

  10. The economic impacts of Oklahoma's Family Medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Lapolla, Michael; Brandt, Edward N; Barker, Andréa; Ryan, Lori

    2004-06-01

    The enactment of Medicare and Medicaid created a new demand for medical services in Oklahoma, particularly in rural areas. The state of Oklahoma responded by creating The Oklahoma Physician Manpower Training Commission in 1975. The overall purpose of the Commission was to increase the number of primary care physicians and influence distribution into non-metro areas. This analysis concerns the public policy value of this ongoing program. The PMTC has provided resident stipend funding to each of Oklahoma's publicly funded Family Medicine residency programs. Since 1975, the PMTC has provided over 139 million dollars in resident stipend funding and support; and there have been 749 program graduates with 431 practicing in Oklahoma. This model calculates that the Oklahoma-based physicians have created a cumulative 3.7 billion dollars of economic impact on the state; and conservatively estimates that only 10% of the practice decisions/locations were influenced by the PMTC. This creates an estimated return of 370 million dollars on an "investment" of 139 million dollars. Additionally the model demonstrates that the current cohort of physicians is annually responsible for 15,530 jobs and an associated payroll of 428 million dollars. PMID:15346805

  11. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  12. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  13. The Effects of Gender, Family Satisfaction, and Economic Strain on Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined gender as conditional variable in effects of family satisfaction and economic strain on psychological well-being among married people (n=197). Analysis supported hypothesis that positive effect of family satisfaction was greater among women than among men. Contrary to predictions, inverse effect of economic strain was same for women,…

  14. Effects of Economic Hardship on Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Family Mediation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Camilla S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of 387 Midwestern families. Results showed that economic hardship negatively affected adolescent self-esteem and that this effect was primarily mediated through the parent-adolescent relationship. Supports other findings that…

  15. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  16. Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

  17. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  18. Changing family structure and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Bae, H

    1987-12-01

    Rapid industrialization, adaptation of modern values, and rural-urban migration in Korea have led to the replacement of the extended family with the nuclear of conjugal family. In 1980, 13% of Korean households were 1-generational, 70% were 2-generational, 17% were 3-generational and less than 1% were 4-generational. This trend has had serious implications for the aged, who have become increasingly isolated from Korean society. Hindering the adaptation of the aged to modern society are their low educational level, rural concentration, low income, and high rate of female members. Adult children who are well educated and prosperous economically are most likely to refuse to take responsibility for aged parents. Since some 23% of the aged currently live alone, Korean society must assume some of the responsibility that has traditionally been accepted by family members. There is a need for systematic programming that takes into account the current sociodemographic circumstances of Korea's aged population. Incentives such as tax exemptions and aged care allowances should be considered to encourage children to take responsibility for their aged parents. To meet the needs of the growing number of aged who are disabled and without family support, the number of geriatric hospitals and institutions must be expanded. Also important are supplementary programs such as housekeeping services, meals on wheels, and day care. Although the expansion of social welfare programs and institutions for the aged is essential, they can not in themselves meet the emotional needs of the aged that have traditionally been served by family connectedness. PMID:12315151

  19. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic…

  20. Children with Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Their Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Tammy L.; Chudzinski, Julie

    This study investigated the family structures of 30 children (ages 7 to 18) with emotional/behavioral problems receiving treatment in a mental health agency. Traditional family structure was defined as a home in which both biological parents are present. Nontraditional family structures included: (1) single-parent families with one biological…

  1. For Love "and" Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and…

  2. The Economic Plight of America's Young Families. An Update of CDF's Vanishing Dreams Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This report describes improvements in the status of families headed by persons under age 30 from 1986 to 1987 based on figures from "Vanishing Dreams" and the most recent available data drawn from the Current Population Survey. The following sets of economic data are updated: (1) earnings of family heads; (2) young family incomes; and (3) poverty…

  3. Quantum structure in economics: The Ellsberg paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    The expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions, as shown by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. The popular explanation in terms of ambiguity aversion is not completely accepted. As a consequence, uncertainty is still problematical in economics. To overcome these difficulties a distinction between risk and ambiguity has been introduced which depends on the existence of a Kolmogorovian probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainties. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that context plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian framework admitting a quantum-like representation. For this reason, we have recently introduced a notion of contextual risk to mathematically capture situations in which ambiguity occurs. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a sphere model within our hidden measurement formalism which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a quantum conceptual layer in human thought which is superposed to the usually assumed classical logical layer, and conceptually supports the thesis of several authors suggesting the presence of quantum structure in economics and decision theory.

  4. Economic woes mean cuts to family planning services.

    PubMed

    1991-07-01

    Due to budget cuts at the federal, state, and local levels, family planning clinics that rely in public funding are facing financial hardship. In 1980, the federal government provided $162 million for family planning under Title 10. But for 1991, the allocation was down to $140 million. Compared to 1980, there are 100 fewer government-funded clinics providing family planning. Many health clinics have simply ceased providing such services. The Community Family Planning Council in New York City is one of those organizations that has suffered severely from the cutbacks. Previously operating 12 family planning clinics, the council had no choice but to close 3 clinics that served about 10,000 low-income women, after the city's Human Resource Administration (HRA) cut $1 million from the council's budget. For 1992, HRA plans increase the cut to $2.3 million. The majority of the women affected are part of the "working poor," women who work for minimum wage. Family planners say that, in the long run, the consequences of the cutbacks will be more expensive for the city. Many women will have unwanted pregnancies, and many will be forced to quit their jobs to care for the baby, relying on public assistance and Medicaid. As the council has argued to city officials, family planning programs are cost effective. The council estimates that their programs prevent about 4500 pregnancies and 2000 abortions each year, which saves the city $15 million a year social services. Massive cutbacks also threaten family planning services in New Hampshire, where legislators where proposing to cut all funding. After pleas from family planners, the state is not looking at 45% reduction. A bright note has been California, where evidence to the cost-effectiveness of family planning convinced the governor to propose a $10 million increase for 1992. PMID:12284064

  5. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  6. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  7. Structural Features of the Glutamate Transporter Family

    PubMed Central

    Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Konings, Wil N.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    1999-01-01

    Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning α-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary

