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1

Genetics, family structure, and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent biomedical research shows that roughly three-quarters of cognitive abilities are attributable to genetics and family\\u000a environment. This paper presents a growth model that characterizes the role of the intergenerational transmission of genes\\u000a and the effect of family environment on growth trajectories. If the average human or physical capital stocks are sufficiently\\u000a low, the model shows that the economy

Paul J. Zak

2002-01-01

2

Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families

Lindjord, Denise

2002-01-01

3

Day Care Centers, Family Structure, and Socio-Economic Status: A Study in Early Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of family structure variables, family socioeconomic status, and participation in center-based preschool day care programs on the social-psychological development of children in terms of their affective identification with parents, self-concept development, and a variety of indices of social behavior adjustment.…

Harper, Charles L.; Ault, James T., III

4

Consumer and Family Economics: A Justification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of consumer economics (the interactions between individuals and families and the markets for goods and services) and family economics (the interaction between families and work and workplace and the allocation of resources within the family). (JOW)

Widdows, Richard; Bryant, W. Keith

1993-01-01

5

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment.

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

6

Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

7

Consumer and Family Economics. Vocational Home Economics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for consumer and family economics is one of a number of guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. Introductory materials address use of the guide and list the essential elements upon which the content is based. The guide is divided into seven units: family economics, consumers in the economy,…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

8

Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

Sabi, Manijeh

9

Changes in Chinese Urban Family Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined incidence of urban nuclear and stem families in China and impact of government policies on urban family structure since 1949 through analysis of 1982 Five-City Family Survey of Chinese urban families (N=5,057). Concluded that rapid decrease in stem families is not soon likely because of traditional, social, political, and economic

Tsui, Ming

1989-01-01

10

Consumer and Family Economics. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This consumer and family economics curriculum guide was developed for use in home economics education in Texas. At the beginning is a list of the competencies and the subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. The conceptual outline as shown in the…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

11

Consumer and Family Economics: Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year consumer and family economics programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1)…

Dennis, Bobbye

12

Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

2009-01-01

13

[Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].  

PubMed

This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

Hou, W

1985-07-29

14

Predictors of Family Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an sociology class class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of households/families, income and race to understand how family structure and demographic information predict trends in family structure. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990 and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Atkinson, Maxine

15

Preference, structure and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an economic model to analyze a dynamic interaction among capital accumulation, economic structure and preference in a perfectly competitive economic system. The system consists of three sectors: agriculture, industry and service. A typical consumer's utility is dependent on consumption of agricultural and industrial goods, services, housing and wealth. The territory size is given and public land ownership

Wei-Bin Zhang

1996-01-01

16

Family Studies and Home Economics towards a Theoretical Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the potential of the field of family studies to provide an investigating body of knowledge in order to form a set of concepts to unify the many disciplines of home economics. Suggests five central concepts for defining the scope of home economics: energy, space, time, management, and family. (NRJ)

Hill, Reuben

1984-01-01

17

Economic Hardship and Adaptation among Asian American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family

Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.

2010-01-01

18

Economics and Family Bereavement Following a Fatal Farm Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 21 families who had lost the farm operator or a young person in a fatal farm accident revealed that, in every family, economic difficulties (operating the farm, providing for the family, and managing resources of time, energy, and capital) were entangled in the grief process. Implications for rural counselors and mental health…

Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Karis, Terri A.

1993-01-01

19

Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic

Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.

2010-01-01

20

Ethics Education in Family and Consumer Economics: Perspectives and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the conceptual frameworks of consequentialist and nonconsequentialist ethics as examples of two common and competing moral perspectives. Suggests possibilities for applications of ethics to issues that are common in consumer and family economics curricula. (Author/JOW)

Peterson, Audrey L.

1993-01-01

21

Assessing the Health of Consumer and Family Economics Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 196 Canadian home economics departments (55% response) regarding the status of consumer and family economics programs confirms that undergraduate enrollment is declining. The relevance and appeal of the undergraduate curriculum need to be improved and constituencies must be educated about the skills graduates possess. (JOW)

Zick, Cathleen D.; Widdows, Richard

1994-01-01

22

Coping with Family Conflict and Economic Strain: The Adolescent Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested two models of family economic problems and adolescent psychological adjustment. Found that the models did not differ according to age or gender, nor whether subjects lived with two parents or fewer. Found no support for coping as a moderator of stress. Reviewed implications and suggestions for future research involving coping with economic

Wadsworth, Martha E.; Compas, Bruce E.

2002-01-01

23

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

PubMed Central

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction.

Barnett, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

24

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

25

The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.  

PubMed

Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

Huang, Philip C C

2011-01-01

26

Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

Laquatra, J. Jr.

1982-02-01

27

President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates…

Lindjord, Denise

2003-01-01

28

Energy Conservation via Solar Energy Application to Multi-Family and Commercial Structures. Volume VI. Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary emphasis of the economic analysis is to establish a method of comparing life cycle costs for various energy conservation measures with particular emphasis upon conditions present in New York State. The program is adaptable to studying variatio...

B. Murphy

1977-01-01

29

Child Schooling and Family Size: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains the results of two closely related research projects designed to yield information on social and economic factors that influence the number of children couples have and the amount of schooling those children receive. Both projects are based on the same underlying theory of family formation and behavior and both use the same…

De Tray, Dennis

30

Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

Scholl, Jan

31

Structures of Cvnh Family Lectins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the CVNH family are found in a restricted range of eukaryotic organisms as diverse as filamentous ascomycetes and seedless plants. All CVNH proteins so far exhibit a fold that matches the unique fold of the cyanobacterial protein. The CVNH domain is a versatile protein module, and, with some exceptions, comprises 101-150 aa with two sequential repeats of 50 amino acids. We determined high resolution structures of CVNHs from Tuber borchii, Ceratopteris richardii, Neurospora crassa, and Gibberella zeae, representing different phylogenetic groups. All proteins exhibit the same fold and the overall structures resemble that of the founding member of the family, CVN, albeit with noteworthy differences in loop conformation and detailed local structure.

Gronenborn, Angela M.

32

Family Economic Stress and Academic Well-Being Among Chinese-American Youth: The Influence of Adolescents' Perceptions of Economic Strain  

PubMed Central

This study examined the pathways by which family economic stress influenced youth's educational outcomes in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (Mages = 13.0, 17.1 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). Using latent variable structural equation modeling, results across two waves of data, spanning early to late adolescence, demonstrated that the influence of parent report of economic stress on youth academic achievement (i.e., GPA), school engagement, and positive attitudes about education was mediated through youth's perceptions of family economic strain and self-reports of depressive symptoms. These relationships were observed to remain significant after accounting for selection bias using individual fixed-effects models. Finally, youth's perceptions of family economic strain were found to more strongly predict depressive symptoms during later, as compared to earlier, adolescence; all other modeled relationships were equivalent across the two time periods. Implications for expanding theoretical tenets of the Family Economic Stress Model are discussed.

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Benner, Aprile D.; Tan, Connie S.; Kim, Su Yeong

2009-01-01

33

Economic aspects of Singapore's selective family planning policy.  

PubMed

In the mid 1980s Singapore instituted a selective family planning policy which encouraged poorly educated women to prevent pregnancy while university graduates were discouraged from using family planning. The intent of this policy was to restructure the population and the economy into a more skill-intensive industrial society and to produce effective leaders for the future governing of the country. Monetary incentives were offered to both groups of women for their compliance with the policy, including grants to poor women agreeing to undergo steriliaztion. This study undertakes a cost benefit analysis of this family planning policy, taking into account parameters of economic growth, marginal value product of labor, and the consumption levels. Results of this analysis suggest that society may benefit more by prevention the birth of a potential university student than by preventing the birth of a potential primary school graduate. However, this study does not take into account the value of educated citizens in technical advancement which would raise the productivity of the uskilled workers in the country, nor some of the real economic conditions in Singapore such as the virtually unlimited availability of labor from other Asian countries (who come without dependents and are expatriated when they become unproductive). Training cost and the timing of benefits are critical to the outcome of this analysis. It is shown that, under some reasonable conditions, the selective family planning policy might not be economically warranted. PMID:12268639

Evans, D B

1987-08-01

34

Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.

