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Sample records for family structure economic

  1. Family structure, economic status, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Boggess, S

    1998-01-01

    "This study examines the effect of family structure on high school graduation by race and gender using data from the first twenty-one waves of the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics and recently available retrospective marital histories.... The analysis tests the hypothesis that the negative effect on educational attainment often associated with living in a mother-only or stepfather family stems primarily from the reduced level of economic resources available to these households. Empirical findings indicate that living with a widowed, divorced, or separated mother has little or no effect on educational attainment once we control for economic status. However, living in a stepfather family appears to have a persistent negative effect on high school graduation rates." PMID:12293834

  2. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  3. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. PMID:26699446

  4. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  5. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  6. Family Support and Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines the interrelationship of sustainable community economic strategies and sustainable family units. The introductory section of the report consists of one article, "Integrating Community Development and Family Support." The second section, "Community Building: A Movement is Afoot,"…

  7. How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and

  8. How Do Families Manage Their Economic Hardship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eunyoung; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances, this study examined how families manage their economic hardship. A conceptual model was developed based on risk management theory and the permanent income hypothesis. About half of families used credit and about a third used their own savings to make up the difference between income and…

  9. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  10. [Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Hou, W

    1985-07-29

    This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

  11. Management and Family Economics Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This document contains 73 performance-based modules for student use in high school home management and family economics courses. Each module is composed of an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a student self-check, recommended references, and an evaluator's final

  12. Management and Family Economics Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This document contains 73 performance-based modules for student use in high school home management and family economics courses. Each module is composed of an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a student self-check, recommended references, and an evaluator's final…

  13. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, Modupe M.; Irabor, Achiaka E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results The somatising patients were mostly females (70%), with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family) was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04). Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039). Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042) and more conflicts (p = 0.019) in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients. PMID:26245602

  14. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

  15. Family Stability in the Context of Economic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odita, Florence C.; Janssens, Mary Ann

    1977-01-01

    This review is aimed at highlighting the impact of economic deprivation on the family, the nucleus of any social system. The low income families receiving "aid for families of the dependent children" (AFDC) are the focus. (Author)

  16. Children's Mental Health in Times of Economic Recession: Replication and Extension of the Family Economic Stress Model in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solantaus, Tytti; Leinonen, Jenni; Punam Ki, Raija-Leena

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation…

  17. Vanishing Dreams: The Economic Plight of America's Young Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

    This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1990 with that of young families in the 1970s and 1980s. The report documents falling incomes and growing poverty among young families, factors underlying young families' economic…

  18. The Economic Status of the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.

    This paper describes the economic status of the African American family in Cleveland (Ohio) and in the United states as a whole and describes a model of interactions of social forces and economic factors that have influenced the declining earnings of African American families. The proportion of African American families in poverty in the United

  19. Vanishing Dreams: The Growing Economic Plight of America's Young Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; And Others

    This report describes the current status of families headed by persons under age 30, and compares the economic well-being of the current generation of young families in 1986 with that of the preceding generation in 1973. An analysis of the widening gaps between young families with and without children, between young families headed by persons with…

  20. Economic Impact of Advanced Pediatric Cancer on Families

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Kira; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Russ; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. Objectives To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent or non-responsive cancer at three children’s hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. Results Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child’s illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child’s illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses due to work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P=0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously non-poor families fell from above to below the 200% FPL. Conclusion The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:23870843

  1. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;

  2. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  3. Immigrant Economic Adjustment and Family Organization: The Cuban Success Story Reexamined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lisandro

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the economic adjustment of Cuban immigrants in the United States at the household level. Structure of the family, with the particular contributions of women and older members, is key to successful adjustment. (ETS)

  4. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  5. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  6. Family economic resources in the post-reform era.

    PubMed

    Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

  7. Ethics Education in Family and Consumer Economics: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Audrey L.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the conceptual frameworks of consequentialist and nonconsequentialist ethics as examples of two common and competing moral perspectives. Suggests possibilities for applications of ethics to issues that are common in consumer and family economics curricula. (Author/JOW)

  8. Vocational Home Economics Education: Family Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawatzky, Joyce

    Intended for use by vocational home economics teachers in grades 11 and 12, this curriculum guide provides preparation for students to assume the roles of homemakers and wage earners. The seven sections included are subdivided into two or more units and consist of the following topics: (1) career planning, which also encompasses job search methods…

  9. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  10. Progress in measuring family spillover effects for economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tilford, J Mick; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-04-01

    Despite considerable progress in measuring family spillover effects for economic evaluations, much work remains. This editorial describes recent advances in the field and identifies areas for future research. In particular, we point out the need to clarify the potential for double-counting from including spillover effects related to caregiver time and spillover effects related to family quality of life outcomes in Reference Case analyses. We believe that research on family spillover effects has the potential to increase interest in the field of economic evaluation and its use as a tool for decision making. PMID:25544021

  11. Effects of migration on family structure.

    PubMed

    Pekin, H

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the situation and problems of migration on family structure, with emphasis on family reunification. The study is based on conditions and practices in Western Europe and Mediterranean countries relating to temporary labor migration. Most migrant workers have no intention of settling permanently and return to their country within a few years. The International Labour Office estimated in 1974 that at least 1/2 the migrant workers in Western Europe live without their families. Generally, migrants send for their families only when they are employed, earning adequate wages, and have adequate housing. Some reasons why migrants live apart from their families include 1) the receiving country discourages family immigration because it does not coincide with the economic necessities of migration policy and 2) some sending countries discourage it to ensure that the migrant worker returns to his own country. The main danger arising from family separation is that it frequently leads to the break up of the family. The leading European authorities recognize as a fundamental right the freedom of a migrant worker and his family to lead a normal family life in the receiving country. The author outlines the conditions for admission for residence and employment of migrant spouses and children for the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom. All countries require that the head be in regular employment for some time and be able to provide his family with suitable housing. Other problems concerning the arrival of migrant spouses and children include 1) acquiring employment and social information and counseling, 2) education of children, 3) obtaining vocational training and adaptation and 4) achieving entitlement to social security benefits. The effects of migration in the family context in sending countries include 1) providing activities for migrants to maintain cultural links with their countries of origin and 2) acquiring the nationality of the receiving countries. Countries should facilitate the admission to employment of migrant spouses and children, by maintaining provisions for the reuniting of families and imposing no limits on admission to residence; and 2) by overcome obstacles to admission to employment, by observing existing recommendations. In conclusion, governments should give family cohesion 1st priority, regardless of regulations. PMID:12315899

  12. Resolving School Problems with Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy I.

    1987-01-01

    This article clarifies basic assumptions, concepts, and practices associated with the structural family therapy approach. The applicability of this approach to school psychology practice is demonstrated through two case studies of families with differing family structures: an intact family and a single-parent family. (Author/LMO)

  13. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

  14. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  15. Basic Family Therapy Skills, II: Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figley, Charles R.; Nelson, Thorana S.

    1990-01-01

    Reports results of ratings of Structural Family Therapy skills important for beginning family therapists. Panel of experts (N=103) who practice and teach Structural Family Therapy rated 100 competencies in terms of importance. Discusses rationale for the approach and results in terms of importance of empirically based competencies for the practice…

  16. Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume III: Analyses of the First Six Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

    This volume focuses on the main issues to which the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was directed--the determinants of the changing economic fortunes of black and white families. The economic status of the families studied, patterns of transition, and changes in the structure of the families and their relationship to changes in economic activity are…

  17. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  18. President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates…

  19. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  20. President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates

  1. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    SciTech Connect

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  2. Management and Family Economics Student Modules. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This instructor's guide was designed to help teachers present a performance-based course in family management and economics to high school students. The guide contains a listing of the modules contained in the student modules with suggested levels and courses for teaching; additional learning experiences; lists of supplemental resources and

  3. Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

  4. Childhood Adultification in Economically Disadvantaged Families: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of childhood adultification and economic disadvantage derived from 5 longitudinal ethnographies of children and adolescents growing up in low-income families. Childhood adultification involves contextual, social, and developmental processes in which youth are prematurely, and often…

  5. Latinas without Work: Family, Occupational, and Economic Stress Following Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Gloria J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined stressors in family, occupational, and economic domains among 114 Latinas following job loss. Stressors from the occupational stress domain were the greatest source for these women. Women who valued the job they lost and who were older reported the highest level of occupational stress. (Author/BH)

  6. Management and Family Economics Student Modules. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    This instructor's guide was designed to help teachers present a performance-based course in family management and economics to high school students. The guide contains a listing of the modules contained in the student modules with suggested levels and courses for teaching; additional learning experiences; lists of supplemental resources and…

  7. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  8. The Structure and Content of Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevelev, V. V.; Shcherbakova, L. M.; Serdiukova, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the structure and content of economic education at the higher education level focusing on topics such as Kursk College of Trade and Economics, the components of the new content of economic education, the inclusion of personal computers, and upgrading qualifications of teachers. (CMK)

  9. Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at

  10. Discrimination, Sex Roles, and Changing Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giele, Janet Zollinger

    The problem of discrimination against families within the context of changing sex roles and the growing diversity of family structure is discussed in this paper. It begins with an analysis of underlying social trends, then focuses on sex discrimination and discrimination against different family types and concludes with an interpretation of…

  11. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  12. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  13. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships

  14. How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

  15. Symmetry Breaking in the Evolution of World Economic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yan, Guangle

    Over the centuries, world economic system and the corresponding economic structure have been in a state of continuous evolution. In this paper, through the empirical analysis on the evolution history of world economic structure, we show that the underlying driving force for the evolution of world economic structure is Technology Innovation. Specifically, we find that symmetry breakings not only emerge in the whole economic structure, but also take place in the local economic relation and economic status of inner countries along the long evolution history of world economic structure. We also elaborate the detailed mechanism of symmetry breaking of world economic structure. That is, in the evolution of world economic structure, all those countries participating in world economic open market are affected to varying degrees by symmetry breaking that is caused by technology innovation, which eventually determines current world economic structure with competitive countries evolving into economic centers and countries completely marginalized evolving into ‘singularities’ of world economic network.

  16. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  17. Four RNA families with functional transient structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5′ flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5′ UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All transient and dominant structures are mapped to our new alignments introduced here. PMID:25751035

  18. Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure.

    PubMed

    Samm, Algi; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Sisask, Merike; Klves, Kairi; Aasvee, Katrin; Vrnik, Airi

    2010-05-01

    Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren's preferences regarding intimate personal contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/2006' (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years completed the semi-structured questionnaire. The analyses included only adolescents living in households with at least one birth parent. The subjects were 4,389 schoolchildren (2,178 boys and 2,211 girls), who were divided into three groups based on: (1) suicidal thoughts, with or without depressive feelings; (2) depressive feelings; and (3) neither suicidal thoughts nor depressive feelings. Multinomial logistic regression was used. The proportion of depressive feelings increased with age for both boys and girls. Girls expressed depressive feelings more frequently than boys from ages 13 and 15 years, and suicidal thoughts from age 15 years. Self-reported satisfaction with relationships in the family reduced the likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. Good communication with the parents reduced the likelihood of suicidal thoughts in all age groups. Adolescents who were satisfied with their family relationships suffered less frequently from depressive feelings and suicidal thoughts. The best environment for an adolescent was a family with both birth parents. Of the adolescents in 'non-intact' families, those with a step-parent in the family showed suicidal thoughts more frequently than those in single-parent families. Associations between family-related variables and suicidal thoughts were significant even after adjusting for family economic deprivation score. PMID:19946721

  19. Combining Individual Psychodynamics with Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melito, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Presents integrative framework for combining central aspects of individual psychodynamics with structural family therapy in meaningful way. Explains how framework derives from developmental perspective. Presents case example to illustrate combined approach and demonstrate its utility. (Author/NB)

  20. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  1. Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

  2. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  3. Effects of Economic Hardship on Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Family Mediation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Camilla S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of 387 Midwestern families. Results showed that economic hardship negatively affected adolescent self-esteem and that this effect was primarily mediated through the parent-adolescent relationship. Supports other findings that…

  4. Family and Community Services. Module XII: The Family: Functions and Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrich, Beatrice

    This twelfth of 14 curriculum modules in the Family and Community Services Occupational Education Modules series deals with functions and structure of the family. Definitions of the family are compared, and students are helped to understand various forms, functions, and structures of families. The developmental stages of the family life cycle and…

  5. A Structural Family Systems Approach to Intervention in Cases of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.; Maynard, Peter E.

    1987-01-01

    Applies structural family systems perspective to clinical intervention in violent families. Describes structural family therapy techniques which were used with a multi-problem family whose symptoms included family violence. Discusses cooperation needed among researchers, therapists, and therapy trainers who would use a systems approach to analyze…

  6. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic…

  7. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  8. Quantum structure in economics: The Ellsberg paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    The expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions, as shown by the Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes. The popular explanation in terms of ambiguity aversion is not completely accepted. As a consequence, uncertainty is still problematical in economics. To overcome these difficulties a distinction between risk and ambiguity has been introduced which depends on the existence of a Kolmogorovian probabilistic structure modeling these uncertainties. On the other hand, evidence of everyday life suggests that context plays a fundamental role in human decisions under uncertainty. Moreover, it is well known from physics that any probabilistic structure modeling contextual interactions between entities structurally needs a non-Kolmogorovian framework admitting a quantum-like representation. For this reason, we have recently introduced a notion of contextual risk to mathematically capture situations in which ambiguity occurs. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a sphere model within our hidden measurement formalism which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a quantum conceptual layer in human thought which is superposed to the usually assumed classical logical layer, and conceptually supports the thesis of several authors suggesting the presence of quantum structure in economics and decision theory.

  9. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  10. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  11. The Effect of Economic Stability on Family Stability among Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Alisa C.

    2005-01-01

    The main rationale for defining two-parent families eligible for welfare was to keep families intact by eliminating an incentive for union dissolution. But there are other reasons for family instability, most notably women's reduced economic gain from marriage associated with having a chronically unemployed husband. This article explores the

  12. Consumer-Directed Supports: Economic, Health, and Social Outcomes for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses,…

  13. The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Flower, D R

    1996-01-01

    The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds. PMID:8761444

  14. Changing family structure and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Bae, H

    1987-12-01

    Rapid industrialization, adaptation of modern values, and rural-urban migration in Korea have led to the replacement of the extended family with the nuclear of conjugal family. In 1980, 13% of Korean households were 1-generational, 70% were 2-generational, 17% were 3-generational and less than 1% were 4-generational. This trend has had serious implications for the aged, who have become increasingly isolated from Korean society. Hindering the adaptation of the aged to modern society are their low educational level, rural concentration, low income, and high rate of female members. Adult children who are well educated and prosperous economically are most likely to refuse to take responsibility for aged parents. Since some 23% of the aged currently live alone, Korean society must assume some of the responsibility that has traditionally been accepted by family members. There is a need for systematic programming that takes into account the current sociodemographic circumstances of Korea's aged population. Incentives such as tax exemptions and aged care allowances should be considered to encourage children to take responsibility for their aged parents. To meet the needs of the growing number of aged who are disabled and without family support, the number of geriatric hospitals and institutions must be expanded. Also important are supplementary programs such as housekeeping services, meals on wheels, and day care. Although the expansion of social welfare programs and institutions for the aged is essential, they can not in themselves meet the emotional needs of the aged that have traditionally been served by family connectedness. PMID:12315151

  15. For Love "and" Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and…

  16. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  17. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  18. Economic woes mean cuts to family planning services.

    PubMed

    1991-07-01

    Due to budget cuts at the federal, state, and local levels, family planning clinics that rely in public funding are facing financial hardship. In 1980, the federal government provided $162 million for family planning under Title 10. But for 1991, the allocation was down to $140 million. Compared to 1980, there are 100 fewer government-funded clinics providing family planning. Many health clinics have simply ceased providing such services. The Community Family Planning Council in New York City is one of those organizations that has suffered severely from the cutbacks. Previously operating 12 family planning clinics, the council had no choice but to close 3 clinics that served about 10,000 low-income women, after the city's Human Resource Administration (HRA) cut $1 million from the council's budget. For 1992, HRA plans increase the cut to $2.3 million. The majority of the women affected are part of the "working poor," women who work for minimum wage. Family planners say that, in the long run, the consequences of the cutbacks will be more expensive for the city. Many women will have unwanted pregnancies, and many will be forced to quit their jobs to care for the baby, relying on public assistance and Medicaid. As the council has argued to city officials, family planning programs are cost effective. The council estimates that their programs prevent about 4500 pregnancies and 2000 abortions each year, which saves the city $15 million a year social services. Massive cutbacks also threaten family planning services in New Hampshire, where legislators where proposing to cut all funding. After pleas from family planners, the state is not looking at 45% reduction. A bright note has been California, where evidence to the cost-effectiveness of family planning convinced the governor to propose a $10 million increase for 1992. PMID:12284064

  19. Beyond Family Structure: The Family in Domestic Comedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, William; Olson, Beth M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines family relationships in domestic comedy; participants evaluated samples of 13 programs from a selection of popular shows during the period from 1950 to 1990. Spousal and parent-child relations were evaluated. The study yielded no support for the claim that family relations have deteriorated in the television family. Three tables present

  20. Resource Materials for Home Economics Education in Pennsylvania Schools. Home Management and Family Resources Book 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Continuing Education.

    The teacher directed guide presents resource materials for developing home economics curricula in Pennsylvania schools related to home management and family resources. Home management is described as the decision-making aspect of homemaking, requiring conscious planning, control, and evaluation of family resources to achieve satisfying family…

  1. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  2. The Development of Interpersonal Aggression during Adolescence: The Importance of Parents, Siblings, and Family Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shannon Tierney; Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Blozis, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling employed data from a longitudinal study of 451 sibling families to examine parents, siblings, and family economics as factors in individual differences in the developmental course of interpersonal aggression during adolescence. Findings suggest that individual change in interpersonal aggression during adolescence can…

  3. Rescuing the American Dream: Halting the Economic Freefall of Today's Young Families with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Arloc

    Since 1973, families headed by someone younger than 30 years of age have experienced a collapse in the value of their incomes, a surge in poverty, and an erosion of employer-provided health benefits. This report details the deep economic losses among young families with children and warns of consequences from these losses for young and old

  4. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

  5. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  6. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  7. Economic Distress and Intimate Violence: Testing Family Stress and Resources Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Greer Litton; Benson, Michael L.; DeMaris, Alfred A.; Van Wyk, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Tests hypotheses shaped by family stress and resource theories about the impact of household economic indicators on the risk of violence against women in intimate relationships. Measures of employment status, job conditions, and economic well-being for male and female partners are examined with logistic regression analyses as predictors of the…

  8. Helping Families Adjust to Economic Change. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejic, Denise M.

    A project was developed to gain more insight into family financial problems, to identify these problems, and to formulate educational strategies to deal with and help solve these problems. This project was conducted in three phases, which included community outreach, development of educational materials, and evaluation. Three communities with…

  9. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  10. A family of supersonic airplanes: Technical and economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, F. D.; Whitten, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    To improve the prospects for success in the market place, the family approach is essential to the design of future supersonic airplanes. The evolution from a basic supersonic airplane to a family could follow historic patterns, with one exception: substantial changes in passenger carrying capacity will be difficult by the conventional fuselage "doughnut" approach so successfully used on the cylindrical fuselage of subsonic airplanes. The primary reasons for this difference include the requirement for highly integrated "area ruled" configurations, to give the desired high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, and other physical limitations such as takeoff and landing rotation. A concept for a supersonic airplane family that could effectively solve the variable range and passenger capacity problem provides for modification of the fuselage cross section that makes it possible to build a family of three airplanes with four, five, and six abreast passenger seating. This is done by replacing or modifying portions of the fuselage. All airplanes share the same wing, engines, and major subsystems. Only small sections of the fuselage would be different, and aerodynamic efficiency need not be compromised.

  11. [Urbanization and family structures in Algeria (1948-1987)].