  8. Salvador Minuchin's structural family therapy and its application to multicultural family systems.

    PubMed

    Navarre, S E

    1998-01-01

    The structural approach to family therapy offers a useful perspective to the nurse therapist working with families with various cultural backgrounds. Asian and Hispanic families are examined to illustrate using Minuchin's approach to family counseling. The rationale for the structural approach is explored, and specific therapeutic techniques for practice are described. Nurses who work with culturally diverse families might profit by using this approach. PMID:9883131

  9. The Effects of Family Structure and SES on Family Processes in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Investigates parent-adolescent relationships focusing on the effects of dyadic communication, family cohesion, family structure, and socioeconomic status on family conflict in three ethnic groups: African-American, Mexican-American, and Euro-American. Results showed three-year increases in family conflict in each group. Reports significant…

  10. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  11. Future Families in a Nation At Risk: The Promise and Potential of Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Haley, Elizabeth G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss problems of the present in families: functional illiteracy; violence and abuse; adolescent pregnancy; dual earner, single parent, and blended families; alcohol and drug abuse; ethnic diversity; and the aging of America. How high school home economics programs can help with these issues is explored. (CT)

  12. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

  13. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  14. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  15. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  16. A family of supersonic airplanes: Technical and economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, F. D.; Whitten, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    To improve the prospects for success in the market place, the family approach is essential to the design of future supersonic airplanes. The evolution from a basic supersonic airplane to a family could follow historic patterns, with one exception: substantial changes in passenger carrying capacity will be difficult by the conventional fuselage "doughnut" approach so successfully used on the cylindrical fuselage of subsonic airplanes. The primary reasons for this difference include the requirement for highly integrated "area ruled" configurations, to give the desired high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, and other physical limitations such as takeoff and landing rotation. A concept for a supersonic airplane family that could effectively solve the variable range and passenger capacity problem provides for modification of the fuselage cross section that makes it possible to build a family of three airplanes with four, five, and six abreast passenger seating. This is done by replacing or modifying portions of the fuselage. All airplanes share the same wing, engines, and major subsystems. Only small sections of the fuselage would be different, and aerodynamic efficiency need not be compromised.

  17. Changing Economic and Social Influences on Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Lisbeth J.; Salisbury, Christine L.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of such societal changes as increased incidences of single parenthood, divorce, and out-of-home childcare for achieving the family focus in early intervention services as required by Public Law 99-457 are addressed. (Author/DB)

  18. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade

    1977-01-01

    States that if the wife is to work, it is important that her occupation reflect favorably on the family's socioeconomic position. This need for status offsets the need for her occupation to be of a nonthreatening status. It is suggested that the amount of disruptive competition which would occur if both the husband and wife worked has been…

  19. Fathers, Mothers, and Family Structure: Family Trajectories, Parent Gender, and Adolescent Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Holly E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has neither fully examined family structure across the life course nor considered increasing variation in family types. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,318), I examine the influence of longitudinal measures across childhood of family structure duration and the number and timing of…

  20. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  1. Household Structure among Welfare Families: Correlates and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed multigeneration household structures among two national samples of welfare families. Results showed household structure differs among welfare families of different races and mother's life-cycle stages, although mother-with-children families predominate. Multigeneration households do not affect welfare mothers' probabiity of employment or…

  2. A Family Structure Approach to the Analysis of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuby, Richard G.

    A typological approach to the analysis of poverty, based on selected characteristics of family structure, is suggested since the family unit is a concrete or actual structure in society, and much of the research and many of the action programs of the war on poverty have implicitly invoked some concept of the family. The typology of family…

  3. Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

  4. Structured Group Counseling and Bibliotherapy as In-School Strategies for Preventing Problems in Children from Changing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, John T.

    The change in family structure precipitated by divorce, separation, death and other parental absences often creates psychological, social and economic problems for some individuals. Of specific interest to school counselors are findings about the effect of changed family structure on children's in-school behavior. The effectiveness of structured…

  5. The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

  6. Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

  7. Diverse Family Structures and the Care of Older Persons.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life. PMID:26300190

  8. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  9. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  10. The Role of Family Functioning in the Stress Process of Dementia Caregivers: A Structural Family Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Lewis, John E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Czaja, Sara J.; Eisdorfer, Carl; Schulz, Richard; Szapocznik, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of family functioning in the stress process in a sample of caregivers of dementia patients by using a structural family framework. The stress-process model of caregiver distress included family functioning as an intervening variable in the relationship between objective burden and…

  11. Family Structure versus Family Relationships for Predicting to Substance Use/Abuse and Illegal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…

  12. Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

  13. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  14. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

  15. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  16. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-aged Husbands and Wives

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; Walker, Catie

    2011-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes to subsequent increase in depressive symptoms of husbands and wives after controlling for family economic hardship in late middle years. Consistent with stress-process theory, economic hardship influences depressive symptoms directly and indirectly through its influence on self-esteem. The results also provided evidence for the scar hypothesis which suggests that depression predicts subsequent level of self-esteem and form a reciprocal process between depressive symptoms and self-esteem over time. In sum, for both husbands and wives, our findings showed that depressive symptoms progress over the middle years through a self-perpetuating reciprocal process between self-esteem and depression initiated by early family economic hardship and through cross-spouse influences involving self-esteem and depressive symptoms. PMID:22577243

  17. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on…

  18. Families at the Century's Turn: The Troubling Economic Trends. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Discusses U.S. economic trends for the past century. Notes that distribution of wealth is more concentrated at top than is distribution of income, with income inequality growing worse in the 1990s. Maintains that wealth disparity explains achievement test score gaps between white and minority students. Presents proposals for asset-building,…

  19. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. PMID:22446725

  20. The Alba protein family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manish; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Nag, Shiladitya; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-05-01

    Alba family proteins are small, basic, dimeric nucleic acid-binding proteins, which are widely distributed in archaea and a number of eukaryotes. This family of proteins bears the distinct features of regulation through acetylation/deacetylation, hence named as acetylation lowers binding affinity (Alba). Alba family proteins bind DNA cooperatively with no apparent sequence specificity. Besides DNA, Alba proteins also interact with diverse RNA species and associate with ribonucleo-protein complexes. Initially, Alba proteins were recognized as chromosomal proteins and supposed to be involved in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and transcription repression. However, recent studies have shown increasing evidence of functional plasticity among Alba family of proteins that widely range from genome packaging and organization, transcriptional and translational regulation, RNA metabolism, and development and differentiation processes. In recent years, Alba family proteins have attracted growing interest due to their widespread occurrence in large number of organisms. Presence in multiple copies, functional crosstalk, differential binding affinity, and posttranslational modifications are some of the key factors that might regulate the biological functions of Alba family proteins. In this review article, we present an overview of the Alba family proteins, their salient features and emphasize their functional role in different organisms reported so far. PMID:26900088