35

Family structure, family organization, and quality of family life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how family organization is associated with the quality of family life for parents in first marriages,\\u000a remarriages with biological children, and several types of stepfamilies. Data are drawn from the 1987–1988 National Survey\\u000a of Families and Households; only married couples in which both spouses participated in the survey and who had children under\\u000a age 19 in the

Patricia Voydanoff; Mark A. Fine; Brena W. Donnelly

1994-01-01

36

Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.  

PubMed

With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations. PMID:20608104

Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

2010-05-01

37

Industrialization and Family Structure in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between industrialization and family structure in Hong Kong. Findings show that, as the development of industrialization increases, there have been corresponding changes in the structure of the family which evolves from a broken extended form, to a settled stem one, and currently toward a nuclear one. (Author)

Wong, Fai-Ming

1975-01-01

38

How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

2008-01-01

39

Nutrition and Family Planning: Concepts and Approaches for Home Economics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article's three focal points are: the role nutrition can play in enhancing family planning goals; nutrition, family planning, and the adolescent; and potential approaches for home economics educators. (Author)

Rand, Catherine

1976-01-01

40

Family structure and child food insecurity.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined whether food insecurity was different for children in cohabiting or repartnered families versus those in single-mother or married-parent (biological) families. Methods. We compared probabilities of child food insecurity (CFI) across different family structures in 4 national data sets: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS). Results. Unadjusted probabilities of CFI in cohabiting or repartnered families were generally higher than in married-biological-parent families and often statistically indistinguishable from those of single-mother families. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, most differences between family types were attenuated and most were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions. Although children whose biological parents are cohabiting or whose biological mothers have repartnered have risks for food insecurity comparable to those in single-mother families, the probability of CFI does not differ by family structure when household income, family size, and maternal race, ethnicity, education, and age were held at mean levels. PMID:24832438

Miller, Daniel P; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Ibarra, Gabriel Lara; Garasky, Steven

2014-07-01

41

Economic hardship and adolescent problem drinking: family processes as mediating influences.  

PubMed

Alcohol is the most commonly used substance among adolescents in the United States, and adolescent drinking is associated with various health risk behaviors. Given the prevalence and consequences of adolescent drinking, understanding family factors that contribute to adolescent drinking is an important area for research. This study used three waves of data to evaluate a family stress model in which economic hardship is indirectly related to adolescent problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. Respondents included 300 mothers (71 % Black, 29 % White) and adolescents (51 % male) who were interviewed when adolescents were ages 10, 14, and 16. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model and findings supported our hypothesized model. Economic hardship was positively related to maternal psychological distress. Maternal psychological distress was negatively associated with supportive parenting, which in turn was negatively associated with externalizing problems. Externalizing problems were positively associated with problem drinking. In support of our hypothesis regarding indirect effects, economic hardship was indirectly related to problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing problems. The findings from this study highlight the role of family processes in adolescent problem drinking. PMID:24248327

Hardaway, Cecily R; Cornelius, Marie D

2014-07-01

42

Alternative Economic Development Policies for Indian Communities. Economic Development and Navajo Social Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Underinvestment--a cause of underdevelopment; Social structure of Navajo Society; Economy in a traditional community; Economic development at the tribal level; Alternative economic development programs.

L. T. Ruffing

1974-01-01

43

Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.  

PubMed

Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

Schmeer, Kammi K

2013-10-01

44

Structures of Cvnh Family Lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the CVNH family are found in a restricted range of eukaryotic organisms as diverse as filamentous ascomycetes and\\u000a seedless plants. All CVNH proteins so far exhibit a fold that matches the unique fold of the cyanobacterial protein. The CVNH\\u000a domain is a versatile protein module, and, with some exceptions, comprises 101–150 aa with two sequential repeats of 50

Angela M. Gronenborn

45

Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

2012-01-01

46

Birth order, family structure and personality variables.  

PubMed

The birth order and family structure variables assessed included first or only child, position in multi-child family, position in dyadic family, age of parents at birth of given child, whether reared by one or both parents, whether reared under permissive or authoritarian family atmosphere. The personality variables assessed included Sociability, Anxiety, Dominance, Superego, Phlegmatic Temperament, Involvement, Self-Regard and other scales measured by the Howarth Personality Questionnaire. One hundred seventy female and 142 male undergraduates were tested. Significant relationships found included: anxiety lower in firstborns; superego higher in firstborns; persistence higher in those not dominated by elder sibling; phlegmatic temperament higher in permissive families; involvement and phlegmatic temperament lower in single parent families; self-pride higher in the elder of a sibling pair; individual tolerance higher in children reared by both rather than single parent. PMID:16366939

Howarth, E

1980-06-01

47

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

48

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

49

Fiscal Structures and Economic Growth: International Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically examines the effects of fiscal structure on economic growth. The authors find that, for developing countries, debt-financed increases in government expenditure retard growth and tax-financed increases stimulate growth, while for developed countries, debt-financed increases in government expenditure do not affect growth and tax-financed increases lower growth. The authors impose the government budget constraint on the regression equations

STEPHEN M. MILLER; FRANK S. RUSSEK

1997-01-01

50

Consumer-Directed Supports: Economic, Health, and Social Outcomes for Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of a consumer-directed support program on family caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities was explored. Economic, health, and social outcomes were compared between families in the program and families on the waiting list for the program. Caregivers of adults in the program reported fewer out-of-pocket disability expenses,…

Caldwell, Joe

2006-01-01

51

The Economic Plight of America's Young Families. An Update of CDF's Vanishing Dreams Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes improvements in the status of families headed by persons under age 30 from 1986 to 1987 based on figures from "Vanishing Dreams" and the most recent available data drawn from the Current Population Survey. The following sets of economic data are updated: (1) earnings of family heads; (2) young family incomes; and (3) poverty…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

52

The Future Information Structure in Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an attempt to "start a debate in our profession," William L. Goffe and Robert P. Parks have recently uploaded "The Future Information Structure in Economics" to the Economics Working Paper Archive at Washington University at St. Louis. Although the paper uses the Economics profession as an example, the points it raises can be applied to almost any academic subject. The paper discusses the possible effects of networking on future scholarly publishing, imagining how scholars will share not only their research, but also data sets that served as the raw material for the research, enabling other researchers to verify theories "on the fly." Several possibilities for future research publishing are discussed, from electronic journals that charge for access to completely free electronic publishing. The paper is divided into sections discussing: academic principles that are independent of technology; the impact of networks on working papers, journals and libraries; the implications of increased access to data; new opportunities for scholarly publishing in a networked environment; and a "roadmap" to a possible future of scholarly publishing. "Future Information" is available in .pdf, postscript, and TeX formats, is twenty pages long, contains little economics jargon, and has over 40 references to other electronic and non-electronic sources of interest. Goffe is a Professor in the Department of Economics and International Business at the University of Southern Mississippi, and is the author of "Resources for Economists on the Internet," one of the best Internet subject guides available. Parks is the maintainer of the Economics Working Paper Archive, a large and well organized electronic working paper archive.

Goffe, William L.; Parks, Bob.

1996-01-01

53

Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

Richardson, Dominic

2010-01-01

54

Illustrative Analysis: Family Structure and Fertility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this illustrative analysis are: (1) To discuss some of the issues involved in the study of fertility as related to family or household structure; (2) To present the problems and techniques involved in using World Fertility Survey (WFS) dat...

J. C. Caldwell G. Immerwahr L. T. Ruzicka

1982-01-01

55

The lipocalin protein family: structure and function.  

PubMed Central

The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds.