    PubMed

    Guetta, M

    1991-01-01

    This work, based on census data and survey results, argues that the apparent trend toward nuclear household forms in urban areas of Algeria after independence represented in fact not a convergence to a "modern" or "western" family structure but a temporary phase in the adjustment of migrant families to their new living conditions in the cities. Census data from the years 1948-87 indicate that the tendency toward nuclear households evident from 1954-66 did not continue thereafter. Since the 1970s, there has been an increase in the number of families per household, and the number has tended to stabilize at about the same level as in 1948. Increasing urbanization, contrary to expectations, has not caused a decline in extended families. Comparison of the distribution of household types in 1966, 1977, and 1983 shows that the differences between rural and urban proportions of each type of household declined regularly after 1966. During the entire period, Algeria's urban population increased primarily because of a massive influx of rural migrants. Data from a 1975-76 retrospective survey of urban household structures of migrants and nonmigrants conducted by the Algerian Association for Demographic, Economic, and Social Research indicated that less than 4% of nonmigrant vs. 7% of migrant households contained a single person. The proportion of nuclear households was about the same for migrants and nonmigrants of the same age and almost independent of the time of migration. The relative importance of extended households containing parents and their married children increased with the duration of the stay in the city. The general process of household composition revealed by the longitudinal study from the most recent to the most distant time periods corresponded to a structure of transformation of migrant families. The newest arrivals tended to live in single-person or nuclear households. After 10-15 years in the city, differences in household structure in similar age groups declined between rural migrants, migrants from other cities, and natives. In the years after 1966, the relative contribution of families of new migrants to urban growth tended to decline because of the already large size of the urban population, and consequently the tendency of new migrants to live in nuclear households had less weight in the overall structure of urban households. PMID:12285851

  12. The Effects of Family Structure and SES on Family Processes in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Investigates parent-adolescent relationships focusing on the effects of dyadic communication, family cohesion, family structure, and socioeconomic status on family conflict in three ethnic groups: African-American, Mexican-American, and Euro-American. Results showed three-year increases in family conflict in each group. Reports significant…

  13. Fathers, Mothers, and Family Structure: Family Trajectories, Parent Gender, and Adolescent Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Holly E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has neither fully examined family structure across the life course nor considered increasing variation in family types. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,318), I examine the influence of longitudinal measures across childhood of family structure duration and the number and timing of…

  14. The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

  15. Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

  16. Household Structure among Welfare Families: Correlates and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed multigeneration household structures among two national samples of welfare families. Results showed household structure differs among welfare families of different races and mother's life-cycle stages, although mother-with-children families predominate. Multigeneration households do not affect welfare mothers' probabiity of employment or…

  17. A Family Structure Approach to the Analysis of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuby, Richard G.

    A typological approach to the analysis of poverty, based on selected characteristics of family structure, is suggested since the family unit is a concrete or actual structure in society, and much of the research and many of the action programs of the war on poverty have implicitly invoked some concept of the family. The typology of family…

  18. Building social and economic capital: the family and medical savings accounts.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well-documented social, economic, and adaptive advantages for young children, adolescents, and adults, the traditional family in the West is in decline. A growing percentage of men and women choose not to be bound by the traditional moral and social expectations of marriage and family life. Adults are much more likely than in the past to live as sexually active singles, with a concomitant increase in forms of social isolation as well as in the number of children born outside of marriage. These social shifts are also connected to public policies that provide incentives for individuals to exit the family, leaving behind its social, capital, and economic resources. The individualistic character of the social-democratic egalitarian ideology that underlies the current dominant approaches to health care financing in Western Europe and much of North America, for example, is associated with a decline in family stability. Welfare entitlements, including state-based health care, have made it easier to exit the family, undermining the centrality of the family's core human relationships. This essay argues for the importance of recognizing the cardinal role and reality of the family and for the importance of family-based health care savings accounts for preserving family integrity, while also providing for sustainable long-term health care reform. PMID:23178331

  19. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  20. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  1. Family Structure and Approval Dependency in College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.

    1975-01-01

    Approval dependency in college females was studied as a function of birth order, family size, and sibling sex with control over sib age separation. The results indicated no significant contribution of the family structure variables to approval dependency. (Author)

  2. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-aged Husbands and Wives

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; Walker, Catie

    2011-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes to subsequent increase in depressive symptoms of husbands and wives after controlling for family economic hardship in late middle years. Consistent with stress-process theory, economic hardship influences depressive symptoms directly and indirectly through its influence on self-esteem. The results also provided evidence for the scar hypothesis which suggests that depression predicts subsequent level of self-esteem and form a reciprocal process between depressive symptoms and self-esteem over time. In sum, for both husbands and wives, our findings showed that depressive symptoms progress over the middle years through a self-perpetuating reciprocal process between self-esteem and depression initiated by early family economic hardship and through cross-spouse influences involving self-esteem and depressive symptoms. PMID:22577243

  3. Children from Disrupted Families as Adults: Family Structure, College Attendance and College Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ver Ploeg, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between family structure and 4-year college enrollment and completion. Uses 1980 High School and Beyond Sophomore cohort and its subsequent followup surveys. Finds that family-income differences can explain much of the differences in college attendance and completion rates between students from disrupted families and…

  4. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  5. Family Structure versus Family Relationships for Predicting to Substance Use/Abuse and Illegal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Study looked at sample of African-American adolescent males to determine the degree to which family structure (e.g., single parent vs. two-parent families) vs. the nature of the family relationships predict sons' involvement in substance use/abuse and illegal behavior. Of 33 relationships measures analyzed, 3 predicted the degree of recent…

  6. Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

  7. Families at the Century's Turn: The Troubling Economic Trends. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Discusses U.S. economic trends for the past century. Notes that distribution of wealth is more concentrated at top than is distribution of income, with income inequality growing worse in the 1990s. Maintains that wealth disparity explains achievement test score gaps between white and minority students. Presents proposals for asset-building,…

  8. Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

  9. Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

    1975-01-01

    The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

  10. Food Stamp Participation of Hired Farmworker Families. Agriculture Economic Report No. 403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie Whitener; Rowe, Gene

    The Food Stamp Program allows low-income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet through normal channels of trade. Because of the generally low income of hired farmworkers, food stamp assistance is an important addition to the economic and nutritional status of these workers and their families. This report presents a socioeconomic…

  11. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  12. Measuring the Economic Well-Being of Families and Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Linda

    This Kids Count report assembles some of the indicators that describe the economic environment of Minnesota children and families. The report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers at the city, county, and state levels, as well as community advocates, parents, and those who work with children. Section 1 of the report presents…

  13. Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Joel

    This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

  14. Economic Well-Being Following an Exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to trace poverty status and welfare use in five years following an exit from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Results show substantial diversity in economic well-being. Women who were working when they exited from AFDC do better, and, to a lesser extent so do those who were…

  15. Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

    The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

  16. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the

  17. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  18. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on

  19. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Well-Being among Asian Americans: Considering Gender and Nativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on…

  20. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l<2000 is bigger than that with l>2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  1. The Alba protein family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manish; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Nag, Shiladitya; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-05-01

    Alba family proteins are small, basic, dimeric nucleic acid-binding proteins, which are widely distributed in archaea and a number of eukaryotes. This family of proteins bears the distinct features of regulation through acetylation/deacetylation, hence named as acetylation lowers binding affinity (Alba). Alba family proteins bind DNA cooperatively with no apparent sequence specificity. Besides DNA, Alba proteins also interact with diverse RNA species and associate with ribonucleo-protein complexes. Initially, Alba proteins were recognized as chromosomal proteins and supposed to be involved in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and transcription repression. However, recent studies have shown increasing evidence of functional plasticity among Alba family of proteins that widely range from genome packaging and organization, transcriptional and translational regulation, RNA metabolism, and development and differentiation processes. In recent years, Alba family proteins have attracted growing interest due to their widespread occurrence in large number of organisms. Presence in multiple copies, functional crosstalk, differential binding affinity, and posttranslational modifications are some of the key factors that might regulate the biological functions of Alba family proteins. In this review article, we present an overview of the Alba family proteins, their salient features and emphasize their functional role in different organisms reported so far. PMID:26900088

  2. Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.W. |; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

  3. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. PMID:22446725

  4. Family Structure and Academic Skills among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…

  5. A Structural Approach to a Family with an Encopretic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andolfi, Maurizio

    1978-01-01

    This article describes brief therapy using a structural approach. During the course of therapy the encopretic behavior of a pre-adolescent boy was observed in relation to the interaction and structure of the family system. The presenting problem was analyzed as a sign of family dysfunction. (Author)

  6. Training the Person of the Therapist in Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aponte, Harry J.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Structural Family Therapy needs a training model that integrates the existential, human mutuality of the therapeutic relationship with its technical elements. Offers a theoretical foundation for training structural family therapists in the use of self, discusses a model for training, and gives a case example illustrating personal…

  7. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…

  8. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and

  9. Effects of economic hardship: Testing the family stress model over time.

    PubMed

    Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Donnellan, M Brent

    2016-02-01

    The current study evaluated connections between marital distress, harsh parenting, and child externalizing behaviors in line with predictions from the Family Stress Model (FSM). Prospective, longitudinal data came from 273 mothers, fathers, and children participating when the child was 2, between 3 and 5, and between 6 and 10 years old. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic hardship and economic pressure were assessed during toddlerhood, and parental emotional distress, couple conflict, and harsh parenting were collected during early childhood. Child externalizing behavior was assessed during both toddlerhood and middle childhood. Results were consistent with predictions from the FSM in that economic hardship led to economic pressure, which was associated with parental emotional distress and couple conflict. This conflict was associated with harsh parenting and child problem behavior. This pathway remained statistically significant controlling for externalizing behavior in toddlerhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551658

  10. The family in Romania: cultural and economic context and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Adriana; Butiu, Otilia

    2012-04-01

    The study of family structures, functioning, roles and values is fundamental in family therapist's activities for better understanding the psychological, cultural and social specificity of different clients and interventions. In this paper we describe the Romanian family and the family therapies which are available in Romania. We illustrate basic needs using demographic data and research available from Romania. The nuclear family remains dominant instead of other alternatives, the age of marriage is earlier than in western European countries and celibate and consensual living are exceptions or only for the transitional period before marriage. The role of marriage and childbirth within the marital setting is still important. The model of a single child appears increasingly common due to an improvement in financial resources and better living conditions. Relations with family of origin remain close. The difficulties for children with parents working in different countries raise problems and have implications for the extended family, educators and psychotherapists as well as mental health service providers. Family therapists should keep in mind the structure, function, role and values of the Romanian family for better understanding the issues and resources and use these accordingly in therapy. Policy-makers should be aware of the difficulties concerning availability and access to this therapeutic approach. PMID:22515463

  11. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  12. Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Degree to Which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

    To identify aspects of family living which were satisfying to residents of low income areas 84 families representative of the total population of an economically depressed rural area and 31 severely disadvantaged families were interviewed. Some findings were: (1) Approximately 87 percent of families living in the area and 74 percent of the…

  13. PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space

    PubMed Central

    Dessailly, Benot H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space. PMID:19523904

  14. Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer C; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2009-01-01

    The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood. PMID:22025928

  15. Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer C.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood. PMID:22025928

  16. Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

    2014-11-01

    The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncologa Peditrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054

  17. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has implications for the conceptual foundations of both economic theory and sustainable development.

  18. Cation Diffusion Facilitator family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Russell, David; Hayes, Kevin A; Pembroke, J Tony; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2015-05-22

    The Cation Diffusion Facilitators (CDFs) form a family of membrane-bound proteins capable of transporting zinc and other heavy metal ions. Involved in metal tolerance/resistance by efflux of ions, CDF proteins share a two-modular architecture consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) that protrudes into the cytoplasm. Discovery of a Zn²⁺ and Cd²⁺ CDF transporter from a marine bacterium Maricaulis maris that does not possess the CTD questions current perceptions regarding this family of proteins. This article describes a new, CTD-lacking subfamily of CDFs and our current knowledge about this family of proteins in the view of these findings. PMID:25896018

  19. Structural characterization of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family.

    PubMed

    Endicott, Jane A; Noble, Martin E M

    2013-08-01

    Structural studies of members of the CDK (cyclin-dependent protein kinase) family have made a significant contribution to our understanding of the regulation of protein kinases. The structure of monomeric unphosphorylated CDK2 was the first of an inactive protein kinase to be determined and, since then, structures of other members of the CDK family, alone, in complex with regulatory proteins and in differing phosphorylation states, have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating protein kinase activity. Recently, our knowledge of the structural biology of the CDK family has been extended by determination of structures for members of the transcriptional CDK and CDK-like kinase branches of the extended family. We include these recent structures in the present review and consider them in the light of current models for CDK activation and regulation. PMID:23863171

  20. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  1. Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

  2. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved

  3. Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biblarz, Timothy J.; Gottainer, Greg

    2000-01-01

    States that compared with children raised in single-mother families created by death of the father, children raised in divorced single-mother families have significantly lower levels of education, occupational status, and happiness as adults. Speculates that the contrasting positions in the social structure of different types of single-mother…

  4. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  5. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

  6. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's

  7. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  8. The Family and Family Structure Classification Redefined for the Current Times

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    The family is a basic unit of study in many medical and social science disciplines. Definitions of family have varied from country to country, and also within country. Because of this and the changing realities of the current times, there is a felt need for redefining the family and the common family structure types, for the purpose of study of the family as a factor in health and other variables of interest. A redefinition of a “family” has been proposed and various nuances of the definition are also discussed in detail. A classification scheme for the various types of family has also been put forward. A few exceptional case scenarios have been envisaged and their classification as per the new scheme is discussed, in a bid to clarify the classification scheme further. The proposed scheme should prove to be of use across various countries and cultures, for broadly classifying the family structure. The unique scenarios of particular cultures can be taken into account by defining region or culture-specific subtypes of the overall types of family structure. PMID:26664832

  9. The Structure of Galaxies. III. Two Structural Families of Ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2015-11-01

    Using isophotal radius correlations for a sample of Two Micron All Sky Survey ellipticals, we have constructed a series of template surface brightness profiles to describe the profile shapes of ellipticals as a function of luminosity. The templates are a smooth function of luminosity, yet are not adequately matched to any fitting function supporting the view that ellipticals are weakly nonhomologous with respect to structure. Through comparison to the templates, it is discovered that ellipticals are divided into two families: those well matched to the templates, and a second class of ellipticals with distinctly shallower profile slopes. We refer to this second type of ellipticals as D class, an old morphological designation acknowledging diffuse appearance on photographic material. D ellipticals cover the same range of luminosity, size, and kinematics as normal ellipticals, but maintain a signature of recent equal-mass dry mergers. We propose that normal ellipticals grow after an initial dissipation formation era by accretion of low-mass companions as outlined in hierarchical formation scenarios, while D ellipticals are the result of later equal-mass mergers producing shallow luminosity profiles.

  10. Structural analyses reveal two distinct families of nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Matthew J; Ealick, Steven E

    2002-01-01

    The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:11743878

  11. The Utility of Structural Family Therapy Nomenclature: Between-Clinician Agreement in the Conjoint Family Assessment Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Sean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explores the reliability of the categories used to describe family structure in structural family therapy. Five clinicians independently rated three initial conjoint family interviews. Results are discussed in terms of their demonstration of the utility of the structural nonmenclature, some conceptual problems in the structural nomenclature, and…

  12. Structures and Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Family

    PubMed Central

    Gaweska, Helena; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, polyamines, amino acids, and methylated lysine side chains in proteins. The enzymes have similar overall structures, with conserved FAD-binding domains and varied substrate-binding sites. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the catalytic reactions of these enzymes. The present review compares the structures of different members of the family and the various mechanistic proposals. PMID:22022344

  13. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  14. [GH10 Family of Glycoside Hydrolases: Structure and Evolutionary Connections].

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary connections were analyzed for endo-β-xylanases, which possess the GH10 family catalytic domains. A homology search yielded thrice as many proteins as are available from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Lateral gene transfer was shown to play an important role in evolution of bacterial proteins of the family, especially in the phyla Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Verrucomicrobia, 23 lateral transfers from organisms of other phyla were detected. Evolutionary relationships were observed between the GH10 family domains and domains with the TIM-barrel tertiary structure from several other glycosidase families. The GH39 family of glycoside hydrolases showed the closest relationship. Unclassified homologs were grouped into 12 novel families of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHL51-GHL62). PMID:27028821

  15. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  16. Family functioning and psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2002-12-01

    Using an indigenously developed measure of family functioning, the author examined the association between family functioning and adolescent adjustment in 1,519 Chinese adolescents. Results showed that family functioning was significantly related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, general psychiatric morbidity), school adjustment (perceived academic performance, satisfaction with academic performance, and school conduct), and problem behavior (delinquent and substance abuse behavior). Family functioning was generally more strongly related to measures of adolescent adjustment for adolescents with economic disadvantage than for adolescents without economic disadvantage. PMID:12495233

  17. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were

  18. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  19. A systematic review of the economic evidence for interventions for family carers of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Margaret; Forster, Anne; Healey, Andy; Patel, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the economic evidence for interventions aimed at family carers of stroke patients. Data sources: Searches (limited to those published in English since 1990) were performed in key databases along with hand searches of relevant papers. Review methods: Papers were restricted to studies including any economic data (broadly defined) for any intervention targeting carers explicitly or explicitly referring to a carer element, beyond involving carers in the care or intervention for patients (i.e. more than just carers being invited to observe an intervention targeted at the patient). Two reviewers independently screened full papers and extracted data using guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (cohort studies), the Delphi list (randomised controlled trials) and guidelines on economic quality from the British Medical Journal. Data were reviewed descriptively as meta analyses were inappropriate due to non-comparability of studies. Results: Ten papers were included in the review. These were heterogeneous in their design, intervention and economic analyses making comparison difficult. Only three of the ten papers included economic evaluations. All three reported that the intervention was less costly and had better or equivalent outcomes than the control comparator although two of these were based on the same intervention using the same dataset. Conclusion: There is some limited evidence that interventions for family carers of stroke patients are effective and cost effective. However, due to variation in the types of interventions examined, little can be concluded regarding implications for clinical practice. PMID:25758943

  20. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  1. The impact of urbanization on family structure: the experience of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hew Cheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that women and men encounter the processes of migration and urbanization in very gendered ways. It examines state development policies and their role in accelerating the pace of urbanization, Using material from a recently concluded study on single mothers in the lower socio-economic strata, this paper explores the impact of these wider processes on the structure of the family and women from this strata specifically. PMID:21853623

  2. Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical…

  3. Retention of Economics Principles by Undergraduates on Alternative Curricular Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel K. N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.; Taylor, Corrine H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the curricular structure of an economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material, while controlling for other relevant differences. They tested separately for theoretical or process comprehension and for graphical

  4. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  5. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    PubMed Central

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  6. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  7. EVALUATION OF FAMILY SERVICE PROGRAM. HOME ECONOMICS DIVISION OF COOPERATIVE EXTENSION, CLINTON COUNTY, NEW YORK. EXTENSION STUDY, 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.

    A STUDY OF THE FAMILY SERVICE PROGRAM OF THE CLINTON COUNTY, NEW YORK, DIVISION OF HOME ECONOMICS WAS MADE IN 1966 TO DETERMINE THE SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY GROUP PARTICIPANTS AND OF FAMILY SERVICE AIDES SERVING AS THEIR TEACHERS, AND TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION ON THE PARTICIPANTS. DATA WERE OBTAINED LARGELY FROM…

  8. Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

  9. Family Structure and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Does Family Structure Really Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; Avery, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed older adolescents (N=2,313) to examine the effects of family size, birth order, and sibling spacing and gender upon perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships. Using the analysis of techniques of past studies, significant associations were found for family size, birth order, and spacing, although the effect sizes were quite small.…

  10. Family structure instability, genetic sensitivity, and child well-being.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colter; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahar, Sara; Notterman, Daniel; Hobcraft, John

    2015-01-01

    The association between family structure instability and children's life chances is well documented, with children reared in stable, two-parent families experiencing more favorable outcomes than children in other family arrangements. This study examines father household entrances and exits, distinguishing between the entrance of a biological father and a social father and testing for interactions between family structure instability and children's age, gender, and genetic characteristics. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and focusing on changes in family structure by age (years 0-9), the authors show that father exits are associated with increases in children's antisocial behavior, a strong predictor of health and well-being in adulthood. The pattern for father entrances is more complicated, with entrances for the biological father being associated with lower antisocial behavior among boys and social father entrances being associated with higher antisocial behavior. Child's age does not moderate the association; however, genetic information in the models sharpens the findings substantially. PMID:26046228

  11. The inter-alpha-inhibitor family: from structure to regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Daveau, M

    1996-01-01

    Inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and related molecules, collectively referred to as the IalphaI family, are a group of plasma protease inhibitors. They display attractive features such as precursor polypeptides that give rise to mature chains with quite distinct fates and functions, and inter-chain glycosaminoglycan bonds within the various molecules. The discovery of an ever growing number of such molecules has raised pertinent questions about their pathophysiological functions. The knowledge of this family has long been structure-oriented, whereas the structure/function and structure/regulation relationships of the family members and their genes have been largely ignored. These relationships are now being elucidated in events such as gene transcription, precursor processing, changes in plasma protein levels in health and disease and binding capacities that involve hyaluronan as well as other plasma proteins as ligands. This review presents some recent progress made in these fields that paves the way for an understanding of the functions of IalphaI family members in vivo. Finally, given the wealth of heterogeneous, complicated and sometimes contradictory nomenclatures and acronyms currently in use for this family, a new, uniform, nomenclature is proposed for IalphaI family genes, precursor polypeptides and assembled proteins. PMID:8670091

  12. A Structural and Developmental Analysis of Symptomatic Adopted Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talen, Mary R.; Lehr, Maura L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the unique differences of 34 adoptive families from other family systems. Defines the context of the adopted child's symptoms and the families' characteristics. The relationship between adoption and the family's structure and development are analyzed. (Author/JAC)

  13. Association between family structure and food group intake in children

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

  14. An exploration of health, family and economic experiences of leprosy patients, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Heidarali; Javadi, Akbar; Naji, Sayedali

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to explore the life experiences of Iranian leprosy patients in health, family and economic dimensions. Mycobacterium leprae is responsible for leprosy, a type of chronic inflammatory disease that existed from ancient times, still hearing the name of leprosy creates an awful imagination of cutting the organ, blindness and isolation and it has still remained as a serious social problem. The patients are confronted with particular problems physically and mentally. The phenomenological tradition was used to gain knowledge of the leprosy patients lived experiences. Data analysis method was based on Colaizzi's approach. This is a qualitative research using purposeful sampling, interviewing the leprosy patients referring to a contagious diseases department of the Health Network of Nourabad Lorestan City. Data were collected by interviews those were analyzed in Colaizzi's Methods to extract the conceptual codes. Some concepts obtained from the analysis of data in the study such as physical, psychological, social, family, economic experiences, cultural beliefs of society, the context for tendency toward defect and disability and social stigma. These findings suggest that health care professionals should pay attention not only to leprosy patients to reduce their physical and psychological but also to the community and public culture to reduce the leprosy patients suffering from social stigma. The results of the present study can help us in a better understanding of all aspects of patients' lived experiences. PMID:24502149

  15. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an example of a poor country moving along a path toward strong sustainability. To this end, a sincere intervention at the social and natural capital along with economic growth is necessary. Poverty alleviation efforts should target the socio-economically deprived households by enriching their human capital. Since community based social structures, such as the forest user groups, are already setting an example of strong sustainability, such community based social capital initiatives should be encouraged by granting rights and other resources to augment further economic activities like harnessing hydropower that may eventually transform the socio-ecological-economic system.