  1. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-1: Characteristics of Economically Depressed Areas Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on characteristics of economically depressed area families is the first in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  2. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-2: The Child and the Economically Depressed Area Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boogaert, John

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on the child and the economically depressed area family is the second in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  3. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  4. Family Structure and Academic Skills among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…

  5. Flat Mites of the World interactive identification key for economically important species in the family Tenuipalpidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flat mite species associated with fruit and crop trees, and ornamentals are commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. These species complex are also the most complicated and part of the most diverse group in the flat mite family. Three of the most economically important species in the fa...

  6. Diet of Finnish children in relation to the family's socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K

    1995-06-01

    The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear. PMID:7676224

  7. Toward a More Perfect Union: Basic Skills, Poor Families, and Our Economic Future. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon; Sum, Andrew

    In the 1980s and 1990s important demographic, economic, and social changes will affect the nation's schools, families, and workplaces. In anticipation of these developments, there is renewed interest in formal educational attainment and basic academic skills. A concerted national effort to address the current crisis in basic skills development…

  8. Food Stamp Participation of Hired Farmworker Families. Agriculture Economic Report No. 403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie Whitener; Rowe, Gene

    The Food Stamp Program allows low-income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet through normal channels of trade. Because of the generally low income of hired farmworkers, food stamp assistance is an important addition to the economic and nutritional status of these workers and their families. This report presents a socioeconomic…

  9. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  10. Racial Differences in Family Living Arrangements and Economic Well-Being: An Analysis of Recent Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Farley, Reynolds

    1979-01-01

    Among both races, there has been a shift away from traditional living arrangements. Changes have been more significant among Blacks and, thus, racial differences are now greater than at the time of the Moynihan report. Economic consequences are described by analyzing trends in per capita income for types of families. (Author)

  11. Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Joel

    This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

  12. Measuring the Economic Well-Being of Families and Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Linda

    This Kids Count report assembles some of the indicators that describe the economic environment of Minnesota children and families. The report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers at the city, county, and state levels, as well as community advocates, parents, and those who work with children. Section 1 of the report presents…

  13. Economic Well-Being Following an Exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to trace poverty status and welfare use in five years following an exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Results show substantial diversity in economic well-being. Women who were working when they exited from AFDC do better, and, to a lesser extent so do those who were…

  14. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…

  15. PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space

    PubMed Central

    Dessailly, Benoît H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space. PMID:19523904

  16. Cation Diffusion Facilitator family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Russell, David; Hayes, Kevin A; Pembroke, J Tony; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2015-05-22

    The Cation Diffusion Facilitators (CDFs) form a family of membrane-bound proteins capable of transporting zinc and other heavy metal ions. Involved in metal tolerance/resistance by efflux of ions, CDF proteins share a two-modular architecture consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) that protrudes into the cytoplasm. Discovery of a Zn²⁺ and Cd²⁺ CDF transporter from a marine bacterium Maricaulis maris that does not possess the CTD questions current perceptions regarding this family of proteins. This article describes a new, CTD-lacking subfamily of CDFs and our current knowledge about this family of proteins in the view of these findings. PMID:25896018

  17. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l<2000 is bigger than that with l>2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  18. Effects of economic hardship: Testing the family stress model over time.

    PubMed

    Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Donnellan, M Brent

    2016-02-01

    The current study evaluated connections between marital distress, harsh parenting, and child externalizing behaviors in line with predictions from the Family Stress Model (FSM). Prospective, longitudinal data came from 273 mothers, fathers, and children participating when the child was 2, between 3 and 5, and between 6 and 10 years old. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic hardship and economic pressure were assessed during toddlerhood, and parental emotional distress, couple conflict, and harsh parenting were collected during early childhood. Child externalizing behavior was assessed during both toddlerhood and middle childhood. Results were consistent with predictions from the FSM in that economic hardship led to economic pressure, which was associated with parental emotional distress and couple conflict. This conflict was associated with harsh parenting and child problem behavior. This pathway remained statistically significant controlling for externalizing behavior in toddlerhood. PMID:26551658

  19. Effect of Family Structure on School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Telia Y.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of living in dual parent or single parent families on the school readiness of preschool children. The subjects were 40 prekindergarten children attending a program for at-risk children in a suburban school district. The results of an annual preschool screening test were utilized to determine…

  20. Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biblarz, Timothy J.; Gottainer, Greg

    2000-01-01

    States that compared with children raised in single-mother families created by death of the father, children raised in divorced single-mother families have significantly lower levels of education, occupational status, and happiness as adults. Speculates that the contrasting positions in the social structure of different types of single-mother…

  1. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  2. Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

  3. Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

  4. Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer C.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood. PMID:22025928

  5. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  6. Economic well-being and children's social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Huston, Aletha C; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2002-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 419 elementary school-age children was evaluated. The sample was 57% African American and 28% Hispanic, and most families were headed by single mothers. The results provided support for the position that family process is a critical mediator of the effects of economic hardship on children's social adjustment. Lower levels of economic well-being, and the corollary elevated perceptions of economic pressure indirectly affected parenting behavior through an adverse impact on parental psychological well-being. Distressed parents reported feeling less effective and capable in disciplinary interactions with their child and were observed to be less affectionate in parent-child interactions. In turn, less than optimal parenting predicted lower teacher ratings of children's positive social behavior and higher ratings of behavior problems. Multiple-group analyses revealed that the pathways by which economic hardship influences children's behavior appear to operate similarly for boys and girls, and for African American and Hispanic families. PMID:12038561

  7. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

  8. Family Structure and Cohesion, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Robert E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Assessed whether presence of both natural parents at home and level of perceived emotional bonding in the family were predictors of depressive symptoms. Found cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms after controlling for family structure and parent education, but there were significant interactions of cohesion with race and gender.…