Flower, D R

1996-01-01

56

Families and Australia's Economic Future. Submission to the Economic Planning Advisory Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses trends in the way Australian families are forming and re-forming, factors determining families' access to income, and proposals regarding reform of the income transfer system. The current shape of families in Australia is described in terms of a shift to marriage at a later age; leaving-home behavior of young people; the…

Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

57

Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

Abrego, Leisy

2009-01-01

58

Family Stress and Cultural Adaptation: Home Economics Needs Of Lao Hmong Refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study of a random sample of Lao Hmong refugees in Nebraska examined the change in need that occurred between 1980 and 1985 for the fol lowing home economics areas: housing, employment, family relations, family finance, nutrition, clothing, and social environment. A questionnaire translated into the Hmong language was used. Change was interpreted using McCubbin's stress theory and Maslow's

William H. Meredith; Douglas A. Abbott; Sheron L. Cramer

1986-01-01

59

Inter-relationships between the economic and emotional consequences of colorectal cancer for patients and their families: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background While the evidence-base concerning the economic impact of cancer for patients and their families/carers has grown in recent years, there is little known about how emotional responses to cancer influence this economic impact. We investigated the economic costs of cancer in the context of patients’ emotions and how these both shaped the patient and family burden. Methods Health professionals from six hospitals invited patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (ICD10 C18-C20) within the previous year to take part in the study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients and, where available, a family member. Interviews covered medical and non-medical costs incurred as a result of cancer and the impact of these on the lives of the patient and their family. Interviews were audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and these data were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis. Results Twenty-two patients with colorectal cancer (17 colon and 5 rectal; 14 women and 8 men) were interviewed; 6 were accompanied by a family member. Important cancer-related financial outlays included: travel and parking associated with hospital appointments; costs of procedures; increased household bills; and new clothing. Cancer impacted on employed individuals’ ability to work and depressed their income. The opportunity cost of informal care for carers/family members, especially immediately post-diagnosis, was a strong theme. All patients spoke of the emotional burden of colorectal cancer and described how this burden could lead to further costs for themselves and their families by limiting work and hindering their ability to efficiently manage their expenses. Some patients also spoke of how economic and emotional burdens could interact with each other. Support from employers, family/carers and the state/health services and patients’ own attitudes influenced this inter-relationship. Conclusions The economic impact of colorectal cancer on patients and their families is complex. This study suggests that the economic costs and the emotional impact of cancer are often related and can exacerbate each other, but that various factors can meditate this inter-relationship.

2012-01-01

60

Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

61

[Familial chromosome X structural aberrations - case report].  

PubMed

The X chromosome contains about 1000 genes with different functions, both general and specialized, among which are genes responsible for normal function of the ovaries in women and normal growth in both sexes. Patients with chromosome X aberrations present a large spectrum of phenotypes depending on a variable size of chromosome X regions which are involved in aberrations, differences in genes located in/around given break-points, number of X chromosomes in cells and preferential X inactivation. We report on two families diagnosed with chromosome X aberration. The familial dupXq/delXp and the familial Xp deletion were diagnosed using GTG-banding techniques and confirmed by FISH analysis. In both families chromosome X aberrations were observed in healthy, fertile women, without a history of recurrent miscarriages or mentally retarded children. In one of the cases (family A) a mother with a mosaic X chromosome aberration [mos 45,X/46,X,der(X)(qter?q2? 7::p22.2?qter)], with previously undiagnosed Turner's syndrome, gave birth to her third daughter with a karyotype that contained only the structural X chromosome aberration, of maternal origin [46,X,der(X)(qter?q2? 7::p22.2?? qter).ish der(X) (wcpX+, pter-, KAL-, qter++]. In the second case (family B) a mother [46,X,del(X)(p22.1p22.2).ish del(X)(wcpX+, pter+, KAL-, qter+)] gave birth to a girl with Down syndrome (21 trisomy), who has also had an additional chromosome X aberration [47,X,del(X)(p22.1p22.2),+21.ish del(X)(wcpX+, pter+, KAL-, qter+)]. Conclusions: Chromosome X aberrations found in women may sometimes not influence the incidence of phenotypic abnormalities and their fertility. In such cases, the diagnosis usually occurs incidentally. PMID:21447275

Stembalska, Agnieszka; Barg, Ewa; Jakiel, Anna; Sasiadek, Maria M

2010-01-01

62

Association of socio-economic status with family history in adult patients with asthma  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Socio-economic status is associated with increased morbidity in patients with asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between socio-economic status and family history of asthma in adult asthma patients. Methods: The study included 200 adults with asthma and 400 non-asthmatic controls. Socio-economic status was determined based on income. Regression analysis was used to estimate odd ratios in relation to socio-economic class, using age, gender, family history of asthma and smoking habits. Results: The highest occurrence of having any family history of asthma was observed in the high class group (88.2%), followed by upper middle class (79.5%), lower middle class (60%) and the lowest in the low class group (34%). Having any family history of asthma was an important risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses in lower middle class, upper middle class and high class, but not in the low class group. Interpretation and conclusions: The results indicated a positive association between having a family history of asthma and higher socio-economic status. Further studies on a large representative sample need to be conducted to confirm these findings.

Davoodi, Parisa; Mahesh, P.A.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.

2013-01-01

63

The Psychological Sense of Economic Hardship: Measurement Models, Validity, and Cross-Ethnic Equivalence for Urban Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty is a community stressor that disproportionally affects ethnic minority families. One aspect of programmatic research on poverty focuses on the psychological sense of economic hardship. In a study of 319 African American, European American, and Mexican American urban families, parents completed objective measures of economic status and scales of perceived economic hardship that were adapted from previous research. Measurement

Manuel Barrera; Heather Caples; Jenn-Yun Tein

2001-01-01

64

FAMILY STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS  

PubMed Central

Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we find that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers report higher levels of parenting stress than mothers in stable coresidential relationships. Mothers who enter coresidential relationships with biological fathers report lower levels of parenting stress than mothers who remain single. Mothers’ resources, especially their relationships with biological fathers, account for most of the associations between transitions and parenting stress, with posttransition resources being more important than pretransition resources. Mothers with high levels of education are less affected by transitions than mothers with less education.

Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2009-01-01

65

Structural Features of the Glutamate Transporter Family  

PubMed Central

Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning ?-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Recent data from analysis of site-directed mutants and studies on the mechanism and pharmacology of the transporters are discussed in relation to the structural model.

Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Konings, Wil N.; Lolkema, Juke S.

1999-01-01

66

Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

2010-01-01

67

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics  

PubMed Central

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

Townsend, Robert

2010-01-01

68

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.  

PubMed

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

Townsend, Robert

2010-09-01

69

The Effects of Family Structures on Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of family structures on students' academic achievement in terms of self-reported grades. It also examined relevant factors that would explain the differences in student grades among students from intact two-parent families, step-families, and single-parent families. Data came from a statewide survey of students in…

Shim, Minsuk K.; Felner, Robert D.; Shim, Eunjae

70

Family-Directed Structural Therapy in a Therapeutic Wilderness Family Camp: An Outcome Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing families attending a three-day therapeutic wilderness family camp utilizing Family-Directed Structural Therapy (FDST), as well as receiving Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) usual services, with families receiving only usual services from the same CMHC. All families came from a rural area in the midwest. Data were collected over six months' time. Measures included

Tara McLendon; Don McLendon; Christopher G. Petr; Stephen A. Kapp; John Mooradian

2009-01-01

71

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

72

Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

2007-01-01

73

Family Equity at Issue: A Study of the Economic Consequences of Divorce on Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implemented in the 1970s, Alaska's system of "no fault" divorce creates economic hardships for women and children instead of providing greater family equity. The study site selected was Anchorage because its demographic profile generally reflects the statewide profile, necessary court records are accessible and more than one-half of all Alaskan…

Baker, Barbara

74

Illusions of Prosperity: America's Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…

Blau, Joel

75

Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about the Economics of Meeting Families' Shelter Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 216 students in kindergarten through grade 3 about the economics of meeting families' needs for shelter. Responses indicated that most understood that people have to pay for shelter, but most were vague about renting apartments or mortgages. Discusses findings in reference to curriculum and instruction in the early grades. (SLD)

Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

2002-01-01

76

Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations  

Cancer.gov

Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations Scott D. Ramsey, M.D., Ph.D. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA) Wylie Burke, M.D.., Ph.D.

77

Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

78

Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

2001-01-01

79

Extension Resources To Support Rural Families Experiencing Economic Stress. The Families in Transition Subcommittee Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report and resource directory contained in this document represent the efforts of the Rural Families in Transition Work Group, one of six such groups recently created to respond to key issues arising from the farm financial crisis. The directory is intended for use by extension agents in identifying educational resources across the region that…

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.

80

Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

81

The development of interpersonal aggression during adolescence: the importance of parents, siblings, and family economics.  