  16. Polygynous Contexts, Family Structure, and Infant Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features, and has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared to monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny among 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in non-polygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child wellbeing. PMID:24402794

  17. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

  18. Family structure and the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A

    2012-01-01

    I examine whether the effect of parents' education on children's educational achievement and attainment varies by family structure and, if so, whether this can be explained by differential parenting practices. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that as parents' education increases, children in single mother families experience a lower boost in their achievement test scores, likelihood of attending any post-secondary schooling, likelihood of completing a 4-year college degree, and years of completed schooling relative to children living with both biological parents. Differences in parents' educational expectations, intergenerational closure, and children's involvement in structured leisure activities partially explain these status transmission differences by family structure. The findings imply that, among children with highly educated parents, children of single mothers are less likely to be highly educated themselves relative to children who grow up with both biological parents. PMID:23017695

  19. Genome Pool Strategy for Structural Coverage of Protein Families

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszewski, L.; Slabinski, L.; Wooley, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Lesley, S.A.; Wilson, I.A.; Godzik, A.

    2009-05-18

    Even closely homologous proteins often have different crystallization properties and propensities. This observation can be used to introduce an additional dimension into crystallization trials by simultaneous targeting multiple homologs in what we call a 'genome pool' strategy. We show that this strategy works because protein physicochemical properties correlated with crystallization success have a surprisingly broad distribution within most protein families. There are also easy and difficult families where this distribution is tilted in one direction. This leads to uneven structural coverage of protein families, with more easy ones solved. Increasing the size of the genome pool can improve chances of solving the difficult ones. In contrast, our analysis does not indicate that any specific genomes are easy or difficult. Finally, we show that the group of proteins with known 3D structures is systematically different from the general pool of known proteins and we assess the structural consequences of these differences.

  20. Stereodivergent and Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of the Helicascolide Family: A Rhodium-Catalyzed Atom-Economical Lactonization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Haydl, Alexander M; Berthold, Dino; Spreider, Pierre A; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Natural products of polyketide origin, in particular small-sized lactones often possess a very broad range of impressive biological activities. An efficient way to demonstrate the concise access to six-membered lactones was emphasized as part of a stereodivergent and protecting-group-free synthesis of all three representatives of the helicascolide family. This strategy features an atom-economical and highly diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed "head-to-tail" lactonization by an intramolecular addition of ω-allenyl-substituted carboxylic acids to terminal allenes, including the selective construction of a new stereocenter in the newly formed core structures. The excellent selectivities with which the helicascolide precursors were obtained are remarkable, thus resulting in an expeditious and highly efficient natural product synthesis. PMID:27043137

  1. The Garcia Family: Using a Structural Systems Approach with an Alcohol-Dependent Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wycoff, Susan; Cameron, Susan Chavez

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of sociocultural and environmental stressors on alcohol abuse and dependence in the Hispanic family system. Given the cultural values of this population, a structural systems approach is proposed as an adjunct to other forms of treatment during the recovery process. Presents portions of an actual case study involving a…

  2. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  3. Adolescent risk behaviours and mealtime routines: does family meal frequency alter the association between family structure and risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-02-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were modelled using Multilevel Binomial modelling for six risk behaviour outcomes. Significantly more children from 'both parent' families ate a family meal every day and fewer 'hardly ever or never' did. Family structure was associated with boys' and girls' smoking, drinking, cannabis use and having sex and with girls' fighting. Frequency of eating a family meal was associated with a reduced likelihood of all risk behaviours among girls and all but fighting and having sex among boys. Eating a family meal regularly nullified the association between family structure and drinking alcohol for boys and girls and cannabis use for boys and reduced the effect size of alternative family structures on boys having sex and smoking. The family meal, associated with a reduced likelihood of many adolescent risk behaviours, reduces or eliminates the association with family structure and may therefore help to overcome inequalities in adolescent risk behaviours. PMID:21900407

  4. Input-output models for regional demographic-economic analysis: some structural comparisons.

    PubMed

    Batey Pwj

    1985-01-01

    "In this paper is presented a comparative survey of the many ways in which a static Leontief input-output model can be extended to include demographic-economic relationships. A family of ten input-output models is identified, with individual members defined according to their representation of household income, employment, and unemployment. Miyazawa's fundamental equation of income formation is generalised and used to establish structural relationships between the models, as reflected in income and employment impact-multipliers. Although the emphasis of the paper is theoretical, examples are given of the empirical application of existing models." PMID:12313421

  5. Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

  6. Family Structure: Its Effects on Adolescent Attachment and Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Anthony J.; Edwards, Anne E.; Bauer, Karlin S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between family structure, attachment, and identity formation. Results partially support the hypotheses and indicate that unresolved spouse conflict is associated with low levels of attachment in adolescents and attachment to father is linked to identity achieved and the diffused identity status. Findings support a link…

  7. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  8. Divorce, Family Structure, and the Academic Success of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William

    The goal of this book is to examine the relationship between parental family structure, especially parental divorce and/or remarriage, and the academic achievement of children. Much has been written about the need to raise the academic achievement of students from minority backgrounds. However, minority is often defined in terms of skin color and…

  9. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N=407, 54% female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

  10. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  11. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  12. Structural basis for activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjing; Han, Jianming; Zhang, Yuebin; Cao, Fang; Liu, Zhijun; Li, Shuai; Wu, Jian; Hu, Chunyi; Wang, Yan; Shuai, Jin; Chen, Juan; Cao, Liaoran; Li, Dangsheng; Shi, Pan; Tian, Changlin; Zhang, Jian; Dou, Yali; Li, Guohui; Chen, Yong; Lei, Ming

    2016-02-25

    The mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) family of proteins (including MLL1-MLL4, SET1A and SET1B) specifically methylate histone 3 Lys4, and have pivotal roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in haematopoiesis and development. The methyltransferase activity of MLL1, by itself severely compromised, is stimulated by the three conserved factors WDR5, RBBP5 and ASH2L, which are shared by all MLL family complexes. However, the molecular mechanism of how these factors regulate the activity of MLL proteins still remains poorly understood. Here we show that a minimized human RBBP5-ASH2L heterodimer is the structural unit that interacts with and activates all MLL family histone methyltransferases. Our structural, biochemical and computational analyses reveal a two-step activation mechanism of MLL family proteins. These findings provide unprecedented insights into the common theme and functional plasticity in complex assembly and activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases, and also suggest a universal regulation mechanism for most histone methyltransferases. PMID:26886794

  13. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6-10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth. PMID:26137429

  14. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6–10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth. PMID:26137429

  15. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  16. Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface reflectance properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an (eP,aP) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ∼180° with ejecta velocity vej ∼ 285m /s . The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of δaej = 0.005 ± 0.008AU , which constitutes only a small fraction (7%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to the Yarkovsky effect. The age of the family is inferred from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 300-50+60 My. Objects in a smaller cluster that overlaps the large Hertha family in proper orbital element space have reflectance properties more consistent with the X-type (135) Hertha than the surrounding S-type family. These objects form a distinct Yarkovsky "V" signature in (aP, H) space, consistent with a more recent collision, which appears to also be dynamically connected to (135) Hertha. Production of two families with different reflectance properties from a single parent could result from the partial differentiation of the parent, shock darkening effects, or other causes. The Nysa-Polana complex also contains a low-albedo family associated with (142) Polana (called "New Polana" by Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 283-297)), and two other low-albedo families associated with (495) Eulalia. The second Eulalia family may be a high-aP , low-eP , low-iP component of the first Eulalia family-forming collision, possibly explained by an anisotropic ejection field.

  17. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in the consequences of population in both developed and developing countries. In general cross national studies have failed to provide rough and stylized depiction of the consequences of rapid population growth, unless the absence of significant results is itself the result. PMID:12179534

  18. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males. PMID:26307026

  19. Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity in Xanthine Oxidase Family Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the 2-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

  20. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…

  1. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages

  2. A zeolite family with expanding structural complexity and embedded isoreticular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Shin, Jiho; Greenaway, Alex G.; Min, Jung Gi; Su, Jie; Choi, Hyun June; Liu, Leifeng; Cox, Paul A.; Hong, Suk Bong; Wright, Paul A.; Zou, Xiaodong

    2015-08-01

    The prediction and synthesis of new crystal structures enable the targeted preparation of materials with desired properties. Among porous solids, this has been achieved for metal-organic frameworks, but not for the more widely applicable zeolites, where new materials are usually discovered using exploratory synthesis. Although millions of hypothetical zeolite structures have been proposed, not enough is known about their synthesis mechanism to allow any given structure to be prepared. Here we present an approach that combines structure solution with structure prediction, and inspires the targeted synthesis of new super-complex zeolites. We used electron diffraction to identify a family of related structures and to discover the structural `coding' within them. This allowed us to determine the complex, and previously unknown, structure of zeolite ZSM-25 (ref. 8), which has the largest unit-cell volume of all known zeolites (91,554 cubic ångströms) and demonstrates selective CO2 adsorption. By extending our method, we were able to predict other members of a family of increasingly complex, but structurally related, zeolites and to synthesize two more-complex zeolites in the family, PST-20 and PST-25, with much larger cell volumes (166,988 and 275,178 cubic ångströms, respectively) and similar selective adsorption properties. Members of this family have the same symmetry, but an expanding unit cell, and are related by hitherto unrecognized structural principles; we call these family members embedded isoreticular zeolite structures.

  3. Childhood-Onset Essential Hypertension and the Family Structure.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH. PMID:26435293

  4. Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ching Man

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

  5. A family of solution algorithms for nonlinear structural analysis based on relaxation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    A family of hierarchical algorithms for nonlinear structural equations are presented. The algorithms are based on the Davidenko-Branin type homotopy and shown to yield consistent hierarchical perturbation equations. The algorithms appear to be particularly suitable to problems involving bifurcation and limit point calculations. An important by-product of the algorithms is that it provides a systematic and economical means for computing the stepsize at each iteration stage when a Newton-like method is employed to solve the systems of equations. Some sample problems are provided to illustrate the characteristics of the algorithms.

  6. Structural and Energetic Characterization of the Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Parra, R Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U

    2015-12-01

    Ankyrin repeat containing proteins are one of the most abundant solenoid folds. Usually implicated in specific protein-protein interactions, these proteins are readily amenable for design, with promising biotechnological and biomedical applications. Studying repeat protein families presents technical challenges due to the high sequence divergence among the repeating units. We developed and applied a systematic method to consistently identify and annotate the structural repetitions over the members of the complete Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family, with increased sensitivity over previous studies. We statistically characterized the number of repeats, the folding of the repeat-arrays, their structural variations, insertions and deletions. An energetic analysis of the local frustration patterns reveal the basic features underlying fold stability and its relation to the functional binding regions. We found a strong linear correlation between the conservation of the energetic features in the repeat arrays and their sequence variations, and discuss new insights into the organization and function of these ubiquitous proteins. PMID:26691182

  7. Structural and Energetic Characterization of the Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2015-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat containing proteins are one of the most abundant solenoid folds. Usually implicated in specific protein-protein interactions, these proteins are readily amenable for design, with promising biotechnological and biomedical applications. Studying repeat protein families presents technical challenges due to the high sequence divergence among the repeating units. We developed and applied a systematic method to consistently identify and annotate the structural repetitions over the members of the complete Ankyrin Repeat Protein Family, with increased sensitivity over previous studies. We statistically characterized the number of repeats, the folding of the repeat-arrays, their structural variations, insertions and deletions. An energetic analysis of the local frustration patterns reveal the basic features underlying fold stability and its relation to the functional binding regions. We found a strong linear correlation between the conservation of the energetic features in the repeat arrays and their sequence variations, and discuss new insights into the organization and function of these ubiquitous proteins. PMID:26691182

  8. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient. PMID:25994545

  9. The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vishwajeet

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

  10. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  11. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  12. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10years (age=10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The

  13. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field

  14. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Ddamulira, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty—in which most of the children represented in this study live—addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning. PMID:26146601

  15. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2004-02-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation. PMID:15074125

  16. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  17. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Ruben; Green, Olivia Odom; Shuster, William D

    2014-01-01

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, US municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utility discounts for installing green infrastructure. This study examined the hydrologic and economic efficacy of four such programs at the parcel scale: Cleveland (OH), Portland (OR), Fort Myers (FL), and Lynchburg (VA). Simulations were performed to model the reduction in stormwater runoff by implementing bioretention on a typical residential property according to extant administrative rules. The EPA National Stormwater Calculator was used to perform pre- vs post-retrofit comparisons and to demonstrate its ease of use for possible use by other cities in utility planning. Although surface slope, soil type and infiltration rate, impervious area, and bioretention parameters were different across cities, our results suggest that modeled runoff volume was most sensitive to percent of total impervious area that drained to the bioretention cell, with soil type the next most important factor. Findings also indicate a persistent gap between the percentage of annual runoff reduced and the percentage of fee reduced. PMID:25500463

  18. Sequence, Structure, and Evolution of Cellulases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 48*

    PubMed Central

    Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels (1). Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ω-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for “true” cellulases. PMID:23055526

  19. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  20. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  1. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  2. Different effects of economic and structural performance indexes on model construction of structural topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, G. L.; Sui, Y. K.

    2015-10-01

    The objective and constraint functions related to structural optimization designs are classified into economic and performance indexes in this paper. The influences of their different roles in model construction of structural topology optimization are also discussed. Furthermore, two structural topology optimization models, optimizing a performance index under the limitation of an economic index, represented by the minimum compliance with a volume constraint (MCVC) model, and optimizing an economic index under the limitation of a performance index, represented by the minimum weight with a displacement constraint (MWDC) model, are presented. Based on a comparison of numerical example results, the conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) under the same external loading and displacement performance conditions, the results of the MWDC model are almost equal to those of the MCVC model; (2) the MWDC model overcomes the difficulties and shortcomings of the MCVC model; this makes the MWDC model more feasible in model construction; (3) constructing a model of minimizing an economic index under the limitations of performance indexes is better at meeting the needs of practical engineering problems and completely satisfies safety and economic requirements in mechanical engineering, which have remained unchanged since the early days of mechanical engineering.

  3. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  4. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load uses different current and future as well as alternative price and energy policy scenarios, four years of 15-minute interval data on system and renewable load as well as an unpreceded degree of detail on plant cost structures and technical characteristics. I find that the costs of electricity generation of cleaner, flexible thermal plants are positively effected by the transition. The competitiveness of inflexible baseload plants falls as they become more expensive than renewables. Lignite and nuclear power turns out to be unsuited to supplement renewable energy: a future exit reduces the average costs of electricity generation from conventional plants.

  5. Modeling extended twin family data II: power associated with different family structures.

    PubMed

    Medland, Sarah E; Keller, Matthew C

    2009-02-01

    Modeling the data from extended twin pedigrees allows the estimation of increasing complex covariance relationships in which the effects of cultural transmission, nonrandom mating and genotype x environment covariation can be incorporated. However, the power to detect these effects in existing data sets has not yet been examined. The present study examined the effects that different family structures (i.e., the ratio of MZ to DZ families and the importance of cousins vs. avuncular relatives) have on statistical power. In addition, we examined the power to detect genetic and environmental effects within the context of two large data sets (VA30K and the OZVA60K). We found that power to detect additive genetic and cultural transmission effects were maximized by over sampling MZ families. In terms of ascertainment, there was little difference in power between samples that had focused on recruiting a third generation (the children of twins) versus those that had focused on recruiting the siblings of the twins. In addition, we examined the power to detect additive and dominant genetic effects, cultural transmission and assortative mating in the existing VA30K and OZVA60K samples, under two different models of mating: phenotypic assortment and social homogamy. There was nearly 100% power to detect assortative mating and cultural transmission, against a background of small additive and dominant genetic and familial environmental effects. In addition, the power to detect additive or dominant genetic effects quickly asymptoted, so that there was almost 100% power to detect effects explaining 20% or more of the total variance. These results demonstrate that the Cascade model has sufficient power to detect parameters of interest in existing datasets. Mx scripts are available from www.vipbg.vcu.edu/~sarahme/cascade. PMID:19210176

  6. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  7. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  8. Structural features of compounds of the sillenite family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikova, T. I.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Bolotina, N. B.; Rybakov, V. B.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Mar'ina, E. A.

    2014-05-01

    It is shown that the real composition and structure of phases belonging to the sillenite family can be determined using a complex of techniques (diffraction methods, vibrational and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis) with a subsequent crystal-chemical analysis of the data. Refined compositions are presented for phases of nominal composition Bi24 M 2O40 with M = Zn2+, Al3+, Ga3+, Fe3+, Si4+, Ti4+, Mn4+, and P5+, which demonstrate types and concentrations of point defects as functions of the M type.

  9. Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J.D.; Nwachukwu, J.C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K.W.; LoGrasso, P.V.

    2012-12-05

    c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

  10. Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time.

    PubMed

    Simon, Melissa A; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J; Foucar, Charles E; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M; Emanuel, Linda L

    2013-10-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry's most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness-poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible "path toward economic resilience" (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program's appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system's most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

  11. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible “path toward economic resilience” (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program’s appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system’s most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

  12. Training Home Economics Program Assistants to Work with Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouls, Janalyce; And Others

    These materials are designed to present ideas for developing a program for training nonprofessional workers to help low income families to raise their aspirations, develop pride in homemaking, improve homemaking skills, have a more satisfying home and family life, improve the health of family members, gain knowledge to help children develop, and…

  13. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  14. Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

  15. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

  16. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  17. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  18. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  19. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which

  20. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  1. An Analysis of Family Role Structures and Interactions in Commercial Television. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mary; And Others

    This report describes the results of a study of family role structures and family role interaction patterns of U.S. television families appearing during prime time and Saturday morning programs for the 1976-1977 season. The content analysis constitutes a role-by-behavior description of verbal interaction among television families, the coding unit

  2. Perceived Adjustments of Parents and Children: Variations by Family Structure, Race, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Mark A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined family structure, race, and gender differences in parent and child adjustment among 82 African Americans and 415 whites living in stepfather families and 394 African Americans and 2,312 whites living in intact families. Found that African-American stepfather families were generally similar in parent and child adjustment to white…

  3. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  4. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  5. Stability and Change in Family Structure and Maternal Health Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Sarah O.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Recent increases in births to unmarried parents, and the instability surrounding these relationships, have raised concerns about the possible health effects associated with changes in family structure. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (N = 2,448), this article examines trajectories of maternal mental and physical health. We specifically focus on mothers’ transitions into and out of residential relationships with a child’s biological father during the first five years after birth. We find that continuously married mothers are in better mental and physical health than unmarried mothers one year after birth, but the disparity does not increase over time. This finding provides little support for the resource model. Consistent with the crisis model, exiting a marital or cohabiting union increases mental health problems and decreases self-rated health. These effects appear to be relatively short-lived, though, and they are stronger for mental health than for self-rated health. The results also suggest that union dissolution may be selective of less healthy mothers, whereas union formation does not appear to be selective of healthier mothers. PMID:20333277

  6. Family Stress and Cultural Adaptation: Home Economics Needs of Lao Hmong Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, William H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 24 Lao Hmong refugees in Nebraska examined need changes that occurred between 1980 and 1985 for certain areas. In 1985, Hmong reported fewer problems with housing, employment, nutrition, clothing, and family conflict and more problems with finances, homesickness, and concern for family in Laos. (Author/CH)

  7. Identification of Tasks in Home Economics Related Occupations: Family and Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    The study of task identification in family and community services presents statistical correlations of task frequencies obtained by questionnaire for the occupations of visiting homemaker or homemaker home/health aide, family planning health aide, counselor on alcoholism, management aide in low-income housing projects, deputy juvenile probation…

  8. The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

  9. The National Forum on Family Security: Social Economic Factors and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, D.; Mustard, J. Fraser

    Social and economic influences significantly affect the development of competence, health, and well-being in modern society. During periods of profound social and economic change, such as the present, some sectors of society are often at very high risk of encountering a decline of social support and hence inadequate nurturance of developmental

  10. All in the Family? The Structure and Meaning of Family Life among Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtiainen, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore young people's everyday family life with special reference to the use of time. First, we ask what kinds of activities young people engage in with their families, what kinds of families spend most time together, and whether this has changed over time. These analyses were based on two surveys conducted in the…

  11. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  12. Changes in the Wage Structure, Family Income, and Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron; Pischke, Jorn-Steffen