  9. Structural and Interpersonal Family Influences on Adolescent Self-Conception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoelter, Jon; Harper, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Tested a model linking structural and interpersonal family variables with self-concept variables of self-esteem and son/daughter identity salience (relative importance of being a son or daughter for defining one's self) for 655 high school students. Family support was found to have largest effects on self-concept variables (yielding positive…

  10. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  11. The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates hypothesis used to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent drug use, using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS). Reports that adolescents who resided in single-parent or stepparent families had heightened drug use. Higher adolescent drug use was found in communities with a large…

  12. The Family and Family Structure Classification Redefined for the Current Times

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    The family is a basic unit of study in many medical and social science disciplines. Definitions of family have varied from country to country, and also within country. Because of this and the changing realities of the current times, there is a felt need for redefining the family and the common family structure types, for the purpose of study of the family as a factor in health and other variables of interest. A redefinition of a “family” has been proposed and various nuances of the definition are also discussed in detail. A classification scheme for the various types of family has also been put forward. A few exceptional case scenarios have been envisaged and their classification as per the new scheme is discussed, in a bid to clarify the classification scheme further. The proposed scheme should prove to be of use across various countries and cultures, for broadly classifying the family structure. The unique scenarios of particular cultures can be taken into account by defining region or culture-specific subtypes of the overall types of family structure. PMID:26664832

  13. Migratory movements and their effects on family structure: the Latin American case.

    PubMed

    Torrealba Orellana, R

    1989-06-01

    The main causes of population mobility in Latin America have been 1) dissolution of the traditional rural societies, 2) expansion of the agro-industrial economy, and 3) consolidation of an urban economic and cultural model. Disparities in wages and exchange rates and inequality in development between different countries have led to emigration to countries at higher levels of economic development and to the industrialized Western countries. More recently, political instability and institutionalized violence in Central America have induced population movements to other countries in the region. 6 basic types of migration in Latin America are 1) seasonal migration of small farmers to urban areas or the rural areas in other countries, 2) migration by young rural people to cities or urban areas of other countries, 3) rural-urban and international migration by the whole family group, 4) international urban-urban migration by individuals or by the whole family group, 5) migration for family reunification, and 6) return migration. The predominant type of mobility has been from the countryside to the cities. Both men and women migrate, although the proportion of migrant women is increasing and women occasionally outnumber males. Migrant women generally find less skilled jobs which are less well paid. Migrant workers frequently have access only to less skilled and poorly paid jobs or enter the informal sector of the urban economy. The impact of migration on the structure and functioning of the family unit in the sending society is determined by the number, sex, and role of the family members who migrate. Other economic and social factors such as assistance received by the migrant, the work found, the level of income, and the specific characteristics of the receiving society determine the success of the venture, the capacity to some or all of the remaining family members. Family members who stay in the sending society must adjust their behavior in ways determined by the number

  14. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  15. Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family

    PubMed Central

    Gaweska, Helena; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, polyamines, amino acids, and methylated lysine side chains in proteins. The enzymes have similar overall structures, with conserved FAD-binding domains and varied substrate-binding sites. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the catalytic reactions of these enzymes. The present review compares the structures of different members of the family and the various mechanistic proposals. PMID:22022344

  16. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  17. [GH10 Family of Glycoside Hydrolases: Structure and Evolutionary Connections].

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary connections were analyzed for endo-β-xylanases, which possess the GH10 family catalytic domains. A homology search yielded thrice as many proteins as are available from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Lateral gene transfer was shown to play an important role in evolution of bacterial proteins of the family, especially in the phyla Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Verrucomicrobia, 23 lateral transfers from organisms of other phyla were detected. Evolutionary relationships were observed between the GH10 family domains and domains with the TIM-barrel tertiary structure from several other glycosidase families. The GH39 family of glycoside hydrolases showed the closest relationship. Unclassified homologs were grouped into 12 novel families of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHL51-GHL62). PMID:27028821

  18. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  19. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  20. Supersymmetric Structure of two Families of Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2012-02-01

    Solitons have generated considerable interest in the cold atoms and condensed matter communities. We demonstrate that two families of n-soliton solutions (with n an integer) -- one for the attractive nonlinear Schr"odinger (NLS) equation, and one for the sine-Gordon (sG) equation -- originate from a quantum-mechanical supersymmetric (QM-SUSY) chain connecting a set of reflectionless operators Hn. The families consist of breather-type solitons for NLSootnotetextD. Schrader, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2221 (1995). and multi-(anti)kink solitons with specific velocities for sG. The operators Hn, which we refer to as Akulin`s HamiltoniansootnotetextV. M. Akulin, Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems (Springer, Heidelberg, 2006)., form reflectionless direct-scattering initial conditions for the inverse scattering method. Such a QM-SUSY chain is analogous to the known connection between QM-SUSY chains of P"oschl-Teller potentials and solitons of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equationootnotetextSukumar, J. Phys. A 19, 2297 (1986). The existence of QM-SUSY chains connecting soliton solutions, now for three different integrable nonlinear equations, sheds light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for soliton generation.

  1. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  2. A comment on towers for windmills. [structural and economic criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budgen, H. P.

    1973-01-01

    Design considerations for windmill tower structures include the effects of normal wind forces on the rotor and on the tower. Circular tabular or masonry towers present a relatively simple aerodynamic solution. Economic factors establish the tubular tower as superior for small and medium sized windmills. Concrete and standard concrete block designs are cheaper than refabricated steel structures that have to be freighted.