PubMed

Latent growth curve modeling employed data from a longitudinal study of 451 sibling families to examine parents, siblings, and family economics as factors in individual differences in the developmental course of interpersonal aggression during adolescence. Findings suggest that individual change in interpersonal aggression during adolescence can be predicted by the gender and aggression of one's sibling; predictions varied by the gender composition of the sibling dyad. Rates of parental hostility predicted levels of interpersonal aggression for both older (mean age = 12 years) and younger siblings (mean age = 15), and growth in aggression for younger siblings. Family economic pressure predicted interpersonal aggression of both siblings indirectly through parental hostility. Implications for future research and preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:17883446

Williams, Shannon Tierney; Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Blozis, Shelley A

2007-01-01

82

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

2007-01-01

83

Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

2011-01-01

84

Children from Disrupted Families as Adults: Family Structure, College Attendance and College Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between family structure and 4-year college enrollment and completion. Uses 1980 High School and Beyond Sophomore cohort and its subsequent followup surveys. Finds that family-income differences can explain much of the differences in college attendance and completion rates between students from disrupted families and…

Ver Ploeg, Michele

2002-01-01

85

Economic and Structural Relationships in U.S. Hog Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid change in the size and ownership structure of U.S. hog production has created new and varied challenges for the industry. This report describes an industry becoming increasingly concentrated among fewer and larger farms, and becoming more economical...

N. Key W. D. McBride

2003-01-01

86

Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.  

PubMed

Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

2014-03-01

87

Measuring Social Capital and Its Differentials by Family Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…

Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando

2010-01-01

88

Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

Hoffman, John P.

2006-01-01

89

Mate Availability, Family Formation, and Family Structure among Black Americans in Nonmetropolitan Louisiana 1970-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses effects of community sex ratio (of men to women) on rural Black family formation and structure. Ratio directly linked to Black women's marriage prevalence, and inversely linked to women's nonmarital fertility. Concludes ratio a family-structure factor. Suggests social policy implications. Suggests urban ghetto studies be broadened. (TES)

Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill

1990-01-01

90

Corporal punishment in rural Colombian families: Prevalence, family structure and socio-demographic variables.  

PubMed

Objective: To reveal the prevalence of corporal punishment in a rural area of Colombia and its correlates to family structure and other socio-demographic variables. Method: A survey about childrearing and childcare was developed for this study, including a specific question about corporal punishment that was developed based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Family structure was categorized as follows, based on previous literature: 'nuclear family,' 'single parent' family, 'extended family,' 'simultaneous family' and 'composed family.' Results: Forty-one percent of the parents surveyed admitted they had used corporal punishment of their children as a disciplinary strategy. The type of family structure, the number of children living at home, the age of the children, the gender of the parent who answered the survey, and the age and gender of the partner were significant predictors of corporal punishment. Conclusion: Family structure is an important variable in the understanding of corporal punishment, especially in regard to nuclear families that have a large number of children and parents who started their parental role early in life. PMID:24275547

González, Martha Rocío; Trujillo, Angela; Pereda, Noemí

2014-05-01

91

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…

Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

2007-01-01

92

PSI-2: Structural Genomics to Cover Protein Domain Family Space  

PubMed Central

Summary One major objective of structural genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), has been to increase the structural coverage of protein sequence space. Here, we present the target selection strategy used during the second phase of PSI (PSI-2). This strategy, jointly devised by the bioinformatics groups associated with the PSI-2 large-scale production centres, targets representatives from large, structurally uncharacterised protein domain families, and from structurally uncharacterised subfamilies in very large and diverse families with incomplete structural coverage. These very large families are extremely diverse both structurally and functionally, and are highly over-represented in known proteomes. On the basis of several metrics, we then discuss to what extent PSI-2, during its first three years, has increased the structural coverage of genomes, and contributed structural and functional novelty. Together, the results presented here suggest that PSI-2 is successfully meeting its objectives and provides useful insights into structural and functional space.

Dessailly, Benoit H.; Nair, Rajesh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Kouranov, Andrei; Lee, David; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Rost, Burkhard; Orengo, Christine

2010-01-01

93

Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian schoolchildren: effect of family relationship and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressive feelings and suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of adolescents in Estonia were analysed in the context\\u000a of family structure, mutual relationships amongst family members and schoolchildren’s preferences regarding intimate personal\\u000a contacts with particular family members. Data from the WHO collaborative study ‘Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005\\/2006’\\u000a (HBSC) were used. A representative sample of schoolchildren aged 11, 13

Algi Samm; Liina-Mai Tooding; Merike Sisask; Kairi Kõlves; Katrin Aasvee; Airi Värnik

2010-01-01

94

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14

95

Working for families with dysfunctional children: An approach and structure for the first family therapy interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preplanned and structured format for conducting the first family treatment interview is presented in which the assessment task is seen as an opportunity to help a family succeed in constructively, coherently, and logically looking at itself, the “problem” child, and the problems with which it is attempting to deal. Strategies of modelling openness and competence are suggested. Building on

Carl Bryant

1984-01-01

96

Evolutionarily consistent families in SCOP: sequence, structure and function  

PubMed Central

Background SCOP is a hierarchical domain classification system for proteins of known structure. The superfamily level has a clear definition: Protein domains belong to the same superfamily if there is structural, functional and sequence evidence for a common evolutionary ancestor. Superfamilies are sub-classified into families, however, there is not such a clear basis for the family level groupings. Do SCOP families group together domains with sequence similarity, do they group domains with similar structure or by common function? It is these questions we answer, but most importantly, whether each family represents a distinct phylogenetic group within a superfamily. Results Several phylogenetic trees were generated for each superfamily: one derived from a multiple sequence alignment, one based on structural distances, and the final two from presence/absence of GO terms or EC numbers assigned to domains. The topologies of the resulting trees and confidence values were compared to the SCOP family classification. Conclusions We show that SCOP family groupings are evolutionarily consistent to a very high degree with respect to classical sequence phylogenetics. The trees built from (automatically generated) structural distances correlate well, but are not always consistent with SCOP (hand annotated) groupings. Trees derived from functional data are less consistent with the family level than those from structure or sequence, though the majority still agree. Much of GO and EC annotation applies directly to one family or subset of the family; relatively few terms apply at the superfamily level. Maximum sequence diversity within a family is on average 22% but close to zero for superfamilies.

2012-01-01

97

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

98

Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

2011-01-01

99

Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers: Meeting the Challenge of Diverse Family Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher education programs must help teachers handle children from diverse family backgrounds. Knowledge of family structures, acceptance of changes, and techniques for improving communication with parents should be included in preservice and inservice teacher education. Children's literature provides one way for teacher educators to increase…

Midkiff, Ruby Bostick; Lawler-Prince, Dianne

1992-01-01

100

FAMILY STRUCTURE CHOICE: TAXATION AS AN INCENTIVE TO CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally defined as the union of one man and one woman charged with the responsibility of rearing children, the notion of family now includes a variety of living arrangements including non-marital cohabitation and single parents. The current study investigates individual incentives to change family structure from a person's original status as single. This conceptual research, which is grounded in theories

Cynthia Rodriguez; Aman Khanna

101

Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

Kwan, Ying-Keung

2008-01-01

102

Families and the structural relatedness among globular proteins.  

PubMed

Protein structures come in families. Are families "closely knit" or "loosely knit" entities? We describe a measure of relatedness among polymer conformations. Based on weighted distance maps, this measure differs from existing measures mainly in two respects: (1) it is computationally fast, and (2) it can compare any two proteins, regardless of their relative chain lengths or degree of similarity. It does not require finding relative alignments. The measure is used here to determine the dissimilarities between all 12,403 possible pairs of 158 diverse protein structures from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank (PDB). Combined with minimal spanning trees and hierarchical clustering methods, this measure is used to define structural families. It is also useful for rapidly searching a dataset of protein structures for specific substructural motifs. By using an analogy to distributions of Euclidean distances, we find that protein families are not tightly knit entities. PMID:8318894

Yee, D P; Dill, K A

1993-06-01

103

Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclas- sical accounts provide an \\

Mark Granovetter

1985-01-01

104

Social Power Index for Hierarchically Structured Populations of Economic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a model of a finite collection of socially related economic agents. The authors assume that an agent in an economy is part of some social structure in which he might dominate some agents while he himself is dominated by other agents. Th...

R. van den Brink R. P. Gilles

1990-01-01

105

Economic geography and regional production structure: An empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two principal theories of why countries or regions trade: comparative advantage and increasing returns to scale. Yet there is virtually no empirical work that assesses the relative importance of these two theories in accounting for production structure and trade. We use a framework that nests an increasing returns model of economic geography featuring `home market effects' with that

Donald R. Davis; David E. Weinstein

1999-01-01

106

Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

107

Family Structure, Parental Involvement, and Academic Motivation in Latino Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-report data from 594 Latino adolescents about parental involvement (general support, monitoring, academic support, and educational aspirations) and academic motivation were examined across three family structures (intact, stepfather, single-mother\\/nonresident involved father). Significant differences were found in fathers' but not mothers' involvement depending on the family structure. Dominance analyses showed that the form of mothers' involvement that explained the most unique

Carolyn S. Henry; Scott W. Plunkett; Tovah Sands

2011-01-01

108

Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

2008-11-01

109

Impact of Family Structure on the Structure of Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research supported by this contract investigated the interfaces between dual-earner couples' work and family behaviors by looking simultaneously at intra-spouse relations (same person work and family issues) and cross-spouse issues (his work and her f...