    This paper examines changes in the distribution of family income over 30 years, estimating the effect of parental resources on college education, and noting the fact that families at the bottom of the income distribution were much poorer in the 1990s than the 1970s, while the opposite was true for families in the top quartile. Data came from three…

  13. Adoptees' Portrayal of the Development of Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Young adult adoptees (n=48) and nonadoptees (n=72) provided retrospective accounts of family relationships that portrayed adoptive families as more cohesive and adaptable, with greater closeness before adolescence. Results are considered in terms of discontinuities of observations of adoptive families and adoptees' personal reflections. (SLD)

  14. The measurement and prevalence of an ideational model of family and economic development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Mitchell, Colter

    2012-11-01

    Developmental idealism (DI) is a system of beliefs and values that endorses modern societies and families and sees them as occurring together, with modern families as causes and consequences of societal development. This study was motivated by the belief that the population of Nepal has absorbed these ideas and that the ideas affect their family behaviour. We use data collected in Nepal in 2003 to show that Nepalis discuss ideas about development and its relationship to family life and that DI has been widely accepted. It is related in predictable ways to education, paid employment, rural-urban residence, and mass media exposure. Although it would be useful to know its influence on demographic decision-making and behaviour, we cannot evaluate this with our one-time cross-sectional survey. Our data and theory suggest that this influence may be substantial. PMID:22963536

  15. Structure and Function of SLC4 Family HCO3- Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier SLC4 family consists of 10 members, nine of which are HCO3- transporters, including three Na+-independent Cl−/HCO3- exchangers AE1, AE2, and AE3, five Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, and NDCBE, as well as “AE4” whose Na+-dependence remains controversial. The SLC4 HCO3- transporters play critical roles in pH regulation and transepithelial movement of electrolytes with a broad range of demonstrated physiological relevances. Dysfunctions of these transporters are associated with a series of human diseases. During the past decades, tremendous amount of effort has been undertaken to investigate the topological organization of the SLC4 transporters in the plasma membrane. Based upon the proposed topology models, mutational and functional studies have identified important structural elements likely involved in the ion translocation by the SLC4 transporters. In the present article, we review the advances during the past decades in understanding the structure and function of the SLC4 transporters. PMID:26648873

  16. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  17. Letter knowledge in parentchild conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parentchild conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parentchild conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parentchild conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  18. The Theory and Practice of Structural and Strategic Family Therapies: A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; Piercy, Fred P.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the similarities and differences in the theory and practice of structural and strategic family therapy. A national panel of structural and strategic therapists identified items they thought important to a profile of either structural or strategic family therapy. Mental Research Institute, Haley/Madanes, and Milan/Ackerman approaches to…

  19. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  20. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Conclusions/Significance Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based interventions are required. PMID:22912886

  1. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André

    2015-01-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5–10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  2. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    de Guillen, Karine; Ortiz-Vallejo, Diana; Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André

    2015-10-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5-10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  3. Socio-Economic Disparities in Use of Family Planning Methods among Pakistani Women: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Qureshi, Muhammad Sameer; Aslam, Syeda Nisma; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Background Several developing countries like Pakistan step into Sustainable Development Goals period with crucial maternal and child health needs that need to be addressed for improving health outcomes among people. We aim to explore existent socio-economic disparities in use of family planning methods (FPM) among Pakistani women, and compare any such inequalities between the years 2006 and 2013. Setting Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) 2006–7 (n = 9177) and the most recent 2012–13(n = 13558) data were used to conduct secondary analysis. Participants were ever married women aged between 15 and 49 years. Socio-economic status was assessed by the education level and wealth index. Inequalities were measured through Odds Ratio (OR), Relative Index of inequality (RII), and Slope index of inequality (SII) on non-use of FPM. Results Although the prevalence of FPM use has increased over time (28% in 2006 versus 54% in 2013), the socio-economic inequalities persistently exist. Comparing results of PDHS 2006 with PDHS 2013, education related absolute inequalities among urban dwellers increased from -0.41 (95% CI -0.67, -0.13, p-value < 0.01) to -0.83 (95% CI -1.02, -0.63, p-value < 0.01); and increased from -0.93 (95% CI -1.21, -0.64, p-value < 0.01) to -0.98 (95% CI -1.20, -0.76, p-value < 0.01) among rural dwellers. Similarly wealth related absolute inequalities are also existent. Conclusions Although the FPM use has increased over time, but it is important to note that socio-economic gap in use of FPM persists. Such differences have disadvantaged the poor and the illiterate. Family planning programs may target the disadvantaged subgroups for ensuring well-being of women and children in Pakistan. PMID:27055164

  4. Effects of Family Structure, Family Process, and Father Involvement on Psychosocial Outcomes among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Deborah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Notaro, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the psychosocial outcomes and family processes across five family constellations among 634 African-American adolescents. Results challenge the assumptions that nonresident fathers are absent from their children's lives, and that living with single mothers adversely affects psychosocial development of African-American adolescents.…

  5. Internal organization of large protein families: relationship between the sequence, structure and function based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects. PMID:21671455

  6. Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

    The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

  7. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  8. The Family as Portrayed on Prime-Time Television, 1947-1990: Structure and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines 115 successful television series portraying white and African-American families across 4 decades of U.S. prime-time television for the structure and characteristics of the families. The data show a trend toward more equal presentation of conventional and nonconventional families, few divorced or female single parents, and few minority…

  9. Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruycker, Trees

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

  10. The Impact of Family Structure on the Adjustment of Adopted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; Brodzinsky, Anne B.

    1992-01-01

    A study of psychological and academic adjustments of 130 adopted children of 6 to 12 years of age living in 5 different family constellations showed few significant differences from 1 family cluster to another. These results suggest that family structure plays a minor role in adjustment to adoption. (Author/BB)

  11. Resolution of Transference Problems in Structural Therapy of Single-Parent Families by a Male Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Klein, Moshe Morris

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that treatment of single-parent families by a male therapist may arouse transference problems. Structural family therapy is recommended to restructure the single-parent family to enhance its ability to function independently without an outside male authority figure. Working through the termination process is also an important stage. (JAC)

  12. Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume IV: Family Composition Change and Other Analyses of the First Seven Years of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

    This volume reports on data collected from 1968 through 1974. Considerable attention is given to a systematic look at several of the more important changes in family composition and the relationship between these changes and changes in economic well-being. Taken into consideration is the impact family composition changes have on the economic…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  15. Comprehensive Family-Centered Training Programs: Five Comparative Case Studies. Evaluation of the Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Richard L.; Sprague, C. Fremont

    The Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, which exemplifies the comprehensive, residential family-centered approach to serving the economically disadvantaged, was compared to four similar programs in the United States: Arizona Job Colleges (AJC) in Arizona; Madera Employment Training Center (METC) in California; Manpower,…

  16. The Extinction of Home Economics: A Study of Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antuna, Amber JoRie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on Family and Consumer Science (FACS) program sustainment in the state of Arizona. FACS programs were not addressed in the NCLB mandates, but are part of the Arizona secondary education programming. FACS programs had seen a decrease in the number of…

  17. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  18. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in

  19. Family Life Quality and Emotional Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lee, T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 2758) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting quality and parent-child relational quality) and emotional quality of life (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Parenting quality included different aspects of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge,…

  20. Modeling the hydrologic and economic efficacy of stormwater utility credit programs for US single family residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    As regulatory pressure to reduce the environmental impact of urban stormwater intensifies, U.S. municipalities increasingly seek a dedicated source of funding for stormwater programs, such as a stormwater utility. In rare instances, single family residences are eligible for utili...

  1. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  2. The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

    In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

  3. Lone-Parent Families. The Economic Challenge. OECD Social Policy Studies No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duskin, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This volume is based on papers presented at a conference of social policy experts that looked at the growth in lone-parent families, the problems that have emerged, and their policy implications. Chapter 1 is an "Overview" (Duskin). Three chapters look at demographic trends over time and over the life-cycle; they are: "Demographic Aspects of the…

  4. A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

  5. Development of Specialists to Serve the Family Life and Impact Home Economics Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    The purpose of the project was to provide current and/or prospective impact home economics teachers with opportunities to develop the sensitivity and skills needed to work with disadvantaged populations in inner city and rural areas. Twenty-four participants completed a one-week orientation workshop and a six-week internship. The orientation…

  6. Success Stories: Minimum Competencies for Early Adolescents. Family & Consumer Education: Home Economics in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances M.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended to help middle-level home economics teachers satisfy the Iowa Vocational Education Standards and Requirements, consists of descriptions of 51 successful learning activities developed by Iowa teachers for helping middle school students master 17 minimum competencies in the following major content areas: personal and…

  7. Child and Family Policy in an Anxious Society: Setting Feasible Goals for Social and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    In a time of economic crisis, Canadians are questioning their social institutions. Major welfare programs may be dismantled under political pressure. Canadians should be cautious, though, in accepting radical, new ideas. Long-term interests may be damaged by planners' reliance on short-term social indicators. Our perceptions of social phenomena…

  8. Economic Stress in the Family and Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, David T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between welfare status and perceived financial stress and children's emotional and behavioral problems using data from National Survey of Children. Found that levels of depressive symptoms, impulsive behavior, and antisocial behavior were higher among children who experienced either type of economic stress at least once…

  9. Exploration of Home Economics Occupations; Home and Family Education: 6775.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Pauline; Estrada, Rosa J.

    The course, for use at the junior high school level, explores employment possibilities in home economics and related areas. Lists of resource materials, a pretest and posttest, and an extensive, 70-page curriculum guide are appended. The guide explores eight block areas: (1) introduction; (2) homemaking; (3) personal development for careers; (4)…

  10. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  11. Energy and the Structure of Social System: Significance for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Dennis R.

    The purpose of the paper is to present a model and suggest hypotheses relating the family as a social system to the concepts of human and natural energy. Human energy is interpreted as the capacity of humans, in this case, family members, for doing work and natural energy as resources such as natural gas, carbon dioxide, and heat. A behavioral

  12. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  13. Familial hypercholesterolaemia: a review with emphasis on evidence for treatment, new models of care and health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Watts, Gerald F; Juniper, Amanda; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Ademi, Zanfina; Liew, Danny; O'Leary, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a condition that should be familiar to all health professionals involved in preventive medicine. FH is the most common and serious monogenic disorder of lipid metabolism that leads to premature coronary heart disease. However, most cases remain undetected or inadequately treated in our community. We provide an overview of FH, with emphasis on evidence for treatment, new models of care (MoCs) and health economic evaluations. Evidence for treatment is based on cohort studies; while this is a low level class of evidence, MoCs concur in recommending early intervention and lowering of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by at least 40% with statins. Preliminary health economic evaluations suggest that detecting and treating FH is cost-effective, but further studies based on high-quality international data and standardised costing methods are needed. If the recommendations in the published MoCs are followed, there is likely to be significant improvement in the health and quality of life of patients with FH and their families, as well as major cost savings in healthcare for end-organ damage, including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and possibly stroke, but this requires to be verified. PMID:22925618

  14. Parental discord vs family structure: effects of divorce on the self-esteem of daughters.

    PubMed

    Long, B H

    1986-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of family structure (parents together or not) and parental discord (ratings of the happiness of the marriage of biological parents) on the self-esteem of 199 female undergraduates. Family structure and happiness ratings were substantially related, with those separated rated as less happy. Self-esteem was significantly related to parental happiness, even with family structure controlled, but not to family structure with parental happiness controlled. With the sample divided into three groups (happy-together, unhappy-together, and separated) ANOVA showed a significant effect for group, with the unhappy-together group showing significantly lower self-esteem than the happy-together group, and the separated group intermediate. Parental discord thus appears to lower the selfesteem of daughters, whereas separation of parents does not. These findings support Heatherington's idea that children may be better off in a stable family where parents are divorced than in an intact family with much parental discord. PMID:24301526

  15. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009–10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6–10 (N = 21,201). Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38–0.61) to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56–1.08). The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate). In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant disparities in organized sport participation that was partially mediated by perceived family wealth. PMID:26863108

  16. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201). Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61) to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08). The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate). In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant disparities in organized sport participation that was partially mediated by perceived family wealth. PMID:26863108

  17. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes introduced by the participants. We will conduct within-case and cross-case analyses of the data. Discussion The question of the role of economic evaluation in FPs' decision-making is of great interest to scientists, health care practitioners, managers and policy-makers, as well as to consultants, industry, and society. It is believed that the proposed research approach will make an original contribution to the development of knowledge, both empirical and theoretical. PMID:19210787

  18. Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…

  19. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  20. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  1. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,

  2. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,

  3. Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

  4. The Family Structure Trajectory and Adolescent School Performance: Differential Effects by Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Holly E.

    2007-01-01

    The question of whether family structure consequences on school achievement are the same across racial and ethnic groups is examined using longitudinal data on 10,606 teens from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Based on life course theory, this article uses indicators of the family structure trajectory, such as family…

  5. Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

  6. Family Structure Instability and the Educational Persistence of Young People in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Galindo, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of family structure and educational outcomes has often failed to account for instability in family structure. Furthermore, prior research in this area has been dominated by North American studies with a smaller body emerging from Europe. This study draws upon 10,783 young people and their parents from the Longitudinal Study of…

  7. Effects of Family Structure on the Adolescent Separation-Individuation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Susan J.; Scherman, Avraham

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effects of college students' (n=90) family structures on the separation-individuation process. Family structure groups investigated were intact; divorced, mother-custody, no remarriage; and divorced, mother-custody, remarried. The components of the separation-individuation process examined were attachment to parents, conflictual…

  8. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  9. Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative

  10. A structural-alphabet-based strategy for finding structural motifs across protein families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih Yuan; Chen, Yao Chi; Lim, Carmay

    2010-08-01

    Proteins with insignificant sequence and overall structure similarity may still share locally conserved contiguous structural segments; i.e. structural/3D motifs. Most methods for finding 3D motifs require a known motif to search for other similar structures or functionally/structurally crucial residues. Here, without requiring a query motif or essential residues, a fully automated method for discovering 3D motifs of various sizes across protein families with different folds based on a 16-letter structural alphabet is presented. It was applied to structurally non-redundant proteins bound to DNA, RNA, obligate/non-obligate proteins as well as free DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) and proteins with known structures but unknown function. Its usefulness was illustrated by analyzing the 3D motifs found in DBPs. A non-specific motif was found with a 'corner' architecture that confers a stable scaffold and enables diverse interactions, making it suitable for binding not only DNA but also RNA and proteins. Furthermore, DNA-specific motifs present 'only' in DBPs were discovered. The motifs found can provide useful guidelines in detecting binding sites and computational protein redesign. PMID:20525797

  11. New Realities of the American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlburg, Dennis A.; De Vita, Carol J.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin explores the social, economic, and demographic trends that have contributed to the changing structure of the American family. Sections of the document discuss: (1) definitions of household and family; (2) types of families, including married couples with and without children and single-parent families; (3) living arrangements of…

  12. Family Policy on the Community Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Nancy

    The tremendous economic, cultural, and social changes that have taken place in the United States in the past 30 years have significantly altered family life. To meet the needs of families, communities and family structures have changed. For the past 10 years, the National Government has been redefining its role in relation to the family. While it…

  13. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of

  14. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  15. The effects of family structure on the sexual behavior of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Young, E W; Jensen, L C; Olsen, J A; Cundick, B P

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two family structures, single- and two-parent homes, on adolescent sexual behavior were studied. The variables of race, age, and gender were controlled. The analysis compared the age at first intercourse, frequency of intercourse in the last four weeks, and virgin/nonvirgin status of adolescents from black single-parent families, white single-parent families, black two-parent families, and white two-parent families. For males, the two-parent family was related to less sexual activity and older age at first intercourse. For females, the two-parent family was not as important as race in influencing sexual behavior. The white females from two-parent families were more likely to be virgins, but once having had sexual intercourse, tended to have a higher level of sexual activity than did black females from two-parent homes. PMID:1789184

  16. Petroleum production structures: economic resources for Louisiana sport divers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.J.; Thompson, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    The era of expanding petroleum production from marine waters began 12 miles off the Louisiana coast in 1947 with a joint operation. Since then, the expansion of drilling and production operations has continued until, in 1981, approximately 3,500 structures were located in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the total number of structures, federal and state waters off Louisiana contain 3,100. Scientific articles dealing with the role of structures in marine habitat and their relationship to sport fishing in the Gulf of Mexico increased over the decade. This newly publicized beneficial aspect of structures is particularly important to the marine fishery off Louisiana. The structures (to which Dugas et al. attribute 'nearly all of the offshore sport fishery') are called as platforms in their description: These platforms are supported by a prewelded framework of steel pipe. Structures in other areas of the country also attract marine life and sport fishermen. Catch rates by sport fishermen were two to three times higher near structures off California than near natural reefs. (Turner et al. 1969). This may be the result of the 'fish-concentrating' nature of structures.

  17. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  18. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    PubMed

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes. PMID:26951507

  19. An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, Jaina; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Punta, Marco

    2013-11-01

    This study uses the Pfam database to show that the sequence redundancy of protein structures deposited in the PDB is increasing. The possible reasons behind this trend are discussed. High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed.

  20. Presentation of structural component designs for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Mark; Haddad, Raphael; Creighton, Tom; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Swift, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to present the implementation of structural commonality in the family of commuter airplanes. One of the main goals is implementation of structural commonality to as high a degree as possible. The structural layouts of those parts of the airplanes in which commonality is possible with all members of the family will be presented. The following airplane sections, which are common on all of the airplanes in the family, will be presented: common nose cone design; common wing torque box design; and common tail cone design. A proposed production and manufacturing breakdown is described. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing structural commonality and recommendations for further work will be discussed.

  1. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  2. Family Economic Strengthening and Parenting Stress Among Caregivers of AIDS-Orphaned Children: Results from a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Ilic, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a family economic strengthening intervention on parenting stress among caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda. The study uses data from a 4-year (2008-2012) NIMH randomized clinical trial for AIDS-orphaned children known as Suubi-Maka (N=346 dyads). Child-caregiver dyads from 10 comparable primary schools were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=167 dyads) receiving usual care for school-going orphaned children (such as food aid and scholastic materials) or the treatment group (n=179 dyads) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention (focused on a matched savings account), financial planning and management workshops over and above the usual care. Interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 months and 24 months follow-up. This study uses data from baseline and 24 months post-intervention. We use multivariate regression methods, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. At 24 months, caregivers in the treatment group reported significantly lower levels of parenting stress compared to caregivers in the control group. Findings from this study point to the potential of a family economic strengthening intervention to improve caregiver’s psychosocial wellbeing and that of their families. We conclude that programs and policies aimed at improving the psychosocial wellbeing of families caring for AIDS-orphaned children may consider incorporating economic strengthening components in their programming to help support these kinds of families, caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children especially those residing in developing countries. PMID:25136142

  3. Manganese oxide minerals: crystal structures and economic and environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Post, J E

    1999-03-30

    Manganese oxide minerals have been used for thousands of years-by the ancients for pigments and to clarify glass, and today as ores of Mn metal, catalysts, and battery material. More than 30 Mn oxide minerals occur in a wide variety of geological settings. They are major components of Mn nodules that pave huge areas of the ocean floor and bottoms of many fresh-water lakes. Mn oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and participate in a variety of chemical reactions that affect groundwater and bulk soil composition. Their typical occurrence as fine-grained mixtures makes it difficult to study their atomic structures and crystal chemistries. In recent years, however, investigations using transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray and neutron diffraction methods have provided important new insights into the structures and properties of these materials. The crystal structures for todorokite and birnessite, two of the more common Mn oxide minerals in terrestrial deposits and ocean nodules, were determined by using powder x-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement method. Because of the large tunnels in todorokite and related structures there is considerable interest in the use of these materials and synthetic analogues as catalysts and cation exchange agents. Birnessite-group minerals have layer structures and readily undergo oxidation reduction and cation-exchange reactions and play a major role in controlling groundwater chemistry. PMID:10097056

  4. Manganese oxide minerals: Crystal structures and economic and environmental significance

    PubMed Central

    Post, Jeffrey E.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese oxide minerals have been used for thousands of yearsby the ancients for pigments and to clarify glass, and today as ores of Mn metal, catalysts, and battery material. More than 30 Mn oxide minerals occur in a wide variety of geological settings. They are major components of Mn nodules that pave huge areas of the ocean floor and bottoms of many fresh-water lakes. Mn oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and participate in a variety of chemical reactions that affect groundwater and bulk soil composition. Their typical occurrence as fine-grained mixtures makes it difficult to study their atomic structures and crystal chemistries. In recent years, however, investigations using transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray and neutron diffraction methods have provided important new insights into the structures and properties of these materials. The crystal structures for todorokite and birnessite, two of the more common Mn oxide minerals in terrestrial deposits and ocean nodules, were determined by using powder x-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement method. Because of the large tunnels in todorokite and related structures there is considerable interest in the use of these materials and synthetic analogues as catalysts and cation exchange agents. Birnessite-group minerals have layer structures and readily undergo oxidation reduction and cation-exchange reactions and play a major role in controlling groundwater chemistry. PMID:10097056

  5. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  6. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family–ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention–comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of the 3 conditions. Results of growth curve analyses over 5 time points revealed that SET was more efficacious than either of the control conditions in reducing psychological distress and family-related hassles. However, contrary to hypotheses, SET was not more efficacious in increasing family support. Latent growth mixture modeling analyses indicated that SET was most efficacious for women who, on average, were at or near the clinical threshold for psychological distress and for women with high levels of family hassles. Implications for further intervention development are discussed. PMID:15065962

  7. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  8. Effect of Family Structure on Life Satisfaction: Australian Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, M.D.R.; Kelley, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    How do family arrangements affect subjective well-being? We investigate this issue using data pooled from the IsssA and HILDA, both large, representative national samples of Australia (pooled n = 38 447). Our regression analysis of cross-sectional and panel data examines how large are the differences in life satisfaction according to marital…

  9. Emotional Neglect and Family Structure: Impact on Student Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Mary Jo; Kruczek, Theresa; Boley, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 69 female and 22 male undergraduates found participants who reported childhood emotional neglect by a primary female caregiver described greater current psychological distress and lower cohesion and adaptability in their family of origin than those reporting no neglect or neglect by a primary male caregiver. (Contains…

  10. The Economics of Structured Continuing Education in Selected Professional Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasmor, James C.