  3. Modernization and the family structure of the elderly in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, D S

    1984-01-01

    The major shift in the family structure of the older American population occurred during the twentieth century, especially in the period since World War II. This transition to living alone came long after discontinuities had developed in other major indicators of economic, demographic, familial and attitudinal modernization. The long delay in the transformation of household structure is, however, consistent with a family ideology that is explicit and implicit in the writings of the seventeenth-century English philosopher John Locke. The article presents data on the relationship to household head and on the kin composition of the households of the elderly (65+) between 1880 and the present. The 1900 national sample of non-institutionalized older persons (55+) also supplies details on living arrangements by nativity and by type of urban neighborhood and farm and non-farm rural residence. PMID:6372276

  4. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    PubMed Central

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  5. A systematic review of the economic evidence for interventions for family carers of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Margaret; Forster, Anne; Healey, Andy; Patel, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the economic evidence for interventions aimed at family carers of stroke patients. Data sources: Searches (limited to those published in English since 1990) were performed in key databases along with hand searches of relevant papers. Review methods: Papers were restricted to studies including any economic data (broadly defined) for any intervention targeting carers explicitly or explicitly referring to a carer element, beyond involving carers in the care or intervention for patients (i.e. more than just carers being invited to observe an intervention targeted at the patient). Two reviewers independently screened full papers and extracted data using guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (cohort studies), the Delphi list (randomised controlled trials) and guidelines on economic quality from the British Medical Journal. Data were reviewed descriptively as meta analyses were inappropriate due to non-comparability of studies. Results: Ten papers were included in the review. These were heterogeneous in their design, intervention and economic analyses making comparison difficult. Only three of the ten papers included economic evaluations. All three reported that the intervention was less costly and had better or equivalent outcomes than the control comparator although two of these were based on the same intervention using the same dataset. Conclusion: There is some limited evidence that interventions for family carers of stroke patients are effective and cost effective. However, due to variation in the types of interventions examined, little can be concluded regarding implications for clinical practice. PMID:25758943

  6. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  7. The inter-alpha-inhibitor family: from structure to regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Daveau, M

    1996-01-01

    Inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and related molecules, collectively referred to as the IalphaI family, are a group of plasma protease inhibitors. They display attractive features such as precursor polypeptides that give rise to mature chains with quite distinct fates and functions, and inter-chain glycosaminoglycan bonds within the various molecules. The discovery of an ever growing number of such molecules has raised pertinent questions about their pathophysiological functions. The knowledge of this family has long been structure-oriented, whereas the structure/function and structure/regulation relationships of the family members and their genes have been largely ignored. These relationships are now being elucidated in events such as gene transcription, precursor processing, changes in plasma protein levels in health and disease and binding capacities that involve hyaluronan as well as other plasma proteins as ligands. This review presents some recent progress made in these fields that paves the way for an understanding of the functions of IalphaI family members in vivo. Finally, given the wealth of heterogeneous, complicated and sometimes contradictory nomenclatures and acronyms currently in use for this family, a new, uniform, nomenclature is proposed for IalphaI family genes, precursor polypeptides and assembled proteins. PMID:8670091

  8. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

  9. Polygynous Contexts, Family Structure, and Infant Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features, and has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared to monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny among 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in non-polygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child wellbeing. PMID:24402794

  10. Genome Pool Strategy for Structural Coverage of Protein Families

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszewski, L.; Slabinski, L.; Wooley, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Lesley, S.A.; Wilson, I.A.; Godzik, A.

    2009-05-18

    Even closely homologous proteins often have different crystallization properties and propensities. This observation can be used to introduce an additional dimension into crystallization trials by simultaneous targeting multiple homologs in what we call a 'genome pool' strategy. We show that this strategy works because protein physicochemical properties correlated with crystallization success have a surprisingly broad distribution within most protein families. There are also easy and difficult families where this distribution is tilted in one direction. This leads to uneven structural coverage of protein families, with more easy ones solved. Increasing the size of the genome pool can improve chances of solving the difficult ones. In contrast, our analysis does not indicate that any specific genomes are easy or difficult. Finally, we show that the group of proteins with known 3D structures is systematically different from the general pool of known proteins and we assess the structural consequences of these differences.

  11. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  12. Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

  13. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  14. The Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education. A Curriculum Guide. Life: Learning for Independence, Family, and Employment Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This curriculum guide, which was designed for an exploration/orientation course in home economics, introduces students to the field of home economics. It is designed to develop the total well-being of students to empower them to become healthy, well-adjusted, self-confident, productive persons, family members, and workers. The guide contains the…

  15. [Function and structure of families with chronically ill children].

    PubMed

    Hauser, E; Freilinger, M; Skyllouriotis, M; Zacherl, S; Wimmer, M; Balzar, E; Schubert, M T

    1996-11-01

    In modern medicine especially the sick child often points out the limits of the psychosocial potentialities. This project investigates the function, structure, coping mechanisms, power and weakness of families with chronically ill children. We investigated 28 children from the nephrological ward and 55 patients from the cardiological department and also their families with the FAM III and compared the obtained T-scores with the results of the control-group (76 families, t-test, analysis of variance). Families with patients after renal transplantation (NTX) pointed out significant worse T-scores than the group with patients on CAPD or with preterminal renal insufficiency and CG (p < 0.05). Within the cardiological groups the differences were not statistically significant, on the other hand the group with patients before heart-operation and the group with patients after palliative heart-operation had better T-scores than the CT (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that families with children suffering from a chronic renal or heart disease mobilize substantial resources to cope with these problems. By contrast the results of the families with patients after NTX or successful heart surgery are significant worse than the control-group and the other investigated patients groups. Our results come to the conclusion that especially after successful NTX or heart-surgery a psychosocial care of these families is necessary. PMID:9036411

  16. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  17. Adolescent risk behaviours and mealtime routines: does family meal frequency alter the association between family structure and risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-02-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were modelled using Multilevel Binomial modelling for six risk behaviour outcomes. Significantly more children from 'both parent' families ate a family meal every day and fewer 'hardly ever or never' did. Family structure was associated with boys' and girls' smoking, drinking, cannabis use and having sex and with girls' fighting. Frequency of eating a family meal was associated with a reduced likelihood of all risk behaviours among girls and all but fighting and having sex among boys. Eating a family meal regularly nullified the association between family structure and drinking alcohol for boys and girls and cannabis use for boys and reduced the effect size of alternative family structures on boys having sex and smoking. The family meal, associated with a reduced likelihood of many adolescent risk behaviours, reduces or eliminates the association with family structure and may therefore help to overcome inequalities in adolescent risk behaviours. PMID:21900407