S. Yogev J. Brett

1987-01-01

110

Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978

Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

2014-07-01

111

Protein family comparison using statistical models and predicted structural information  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents a simple method to increase the sensitivity of protein family comparisons by incorporating secondary structure (SS) information. We build upon the effective information theory approach towards profile-profile comparison described in [Yona & Levitt 2002]. Our method augments profile columns using PSIPRED secondary structure predictions and assesses statistical similarity using information theoretical principles. Results Our tests show that this tool detects more similarities between protein families of distant homology than the previous primary sequence-based method. A very significant improvement in performance is observed when the real secondary structure is used. Conclusions Integration of primary and secondary structure information can substantially improve detection of relationships between remotely related protein families.

Chung, Richard; Yona, Golan

2004-01-01

112

Evaluations of family by youth: do they vary as a function of family structure, gender, and birth order?  

PubMed

In the present study, 334 youths evaluated their families by responding to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects due to respondents' birth order or gender, but did find a significant main effect due to family structure and a significant two-way interaction effect between respondents' family structure and gender. Specifically, males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families were found to evaluate their respective families significantly more negatively than did their counterparts from other familial configurations. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2375262

Parish, T S

1990-01-01

113

Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume I: Family Formation, Structure, Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as Reproducers:…

Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

114

Family Structure and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Does Family Structure Really Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed older adolescents (N=2,313) to examine the effects of family size, birth order, and sibling spacing and gender upon perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships. Using the analysis of techniques of past studies, significant associations were found for family size, birth order, and spacing, although the effect sizes were quite small.…

Bell, Nancy J.; Avery, Arthur W.

1985-01-01

115

Family Structure and Unintended Teen Pregnancy. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

2011-01-01

116

Theoretical structural insights into the snakin/GASA family.  

PubMed

Among the main classes of cysteine-stabilized antimicrobial peptides, the snakin/GASA family has not yet had any structural characterization. Through the combination of ab initio and comparative modeling with a disulfide bond predictor, the three-dimensional structure prediction of snakin-1 is reported here. The structure was composed of two long ?-helices with a disulfide pattern of Cys(I)-Cys(IX), Cys(II)-Cys(VII), Cys(III)-Cys(IV), Cys(V)-Cys(XI), Cys(VI)-Cys(XII) and Cys(VIII)-Cys(X). The overall structure was maintained throughout molecular dynamics simulation. Snakin-1 showed a small degree of structural similarity with thionins and ?-helical hairpins. This is the first report of snakin-1 structural characterization, shedding some light on the snakin/GASA family. PMID:23578978

Porto, William F; Franco, Octavio L

2013-06-01

117

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF INTERVENTIONS FOR PROBLEM DRINKING AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: DO WITHIN-FAMILY EXTERNAL EFFECTS MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To propose methods for the inclusion of within-family external effects in clinical and economic evaluations. To demonstrate the extent of bias due to the exclusion of within-family external effects when measuring the relative performance of inter- ventions for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. Methods: The timing and magnitude of treatment effects are modified to accommodate the external health-related quality

DUNCAN MORTIMER; LEONIE SEGAL

2006-01-01

118

Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals.

Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

2013-01-01

119

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

120

Level structures on the Weierstrass family of cubics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let W -> A^2 be the universal Weierstrass family of cubic curves over C. For each N >= 2, we construct surfaces parametrizing the three standard kinds of level N structures on the smooth fibers of W. We then complete these surfaces to finite covers of A^2. Since W -> A^2 is the versal deformation space of a cusp singularity,

Mira Bernstein; Christopher Tuffley

2005-01-01

121

Associations among Family Structure, Demographics, and Adolescent Perceived Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between perceived life satisfaction and family structure were examined among 5,021 public high school adolescents using the self-report CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses and multivariate models (via SUDAAN) constructed separately, revealed significant race by gender effects. Living…

Zullig, Keith J.; Valois, Robert F.; Huebner, E. Scott; Drane, J. Wanzer

2005-01-01

122

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

Lam, Ching Man

2011-01-01

123

Economic insecurity and access to the social safety net among Latino farmworker families.  

PubMed

Farmworkers experience pervasive economic insecurity in part because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work and limited employment protections. Yet little is known about the adequacy of the social safety net in responding to farmworker needs. Using data from the 2005-2009 National Agricultural Workers Survey (N = 10,469), the current study analyzed predictors of social welfare participation among Latinos, who represent approximately 80 percent of all farmworkers. Nearly 95 percent are immigrants, although almost half of them have lived in the United States for more than 10 years. Descriptive analyses showed that, even among farmworker households whose income fell below the poverty line or that were headed by legally documented individuals, social services use was very low. Logistic regression analyses revealed that degree of social integration influenced social welfare participation, controlling for education, poverty status, family composition, and employment characteristics. Latino farmworkers who were recent immigrants (that is, in the United States for less than five years) had significantly lower odds of access to social insurance and public assistance programs relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Low self-reported English ability significantly decreased access to most social insurance programs but not public assistance receipt. The findings indicate the need for social workers to engage in outreach efforts and policy advocacy to improve farmworkers access to social welfare. PMID:24855865

Padilla, Yolanda C; Scott, Jennifer L; Lopez, Olivia

2014-04-01

124

The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

Rana, Vishwajeet

125

A family of solution algorithms for nonlinear structural analysis based on relaxation equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of hierarchical algorithms for nonlinear structural equations are presented. The algorithms are based on the Davidenko-Branin type homotopy and shown to yield consistent hierarchical perturbation equations. The algorithms appear to be particularly suitable to problems involving bifurcation and limit point calculations. An important by-product of the algorithms is that it provides a systematic and economical means for computing the stepsize at each iteration stage when a Newton-like method is employed to solve the systems of equations. Some sample problems are provided to illustrate the characteristics of the algorithms.

Park, K. C.

1981-01-01

126

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

127

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior Among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child’s\\u000a life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation.\\u000a A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was conducted to comprehend needs and

Ching Man Lam

2011-01-01

128

The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters.

Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

2005-01-01

129

The DAPK family: a structure-function analysis.  

PubMed

DAP-kinase (DAPK) is the founding member of a family of highly related, death associated Ser/Thr kinases that belongs to the calmodulin (CaM)-regulated kinase superfamily. The family includes DRP-1 and ZIP-kinase (ZIPK), both of which share significant homology within the common N-terminal kinase domain, but differ in their extra-catalytic domains. Both DAPK and DRP-1 possess a conserved CaM autoregulatory domain, and are regulated by calcium-activated CaM and by an inhibitory auto-phosphorylation within the domain. ZIPK's activity is independent of CaM but can be activated by DAPK. The three kinases share some common functions and substrates, such as induction of autophagy and phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain leading to membrane blebbing. Furthermore, all can function as tumor suppressors. However, they also each possess unique functions and intracellular localizations, which may arise from the divergence in structure in their respective C-termini. In this review we will introduce the DAPK family, and present a structure/function analysis for each individual member, and for the family as a whole. Emphasis will be placed on the various domains, and how they mediate interactions with additional proteins and/or regulation of kinase function. PMID:24220854

Shiloh, Ruth; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

2014-02-01

130

Female genital structures in several families of Centropagoidea (Copepoda: Calanoida)  

PubMed Central

The female genital structures of 21 calanoid species belonging to the families Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae and Tortanidae were studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy). Except the monotypic Sulcanidae, their organization conforms to a common pattern characterized by egg-laying ducts opening through paired adjacent gonopores into a small cavity, the genital atrium, covered by a genital operculum and opening to the outside through a distal atrial slit. No seminal receptacle is present and the seminal products must be stored for a brief period in the genital atrium.The genital structures occupy a well delimited genital area, the main changes in which concern their position on the ventral face of the genital double-somite, and operculum morphology. Their organization and possible mode of operation are compared with those of other calanoid families. A possible correlation between absence of seminal receptacles and mating behaviour is discussed.