    A study determined what business administration considerations were elements in the managerial decision making process to include structured continuing education in a professional journal and what the positive or negative results have been in terms of operating benefits and profits. An initial literature review showed the need for exploratory…

  11. Family Structure States and Transitions: Associations with Children’s Wellbeing During Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children’s achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement, and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement. PMID:20228952

  12. Good Things Come in Threes: Single-Parent Multigenerational Family Structure and Adolescent Adjustment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    This research used data from the 1998 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the development of outcomes for adolescents living with single mothers in multigenerational families compared with adolescents living in married families (as well as a disaggregated set of other family structures). The study measured family structure when

  13. An International Look at the Single-Parent: Family Structure Matters More for U.S. Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on…

  14. An International Look at the Single-Parent: Family Structure Matters More for U.S. Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on

  15. "Breaking the chain of poverty": family planning, community involvement, and the Population Council-Office of Economic Opportunity alliance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Economic Opportunity-Population Council program is an example of a mid-twentieth-century federal government/private foundation cooperative effort to place family planning and maternal health at the center of a fight against entrenched poverty. These joint efforts were the trend in family planning and maternal health provision by the 1960s and had two overlapping but also contradictory goals. The first was to provide contraceptive services to poor women to reduce the numbers of poor children, thus relieving the poor of added mouths to feed. Popular fears of a population explosion, mounting welfare rolls, and an increase in the numbers of African Americans receiving welfare fueled this goal. The second aim, however, was to expand comprehensive maternal health services to help reduce poverty by increasing poor women's involvement in and control over the health institutions that could have significant impact on their lives. While the first goal pivoted on encouraging poor women to bear fewer children, the second sought to integrate poor women into community healthcare delivery systems. PMID:22700715

  16. Modification Effects of Family Economic Status and School Factors on Depression Risk of Single-Father Family Children in Mid-Taiwan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of single-parent families has increased significantly in Taiwan in recent years. Children born in single-parent families are predisposed to suffering from emotional problems. We aimed to determine if the children of single-parent families are more depressive than children from both-parent families, and to examine the individual and…

  17. Modification Effects of Family Economic Status and School Factors on Depression Risk of Single-Father Family Children in Mid-Taiwan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of single-parent families has increased significantly in Taiwan in recent years. Children born in single-parent families are predisposed to suffering from emotional problems. We aimed to determine if the children of single-parent families are more depressive than children from both-parent families, and to examine the individual and

  18. [The Family System Test: a 3-dimensional method for analyzing social relation structures].

    PubMed

    Gehring, T M; Funk, U; Schneider, M

    1989-01-01

    The Family System Test (FAST) is a clinically-derived figure placement technique designed for a three-dimensional representation of cohesion and power in the family. The FAST measures individual and group perceptions in typical, ideal and conflict situations. The flexibility of family structures is assessed by comparing representations of these situations. Scoring procedures as well as validity and reliability of the FAST are described. The relevance of the FAST is discussed from a systemic, developmental and clinical perspective. PMID:2740283

  19. Structuring of service centres for economic and equipment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Irnich, W

    1989-01-01

    Increasing costs in healthcare have stimulated discussions on whether installation of competent in-house service groups for equipment management could eventually aid in reducing expenditure. In the Federal Republic of Germany, a four-year programme was initiated in 1979 with the purpose of investigating the feasibility, efficiency and profitability of a clinical engineering service within hospitals. The results of this programme formed the foundation on which we developed guidelines for structuring such service centres, to enable other hospitals to profit from the experience gained and possibly to avoid repeating mistakes. Service groups must have sufficient personnel to be successful. As a rough estimate, approximately one service staff member per 100 beds is needed. A more sophisticated structuring demands analysis of the repair accounts to elucidate additional parameters. An optimised service centre can reduce the maintenance costs to about 60 per cent of their original value without in-house service. Structuring of service centres for cost-effectiveness requires a simultaneous increase in service quality, which should be the highest motivation in clinical engineering. PMID:2506400

  20. Techniques of structural family assessment: a qualitative analysis of how experts promote a systemic perspective.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael; Tafuri, Sydney

    2013-06-01

    The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model. PMID:23763681

  1. Community economic structure and individual well-being: a look behind the statistics.

    PubMed

    Sclar, E D

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the community economic development process with an emphasis on its implications for individual well-being. It is intended as a social epidemiology which can help explain empirical findings demonstrating a connection between indicators of individual and social dysfunction and indicators of economic change. The model is one of economic development in a market-oriented, profit-maximizing society. The underlying hypothesis is that changes in economic activity brought about by increases in the size of firms and scale of production place new demands upon local resources and labor markets. In response, families and social networks begin to change the ways they relate to individual members, changes that cause individuals to become more directly vulnerable to the stresses and strains generated by economic activity. The result is that dysfunction, as manifest in the incidence and prevalence of various pathologies, increases with both ups and downs in the economy. The paper discusses the ways in which these changes become manifest in the statistical series used for purposes of empirical analysis and suggests the limits of this approach to social research. It ends by presenting a policy prescription for economic development which places emphasis on social cost minimization rather than output maximization. PMID:7429690

  2. "Structured Spontaneity": The Thoughtful Art of Integrative Family Therapy at BFI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhl, Frederick J.; Duhl, Bunny S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the "structured spontaneity" approach to family therapy training at the Boston Family Institute as it exists after ten years, considering the context of training as well as the flavor of the program. Reward for trainers is a kind of competent and creative independent thinking, focused on unjamming a deadlocked system. (Author/BEF)

  3. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  4. Family Structure and Fathers' Well-Being: Trajectories of Mental Health and Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on…

  5. Family Structure and Psychosocial Correlates among Urban African-American Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency, well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 adolescent black males. The only difference found was that subjects living in single-mother households reported more parental support than those from other family structures. Data on father/male role model relationships challenged…

  6. Oligomeric structure diversity within the GIY-YIG nuclease family.

    PubMed

    Ibryashkina, Elena M; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Solonin, Alexander S; Zakharova, Marina V; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2009-03-20

    The GIY-YIG nuclease domain has been identified in homing endonucleases, DNA repair and recombination enzymes, and restriction endonucleases. The Type II restriction enzyme Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily and, like most of other family members, including the homing endonuclease I-TevI, is a monomer. It recognizes the palindromic sequence 5'-CCGC/GG-3' ("/" marks the cleavage position) and cuts it to generate 3'-staggered ends. The Eco29kI monomer, which contains a single active site, either has to nick sequentially individual DNA strands or has to form dimers or even higher-order oligomers upon DNA binding to make a double-strand break at its target site. Here, we provide experimental evidence that Eco29kI monomers dimerize on a single cognate DNA molecule forming the catalytically active complex. The mechanism described here for Eco29kI differs from that of Cfr42I isoschisomer, which also belongs to the GIY-YIG family but is functional as a tetramer. This novel mechanism may have implications for the function of homing endonucleases and other enzymes of the GIY-YIG family. PMID:19361436

  7. Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use: An Exploration of Single-Parent Families

    PubMed Central

    Hemovich, Vanessa; Crano, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey examined a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 8th to 12th grade adolescents in rural and urban schools from across the United States (N = 37,507). Results found that drug use among daughters living with single fathers significantly exceeded that of daughters living with single mothers, while gender of parent was not associated with sons’ usage. This distinction in adolescent drug use between mother-only versus father-only households is largely overlooked in contemporary studies. Factors responsible for variations in sons’ and daughters’ usage in single-parent families have important implications for future drug prevention efforts. PMID:20001697

  8. Elucidation of the structures of all members of the Avsunviroidae family.

    PubMed

    Gigure, Tamara; Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bolduc, Franois; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Viroids are small single-stranded RNA pathogens which cause significant damage to plants. As their nucleic acids do not encode for any proteins, they are dependant solely on their structure for their propagation. The elucidation of the secondary structures of viroids has been limited because of the exhaustive and time consuming nature of classic approaches. Here, the method of high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (hSHAPE) has been adapted to probe the viroid structure. The data obtained using this method were then used as input for computer-assisted structure prediction using RNA structure software in order to determine the secondary structures of the RNA strands of both (+) and () polarities of all Avsunviroidae members, one of the two families of viroids. The resolution of the structures of all of the members of the family provides a global view of the complexity of these RNAs. The structural differences between the two polarities, and any plausible tertiary interactions, were also analysed. Interestingly, the structures of the (+) and () strands were found to be different for each viroid species. The structures of the recently isolated grapevine hammerhead viroid-like RNA strands were also solved. This species shares several structural features with the Avsunviroidae family, although its infectious potential remains to be determined.To our knowledge, this article represents the first report of the structural elucidation of a complete family of viroids. PMID:25346967

  9. Stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis by proteins of glycoside hydrolase family 61: structure and function of a large, enigmatic family.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul V; Welner, Ditte; McFarland, K C; Re, Edward; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Brown, Kimberly; Salbo, Rune; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena; Merino, Sandy; Xu, Feng; Cherry, Joel; Larsen, Sine; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2010-04-20

    Currently, the relatively high cost of enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose hydrolysis represents a barrier to commercialization of a biorefinery capable of producing renewable transportable fuels such as ethanol from abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Among the many families of glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis, few are more enigmatic than family 61 (GH61), originally classified based on measurement of very weak endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase activity in one family member. Here we show that certain GH61 proteins lack measurable hydrolytic activity by themselves but in the presence of various divalent metal ions can significantly reduce the total protein loading required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. We also solved the structure of one highly active GH61 protein and find that it is devoid of conserved, closely juxtaposed acidic side chains that could serve as general proton donor and nucleophile/base in a canonical hydrolytic reaction, and we conclude that the GH61 proteins are unlikely to be glycoside hydrolases. Structure-based mutagenesis shows the importance of several conserved residues for GH61 function. By incorporating the gene for one GH61 protein into a commercial Trichoderma reesei strain producing high levels of cellulolytic enzymes, we are able to reduce by 2-fold the total protein loading (and hence the cost) required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:20230050

  10. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    PubMed

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's) PMID:12222474

  11. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  12. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  13. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  14. Behavioral Economics and Social Policy: Designing Innovative Solutions for Programs Supported by the Administration for Children and Families. OPRE Report No. 2014-16a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Anzelone, Caitlin; Dechausay, Nadine; Datta, Saugato; Fiorillo, Alexandra; Potok, Louis; Darling, Matthew; Balz, John

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) project is the first major opportunity to use a behavioral economics lens to look at programs that serve poor and vulnerable people in the United States. Sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) within the U.S.…

  15. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  16. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports

  17. Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

    This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

  18. Interrelationships between Work Life and Family Life. Proceedings, Silver Jubilee Conference, Illinois Teacher of Home Economics (Urbana, Illinois, April l8-2l, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor, Ed.

    These conference proceedings examine the interrelationships between work life and family life and explore ways in which home economics education can contribute to the solution of attendant problems. The opening session includes a welcome and an introduction to the topic. Other papers address (1) the evolution of the role of women; (2) inflation…

  19. Loss of quaternary structure is associated with rapid sequence divergence in the OSBS family.

    PubMed

    Odokonyero, Denis; Sakai, Ayano; Patskovsky, Yury; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Fedorov, Alexander A; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fedorov, Elena V; Toro, Rafael; Agarwal, Rakhi; Wang, Chenxi; Ozerova, Nicole D S; Yew, Wen Shan; Sauder, J Michael; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Burley, Stephen K; Almo, Steven C; Glasner, Margaret E

    2014-06-10

    The rate of protein evolution is determined by a combination of selective pressure on protein function and biophysical constraints on protein folding and structure. Determining the relative contributions of these properties is an unsolved problem in molecular evolution with broad implications for protein engineering and function prediction. As a case study, we examined the structural divergence of the rapidly evolving o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) family, which catalyzes a step in menaquinone synthesis in diverse microorganisms and plants. On average, the OSBS family is much more divergent than other protein families from the same set of species, with the most divergent family members sharing <15% sequence identity. Comparing 11 representative structures revealed that loss of quaternary structure and large deletions or insertions are associated with the family's rapid evolution. Neither of these properties has been investigated in previous studies to identify factors that affect the rate of protein evolution. Intriguingly, one subfamily retained a multimeric quaternary structure and has small insertions and deletions compared with related enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. Many proteins in this subfamily catalyze both OSBS and N-succinylamino acid racemization (NSAR). Retention of ancestral structural characteristics in the NSAR/OSBS subfamily suggests that the rate of protein evolution is not proportional to the capacity to evolve new protein functions. Instead, structural features that are conserved among proteins with diverse functions might contribute to the evolution of new functions. PMID:24872444

  20. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  1. The Association between Current Intergenerational Family Relationships and Sibling Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, David M.; Brossart, Daniel F.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sibling structure variables (i.e., gender, number of sisters, number of brothers, sibling spacing, number of siblings, and birth order, all men, and all women siblings) and current relationships with parents and spouse/partners. Participants included 519 adults between the ages of 19 and 59 years. Two…

  2. Atypical Structural Features of Two MAP P60 Family Members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of Map gene products have no known function. In order to better understand the pathobiology of this mycobacterium, we have begun to study the structure-function relationship of a subset of Map proteins. We have selected a number of gene products unique to Map, which are either predict...

  3. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  4. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  5. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Examining the Role of Administrative Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…

  6. Kenya: Family Networks in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Minna; Muugi, George

    This presentation is the result of 60 structured interviews that were conducted in Kenya to investigate the effects of rapid social economic changes on the psychosocial mechanism of entire family networks. The investigation addressed the hypothesis that modernization was affecting the extent to which extended family processes and patterns were…

  7. A Self-Ethnographic Investigation of Continuing Education Program in Engineering Arising from Economic Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…

  8. Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

  9. The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic…

  10. Wood fuel for power generation at Wendel, California. Volume 2. Business structure and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The business structure and operating approach recommended for economic procurement of wood fuel for the proposed Honey Lake hybrid power plant are covered including: (a) constraints, (b) availability of wood fuel, (c) business approach and organization, (d) cost of wood fuel, and (e) socioeconomic considerations.

  11. Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?

    PubMed

    Tumwine, J K

    1992-12-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm. PMID:1469676

  12. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  13. An Alternative to the Problematic Macro-Micro Structure of Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    The paper explains an alternative structure to teaching micro and macroeconomic theory and describes the characteristics that make it an effective framework for introductory and principles courses. The teaching of economics principles typically proceeds by separating macroeconomic theory and microeconomic theory. But the use of the macro-micro…

  14. Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes

  15. The family B1 GPCR: structural aspects and interaction with accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in physiology and pathophysiology in humans. Beside the large family A (rhodopsin-like receptors) and family C GPCR (metabotropic glutamate receptors), the small family B1 GPCR (secretin-like receptors) includes important receptors such as vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VPAC), pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide receptor (PAC1R), secretin receptor (SECR), growth hormone releasing factor receptor (GRFR), glucagon receptor (GCGR), glucagon like-peptide 1 and 2 receptors (GLPR), gastric inhibitory peptide receptor (GIPR), parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR), calcitonin receptors (CTR) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFR). They represent very promising targets for the development of drugs having therapeutical impact on many diseases such as chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes, stress and osteoporosis. Over the past decade, structure-function relationship studies have demonstrated that the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of family B1 receptors plays a pivotal role in natural ligand recognition. Structural analysis of some family B1 GPCR N-teds revealed the existence of a Sushi domain fold consisting of two antiparallel β sheets stabilized by three disulfide bonds and a salt bridge. The family B1 GPCRs promote cellular responses through a signaling pathway including predominantly the Gsadenylyl cyclase-cAMP pathway activation. Family B1 GPCRs also interact with a few accessory proteins which play a role in cell signaling, receptor expression and/or pharmacological profiles of receptors. These accessory proteins may represent new targets for the design of new drugs. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding: i) the structure of family B1 GPCR binding domain for natural ligands and ii) the interaction of family B1 GPCRs with accessory proteins. PMID:21777182

  16. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Fiona J; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Elkins, Jon M; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. PMID:26853940

  17. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Fiona J.; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R.; Elkins, Jon M.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. PMID:26853940

  18. Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Saenz, Delia S; Baham, Melinda E; Parke, Ross D; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers' behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers' positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families. PMID:24855327

  19. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-01-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

  20. Structural Insights into the Anti-HIV Activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii Agglutinin Homolog Lectin Family*

    PubMed Central

    Koharudin, Leonardus M. I.; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ∼66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to α3,α6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties. PMID:22865886

  1. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence. PMID:12266446

  2. A structural equation analysis of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21842196

  3. Loss of quaternary structure is associated with rapid sequence divergence in the OSBS family

    PubMed Central

    Odokonyero, Denis; Sakai, Ayano; Patskovsky, Yury; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Toro, Rafael; Agarwal, Rakhi; Wang, Chenxi; Ozerova, Nicole D. S.; Yew, Wen Shan; Sauder, J. Michael; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Glasner, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of protein evolution is determined by a combination of selective pressure on protein function and biophysical constraints on protein folding and structure. Determining the relative contributions of these properties is an unsolved problem in molecular evolution with broad implications for protein engineering and function prediction. As a case study, we examined the structural divergence of the rapidly evolving o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) family, which catalyzes a step in menaquinone synthesis in diverse microorganisms and plants. On average, the OSBS family is much more divergent than other protein families from the same set of species, with the most divergent family members sharing <15% sequence identity. Comparing 11 representative structures revealed that loss of quaternary structure and large deletions or insertions are associated with the family’s rapid evolution. Neither of these properties has been investigated in previous studies to identify factors that affect the rate of protein evolution. Intriguingly, one subfamily retained a multimeric quaternary structure and has small insertions and deletions compared with related enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions. Many proteins in this subfamily catalyze both OSBS and N-succinylamino acid racemization (NSAR). Retention of ancestral structural characteristics in the NSAR/OSBS subfamily suggests that the rate of protein evolution is not proportional to the capacity to evolve new protein functions. Instead, structural features that are conserved among proteins with diverse functions might contribute to the evolution of new functions. PMID:24872444

  4. Structure-Based Identification of Inhibitors for the SLC13 Family of Na(+)/Dicarboxylate Cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M; Schlessinger, Avner

    2015-08-11

    In mammals, citric acid cycle intermediates play a key role in regulating various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Members of the sodium-dependent SLC13 transporter family mediate the transport of di- and tricarboxylates into cells. SLC13 family members have been implicated in lifespan extension and resistance to high-fat diets; thus, they are emerging drug targets for aging and metabolic disorders. We previously characterized key structural determinants of substrate and cation binding for the human NaDC3/SLC13A3 transporter using a homology model. Here, we combine computational modeling and virtual screening with functional and biochemical testing, to identify nine previously unknown inhibitors for multiple members of the SLC13 family from human and mouse. Our results reveal previously unknown substrate selectivity determinants for the SLC13 family, including key residues that mediate ligand binding and transport, as well as promiscuous and specific SLC13 small molecule ligands. The newly discovered ligands can serve as chemical tools for further characterization of the SLC13 family or as lead molecules for the future development of potent inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases and aging. Our results improve our understanding of the structural components that are important for substrate specificity in this physiologically important family as well as in other structurally related transport systems. PMID:26176240

  5. Alternatives for Families: Emergency Shelters and Transitional Programs That Identify, and Treat those Problems that Lead to Family Dissolution and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James Stewart

    Multi-problem families are at risk of dissolution and homelessness. Cultural, social, economic, educational and family structural problems and differences often bring unbearable pressure upon families. Traditionally, a single problem or a family member was identified as the causal factor. Quite often a family member was removed from the home.…

  6. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  7. Non-invasive sampling of schistosomes from humans requires correcting for family structure.