  18. Stereodivergent and Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of the Helicascolide Family: A Rhodium-Catalyzed Atom-Economical Lactonization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Haydl, Alexander M; Berthold, Dino; Spreider, Pierre A; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Natural products of polyketide origin, in particular small-sized lactones often possess a very broad range of impressive biological activities. An efficient way to demonstrate the concise access to six-membered lactones was emphasized as part of a stereodivergent and protecting-group-free synthesis of all three representatives of the helicascolide family. This strategy features an atom-economical and highly diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed "head-to-tail" lactonization by an intramolecular addition of ω-allenyl-substituted carboxylic acids to terminal allenes, including the selective construction of a new stereocenter in the newly formed core structures. The excellent selectivities with which the helicascolide precursors were obtained are remarkable, thus resulting in an expeditious and highly efficient natural product synthesis. PMID:27043137

  19. Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

  20. Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families. PMID:25505808

  1. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  2. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  3. Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file, this article examines the relationship between living in four different family structures on key measures of youth well-being, studied separately by race. The authors also examine whether contextual factors mediate these associations. For Black youth, we find no…

  4. Family Structure: Its Effects on Adolescent Attachment and Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Anthony J.; Edwards, Anne E.; Bauer, Karlin S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between family structure, attachment, and identity formation. Results partially support the hypotheses and indicate that unresolved spouse conflict is associated with low levels of attachment in adolescents and attachment to father is linked to identity achieved and the diffused identity status. Findings support a link…

  5. Associations among Family Structure, Demographics, and Adolescent Perceived Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Valois, Robert F.; Huebner, E. Scott; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and family structure were examined among 5,021 public high school adolescents using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed significant race by gender effects. Living…

  6. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  7. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  8. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6-10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth. PMID:26137429

  9. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6–10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth. PMID:26137429

  10. Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity in Xanthine Oxidase Family Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the 2-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

  11. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…

  12. A zeolite family with expanding structural complexity and embedded isoreticular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Shin, Jiho; Greenaway, Alex G.; Min, Jung Gi; Su, Jie; Choi, Hyun June; Liu, Leifeng; Cox, Paul A.; Hong, Suk Bong; Wright, Paul A.; Zou, Xiaodong

    2015-08-01

    The prediction and synthesis of new crystal structures enable the targeted preparation of materials with desired properties. Among porous solids, this has been achieved for metal-organic frameworks, but not for the more widely applicable zeolites, where new materials are usually discovered using exploratory synthesis. Although millions of hypothetical zeolite structures have been proposed, not enough is known about their synthesis mechanism to allow any given structure to be prepared. Here we present an approach that combines structure solution with structure prediction, and inspires the targeted synthesis of new super-complex zeolites. We used electron diffraction to identify a family of related structures and to discover the structural `coding' within them. This allowed us to determine the complex, and previously unknown, structure of zeolite ZSM-25 (ref. 8), which has the largest unit-cell volume of all known zeolites (91,554 cubic ångströms) and demonstrates selective CO2 adsorption. By extending our method, we were able to predict other members of a family of increasingly complex, but structurally related, zeolites and to synthesize two more-complex zeolites in the family, PST-20 and PST-25, with much larger cell volumes (166,988 and 275,178 cubic ångströms, respectively) and similar selective adsorption properties. Members of this family have the same symmetry, but an expanding unit cell, and are related by hitherto unrecognized structural principles; we call these family members embedded isoreticular zeolite structures.

  13. Childhood-Onset Essential Hypertension and the Family Structure.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH. PMID:26435293

  14. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  15. Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and…

  16. The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2005-01-01

    The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740

  17. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  18. Structural and Energetic Characterization of the Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2015-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat containing proteins are one of the most abundant solenoid folds. Usually implicated in specific protein-protein interactions, these proteins are readily amenable for design, with promising biotechnological and biomedical applications. Studying repeat protein families presents technical challenges due to the high sequence divergence among the repeating units. We developed and applied a systematic method to consistently identify and annotate the structural repetitions over the members of the complete Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family, with increased sensitivity over previous studies. We statistically characterized the number of repeats, the folding of the repeat-arrays, their structural variations, insertions and deletions. An energetic analysis of the local frustration patterns reveal the basic features underlying fold stability and its relation to the functional binding regions. We found a strong linear correlation between the conservation of the energetic features in the repeat arrays and their sequence variations, and discuss new insights into the organization and function of these ubiquitous proteins. PMID:26691182

  19. A family of solution algorithms for nonlinear structural analysis based on relaxation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    A family of hierarchical algorithms for nonlinear structural equations are presented. The algorithms are based on the Davidenko-Branin type homotopy and shown to yield consistent hierarchical perturbation equations. The algorithms appear to be particularly suitable to problems involving bifurcation and limit point calculations. An important by-product of the algorithms is that it provides a systematic and economical means for computing the stepsize at each iteration stage when a Newton-like method is employed to solve the systems of equations. Some sample problems are provided to illustrate the characteristics of the algorithms.

  20. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    PubMed

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes. PMID:25734422

  1. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in

  2. Computing a new family of shape descriptors for protein structures.

    PubMed

    Røgen, Peter; Sinclair, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale 3D structure of a protein can be represented by the polygonal curve through the carbon alpha atoms of the protein backbone. We introduce an algorithm for computing the average number of times that a given configuration of crossings on such polygonal curves is seen, the average being taken over all directions in space. Hereby, we introduce a new family of global geometric measures of protein structures, which we compare with the so-called generalized Gauss integrals. PMID:14632419

  3. Molecular Evolution and Structural Features of IRAK Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Gosu, Vijayakumar; Basith, Shaherin; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Choi, Sangdun

    2012-01-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family comprises critical signaling mediators of the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways. IRAKs are Ser/Thr kinases. There are 4 members in the vertebrate genome (IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAKM, and IRAK4) and an IRAK homolog, Pelle, in insects. IRAK family members are highly conserved in vertebrates, but the evolutionary relationship between IRAKs in vertebrates and insects is not clear. To investigate the evolutionary history and functional divergence of IRAK members, we performed extensive bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic relationship between IRAK sequences suggests that gene duplication events occurred in the evolutionary lineage, leading to early vertebrates. A comparative phylogenetic analysis with insect homologs of IRAKs suggests that the Tube protein is a homolog of IRAK4, unlike the anticipated protein, Pelle. Furthermore, the analysis supports that an IRAK4-like kinase is an ancestral protein in the metazoan lineage of the IRAK family. Through functional analysis, several potentially diverged sites were identified in the common death domain and kinase domain. These sites have been constrained during evolution by strong purifying selection, suggesting their functional importance within IRAKs. In summary, our study highlighted the molecular evolution of the IRAK family, predicted the amino acids that contributed to functional divergence, and identified structural variations among the IRAK paralogs that may provide a starting point for further experimental investigations. PMID:23166766