Barthelemy, R.-M.

1998-01-01

131

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

132

Functional and structural diversity of the human Dickkopf gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wnt proteins influence many aspects of embryonic development, and their activity is regulated by several secreted antagonists, including the Xenopus Dickkopf-1 (xDkk-1) protein. xDkk-1 inhibits Wnt activities in Xenopus embryos and may play a role in induction of head structures. Here, we characterize a family of human Dkk-related genes composed of Dkk-1, Dkk-2, Dkk-3, and Dkk-4, together with a unique

Valery E. Krupnik; John D. Sharp; Chian Jiang; Keith Robison; Troy W. Chickering; Lakshmi Amaravadi; Diane E. Brown; Deborah Guyot; Gail Mays; Kevin Leiby; Belle Chang; Thao Duong; Andrew D. J. Goodearl; David P. Gearing; Sergei Y. Sokol; Sean A. McCarthy

1999-01-01

133

Level Structures on the Weierstrass Family of Cubics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let W ? 𝔸 be the universal Weierstrass family of cubic curves over ?. For each N ? 2, we construct surfaces parameterizing the three standard kinds of level N structures on the smooth fibers of W. We then complete these surfaces to finite covers of 𝔸 . Since W ? 𝔸 is the versal deformation space of a cusp singularity, these surfaces convey information about

Mira Bernstein; Christopher Tuffley

2007-01-01

134

Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

1982-01-01

135

Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time.  

PubMed

Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry's most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness-poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As these skills are marketable and could be paired with many existing medical certifications, this article describes a possible "path toward economic resilience" (PER) through a program whereby family caregivers could find meaningful employment using their new skills. The proposed program would identify ideal program candidates, assess and supplement their competencies, and connect them to the health care industry. We provide a set of practical steps and recommended tools for implementation, discuss pilot data on the program's appeal and feasibility, and raise several considerations for program development and future research. Our analysis suggests that this PER program could appeal to family caregivers and the health care industry alike, possibly helping to address two of our health care system's most pressing challenges with one solution. PMID:23633216

Simon, Melissa A; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J; Foucar, Charles E; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M; Emanuel, Linda L

2013-10-01

136

Sequence, structure, and evolution of cellulases in glycoside hydrolase family 48.  

PubMed

Currently, the cost of cellulase enzymes remains a key economic impediment to commercialization of biofuels. Enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48) are a critical component of numerous natural lignocellulose-degrading systems. Although computational mining of large genomic data sets is a promising new approach for identifying novel cellulolytic activities, current computational methods are unable to distinguish between cellulases and enzymes with different substrate specificities that belong to the same protein family. We show that by using a robust computational approach supported by experimental studies, cellulases and non-cellulases can be effectively identified within a given protein family. Phylogenetic analysis of GH48 showed non-monophyletic distribution, an indication of horizontal gene transfer. Enzymatic function of GH48 proteins coded by horizontally transferred genes was verified experimentally, which confirmed that these proteins are cellulases. Computational and structural studies of GH48 enzymes identified structural elements that define cellulases and can be used to computationally distinguish them from non-cellulases. We propose that the structural element that can be used for in silico discrimination between cellulases and non-cellulases belonging to GH48 is an ?-loop located on the surface of the molecule and characterized by highly conserved rare amino acids. These markers were used to screen metagenomics data for "true" cellulases. PMID:23055526

Sukharnikov, Leonid O; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Upadhyay, Amit; Himmel, Michael E; Lunin, Vladimir V; Zhulin, Igor B

2012-11-30

137

Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

Hemmings, Philip

2007-01-01

138

Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load uses different current and future as well as alternative price and energy policy scenarios, four years of 15-minute interval data on system and renewable load as well as an unpreceded degree of detail on plant cost structures and technical characteristics. I find that the costs of electricity generation of cleaner, flexible thermal plants are positively effected by the transition. The competitiveness of inflexible baseload plants falls as they become more expensive than renewables. Lignite and nuclear power turns out to be unsuited to supplement renewable energy: a future exit reduces the average costs of electricity generation from conventional plants.

Keil, Jan

139

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

140

Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation. PMID:15074125

Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

2004-02-01

141

Structural and functional insight into the universal stress protein family.  

PubMed

We present the crystal structures of two universal stress proteins (USP) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Nitrosomonas europaea in both apo- and ligand-bound forms. This work is the first complete synthesis of the structural properties of 26 USP available in the Protein Data Bank, over 75% of which were determined by structure genomics centers with no additional information provided. The results of bioinformatic analyses of all available USP structures and their sequence homologs revealed that these two new USP structures share overall structural similarity with structures of USPs previously determined. Clustering and cladogram analyses, however, show how they diverge from other members of the USP superfamily and show greater similarity to USPs from organisms inhabiting extreme environments. We compared them with other archaeal and bacterial USPs and discuss their similarities and differences in context of structure, sequential motifs, and potential function. We also attempted to group all analyzed USPs into families, so that assignment of the potential function to those with no experimental data available would be possible by extrapolation. PMID:23745136

Tkaczuk, Karolina L; A Shumilin, Igor; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

2013-04-01

142

A linear exponent AR(1) family of correlation structures  

PubMed Central

In repeated measures settings, modeling the correlation pattern of the data can be immensely important for proper analyses. Accurate inference requires proper choice of the correlation model. Optimal efficiency of the estimation procedure demands a parsimonious parameterization of the correlation structure, with sufficient sensitivity to detect the range of correlation patterns that may occur. Many repeated measures settings have within-subject correlation decreasing exponentially in time or space. Among the variety of correlation patterns available for this context, the continuous-time first-order autoregressive correlation structure, denoted AR(1), sees the most utilization. Despite its wide use, the AR(1) structure often poorly gauges within-subject correlations that decay at a slower or faster rate than required by the AR(1) model. To address this deficiency we propose a two-parameter generalization of the continuous-time AR(1) model, termed the linear exponent autoregressive (LEAR) correlation structure, which accommodates much slower and much faster decay patterns. Special cases of the LEAR family include the AR(1), compound symmetry, and first-order moving average correlation structures. Excellent analytic, numerical, and statistical properties help make the LEAR structure a valuable addition to the suite of parsimonious correlation models for repeated measures data. Both medical imaging data concerning neonate neurological development and longitudinal data concerning diet and hypertension [DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) study] exemplify the utility of the LEAR correlation structure.

Simpson, Sean L.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Muller, Keith E.; Sen, Pranab K.; Styner, Martin A.

2014-01-01

143

The Impact and Countermeasure Study of the World Economic Crisis on Chinese Family Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 2007, subprime mortgage crisis broke out in America, and then it gradually evolved into global economic crisis and spread to other countries. The international financial situation has been deteriorating sharply and has rapidly evolved into the most serious international economic crisis since the \\

Jiang Jun; Hu Shaolong

2010-01-01

144

The sodium/substrate symporter family: structural and functional features.  

PubMed

Members of the sodium/substrate symporter family (SSSF, TC 2.A.21) catalyze the uptake of a wide variety of solutes including sugars, proline, pantothenate, and iodide into cells of pro- and eukaryotic origin. Extensive analyses of the topology of different SSSF proteins suggest an arrangement of 13 transmembrane domains as a common topological motif. Regions involved in sodium and/or substrate binding were identified. Furthermore, protein chemical and spectroscopic studies reveal ligand-induced structural alterations which are consistent with close interactions between the sites of sodium and substrate binding, thereby supporting an ordered binding mechanism for transport. PMID:12354616

Jung, Heinrich

2002-10-01

145

Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

Laughlin, John D.; Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Cherry, Lisa; Nettles, Kendall W.; LoGrasso, Philip V.

2012-01-01

146

Structural mechanisms of allostery and autoinhibition in JNK family kinases.  

PubMed

c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations. PMID:23142346

Laughlin, John D; Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Cherry, Lisa; Nettles, Kendall W; LoGrasso, Philip V

2012-12-01

147

Introduction to the Thematic Issue on Health, Economics, and Family Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of health care costs challenges the health of individuals, families, and nations. In the United States, health care expenditure has risen by more than eight folds relative to that of 1980. This rise in health care expenditure has been much higher than the growth in family income during the last three decades. Given the inherent market failure in

Manouchehr Mokhtari

2011-01-01

148

The Single Father Family: Recent Trends in Demographic, Economic, and Public Transfer Use Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference presentation explores current patterns of public transfer receipt (such as earned income tax credit, public health insurance coverage, food stamps, and public assistance) among single-father families and provides an update on existing census-based research on characteristics of single-father families. Data were obtained from the…

Brown, Brett V.