    PubMed

    Steinauer, Michelle L; Christie, Mark R; Blouin, Michael S; Agola, Lelo E; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Mutuku, Martin W; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mkoji, Gerald M; Loker, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

  8. Phosphorenes with Non-Honeycomb Structures: A Much Extended Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; University of Nebraska-Lincoln Team

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorous allotropes, namely, ɛ-P, ζ-P, η-P and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 176802 (2014)), γ-P and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 046804 (2014)) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four phases, together with 5 hybrid phases, are confirmed stable by first-principles calculations. In particularly, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene allotropes. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different phases under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. MHW was supported by start-up fund from Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

  9. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  10. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

  11. Structure of a prokaryotic fumarate transporter reveals the architecture of the SLC26 family.

    PubMed

    Geertsma, Eric R; Chang, Yung-Ning; Shaik, Farooque R; Neldner, Yvonne; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Dutzler, Raimund

    2015-10-01

    The SLC26 family of membrane proteins combines a variety of functions within a conserved molecular scaffold. Its members, besides coupled anion transporters and channels, include the motor protein Prestin, which confers electromotility to cochlear outer hair cells. To gain insight into the architecture of this protein family, we characterized the structure and function of SLC26Dg, a facilitator of proton-coupled fumarate symport, from the bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Its modular structure combines a transmembrane unit and a cytoplasmic STAS domain. The membrane-inserted domain consists of two intertwined inverted repeats of seven transmembrane segments each and resembles the fold of the unrelated transporter UraA. It shows an inward-facing, ligand-free conformation with a potential substrate-binding site at the interface between two helix termini at the center of the membrane. This structure defines the common framework for the diverse functional behavior of the SLC26 family. PMID:26367249

  12. Structural Hot Spots Determine Functional Diversity of the Candida glabrata Epithelial Adhesin Family.

    PubMed

    Diderrich, Rike; Kock, Michael; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Keller, Petra; Steuber, Holger; Rupp, Steffen; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Msch, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    For host colonization, the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is known to utilize a large family of highly related surface-exposed cell wall proteins, the lectin-like epithelial adhesins (Epas). To reveal the structure-function relationships within the entire Epa family, we have performed a large scale functional analysis of the adhesion (A) domains of 17 Epa paralogs in combination with three-dimensional structural studies of selected members with cognate ligands. Our study shows that most EpaA domains exert lectin-like functions and together recognize a wide variety of glycans with terminal galactosides for conferring epithelial cell adhesion. We further identify several conserved and variable structural features within the diverse Epa ligand binding pockets, which affect affinity and specificity. These features rationalize why mere phylogenetic relationships within the Epa family are weak indicators for functional classification and explain how Epa-like adhesins have evolved in C. glabrata and related fungal species. PMID:26105055

  13. Gender Liberation, Economic Squeeze, or Fear of Strangers: Why Fathers Provide Infant Care in Dual-Earner Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Examines the experiences of families in which fathers care for their newborn infants when mothers return to work after childbirth. Documents the hours of care provided by fathers while mothers are at work, the simultaneous use of other child-care arrangements, and the average savings per family. Explores three possible motivations for families to…

  14. The School Performance of Children from Single-Mother and Single-Father Families: Economic or Interpersonal Deprivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Examined educational outcomes for eighth graders: 409 in single-father, 3,483 in single-mother, and 14,269 in biological 2-parent families. Found that children from single-father and single-mother families performed roughly the same in school, but both were outperformed by children from two-parent families. Intervening processes explaining school…

  15. Comparison of Family Power Structure and Identity Style Between Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Shaghelanilor, Hossein; Pocock, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012. They answered the instrument of family power structure (Saidian, 2004) and identity style (ISI-6G: White et al. 1998). The obtained data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles with regard to family power structure, its subscales (P < 0.001), and identity style (P < 0.001). Moreover, the informational identity style was associated with lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was related to the delinquency. Conclusions: These results emphasize that the inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family power structure can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescent delinquency. PMID:26834795

  16. Structural similarity to bridge sequence space: Finding new families on the bridges

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parantu K.; Aloy, Patrick; Bork, Peer; Russell, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Structures for protein domains have increased rapidly in recent years owing to advances in structural biology and structural genomics projects. New structures are often similar to those solved previously, and such similarities can give insights into function by linking poorly understood families to those that are better characterized. They also allow the possibility of combing information to find still more proteins adopting a similar structure and sometimes a similar function, and to reprioritize families in structural genomics pipelines. We explore this possibility here by preparing merged profiles for pairs of structurally similar, but not necessarily sequence-similar, domains within the SMART and Pfam database by way of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP). We show that such profiles are often able to successfully identify further members of the same superfamily and thus can be used to increase the sensitivity of database searching methods like HMMer and PSI-BLAST. We perform detailed benchmarks using the SMART and Pfam databases with four complete genomes frequently used as annotation benchmarks. We quantify the associated increase in structural information in Swissprot and discuss examples illustrating the applicability of this approach to understand functional and evolutionary relationships between protein families. PMID:15840833

  17. The CATH database: an extended protein family resource for structural and functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, F. M. G.; Bennett, C. F.; Bray, J. E.; Harrison, A. P.; Martin, N.; Shepherd, A.; Sillitoe, I.; Thornton, J.; Orengo, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/cath_new) currently contains 34 287 domain structures classified into 1383 superfamilies and 3285 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with domain sequence relatives recruited from GenBank using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended resource, known as the CATH-protein family database (CATH-PFDB) contains a total of 310 000 domain sequences classified into 26 812 sequence families. New sequence search protocols have been designed, based on these intermediate sequence libraries, to allow more regular updating of the classification. Further developments include the adaptation of a recently developed method for rapid structure comparison, based on secondary structure matching, for domain boundary assignment. The philosophy behind CATHEDRAL is the recognition of recurrent folds already classified in CATH. Benchmarking of CATHEDRAL, using manually validated domain assignments, demonstrated that 43% of domains boundaries could be completely automatically assigned. This is an improvement on a previous consensus approach for which only 10–20% of domains could be reliably processed in a completely automated fashion. Since domain boundary assignment is a significant bottleneck in the classification of new structures, CATHEDRAL will also help to increase the frequency of CATH updates. PMID:12520050

  18. Evaluations of Family by Youth: Do They Vary as a Function of Family Structure, Gender, and Birth Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    1990-01-01

    Youths (N=334) evaluated their families on Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Results revealed no significant main effects for birth order or gender. Males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families evaluated their respective families significantly more negatively than did counterparts from other…

  19. Effects of Familial Mutations on the Monomer Structure of A?42

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Shan; Pande, Vijay S.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid beta (A?) peptide plays an important role in Alzheimers disease. A number of mutations in the A? sequence lead to familial Alzheimers disease, congophilic amyloid angiopathy, or hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloid. Using molecular dynamics simulations of ?200 ?s for each system, we characterize and contrast the consequences of four pathogenic mutations (Italian, Dutch, Arctic, and Iowa) for the structural ensemble of the A? monomer. The four familial mutations are found to have distinct consequences for the monomer structure. PMID:23260058

  20. The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing. PMID:25473135

  1. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  2. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system.

  3. Individual, life events, family and socio-economic factors associated with young people with intellectual disability and with and without behavioural/emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Taggart, L; Taylor, D; McCrum-Gardner, E

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a range of individual, life events, family and socio-economic factors associated with young people with intellectual disabilities and with and without behavioural/emotional problems. Teachers in 16 schools in one region of the UK completed a postal questionnaire on 249 young people with intellectual disabilities aged between 11 and 19 years. There were two groups: 155 young people with behavioural/emotional issues, and 94 without. Using a binary logistic regression analysis, a number of individual, life events, family and socio-economic risk factors were found to be significantly associated with emotional/behavioural problems. The results are discussed alongside findings from other studies. The importance of a multidimensional assessment is highlighted, as well as the interdependent nature of the risk factors. PMID:21285121

  4. The role of family structure and attachment in college student hookups.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Chelsea; Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-11-01

    We examined the relationship between family structure and hooking up among emerging adults (N = 881) and the extent to which attachment moderated this relationship. Neither family structure nor number of structure transitions were related to the number of hookup partners in the past 12 months. Having an avoidant attachment, being an underclassman, consuming more alcohol, and not being in an exclusive relationship were related to having a greater number of hookup partners, and avoidant attachment was a stronger indicator of hooking up for men than for women. Among those who had hooked up in the past 12 months (63.8 %), family structure did not significantly differentiate those having a penetrative sex hookup (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) versus a non-penetrative sex hookup (i.e., kissing and/or sexual touching only). Findings were discussed in terms of their methodological implications for studying hookups, such as the collection of event level data and examining how family structure influences other correlates of hooking up. PMID:23733154

  5. Structure based identification of inhibitors for the SLC13 family of Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporters

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M.; Schlessinger, Avner

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, citric acid cycle intermediates play a key role in regulating various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Members of the sodium dependent SLC13 transporter family mediate the transport of di and tricarboxylates into cells. SLC13 members have been implicated in lifespan extension and resistance to high fat diets, thus, they are emerging drug targets for aging and metabolic disorders. We previously characterized key structural determinants of substrate and cation binding for the human NaDC3/SLC13A3 transporter using a homology model. Here, we combine computational modeling and virtual screening with functional and biochemical testing, to identify 9 previously unknown inhibitors for multiple members of the SLC13 family from human and mouse. Our results reveal previously unknown substrate selectivity determinants for the SLC13 family, including key residues that mediate ligand binding and transport, as well as promiscuous and specific SLC13 small molecule ligands. The newly discovered ligands can serve as chemical tools to further characterize the SLC13 family or as lead molecules for future development of potent inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases and aging. Our results improve our understanding of the structural components that are important for substrate specificity in this physiologically important family as well as in other structurally related transport systems. PMID:26176240

  6. Changes in the Formation and Structure of Black Families: The Impact on Black Women. Working Paper No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    This paper attempts to dispel stereotypes about black family structures through an examination of the impact of demographic trends on black women. Topics covered include the following: (1) the structure of black families from the arrival of black slaves in North America through the 1950's; (2) the impact that the historical structure and

  7. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  8. Structure and validity of Family Harmony Scale: An instrument for measuring harmony.

    PubMed

    Kavikondala, Sushma; Stewart, Sunita M; Ni, Michael Y; Chan, Brandford H Y; Lee, Paul H; Li, Kin-Kit; McDowell, Ian; Johnston, Janice M; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, T H; Lam, Wendy W T; Fielding, Richard; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-03-01

    Culture plays a role in mental health, partly by defining the characteristics that are indicative of positive adjustment. In Chinese cultures, positive family relationships are considered central to well-being. The culturally emphasized characteristic of family harmony may be an important factor associated with psychopathology. This article presents the development and psychometric examination of the Family Harmony Scale (FHS), an indigenously developed 24-item instrument tapping family harmony in 17,461 Hong Kong residents from 7,791 households. A higher-order model with 1 second-order factor and 5 first-order factors fit the data well and showed factorial invariance across sex and participants in different family roles. A 5-item short form (FHS-5) was also developed, with 1 item from each first-order factor. The short scale showed, as expected, a single-factor structure with good fit. Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validity. The 24-item FHS was negatively associated with depressive symptoms after accounting for individual risk factors and general family function. Family harmony moderated the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms such that those individuals who reported low family harmony had stronger associations between life stress and depressive symptoms. This study adds to the literature a systematically developed, multidimensional measure of family harmony, which may be an important psychological protective factor, in a large urban Chinese sample. The FHS-5 minimizes operational and respondent burdens, making it an attractive tool for large-scale epidemiological studies with Chinese populations in urban settings, where over half of China's 1.4 billion people reside. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26146946

  9. Do family structure and poverty affect sexual risk behaviors of undergraduate students in Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Adedini, Sunday A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to understanding the role of family structure and poverty on risky sexual behaviours. A representative sample of 1,301 undergraduate students was randomly selected from the various faculties that made up the University. Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from single parent homes showed lower likelihood of having multiple sexual partners. Also poverty was found not to be a critical determinant of risky sexual behaviour. Given the unclear nature of the findings, future study should explore further understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students. PMID:24558790

  10. Structural and mechanistic aspects of 3C proteases from the Picornavirus family.

    PubMed

    Arad, D; Kreisberg, R; Shokhen, M

    1993-01-01

    Picornavirus 3C proteases are prime targets for rational drug design. This viral protease appears in a large number of viruses from the Picornavirus family that cause serious disease syndromes, and it has an important role in the life cycle of the virus, processing the translation product of the Picornavirus genome by progressive co- and posttranslational cleavages. It is, therefore, important to gain structural and mechanistic information about this family of enzymes. We concentrate in this paper on the specific features of the 3C; particularly, we are trying to show that the 3C constitute a new family to enzymes which is neither a serine- nor a cysteine-type protease. General basic theory on the behavior of sulfur nucleophile vs the behavior of oxygen nucleophile regarding the nucleophilic attack on carbonyl compounds and the possible determinants in the structure of 3C viral proteases of rhinovirus 1A are being discussed. PMID:8320292

  11. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; D’Ávila, Leandro Martins; da Silva Kazama, Daniele Cristina; Bento, Lauana Luiza; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary In the South of Brazil, as in many regions where dairy production is pasture-based, the use of concentrate to supplement cattle diet frequently does not follow technical guidelines. This may result in inefficient management, with increased cost of production and lower pasture intake. In this study, small amounts of an energy supplement proved to be more economically efficient than a high protein commercial concentrate, despite a decrease in milk productivity. The cows were able to compensate for the lower levels of protein in the supplement with selective grazing for high protein plants. The quality of the milk was unaffected by the treatment. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk) was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight). Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min) in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05), had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03) and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05) than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05). However, higher concentrations of β-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70–164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05). Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05) when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4.83/cow per day). Our results show that higher productivity does not necessarily improve profitability. Cows receiving supplement with lower levels of protein were able to adjust their grazing behavior to meet their protein needs and this level of diet modification did not alter milk composition. PMID:26480318

  12. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado; D'Ávila, Leandro Martins; da Silva Kazama, Daniele Cristina; Bento, Lauana Luiza; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk) was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight). Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min) in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05), had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03) and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05) than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05). However, higher concentrations of β-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70-164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05). Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05) when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4.83/cow per day). Our results show that higher productivity does not necessarily improve profitability. Cows receiving supplement with lower levels of protein were able to adjust their grazing behavior to meet their protein needs and this level of diet modification did not alter milk composition. PMID:26480318

  13. Family Structure, Parental Investment, and Educational Outcomes among Black South Africans. Population Studies Center Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.

    This study examined the relationship between family structure, expenditures on education, and children's educational outcomes for black South Africans, using the nationally representative 1995 October Household Survey. The analyses focused on 28,215 individuals, ages 10 to 24 years, who had not completed secondary schools. The findings indicated…

  14. Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

  15. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  16. The Contribution of Family Structure and Differentiation to Identity Development in Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Relationships among S. Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development were studied with 164 female undergraduates. Factor analysis of results from measures of ego identity support Minuchin's model and provide a framework for understanding individuation in the adolescent female. (SLD)

  17. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  18. Parental Knowledge and Its Sources: Examining the Moderating Roles of Family Structure and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine patterns of parental knowledge and its sources (adolescent reports of disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental trust) among adolescents who differ as a function of family structure and race. Data are drawn from adolescents (N = 2,374, M = 14 years, SD = 1.68) participating in a school-based study. Adolescent…

  19. Is There a Relationship between Family Structure and Substance Use among Public Middle School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between family structure and substance use in a sample of 2,138 public middle school students in a southern state. The CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey was utilized and adjusted logistic regression models were created separately for four race/gender categories (African American females/males, and…

  20. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys

  1. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody

  2. A Guide to Establishing and Directing a Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maethner, Judith A.

    This is the teacher's manual of the Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity, a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Developer/Demonstration Project in Saint Cloud, Minnesota. The program attempts to mold the expertise of the parent with the expertise of the professional educator in order to enhance the child's development. It is…

  3. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  4. Theory and Data: Theory Construction Using Linear Structural Models in Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    Family research has been hindered by a reliance on either empirical relationships or abstract theoretical claims. There has been no effective way to bridge the gap between statistical relationships and theoretical propositions. The application of linear structural equation models helps to bridge this gap. Empirical propositions are not developed.…

  5. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  6. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n

  7. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess

  8. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  9. Structural vibration passive control and economic analysis of a high-rise building in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqi; Cao, Tiezhu; Ma, Liangzhe; Luo, Chaoying

    2009-12-01

    Performance analysis of the Pangu Plaza under earthquake and wind loads is described in this paper. The plaza is a 39-story steel high-rise building, 191 m high, located in Beijing close to the 2008 Olympic main stadium. It has both fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) and buckling restrained braces or unbonded brace (BRB or UBB) installed. A repeated iteration procedure in its design and analysis was adopted for optimization. Results from the seismic response analysis in the horizontal and vertical directions show that the FVDs are highly effective in reducing the response of both the main structure and the secondary system. A comparative analysis of structural seismic performance and economic impact was conducted using traditional methods, i.e., increased size of steel columns and beams and/or use of an increased number of seismic braces versus using FVD. Both the structural response and economic analysis show that using FVD to absorb seismic energy not only satisfies the Chinese seismic design code for a “rare” earthquake, but is also the most economical way to improve seismic performance both for one-time direct investment and long term maintenance.

  10. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…

  11. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's

  12. From Genome to Structure and Back Again: A Family Portrait of the Transcarbamylases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes in the transcarbamylase family catalyze the transfer of a carbamyl group from carbamyl phosphate (CP) to an amino group of a second substrate. The two best-characterized members, aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTCase), are present in most organisms from bacteria to humans. Recently, structures of four new transcarbamylase members, N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (AOTCase), N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (SOTCase), ygeW encoded transcarbamylase (YTCase) and putrescine transcarbamylase (PTCase) have also been determined. Crystal structures of these enzymes have shown that they have a common overall fold with a trimer as their basic biological unit. The monomer structures share a common CP binding site in their N-terminal domain, but have different second substrate binding sites in their C-terminal domain. The discovery of three new transcarbamylases, l-2,3-diaminopropionate transcarbamylase (DPTCase), l-2,4-diaminobutyrate transcarbamylase (DBTCase) and ureidoglycine transcarbamylase (UGTCase), demonstrates that our knowledge and understanding of the spectrum of the transcarbamylase family is still incomplete. In this review, we summarize studies on the structures and function of transcarbamylases demonstrating how structural information helps to define biological function and how small structural differences govern enzyme specificity. Such information is important for correctly annotating transcarbamylase sequences in the genome databases and for identifying new members of the transcarbamylase family. PMID:26274952

  13. Scholastic Achievement and Family Marital Structure: Bedouin-Arab Adolescents from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scholastic achievement in Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics of 240 Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Negev (Israel). Reveals that adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families demonstrate equivalent levels of scholastic achievement, although boys in polygamous families and girls in

  14. Effects of Population Change on Family Life and the Child: Implications for Home Economics Programs in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon

    1981-01-01

    Outlines some of the population-related factors and effects upon the family and child. Because of their vested interests and wealth of experience in family life, home economists are challenged to take the lead in planning and providing curriculum materials, and to promote population education in the schools. (Author)

  15. Relationship of Non-Economic Variables to Patterns of Saving of Farm Families in a Puerto Rican County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segarra-Ortiz, Hilda

    This study examined the relationship between income and saving patterns in rural Puerto Rico. It was hypothesized that social and psychological variables are related to saving habits of families. The level of living as measured by a scale based on possessions was found to be significantly (.33) associated with the saving patterns of the family.…

  16. Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

  17. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  18. Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Nancy K.