  4. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2004-02-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation. PMID:15074125

  5. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  6. The economic benefits of wind turbine structural testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    Wind turbine systems are subjected to highly variable loading conditions as a result of the diverse meteorological conditions found in the field. While the wind energy resource available for extraction and the initial cost of the equipment are major factors in the cost of wind generated electricity, the economic value of any wind power station is ultimately related to the structural lifetime of the machinery located at the plant and to the costs associated with operations and maintenance of the facility. Field experience gained during the past decade has shown large variations in structural lifetime and maintenance costs for identical turbine designs located at dissimilar sites, with resulting dramatic differences in the overall cost of energy produced. Structural testing offers a method for reducing the incidence of wind turbine component failures at any given site by providing an accurate loading envelope for use in detailed equipment lifetime calculations. This paper will broadly discuss the technical issues which are important for turbine field testing and will identify the potential impacts on overall wind plant economics. Wind turbine testing plays a key role in reducing the risk of premature component failure, improving overall mechanical reliability, and enhancing turbine availability.

  7. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  8. Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ching Man

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

  9. Structured approach to patients with memory difficulties in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Heckman, George; Gagnon, Micheline; Lee, F. Joseph; Sloka, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a structured approach to patients presenting with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Memory Clinic in partnership with the Ontario College of Family Physicians. Main message Use of a structured clinical reasoning approach can assist physicians in achieving an accurate diagnosis in patients presenting with memory difficulties. Delirium, depression, and reversible causes need to be excluded, followed by differentiation among normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Obtaining collateral history and accurate functional assessment are critical. Common forms of dementia can be clinically differentiated by the order in which symptoms appear and by how cognitive deficits evolve over time. Typically, early signs of Alzheimer dementia involve impairment in episodic memory, whereas dementia involving predominantly vascular causes might present with early loss of executive function and relatively preserved episodic memory. Frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body spectrum disorders might have early loss of executive function and visuospatial function, as well as characteristic clinical features. Conclusion A clinical reasoning approach can help physicians achieve early, accurate diagnoses that can guide appropriate management and improve care for patients with memory difficulties. PMID:23486793

  10. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient. PMID:25994545

  11. Sequence, Structure, and Evolution of Cellulases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 48*

    PubMed Central

    Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels (1). Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ω-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for “true” cellulases. PMID:23055526

  12. Structural and functional insight into the universal stress protein family

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Karolina L; A Shumilin, Igor; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2013-01-01

    We present the crystal structures of two universal stress proteins (USP) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Nitrosomonas europaea in both apo- and ligand-bound forms. This work is the first complete synthesis of the structural properties of 26 USP available in the Protein Data Bank, over 75% of which were determined by structure genomics centers with no additional information provided. The results of bioinformatic analyses of all available USP structures and their sequence homologs revealed that these two new USP structures share overall structural similarity with structures of USPs previously determined. Clustering and cladogram analyses, however, show how they diverge from other members of the USP superfamily and show greater similarity to USPs from organisms inhabiting extreme environments. We compared them with other archaeal and bacterial USPs and discuss their similarities and differences in context of structure, sequential motifs, and potential function. We also attempted to group all analyzed USPs into families, so that assignment of the potential function to those with no experimental data available would be possible by extrapolation. PMID:23745136

  13. The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vishwajeet

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing

  14. Problems Accompanied Individuals with Learning Disability and Its Relationship to Gender and Family Economic Status Variables in a Jordanian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between problems that accompany individuals with learning disability and the variables of gender and family economic status for a selected sample of Jordanians. The sample of the study, which consisted of (239) male and female students, was chosen randomly. To achieve this aim, the…

  15. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  16. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  17. Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

  18. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  19. Life Management: Moving Out! Solving Practical Problems for Independent Living. Utah Home Economics and Family Life Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This guide, which has been developed for Utah's home economics and family life education program, contains materials for use in teaching a life management course emphasizing the problem-solving skills required for independent living. Discussed first are the assumptions underlying the curriculum, development of the guide, and suggestions for its…

  20. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  1. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Ddamulira, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty—in which most of the children represented in this study live—addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning. PMID:26146601

  2. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies. PMID:26289736

  3. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

  4. Economic insecurity and access to the social safety net among Latino farmworker families.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Yolanda C; Scott, Jennifer L; Lopez, Olivia

    2014-04-01

    Farmworkers experience pervasive economic insecurity in part because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work and limited employment protections. Yet little is known about the adequacy of the social safety net in responding to farmworker needs. Using data from the 2005-2009 National Agricultural Workers Survey (N = 10,469), the current study analyzed predictors of social welfare participation among Latinos, who represent approximately 80 percent of all farmworkers. Nearly 95 percent are immigrants, although almost half of them have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Descriptive analyses showed that, even among farmworker households whose income fell below the poverty line or that were headed by legally documented individuals, social services use was very low. Logistic regression analyses revealed that degree of social integration influenced social welfare participation, controlling for education, poverty status, family composition, and employment characteristics. Latino farmworkers who were recent immigrants (that is, in the United States for less than five years) had significantly lower odds of access to social insurance and public assistance programs relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Low self-reported English ability significantly decreased access to most social insurance programs but not public assistance receipt. The findings indicate the need for social workers to engage in outreach efforts and policy advocacy to improve farmworkers access to social welfare. PMID:24855865

  5. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Ruben; Green, Olivia Odom; Shuster, William D

    2014-01-01

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, US municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utility discounts for installing green infrastructure. This study examined the hydrologic and economic efficacy of four such programs at the parcel scale: Cleveland (OH), Portland (OR), Fort Myers (FL), and Lynchburg (VA). Simulations were performed to model the reduction in stormwater runoff by implementing bioretention on a typical residential property according to extant administrative rules. The EPA National Stormwater Calculator was used to perform pre- vs post-retrofit comparisons and to demonstrate its ease of use for possible use by other cities in utility planning. Although surface slope, soil type and infiltration rate, impervious area, and bioretention parameters were different across cities, our results suggest that modeled runoff volume was most sensitive to percent of total impervious area that drained to the bioretention cell, with soil type the next most important factor. Findings also indicate a persistent gap between the percentage of annual runoff reduced and the percentage of fee reduced. PMID:25500463