149

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Education on Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 were analyzed to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and years of schooling on occupational status and earnings in maturity. Some of the findings follow: Data on brothers indicated that prior research has underestimated the effect of family

Jencks, Christopher; Rainwater, Lee

150

Adapting the Structural Family Systems Rating to Assess the Patterns of Interaction in Families of Dementia Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study adapted the Structural Family Systems Ratings (SFSR), an observational measure of family interactions, for dementia caregivers. This article presents the development of the SFSR-Dementia Caregiver adaptation (SFSR-DC) and examines relationships between specific family-interaction patterns and caregiver distress. Design and Methods: The families of 177 Cuban American and White non-Hispanic American caregivers of dementia patients were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Structural family theory and clinical experience were used to identify family interaction patterns believed to be related to caregiver emotional functioning. Factor analysis was used to refine subscales and develop a multiscale measure. Results: Six reliable subscales were related to caregiver distress and included in the SFSR-DC. There were two second-order factors. The SFSR-DC was provisionally cross-validated and showed invariance across the two ethnic groups. Implications: The SFSR-DC provides a method for examining specific and multiple interaction patterns in caregiver families and thus can advance knowledge regarding the role of the family in the stress processes of caregiving. These findings support the relevance of family interactions in caregiver distress and suggest that a treatment approach aimed at supporting family closeness and conflict resolution and reducing negativity might enhance caregiver well-being.

Mitrani, Victoria B.; Feaster, Daniel J.; McCabe, Brian E.; Czaja, Sara J.; Szapocznik, Jose

2008-01-01

151

The Structure of Retrospective Accounts of Family Environments: Related to the Structure of Personality Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental variables are often assumed to constitute a qualitatively different domain from personality variables, and unlike personality variables, their structure is relatively poorly understood. We studied retrospective descriptions of families-of-origin in 3 samples using the items of Moos's (1974) Family Environment Scale (FES). Using cluster-analytic procedures, we generated a new set of 22 homogeneous item clusters for the FES at

Gerard Saucier; Kelly R. Wilson; Jette Warka

2007-01-01

152

The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

2005-01-01

153

Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, commentators, and politicians have devoted steadily more attention to infrastructure in response to claims that inadequate accumulation of public capital has contributed to substandard US economic growth. Despite this, the link between infrastructure and productivity growth remains controversial. In this regard, it is somewhat surprising that infrastructure research has developed in isolation from the large literature on economic growth.

Douglas Holtz-Eakin; Amy Ellen Schwartz

1995-01-01

154

The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *  

PubMed Central

Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles.

Gade, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

2011-01-01

155

The Relationship between Family Structure and Process Variables and Adolescent Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 585 adolescents to examine relationship between family structural and process variables and adolescent participation in family decisions and vigilant decision making. Family socioeconomic status, high family cohesion, good parent-adolescent communication, and sound parental conflict resolution skills were related to adolescents' vigilant…

Brown, Jacob E.; Mann, Leon

1990-01-01

156

Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the IL-10 family.  

PubMed

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) family of cytokines includes a number of its viral homologs and eight cellular cytokines (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The latter three proteins are also known as IFN-?2, IFN-?3, and IFN-?1, and are recognized as type III (or ?) interferons. Most of the cellular homologs of IL-10 are monomeric in solution, whereas IL-10 and its viral homologs are intercalated dimers consisting of two helical bundle domains topologically similar to the monomeric members of the family. A classical four-helix bundle, a signature element of all helical cytokines, is always found as part of the domain of each member of the IL-10 family. The only crystal structures of these cytokine receptors that have been determined to date are for their extracellular domains (ECDs). Each ECD consists of two ?-sandwich domains connected in the middle by a linkage. Signal transduction occurs when a cytokine binds to its two appropriate receptor chains. IL-10 and its viral homologs use the same IL-10 receptor system, whereas the cellular homologs of IL-10 use their own receptors, which in some cases may overlap and be used in different pairwise combinations. The known structures of binary complexes allowed for marking of the receptor binding site, which always includes helix A, loop AB and helix F (IL-10 notations) on the side of a ligand, loops of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains directed toward the ligand, and the interdomain linkage of the ECD. An analysis of the published structures of both the binary and ternary complexes of all helical cytokines allowed for the generation of a model of the signaling complex of IL-10. The receptor binding site I of the high affinity receptor IL-10R1 is exactly the same as in the crystal structure of the binary IL-10/sIL-10R1 complex, whereas the receptor binding site II is located on the surface of the first and the third helices of the four-helix bundle. The receptor/receptor interface, or site III, is formed between the C-terminal domains of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2. PMID:20846897

Zdanov, Alexander

2010-10-01

157

Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the IL-10 family  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) family of cytokines includes a number of its viral homologs, and eight cellular cytokines (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL29. The latter three proteins are also known as IFN-?2, IFN-?3, and IFN-?1 and are recognized as type III (or ?) interferons. Most of the cellular homologs of IL-10 are monomeric in solution, whereas IL-10 and its viral homologs are intercalated dimers consisting of two helical bundle domains topologically similar to the monomeric members of the family. A classical four-helix bundle, a signature element of all helical cytokines, is always found as part of the domain of each member of the IL-10 family. The only crystal structures of the cytokine receptors that have been determined to date are for their extracellular domains (ECDs). Each ECD consists of two ?-sandwich domains connected in the middle by a linkage. Signal transduction occurs when a cytokine binds to its two appropriate receptor chains. IL-10 and its viral homologs use the same IL-10 receptor system, whereas the cellular homologs of IL-10 use their own receptors, which in some cases may overlap and be used in different pairwise combinations. The known structures of binary complexes allowed marking of the receptor binding site, which always includes helix A, loop AB and helix F (IL-10 notations) on the side of a ligand, and loops of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains directed toward the ligand, and the interdomain linkage of the ECD. An analysis of the published structures of both the binary and ternary complexes of all helical cytokines allowed generation of a model of the signaling complex of IL-10. The receptor binding site I of the high affinity receptor IL-10R1 is exactly the same as in the crystal structure of the binary IL-10/sIL-10R1 complex, whereas the receptor binding site II is located on the surface of the first and the third helices of the four-helix bundle. The receptor/receptor interface, or site III, is formed between the C-terminal domains of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2.

Zdanov, Alexander

2010-01-01

158

Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.  

PubMed

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. PMID:24677648

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-03-01

159

Sequence and structural links between distant ADP-ribosyltransferase families.  

PubMed

The low resolution structure of the Pseudomonas aeroginosa exotoxin A (ETA) presented in 1986 provided the first tantalizing three-dimensional view of an ADP-ribosyl-transferase (ADPRT) catalytic domain. The major features of this protein fold have recurred in the more recently solved crystal structures of the cholera toxin-related heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), diphtheria toxin (DT) and pertussis toxin (PT). A core set of alpha + beta elements define a minimal, conserved scaffold with remarkably plastic sequence requirements-only a single glutamic acid residue critical to catalytic activity is invariant. Other interchangeable residues in locations important for catalysis and binding are suggested by the cocrystal structures of DT with the inhibitor ApUp, ETA with bound AMP and nicotinamide, and DT with substrate NAD-in close accord with labeling and mutagenic data. Faint sequence resemblances that were earlier noticed among prokaryotic ADPRTs have now been securely extended by the structural concordance between toxin folds; more recently, eukaryotic ADPRTs have surfaced and their sequences can be reliably threaded into the conserved core fold. We will briefly summarize efforts in Palo Alto and Hamburg to explore these latter relationships, and to mount a rigorous search for new ADPRT families in the growing sequence databases. PMID:9193642

Bazan, J F; Koch-Nolte, F

1997-01-01

160

Comprehensive Family-Centered Training Programs: Five Comparative Case Studies. Evaluation of the Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mountain-Plains Education & Economic Development Program, which exemplifies the comprehensive, residential family-centered approach to serving the economically disadvantaged, was compared to four similar programs in the United States: Arizona Job Colleges (AJC) in Arizona; Madera Employment Training Center (METC) in California; Manpower,…

Bale, Richard L.; Sprague, C. Fremont

161

Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status  

PubMed Central

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

162

Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.  