    This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

  19. Inferring Noncoding RNA Families and Classes by Means of Genome-Scale Structure-Based Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Will, Sebastian; Reiche, Kristin; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F; Backofen, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The RFAM database defines families of ncRNAs by means of sequence similarities that are sufficient to establish homology. In some cases, such as microRNAs and box H/ACA snoRNAs, functional commonalities define classes of RNAs that are characterized by structural similarities, and typically consist of multiple RNA families. Recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomics and comparative genomics have produced very large sets of putative noncoding RNAs and regulatory RNA signals. For many of them, evidence for stabilizing selection acting on their secondary structures has been derived, and at least approximate models of their structures have been computed. The overwhelming majority of these hypothetical RNAs cannot be assigned to established families or classes. We present here a structure-based clustering approach that is capable of extracting putative RNA classes from genome-wide surveys for structured RNAs. The LocARNA (local alignment of RNA) tool implements a novel variant of the Sankoff algorithm that is sufficiently fast to deal with several thousand candidate sequences. The method is also robust against false positive predictions, i.e., a contamination of the input data with unstructured or nonconserved sequences. We have successfully tested the LocARNA-based clustering approach on the sequences of the RFAM-seed alignments. Furthermore, we have applied it to a previously published set of 3,332 predicted structured elements in the Ciona intestinalis genome (Missal K, Rose D, Stadler PF (2005) Noncoding RNAs in Ciona intestinalis. Bioinformatics 21 (Supplement 2): i77–i78). In addition to recovering, e.g., tRNAs as a structure-based class, the method identifies several RNA families, including microRNA and snoRNA candidates, and suggests several novel classes of ncRNAs for which to date no representative has been experimentally characterized. PMID:17432929

  20. Structure of Acidothermus cellulolyticus family 74 glycoside hydrolase at 1.82 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Alahuhta, Markus; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    Here, a 1.82 Å resolution X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 74 (GH74) enzyme from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is reported. The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.150 and an R free of 0.196. Structural analysis shows that five related structures have been reported with a secondary-structure similarity of between 75 and 89%. The five similar structures were all either Clostridium thermocellum or Geotrichum sp. M128 GH74 xyloglucanases. Structural analysis indicates that the A. cellulolyticus GH74 enzyme is an endoxyloglucanase, as it lacks a characteristic loop that blocks one end of the active site in exoxyloglucanases. Superimposition with the C. thermocellum GH74 shows that Asp451 and Asp38 are the catalytic residues. PMID:24316824

  1. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  2. Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

  3. Elucigene FH20 and LIPOchip for the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, P; Boyers, D; Boachie, C; Stewart, F; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Simpson, W; Kilonzo, M; McNamee, P; Mowatt, G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition causing a high risk of coronary heart disease. The prevalence of this disease is about 1 in 500 in the UK, affecting about 120,000 people across the whole of the UK. Current guidelines recommend DNA testing, however, these guidelines are poorly implemented, therefore 102,000 or 85% of this group remain undiagnosed. OBJECTIVES To assess the diagnostic accuracy, effect on patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Elucigene FH20 and LIPOchip for the diagnosis of FH. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched until January 2011. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of the literature on diagnostic accuracy was carried out according to standard methods. An economic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic strategies for the confirmation of clinically diagnosed FH in index cases and for the identification and subsequent testing of first-, second- and possibly third-degree biological relatives of the index case. Twelve strategies were evaluated linking diagnostic accuracy to treatment outcomes and hence quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to investigate model and parameter uncertainty. RESULTS Fifteen studies were included for diagnostic accuracy; three reported Elucigene FH20, five reported LIPOchip, four reported low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) tests and three reported an age- and gender-specific LDL-C test against a reference standard of comprehensive genetic analysis (CGA). Sensitivity ranged from 44% to 52% for Elucigene FH20 and from 33.3% to 94.5% for various versions of LIPOchip in detecting FH-causing mutations in patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH. For LIPOchip version 10 (designed to detect 189 UK specific mutations), sensitivity would be 78.5% (based on single-centre data - Progenika, personal communication). For all other Elucigene FH20 or LIPOchip studies (apart from one LIPOchip study), specificity could not be calculated as no false-positive results could be derived from the given data. The LDL-C test was generally reported to be highly sensitive but with low specificity. For age- and gender-specific LDL-C cut-offs for cascade testing, sensitivity ranged from 68% to 96%. One UK-based study reported sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93%. For the cost-effectiveness review, only one study reporting cost-effectiveness of any one of the comparators for this assessment was identified. Pre-screen strategies such as Elucigene FH20 followed by CGA were not cost-effective and were dominated by the single more comprehensive tests (e.g. CGA). Of the non-dominated strategies, Elucigene FH20, LIPOchip platform (Spain) and CGA were all cost-effective with associated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) relative to LDL-C of dominance (test is less costly and more effective), £871 and £1030 per QALY gained respectively. CGA generates the greatest QALY gain and, although other tests have lower ICERs relative to LDL-C, this is at the expense of QALY loss compared with the CGA test. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that CGA is associated with an almost 100% probability of cost-effectiveness at the conventional value of willingness to pay of £20,000 per QALY gain. LIMITATIONS There was much uncertainty regarding the diagnostic accuracy of the included tests, with wide variation in sensitivity across reported studies. A lack of published information for the most recent version of LIPOchip created additional uncertainty, especially in relation to the chip's ability to detect copy number changes. For the economic modelling, we aimed to choose the best studies for the base-case sensitivity of the tests; however, a number of informed choices based on clinical expert opinion had to be made in the absence of published studies for a number of other parameters in the modelling. This adds some uncertainty to our results, although it is unlikely that these would be sufficient in magnitude to alter our main results and conclusions. CONCLUSIONS As targeted tests designed to detect a limited number of genetic mutations, Elucigene FH20 and LIPOchip cannot detect all cases of FH, in contrast with CGA. CGA is therefore the most effective test in terms of sensitivity and QALY gain, and is also highly cost-effective with an associated ICER of £1030 per QALY gain relative to current practice (LDL-C). Other tests such as Elucigene FH20 and LIPOchip are also cost-effective; however, because of inferior sensitivity compared with CGA, these tests offer cost savings but at the expense of large QALY losses compared with CGA. Further prospective multicentred studies are required to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of new and emerging tests for FH with the LDL-C test in patients with a clinical diagnosis based on the Simon Broome criteria. Such studies should verify both test-positive and -negative results against a reference standard of CGA and should include a full economic evaluation. FUNDING The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:22469073

  4. Cryo-EM structure of lysenin pore elucidates membrane insertion by an aerolysin family protein.

    PubMed

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Martin, Thomas G; Naylor, Claire E; Basak, Ajit K; Titball, Richard W; Savva, Christos G

    2016-01-01

    Lysenin from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida belongs to the aerolysin family of small β-pore-forming toxins (β-PFTs), some members of which are pathogenic to humans and animals. Despite efforts, a high-resolution structure of a channel for this family of proteins has been elusive and therefore the mechanism of activation and membrane insertion remains unclear. Here we determine the pore structure of lysenin by single particle cryo-EM, to 3.1 Å resolution. The nonameric assembly reveals a long β-barrel channel spanning the length of the complex that, unexpectedly, includes the two pre-insertion strands flanking the hypothetical membrane-insertion loop. Examination of other members of the aerolysin family reveals high structural preservation in this region, indicating that the membrane-insertion pathway in this family is conserved. For some toxins, proteolytic activation and pro-peptide removal will facilitate unfolding of the pre-insertion strands, allowing them to form the β-barrel of the channel. PMID:27048994

  5. Cryo-EM structure of lysenin pore elucidates membrane insertion by an aerolysin family protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Martin, Thomas G.; Naylor, Claire E.; Basak, Ajit K.; Titball, Richard W.; Savva, Christos G.

    2016-04-01

    Lysenin from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida belongs to the aerolysin family of small β-pore-forming toxins (β-PFTs), some members of which are pathogenic to humans and animals. Despite efforts, a high-resolution structure of a channel for this family of proteins has been elusive and therefore the mechanism of activation and membrane insertion remains unclear. Here we determine the pore structure of lysenin by single particle cryo-EM, to 3.1 Å resolution. The nonameric assembly reveals a long β-barrel channel spanning the length of the complex that, unexpectedly, includes the two pre-insertion strands flanking the hypothetical membrane-insertion loop. Examination of other members of the aerolysin family reveals high structural preservation in this region, indicating that the membrane-insertion pathway in this family is conserved. For some toxins, proteolytic activation and pro-peptide removal will facilitate unfolding of the pre-insertion strands, allowing them to form the β-barrel of the channel.

  6. Cryo-EM structure of lysenin pore elucidates membrane insertion by an aerolysin family protein

    PubMed Central

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Martin, Thomas G.; Naylor, Claire E.; Basak, Ajit K.; Titball, Richard W.; Savva, Christos G.

    2016-01-01

    Lysenin from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida belongs to the aerolysin family of small β-pore-forming toxins (β-PFTs), some members of which are pathogenic to humans and animals. Despite efforts, a high-resolution structure of a channel for this family of proteins has been elusive and therefore the mechanism of activation and membrane insertion remains unclear. Here we determine the pore structure of lysenin by single particle cryo-EM, to 3.1 Å resolution. The nonameric assembly reveals a long β-barrel channel spanning the length of the complex that, unexpectedly, includes the two pre-insertion strands flanking the hypothetical membrane-insertion loop. Examination of other members of the aerolysin family reveals high structural preservation in this region, indicating that the membrane-insertion pathway in this family is conserved. For some toxins, proteolytic activation and pro-peptide removal will facilitate unfolding of the pre-insertion strands, allowing them to form the β-barrel of the channel. PMID:27048994

  7. Crystal Structure of Bombyx mori Lipoprotein 6: Comparative Structural Analysis of the 30-kDa Lipoprotein Family

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; Łochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The 30-kDa lipoprotein (LP) family of mulberry silkworm comprises major hemolymph proteins specific to the fifth instar larvae. The family consists of 46 members, 24 of which are referred to as typical 30-kDa LPs. To date, two crystal structures of 30-kDa LPs from Bombyx mori have been described (Bmlp3 and Bmlp7). Here, we present the crystal structure of Bmlp6, another 30-kDa LP member. Bmlp6 is comprised of two domains characteristic of this family, the VHS-type N-terminal domain and β-trefoil C-terminal domain. The structures of the three 30-kDa LPs have been compared and a number of differences are noted, including loop conformation, the surface electrostatic potential, and the potential binding cavities. We discuss the observed structural differences in the light of the potential different roles of the particular 30-kDa LP members in silkworm physiology. PMID:25379889

  8. Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

  9. Structure-Guided Recombination Creates an Artificial Family of Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Otey, Christopher R; Landwehr, Marco; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Hiraga, Kaori; Bloom, Jesse D

    2006-01-01

    Creating artificial protein families affords new opportunities to explore the determinants of structure and biological function free from many of the constraints of natural selection. We have created an artificial family comprising ˜3,000 P450 heme proteins that correctly fold and incorporate a heme cofactor by recombining three cytochromes P450 at seven crossover locations chosen to minimize structural disruption. Members of this protein family differ from any known sequence at an average of 72 and by as many as 109 amino acids. Most (>73%) of the properly folded chimeric P450 heme proteins are catalytically active peroxygenases; some are more thermostable than the parent proteins. A multiple sequence alignment of 955 chimeras, including both folded and not, is a valuable resource for sequence-structure-function studies. Logistic regression analysis of the multiple sequence alignment identifies key structural contributions to cytochrome P450 heme incorporation and peroxygenase activity and suggests possible structural differences between parents CYP102A1 and CYP102A2. PMID:16594730

  10. Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

    2010-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

  11. Common and Distant Structural Characteristics of Feruloyl Esterase Families from Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Mapelli, Valeria; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. Conclusions/Significance Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for short listing the putative substrates prior to docking studies or for post-processing docking results to remove false positives. Our study exemplifies how computational predictions can complement to the information obtained through experimental methods. PMID:22745763

  12. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa. PMID:19941674

  13. Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei

    2015-01-21

    Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed. PMID:25427222

  14. Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase

    PubMed Central

    Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

  15. Fathering and Adolescent Adjustment: Variations by Family Structure and Ethnic Background

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Miller, Marie A.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford; Cookston, Jeffrey; Fabricius, William; Saenz, Delia; Adams, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated how fathering behaviors (acceptance, rejection, monitoring, consistent discipline, and involvement) are related to preadolescent adjustment in Mexican American and European American stepfamilies and intact families. Cross-sectional data from 393 7th graders, their schoolteachers, and parents were used to examine links between different dimensions of fathering and adolescent outcomes. Following an ecological multivariate model, family SES, marital satisfaction, and mothers’ parenting were included as controls. In all contexts, fathering had significant effects on adolescent adjustment. Both mothers’ parenting and adolescent gender moderated the associations, and we uncovered some provocative nonlinear relations between fathering and adolescent outcomes. The importance of ethnicity and family structure in studies of fathering are highlighted. PMID:24235877

  16. Family structure transitions and changes in maternal resources and well-being.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M; Magnuson, Katherine

    2012-02-01

    This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether family instability is associated with changes in perceived social support, material hardship, maternal depression, and parenting stress among mothers of young children. In addition to accounting for the number of transitions that a mother experiences during the first five years of her child's life, we pay close attention to the type and timing of these transitions. We find that mothers who transition to cohabitation or marriage with their child's biological father experience declines in material hardship and that those who transition to cohabitation or marriage with another man exhibit modest declines in both material hardship and depression. Mothers who exit cohabiting or marital relationships encounter decreases in perceived social support and increases in material hardship, depression, and parenting stress. Overall, our results suggest that both the type and, to a much lesser degree, the timing of family structure transitions may influence maternal well-being. PMID:22215507

  17. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commercial energy

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, R.A.; Schmalensee, R.; Stoker, T.M.

    1999-07-01

    To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the relations between per-capita GDP and per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors. Panel data covering up to 123 nations are employed, and measurement problems are treated both in dataset construction and in estimation. Time and country fixed effects are assumed, and flexible forms for income effects are employed. There are substantial differences among sectors in the structure of country, time, and income effects. In particular, the household sector's share of aggregate energy consumption tends to fall with income, the share of transportation tends to rise, and the share of industry follows an inverse-U pattern.

  18. Representation of economic preferences in the structure and function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Alan S. R.; Sakagami, Masamichi; Kiyonari, Toko; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Social value orientations (SVOs) are economic preferences for the distribution of resources – prosocial individuals are more cooperative and egalitarian than are proselfs. Despite the social and economic implications of SVOs, no systematic studies have examined their neural correlates. We investigated the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) structures and functions in prosocials and proselfs by functional magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated cooperative behavior in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We found for the first time that amygdala volume was larger in prosocials and positively correlated with cooperation, while DLPFC volume was larger in proselfs and negatively correlated with cooperation. Proselfs’ decisions were marked by strong DLPFC and weak amygdala activity, and prosocials’ decisions were marked by strong amygdala activity, with the DLPFC signal increasing only in defection. Our findings suggest that proselfs’ decisions are controlled by DLPFC-mediated deliberative processes, while prosocials’ decisions are initially guided by automatic amygdala processes. PMID:26876988

  19. Representation of economic preferences in the structure and function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Alan S R; Sakagami, Masamichi; Kiyonari, Toko; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Social value orientations (SVOs) are economic preferences for the distribution of resources - prosocial individuals are more cooperative and egalitarian than are proselfs. Despite the social and economic implications of SVOs, no systematic studies have examined their neural correlates. We investigated the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) structures and functions in prosocials and proselfs by functional magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated cooperative behavior in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. We found for the first time that amygdala volume was larger in prosocials and positively correlated with cooperation, while DLPFC volume was larger in proselfs and negatively correlated with cooperation. Proselfs' decisions were marked by strong DLPFC and weak amygdala activity, and prosocials' decisions were marked by strong amygdala activity, with the DLPFC signal increasing only in defection. Our findings suggest that proselfs' decisions are controlled by DLPFC-mediated deliberative processes, while prosocials' decisions are initially guided by automatic amygdala processes. PMID:26876988

  20. Associations between Family Structure Changes and Children's Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effects of Timing and Marital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Claessens, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal…

  1. Associations between Family Structure Changes and Children's Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effects of Timing and Marital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Claessens, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Most children in the U.S. today will experience one or more changes in family structure. The present study explores the implications of this trend for child development by investigating the conditions under which family structure changes matter most to child well-being. Using data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal

  2. The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1–67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I–IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1–3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

  3. Multifactorial inheritance with cultural transmission and assortative mating. III. Family structure and the analysis of separation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C R; Rice, J; Reich, T

    1979-01-01

    Demographic data about family composition or structure in the United States is reviewed. About 25% of white children and a majority of black children are reared in either broken or extended families, and this must be taken into consideration for valid studies of cultural inheritance. Atypical family structures are described including those in which parents include: biological parents, stepparents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, sibs, foster parents, and their spouses. General formulae for a wide variety of kinship correlations are derived using path analysis. The multifactorial model presented allows for cultural inheritance, polygenic inheritance, correlated sibling environments, and phenotypic assortative mating (as previously described for intact families) plus extensions necessary for the analysis of separation experiments. These extensions allow for variable family structure and differences in parental influence due to separation, age or stage of development of the child, birth order, or type of relationship. Family structure is observed to have a marked effect on familial resemblance. Computer simulation studies demonstrate marked heterogeneity among phenotypic correlations for kinships of the same degree of genetic relationship arising in different family structures. Analyses of multiple types of sibs and other relatives in variable family structures offer great promise for the study of cultural inheritance. PMID:572636

  4. Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.; Walker, D.; Lanier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Computer program, SHCOST, was used to perform economic analyses of operational test sites. The program allows consideration of the economic parameters which are important to the solar system user. A life cycle cost and cash flow comparison is made between a solar heating system and a conventional system. The program assists in sizing the solar heating system. A sensitivity study and plot capability allow the user to select the most cost effective system configuration.

  5. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  6. Structural Features and Chaperone Activity of the NudC Protein Family

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Meiying; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Burdette, Alexander J.; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Janczyk, Pawe; #322; #321; .; Derewenda, Urszula; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Caldwell, Kim A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-05-25

    The NudC family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. The archetypal nudC gene from Aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. This family also includes nudF, whose human orthologue, Lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. Three paralogues of NudC are known in vertebrates: NudC, NudC-like (NudCL), and NudC-like 2 (NudCL2). The fourth distantly related member of the family, CML66, contains a NudC-like domain. The three principal NudC proteins have no catalytic activity but appear to play as yet poorly defined roles in proliferating and dividing cells. We present crystallographic and NMR studies of the human NudC protein and discuss the results in the context of structures recently deposited by structural genomics centers (i.e., NudCL and mouse NudCL2). All proteins share the same core CS domain characteristic of proteins acting either as cochaperones of Hsp90 or as independent small heat shock proteins. However, while NudC and NudCL dimerize via an N-terminally located coiled coil, the smaller NudCL2 lacks this motif and instead dimerizes as a result of unique domain swapping. We show that NudC and NudCL, but not NudCL2, inhibit the aggregation of several target proteins, consistent with an Hsp90-independent heat shock protein function. Importantly, and in contrast to several previous reports, none of the three proteins is able to form binary complexes with Lis1. The availability of structural information will be of help in further studies on the cellular functions of the NudC family.

  7. [Working with families in the early stages of psychosis: a structured intervention for caregivers].

    PubMed

    Alpi, A; Cocchi, A; Meneghelli, A; Pafumi, N; Patelli, G

    2008-01-01

    In the field of early psychosis psychoeducation is considered fundamental to increase coping skills with diseases and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. The more recent and updated guidelines on schizophrenia underline the extreme importance of the families involvement in treatment of young people in the initial phases of illness. "Families are the main support for many young patients. They could be the primary carers but they have also to face individual and social consequences following the onset course. Where feasible, family members must be involved in the treatment". This work describes the components of the work with families carried on by the Centre for the early detection of psychoses and high-risk situations--Programma 2000 ("Niguarda Ca' Granda" Hospital-Milan) and is mostly focused on psychoeducation and on Expressed Emotions aspects. Even the advances suggested by the international literature drove Programma 2000 to define both the steps of caregivers assessment and intervention. During the last ten years, Programma 2000 has followed 191 caregivers. Aims of this work is to verifier the outcome of the "pilot project", started in 2007, projected specifically to increase the normally used strategies to improve the caregivers adherence and involvement in the therapeutic process. The individualized multi-componential intervention has been structured in 8 session over one years. Outcome measures used in this article are the scores of the Camberwell Family Interview and from the Psychosis Knowledge Assessement Semistructured Interview (VCP). The subjects enrolled in the structured pilot project were 25 family caregiver to young (18-30 yrs old) patients. Results shows change in the Expressed Emotion level: 13% of families moved from High Expressed Emotion to Low Expressed Emotion. Furthermore data on the knowledge of illness knowledge level illustrate a reduction in the percentage, from 47% to 18%, of carers who have just a very vague knowledge of illness, and an increase from 16% to 27% of carers who obtain a good level of specific knowledge. In conclusion we can sustain mental health expert with aim to treatment project programme individualized and multi-componential tailored for young's caregiver at the onset phase of psychosis. PMID:19288779

  8. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. PMID:25821911

  9. Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911

  10. Understanding discipline in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Grau, Dolores; Rosel, Jesús; Meliá, Amanda

    2009-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-five mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) completed a semi-structured interview, the Parenting Stress Index Questionnaire (Abidin, 1990), to evaluate parenting stress. The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff & Acker, 1993) was also administered to measure dysfunctional discipline strategies. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which the independent variables were the Child's Characteristics and the Socio-Educational Status of his or her family; intermediate variables were Parenting Stress concerning the Child Domain and concerning the Parent Domain; and the dependent variable was Parental Discipline. The results confirm our hypotheses. Interventions in these families should therefore incorporate a component focused on Parenting Stress (in both the Child Domain and the Parent Domain), as a determinant of Parental Discipline. PMID:19899651

  11. Does Adolescent Family Structure Predict Military Enlistment? A Comparison of Post-High School Activities

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Naomi J.; Henderson, Kathryn A.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between adolescent family structure and the likelihood of military enlistment in young adulthood, as compared to alternative post-high school activities. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multinomial logistic regression analyses to compare the odds of military enlistment with college attendance or labor force involvement. We find that alternative family structures predict enlistment relative to college attendance. Living in a single-parent household during adolescence increased odds of military enlistment, but the effect is accounted for by socioeconomic status and early feelings of social isolation. Living with a stepparent or with neither biological parent more than doubles the odds of enlistment, independent of socioeconomic status, characteristics of parent-child relationships, or feelings of social isolation. Although college attendance is widely promoted as a valued post-high school activity, military service may offer a route to independence and a greater sense of belonging. PMID:24000268

  12. A Structure-Based Classification and Analysis of Protein Domain Family Binding Sites and Their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ghoorah, Anisah W.; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Alborzi, Seyed Ziaeddin; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Ritchie, David W.