  6. Contraceptive usage, fertility and family structure in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, J

    1981-01-01

    The principal objective of the study reported on in this article, was to find out if nuclearization of the family influenced fertility and contraceptive usage. Earlier studies in this area had been conflicting with some suggesting no relationship, others a decrease and at least 1 an increase in fertility levels. This study was also designed to uncover the causal dynamics of a possible linkage between the 2 variables. Controlling for length of marriage, the study results show no significant difference in fertility between nuclear and non-nuclear family structures. The validity of the conventional definition of the 2 concepts in the context of traditional societies, like Pakistan, is questioned. As a result, a tentative measure of functional extendedness is developed which takes into account patterns of mutual visitation, services, decision making and commitments within the kinship network. The tool still needs validation but initial findings show that a low level of "extendedness" is associated with high fertility. This may be due to the fact that such families are less exposed to the influence of fertility controlling individuals within the kinship network. The study reaches a number of negative findings, significant for those who expect substantial demographic dividends from social change. Results show that urbanization decreases child mortality but not fertility; that the association between education and fertility is consistent but slight; that husband's dominance is associated both positively and negatively with fertility, depending on length of marriage. Husband-wife communication does not appear to be a consequential factor and a "fatalistic" outlook has no clear relationship with fertility. Moderate but consistent falls in fertility were associated with an increase in visits to friends and relatives, which again highlights the importance of social networks. Findings indicate that, despicte the existance of a nationally administered and active family planning

  7. Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J. D.; Nwachukwu, J. C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K. W.; LoGrasso, P. V.

    2012-12-05

    c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

  8. Family economic strengthening and mental health functioning of caregivers for AIDS-affected children in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many extended families assume the role of caregivers for children orphaned by AIDS (AIDS-affected children). The economic and psychological stress ensued from caregiving duties often predispose caregivers to poor mental health outcomes. Yet, very few studies exist on effective interventions to support these caregivers. Using data from a randomized controlled trial called Suubi-Maka (N = 346), this paper examines whether a family economic strengthening intervention among families caring for AIDS-affected children (ages 12–14) in Uganda would improve the primary caregivers’ mental health functioning. The Suubi-Maka study comprised of a control condition (n = 167) receiving usual care for AIDS-affected children, and a treatment condition (n = 179) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention, including matched savings accounts, and financial planning and management training to incentivize families to save money for education and/or family-level income generating projects. This paper uses data from baseline/pre-intervention (wave 1) interviews with caregivers and 12-month post-intervention initiation (wave 2). The caregiver’s mental health measure adapted from previous studies in sub- Saharan Africa had an internal consistency of .88 at wave 1 and .90 at wave 2. At baseline, the two study groups did not significantly differ on caregiver’s mental health functioning. However, at 12-month follow-up, multiple regression analysis located significant differences between the two study groups on mental health functioning. Specifically, following the intervention, caregivers in the treatment condition reported positive improvements on their mental health functioning, especially in the symptom areas of obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism. Findings point to a need for programs and policies aimed at supporting caregivers of AIDS-affected children to begin to consider incorporating family

  9. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  10. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  11. Different effects of economic and structural performance indexes on model construction of structural topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, G. L.; Sui, Y. K.

    2015-10-01

    The objective and constraint functions related to structural optimization designs are classified into economic and performance indexes in this paper. The influences of their different roles in model construction of structural topology optimization are also discussed. Furthermore, two structural topology optimization models, optimizing a performance index under the limitation of an economic index, represented by the minimum compliance with a volume constraint (MCVC) model, and optimizing an economic index under the limitation of a performance index, represented by the minimum weight with a displacement constraint (MWDC) model, are presented. Based on a comparison of numerical example results, the conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) under the same external loading and displacement performance conditions, the results of the MWDC model are almost equal to those of the MCVC model; (2) the MWDC model overcomes the difficulties and shortcomings of the MCVC model; this makes the MWDC model more feasible in model construction; (3) constructing a model of minimizing an economic index under the limitations of performance indexes is better at meeting the needs of practical engineering problems and completely satisfies safety and economic requirements in mechanical engineering, which have remained unchanged since the early days of mechanical engineering.

  12. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  13. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  14. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  15. Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

  16. Effects of Changed Family Structures on Children: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D., Ed.; And Others

    Current changes in the American nuclear family, the impact of changes in family structure on children, and a rationale for day care services are delineated in this literature review. The family modifications examined are (1) divorce, (2) remarriage, (3) single parenting, (4) father absence, (5) teenage parenting, and (6) extended families.…

  17. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  18. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  19. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  20. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

  1. Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

  2. Crystal Structure of a Rhomboid Family Intramembrane Protease.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Y.; Zhang, Y.; Ha, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli GlpG is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the widespread rhomboid protease family. Rhomboid proteases, like site-2 protease (S2P) and {gamma}-secretase, are unique in that they cleave the transmembrane domain of other membrane proteins. Here we describe the 2.1 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the GlpG core domain. This structure contains six transmembrane segments. Residues previously shown to be involved in catalysis, including a Ser-His dyad, and several water molecules are found at the protein interior at a depth below the membrane surface. This putative active site is accessible by substrate through a large 'V-shaped' opening that faces laterally towards the lipid, but is blocked by a half-submerged loop structure. These observations indicate that, in intramembrane proteolysis, the scission of peptide bonds takes place within the hydrophobic environment of the membrane bilayer. The crystal structure also suggests a gating mechanism for GlpG that controls substrate access to its hydrophilic active site.

  3. National and Local Economic Structures: Conflicting Views of Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    1992-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two economic views, political economy and neoclassical economics, as they pertain to the development of human capital and education in rural areas. The concluding discussion draws implications for rural educators. (Author/KS)

  4. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

  5. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  6. The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

  7. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  8. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  9. All in the Family? The Structure and Meaning of Family Life among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtiainen, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore young people's everyday family life with special reference to the use of time. First, we ask what kinds of activities young people engage in with their families, what kinds of families spend most time together, and whether this has changed over time. These analyses were based on two surveys conducted in the…

  10. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113