    2015-01-01

    While the number of solved 3D protein structures continues to grow rapidly, the structural rules that distinguish protein-protein interactions between different structural families are still not clear. Here, we classify and analyse the secondary structural features and promiscuity of a comprehensive non-redundant set of domain family binding sites (DFBSs) and hetero domain-domain interactions (DDIs) extracted from our updated KBDOCK resource. We have partitioned 4001 DFBSs into five classes using their propensities for three types of secondary structural elements (“α” for helices, “β” for strands, and “γ” for irregular structure) and we have analysed how frequently these classes occur in DDIs. Our results show that β elements are not highly represented in DFBSs compared to α and γ elements. At the DDI level, all classes of binding sites tend to preferentially bind to the same class of binding sites and α/β contacts are significantly disfavored. Very few DFBSs are promiscuous: 80% of them interact with just one Pfam domain. About 50% of our Pfam domains bear only one single-partner DFBS and are therefore monogamous in their interactions with other domains. Conversely, promiscuous Pfam domains bear several DFBSs among which one or two are promiscuous, thereby multiplying the promiscuity of the concerned protein. PMID:25860777

  13. Parenting and Neighborhood Predictors of Youth Problem Behaviors within Hispanic Families: The Moderating Role of Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Jochebed G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Pantin, Hilda M.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family and neighborhood contexts on Hispanic youth problem behavior. The effects of parents' perceptions of neighborhood context and parenting practices on problem behavior were examined in 167 one-parent (n = 75) and two-parent (n = 92) families. Results from multigroup path analyses showed significant main…

  14. "The Normal American Family" as an Interpretive Structure of Family Life among Grown Children of Korean and Vietnamese Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Based on analysis of interviews with young adults (N=73), this article examines the ways that children of Korean and Vietnamese immigrants describe growing up in their families. Findings suggest that narrow and ethnocentric images of the family promulgated throughout mainstream culture compose an ideological template that can shape the desires,

  15. Economic change and health benefits: structural trends in employer-based health insurance.

    PubMed

    Cubbins, L A; Parmer, P

    2001-03-01

    Drawing on structural theories of economic outcomes, we investigated how economic change affects the distribution of health benefits, the main source of health insurance for American workers. Through an aggregate level analysis, we show how the effects of industry level characteristics on the level of health benefits change between 1988 and 1997. Due to the increased reliance on women, nonwhite workers, and part-time labor, we expect declines in the effect sizes of gender and race composition and proportion full-time. In contrast, we predict increases in the effects of proportion small firm employment, proportion union, and industry sector due to rising health care costs, the competitive economic environment, and greater union effectiveness. We analyze data from the March Current Population Surveys for 1987 to 1997 using generalized least-squares regression. The positive effect of proportion white increases over time, while the positive effect of level of full-time work declines. The negative effects of small firm employment and being a retail or nonprofessional service industry increase in magnitude. Both union activity and gender composition have stable effects over the period. The results challenge views of a declining significance of race and gender in the labor market. PMID:11357718

  16. X-ray structures of two proteins belonging to Pfam DUF178 revealed unexpected structural similarity to the DUF191 Pfam family

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rajiv; Burley, Stephen K; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2007-01-01

    Background Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, with a range of well-established information including genome annotation. Pfam has two large series of functionally uncharacterized families, known as Domains of Unknown Function (DUFs) and Uncharacterized Protein Families (UPFs). Results Crystal structures of two proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans and Streptomyces coelicolor belonging to Pfam protein family DUF178 (ID: PF02621) have been determined using Selenium-Single-wavelength Anomalous Dispersion (Se-SAD). Based on the structure, we have identified the putative function for this family of protein. Conclusion Unexpectedly, we found that DUF178 Pfam is remarkably similar to Pfam family DUF191 suggesting that the sequence-based classification alone may not be sufficient to classify proteins into Pfam families. PMID:17908300

  17. Structural and Mechanistic Characterization of L-Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from the PHP Family of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ghodge, Swapnil V.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ronald; Almo, Steven C.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    l-Histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-histidinol phosphate to L-histidinol and inorganic phosphate, the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of L-histidine. HPP from the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) family of proteins possesses a trinuclear active site and a distorted (β/α)7-barrel protein fold. This group of enzymes is closely related to the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The mechanism of phosphomonoester bond hydrolysis by the PHP family of HPP enzymes was addressed. Recombinant HPP from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis that was expressed in Escherichia coli contained a mixture of iron and zinc in the active site and had a catalytic efficiency of ~103 M−1 s−1. Expression of the protein under iron-free conditions resulted in the production of enzyme with a two orders of magnitude improvement in catalytic efficiency and a mixture of zinc and manganese in the active site. Solvent isotope and viscosity effects demonstrated that proton transfer steps and product dissociation steps are not rate-limiting. X-ray structures of HPP were determined with sulfate, L-histidinol/phosphate, and a complex of L-histidinol and arsenate bound in the active site. These crystal structures and the catalytic properties of variants were used to identify the structural elements required for catalysis and substrate recognition by the HPP family of enzymes within the amidohydrolase superfamily. PMID:23327428

  18. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

  20. Separate roles of structured and unstructured regions of Y-family DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Haruo; Hanafusa, Tomo; Ohashi, Eiji; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    All organisms have multiple DNA polymerases specialized for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) on damaged DNA templates. Mammalian TLS DNA polymerases include Pol η, Pol ι, Pol κ and Rev1 (all classified as ‘Y-family’ members) and Pol ζ (a ‘B-family’ member). Y-family DNA polymerases have highly structured catalytic domains; however, some of these proteins adopt different structures when bound to DNA (such as archaeal Dpo4 and human Pol κ), while others maintain similar structures independently of DNA binding (such as archaeal Dbh and S. cerevisiae Pol η). DNA binding-induced structural conversions of TLS polymerases depend on flexible regions present within the catalytic domains. In contrast, non-catalytic regions of Y-family proteins, which contain multiple domains and motifs for interactions with other proteins, are predicted to be mostly unstructured, except for short regions corresponding to ubiquitin-binding domains. In this review we discuss how the organization of structured and unstructured regions in TLS polymerases is relevant to their regulation and function during lesion bypass. PMID:20663485

  1. Structure of a PL17 Family Alginate Lyase Demonstrates Functional Similarities among Exotype Depolymerases

    PubMed Central

    Park, David; Jagtap, Sujit; Nair, Satish K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown macroalgae represent an ideal source for complex polysaccharides that can be utilized as precursors for cellulosic biofuels. The lack of recalcitrant lignin components in macroalgae polysaccharide reserves provides a facile route for depolymerization of constituent polysaccharides into simple monosaccharides. The most abundant sugars in macroalgae are alginate, mannitol, and glucan, and although several classes of enzymes that can catabolize the latter two have been characterized, studies of alginate-depolymerizing enzymes have lagged. Here, we present several crystal structures of Alg17c from marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans along with structure-function characterization of active site residues that are suggested to be involved in the exolytic mechanism of alginate depolymerization. This represents the first structural and biochemical characterization of a family 17 polysaccharide lyase enzyme. Despite the lack of appreciable sequence conservation, the structure and β-elimination mechanism for glycolytic bond cleavage by Alg17c are similar to those observed for family 15 polysaccharide lyases and other lyases. This work illuminates the evolutionary relationships among enzymes within this unexplored class of polysaccharide lyases and reinforces the notion of a structure-based hierarchy in the classification of these enzymes. PMID:24478312

  2. Exon-intron structure and evolution of the Lipocalin gene family.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Diego; Ganfornina, María D; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Marín, Antonio

    2003-05-01

    The Lipocalins are an ancient protein family whose expression is currently confirmed in bacteria, protoctists, plants, arthropods, and chordates. The evolution of this protein family has been assessed previously using amino acid sequence phylogenies. In this report we use an independent set of characters derived from the gene structure (exon-intron arrangement) to infer a new lipocalin phylogeny. We also present the novel gene structure of three insect lipocalins. The position and phase of introns are well preserved among lipocalin clades when mapped onto a protein sequence alignment, suggesting the homologous nature of these introns. Because of this homology, we use the intron position and phase of 23 lipocalin genes to reconstruct a phylogeny by maximum parsimony and distance methods. These phylogenies are very similar to the phylogenies derived from protein sequence. This result is confirmed by congruence analysis, and a consensus tree shows the commonalities between the two source trees. Interestingly, the intron arrangement phylogeny shows that metazoan lipocalins have more introns than other eukaryotic lipocalins, and that intron gains have occurred in the C-termini of chordate lipocalins. We also analyze the relationship of intron arrangement and protein tertiary structure, as well as the relationship of lipocalins with members of the proposed structural superfamily of calycins. Our congruence analysis validates the gene structure data as a source of phylogenetic information and helps to further refine our hypothesis on the evolutionary history of lipocalins. PMID:12679526

  3. Economic costs and benefits associated with investments in pollution prevention structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Both fertilizers and pesticides are primary sources of surface and groundwater contamination in the US. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. The general objective of these programs is to provide research, development, and application of pollution prevention technologies and strategies for industries which market or use fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals. From an economic perspective, the installation of pollution prevention structures, as well as adherence to other regulatory requirements carries a real cost to the agrichemical retailer. However, there may also be benefits tied to the adoption of new technology that would offset some or all of the additional operating costs accrued as a result of investment in the environmental technology. This paper attempts to document the economic costs associated with investments in pollution prevention technologies and adherence to environmental regulations at TVA demonstrator sites; as well as the potential benefits an agribusiness dealer may accrue as a result of the environmental investment.

  4. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  5. The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Schooling on Economic Success. Volume III. Supplementary Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher; And Others

    This volume contains eleven appendixes, varying from 5 to 165 pages, which describe the sample used in the analysis of ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and earnings in maturity. The appendixes are (1) 1970 Census 1/1000 Sample; (2) 1962…

  6. Differential Effects of Economic Factors on Specialist and Family Physician Distribution in Illinois: A County-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Uneven distribution of physicians across geographic areas of the United States remains a significant problem that may have implications for health. Purpose: To develop a statistical model of physician distribution in Illinois counties that predicts where specialists and family physicians practice, and to suggest policy strategies for…

  7. Child Care Subsidies and the Economic Well-Being of Recipient Families: A Survey and Implications for Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The secular increase over the past several decades in the number of families where both the husband and wife work in the paid labor force, coupled with the surge in labor force participation of single mothers in the 1990s, has heightened policy focus on child care options for working parents; federal and state governments are now major players…

  8. Differential Effects of Economic Factors on Specialist and Family Physician Distribution in Illinois: A County-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Uneven distribution of physicians across geographic areas of the United States remains a significant problem that may have implications for health. Purpose: To develop a statistical model of physician distribution in Illinois counties that predicts where specialists and family physicians practice, and to suggest policy strategies for

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valrie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2011-12-14

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity.

  10. The Bcl-2 family: structures, interactions and targets for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kvansakul, Marc; Hinds, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Two phylogenetically and structurally distinct groups of proteins regulate stress induced intrinsic apoptosis, the programmed disassembly of cells. Together they form the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Bcl-2 proteins appeared early in metazoan evolution and are identified by the presence of up to four short conserved sequence blocks known as Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs, or domains. The simple BH3-only proteins bear only a BH3-motif and are intrinsically disordered proteins and antagonize or activate the other group, the multi-motif Bcl-2 proteins that have up to four BH motifs, BH1-BH4. Multi-motif Bcl-2 proteins are either pro-survival or pro-apoptotic in action and have remarkably similar ?-helical bundle structures that provide a binding groove formed from the BH1, BH2, and BH3-motifs for their BH3-bearing antagonists. In mammals a network of interactions between Bcl-2 members regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP) and efflux of cytochrome c and other death inducing factors from mitochondria to initiate the apoptotic caspase cascade, but the molecular events leading to MOMP are uncertain. Dysregulation of the Bcl-2 family occurs in many diseases and pathogenic viruses have assimilated pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins to evade immune responses. Their role in disease has made the Bcl-2 family the focus of drug design attempts and clinical trials are showing promise for 'BH3-mimics', drugs that mimic the ability of BH3-only proteins to neutralize selected pro-survival proteins to induce cell death in tumor cells. This review focuses on the structural biology of Bcl-2 family proteins, their interactions and attempts to harness them as targets for drug design. PMID:25398535

  11. State of Australia's Young People: A Report on the Social, Economic, Health and Family Lives of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Kristy; Mullan, Killian; Powell, Abigail; Flaxman, Saul; Thompson, Denise; Griffiths, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive picture of how young Australians are faring by bringing together data from a variety of sources and drawing on the comments of young people themselves. Overall the report presents a positive picture, showing how important young people are to this country and why it makes good economic and social sense for…

  12. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

    This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

  13. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  14. Discovery and structural characterization of a novel glycosidase family of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Rebuffet, Etienne; Groisillier, Agnès; Thompson, Andrew; Jeudy, Alexandra; Barbeyron, Tristan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2011-05-01

    The genomic data on heterotrophic marine bacteria suggest the crucial role that microbes play in the global carbon cycle. However, the massive presence of hypothetical proteins hampers our understanding of the mechanisms by which this carbon cycle is carried out. Moreover, genomic data from marine microorganisms are essentially annotated in the light of the biochemical knowledge accumulated on bacteria and fungi which decompose terrestrial plants. However marine algal polysaccharides clearly differ from their terrestrial counterparts, and their associated enzymes usually constitute novel protein families. In this study, we have applied a combination of bioinformatics, targeted activity screening and structural biology to characterize a hypothetical protein from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, which is distantly related to GH43 family. This protein is in fact a 1,3-α-3,6-anhydro-l-galactosidase (AhgA) which catalyses the last step in the degradation pathway of agars, a family of polysaccharides unique to red macroalgae. AhgA adopts a β-propeller fold and displays a zinc-dependent catalytic machinery. This enzyme is the first representative of a new family of glycoside hydrolases, especially abundant in coastal waters. Such genes of marine origin have been transferred to symbiotic microbes associated with marine fishes, but also with some specific human populations. PMID:21332624

  15. Role of the Candida albicans MNN1 gene family in cell wall structure and virulence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Candida albicans cell wall is the first point of contact with the host, and its outer surface is heavily enriched in mannoproteins modified through the addition of N- and O-mannan. Previous work, using mutants with gross defects in glycosylation, has clearly identified the importance of mannan in the host-pathogen interaction, immune recognition and virulence. Here we report the first analysis of the MNN1 gene family, which contains six members predicted to act as α-1,3 mannosyltransferases in the terminal stages of glycosylation. Findings We generated single null mutants in all members of the C. albicans MNN1 gene family, and disruption of MNN14 led to both in vitro and in vivo defects. Null mutants in other members of the family demonstrated no phenotypic defects, suggesting that these members may display functional redundancy. The mnn14Δ null mutant displayed hypersensitivity to agents associated with cell wall and glycosylation defects, suggesting an altered cell wall structure. However, no gross changes in cell wall composition or N-glycosylation were identified in this mutant, although an extension of phosphomannan chain length was apparent. Although the cell wall defects associated with the mnn14Δ mutant were subtle, this mutant displayed a severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Mnn14 plays a distinct role from other members of the MNN1 family, demonstrating that specific N-glycan outer chain epitopes are required in the host-pathogen interaction and virulence. PMID:23886038

  16. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

  17. Ethical, social and economic issues in familial breast cancer: a compilation of views from the E.C. Biomed II Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    Steel, M; Smyth, E; Vasen, H; Eccles, D; Evans, G; Møller, P; Hodgson, S; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Chang-Claude, J; Caligo, M; Morrison, P; Haites, N

    1999-10-01

    Demand for clinical services for familial breast cancer is continuing to rise across Europe. Service provision is far from uniform and, in most centres, its evolution has been determined by local conditions, specifically by local research interests, rather than by central planning. However, in a number of countries there is evidence of progress towards co-ordinated development and audit of clinics providing risk assessment, counselling, screening and, in some cases, prophylactic intervention. Much important information should emerge from continued observation and comparative assessment of these developments. In most countries for which relevant data are available, there is a distinct bias towards higher social class among those who avail themselves of clinic facilities (in line with findings from many other health-promotion initiatives). This should be addressed when considering future organisation of clinical services. Molecular genetic studies designed to identify the underlying mutations responsible for familial breast cancer are not generally regarded as part of the clinical service and are funded through research grants (if at all). Economic considerations suggest that there is a case for keeping this policy under review. Familial cancers throw into sharp relief certain ethical and legal issues that have received much recent attention from government advisory bodies, patients' representatives, professional commentators and the popular media. Two are of particular importance; first, the right to gain access to medical records of relatives, in order to provide accurate risk assessment for a given family member, versus the right to privacy in respect of personal medical information and, second, the obligation (or otherwise) to inform family members of their risk status if they have not actively sought that knowledge. The legal position seems to vary from country to country and, in many cases, is unclear. In view of pressures to establish uniform approaches to medical confidentiality across the EC, it is important to evaluate the experience of participants in this Demonstration Programme and to apply the principle of "non-malfeasance" in formulating regulations that should govern future practice in this field. Data on economic aspects of familial breast cancer are remarkably sparse and outdated. As evidence accrues on the influence of screening and intervention programmes on morbidity and mortality, there is a strong case for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of different models of service provision. PMID:10595265

  18. Heterologous Quaternary Structure of CXCL12 and its Relationship to the CC Chemokine Family

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Yuan, H; Kong, Y; Xiong, Y; Lolis, E

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that CXCL12 is able to form multiple dimer types, a traditional CXC dimer and a 'CC-like' form. Phylogenetic analysis of all known human chemokines demonstrates CXCL12 is more closely related to the CC chemokine class than other CXC chemokines. These observations indicate that CXCL12 contains genomic and structural elements characteristic of both CXC and CC chemokines.Chemokines are members of a superfamily of proteins involved in the migration of cells to the proper anatomical position during embryonic development or in response to infection or stress during an immune response. There are two major (CC and CXC) and two minor (CX3C and XC) families based on the sequence around the first conserved cysteine. The topology of all structures is essentially identical with a flexible N-terminal region of 3-8 amino acids, a 10-20 residue N-terminal loop, a short 3{sub 10}-helix, three {beta}-strands, and a {alpha}-helix. The major consequence of the subtle difference between the families occurs at the oligomeric level. Monomers of the CC, CXC, and CX3C families form dimers in a family-specific manner. The XCL1 chemokine is a monomer that can interconvert between two folded states. All chemokines activate GPCRs according to family-specificity, however there are a few examples of chemokines crossing the family boundary to function as antagonists. A two-stage mechanism for chemokine activation of GPCRs has been proposed. The N-terminal region of the receptor interacts with the chemokine, followed by receptor activation by the chemokine N-terminal region. Monomeric chemokines have been demonstrated to be the active form for receptor function. There are numerous examples of both chemokines and their receptors forming dimers. While family-specific dimerization may be an attractive explanation for why specific chemokines only activate GPCRs within their own family, the role of dimers in the function of chemokines has not been resolved. Given that CXCL12 is in the CXC family, the CXC dimer is considered the physiologic dimer in all previous studies based on crystallographic evidence. NMR and mutational studies agree with the CXC dimer form in solution. The CXC form of the dimer is seen in recent structures of CXCL12 bound to a heparin disaccharide and several CXCR4 peptides. In one case, crystals of the CXC-type dimer were soaked in a heparin disaccharide solution to determine the interactions between this dimer and bound disaccharide. In another case, in order to overcome NMR chemical shift line broadening when CXCR4 peptides are added, a 'locked' dimer was constructed by introducing a cysteine mutant that linked subunits as a CXC dimer through an inter-subunit disulfide bond. The solution structures of the locked CXC dimer with CXCR4 peptides were determined. The locked CXC dimer retained Ca{sup 2+} mobilization yet lost chemotaxis activity, presumably because the monomer is the active form. In addition to existing as a monomer and CXC dimer, CXCL12 is now demonstrated to have the capacity to form CC type dimers in the presence of a CXCR4 peptide.

  19. Structural and functional diversification in the teleost S100 family of calcium-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the EF-Hand calcium-binding proteins the subgroup of S100 proteins constitute a large family with numerous and diverse functions in calcium-mediated signaling. The evolutionary origin of this family is still uncertain and most studies have examined mammalian family members. Results We have performed an extensive search in several teleost genomes to establish the s100 gene family in fish. We report that the teleost S100 repertoire comprises fourteen different subfamilies which show remarkable similarity across six divergent teleost species. Individual species feature distinctive subsets of thirteen to fourteen genes that result from local gene duplications and gene losses. Eight of the fourteen S100 subfamilies are unique for teleosts, while six are shared with mammalian species and three of those even with cartilaginous fish. Several S100 family members are found in jawless fish already, but none of them are clear orthologs of cartilaginous or bony fish s100 genes. All teleost s100 genes show the expected structural features and are subject to strong negative selection. Many aspects of the genomic arrangement and location of mammalian s100 genes are retained in the teleost s100 gene family, including a completely conserved intron/exon border between the two EF hands. Zebrafish s100 genes exhibit highly specific and characteristic expression patterns, showing both redundancy and divergence in their cellular expression. In larval tissue expression is often restricted to specific cell types like keratinocytes, hair cells, ionocytes and olfactory receptor neurons as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Conclusion The origin of the S100 family predates at least the segregation of jawed from jawless fish and some extant family members predate the divergence of bony from cartilaginous fish. Despite a complex pattern of gene gains and losses the total repertoire size is remarkably constant between species. On the expression level the teleost S100 proteins can serve as precise markers for several different cell types. At least some of their functions may be related to those of their counterparts in mammals. Accordingly, our findings provide an excellent basis for future studies of the functions and interaction partners of s100 genes and finally their role in diseases, using the zebrafish as a model organism. PMID:18275604

  20. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that researchers make more frequent use of sophisticated methods to reduce the problem of confounders in secondary data, and that the scope of adolescent problem behaviors also be further widened. PMID:24627645