PubMed

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

163

TU elements: a heterogeneous family of modularly structured eucaryotic transposons.  

PubMed Central

We describe here a family of foldback transposons found in the genome of the higher eucaryote, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Two major classes of TU elements have been identified by analysis of genomic DNA and TU element clones. One class consists of largely similar elements with long terminal inverted repeats (IVRs) containing outer and inner domains and sharing a common middle segment that can undergo deletions. Some of these elements contain insertions. The second class is highly heterogeneous, with many different middle segments nonhomologous to those of the first-class and variable-sized inverted repeats that contain only an outer domain. The middle and insertion segments of both classes carry sequences that also are found unassociated from the inverted repeats at many other genomic locations. We conclude that the TU elements are modular structures composed of inverted repeats plus other sequence domains that are themselves members of different families of dispersed repetitive sequences. Such modular elements may have a role in the dispersion and rearrangement of genomic DNA segments. Images

Hoffman-Liebermann, B; Liebermann, D; Kedes, L H; Cohen, S N

1985-01-01

164

Birth Order, Family Size, and Achievement: Family Structure and Wage Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do birth order and the size of one's childhood family influence environment, thereby potentially affecting future achievement? This article investigates the hypothesis that they do, presenting two major empirical findings. First, neither birth order nor childhood family size significantly influences the level or growth rate of wages, a result that is consistent with previous research. Second, family size is both

Daniel. Kessler

1991-01-01

165

The extended granin family: structure, function, and biomedical implications.  

PubMed

The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y Peng; Salton, Stephen R J

2011-12-01

166

Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals  

SciTech Connect

The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

167

Five Thousand American Families--Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this volume summarize and analyze the first ten years of data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Mary Corcoran and Martha Hill analyzed the economic burden of unemployment among heads of households. James Morgan takes various methodological approaches in studying the determinants of the number of work hours of male heads of…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Morgan, James N., Ed.

168

Success Stories: Minimum Competencies for Early Adolescents. Family & Consumer Education: Home Economics in the Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which is intended to help middle-level home economics teachers satisfy the Iowa Vocational Education Standards and Requirements, consists of descriptions of 51 successful learning activities developed by Iowa teachers for helping middle school students master 17 minimum competencies in the following major content areas: personal and…

Smith, Frances M.; And Others

169

Economic Development and the Effects of Family Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between nations' level of economic development and the influence of adolescents' social backgrounds on their academic achievement. Using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, results reveal that the positive effect of higher parents' education on middle-school students' mathematics test scores…

Schiller, Kathryn S.; Khmelkov, Vladimir T.; Wang, Xiao-Qing

2002-01-01

170

Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequality: Parents' Contribution to Children's College Costs  

PubMed Central

This article examines the role of family structure in the financial support parents provide for their children’s college education. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on aspects of family structure that affect parental support and estimate shared family variance in investments as well as within-family variation using a multilevel model. Family membership accounts for about 60% of the variance in payment of college costs. Small family size, living with both biological parents (compared to one biological parent and a stepparent), higher parental education, and having older parents are associated with greater parental expenditures.

Henretta, John C.; Wolf, Douglas A.; Van Voorhis, Matthew F.; Soldo, Beth J.

2012-01-01

171

The Economic Impact of Welfare Reform on Arkansas Families. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program was established in Arkansas as the state's version of welfare reform. Although there has been a 44 percent decrease in TEA cash assistance since the program's inception, questions continue regarding the impact of welfare reform on families with children. This report highlights some of…

Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, Little Rock.

172

Health Care for Family Farmers and Women Involved in Farm Economics (WIFE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes safety and health issues confronting American farmers. Factors that contribute to a lack of well-being and nonoptimal health care coverage for farming families are presented. These include the common considerable distance of farms from health care providers, the shortage of health professionals in rural areas, the inherent health and safety hazards of farming, the lack of health

David R. Graber; Walter J. Jones

2001-01-01

173

Family disruption, economic hardship and psychological distress in schizophrenia: can they be measured?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the dimensions of burden perceived by key-relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder by the development of an instrument, the Family Burden Scale (FBS) and the underlying predictors. One hundred and seventy one primary caregivers, living with 158 patients suffering from chronic psychotic illness and maintained on community basis in Athens area, were interviewed by the use

M. Madianos; M. Economou; O Dafni; E. Koukia; A. Palli; E. Rogakou

2004-01-01

174

A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

175

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: Regional Summary. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes data from a February 1989 survey of farm families in 12 North Central states and is a companion reference report for a series of state reports. The 12 states are subdivided into Corn Belt states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio); Plains states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska); and Lakes states…

Lasley, Paul; Fellows, Jacqueline

176

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

177

The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study  

PubMed Central

Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes introduced by the participants. We will conduct within-case and cross-case analyses of the data. Discussion The question of the role of economic evaluation in FPs' decision-making is of great interest to scientists, health care practitioners, managers and policy-makers, as well as to consultants, industry, and society. It is believed that the proposed research approach will make an original contribution to the development of knowledge, both empirical and theoretical.

Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, Andre-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

2009-01-01

178

Family Dynamic and Structural Correlates of Adolescent Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between family factors and adolescents substance abuse by comparing the families of adolescents who do not abuse drugs or alcohol with the families of those who do. The subjects were 89 white adolescent males, with a mean age of 16 years, primarily from the rural areas of a Mid-Atlantic state. The relationship between each of

Betty M. Malkus

1995-01-01

179

Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic

T. Mothé-Diniz; J. Carvano; F. Roig; D. Lazzaro

2004-01-01

180

Graphic Family Therapy: An Affective Alternative to Structure and Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic family therapy based on changing family dysfunctioning through self-discovery is described. The stages of this design are discussed and specific graphic excercises for eight categories of family dysfunction are described. Two illustrative cases are presented. Conclusions regarding results, future research, training and other clinical…

Schneider, Thomas; And Others

1981-01-01

181

The Determinants of Family Structure in Rural South India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the circumstances leading to the formation and incidence of families of different types in nine villages of south India. Found that the society had long been characterized by both stem and nuclear families and that there was still little evidence of transition in family type. (LLL)

Caldwell, John C.; And Others

1984-01-01

182

Family Policy on the Community Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tremendous economic, cultural, and social changes that have taken place in the United States in the past 30 years have significantly altered family life. To meet the needs of families, communities and family structures have changed. For the past 10 years, the National Government has been redefining its role in relation to the family. While it…

Hensel, Nancy

183

Structural studies of the doublecortin family of MAPs.  

PubMed

Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein essential for neuronal migration during human brain development. Missense mutations in DCX cause severe brain defects. This implies that the many other MT-stabilizing proteins in neurons cannot compensate for DCX function. To understand the unusual properties of DCX, we expressed the recombinant human DCX in Sf9 cells and undertook structural characterization of its interaction with MTs using cryo-electron microscopy. DCX specifically nucleates 13-protofilament (13-pf) MTs, the architecture of human MTs in vivo. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of DCX-nucleated MTs showed that they are primarily built from B-lattice contacts interrupted by a single discontinuity, the seam. Because of this asymmetry, we used single-particle reconstruction and determined the 8Å structure of DCX-stabilized 13-pf MTs in the absence of a stabilizing drug. The DCX-binding site, at the corner of four tubulin dimers, is ideally suited to stabilize both lateral and longitudinal tubulin lattice contacts. Its precise geometry suggests that DCX is sensitive to the angle between pfs, and thereby provides insight into the specificity of DCX for 13-pf MT architecture. DCX's precise interaction at the corner of four tubulin dimers also means that DCX does not bind the MT seam. Our work has provided mechanistic insight into the evolutionarily conserved DCX family of MT-stabilizing proteins and also into more general regulatory mechanisms of the MT cytoskeleton. PMID:23973064

Fourniol, Franck; Perderiset, Mylène; Houdusse, Anne; Moores, Carolyn

2013-01-01

184

Teaching Economics to Undergraduates in Europe: Volume, Structure, and Contents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how much time is spent in economics and management sciences programs; how much time is allocated among different courses within programs; what common thematic denominators exist; and whether and in what way content in microeconomics and macroeconomics courses differs. (RLH)

Gartner, Manfred

2001-01-01

185

Family disruption, economic hardship and psychological distress in schizophrenia: can they be measured?  

PubMed

This study examined the dimensions of burden perceived by key-relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder by the development of an instrument, the Family Burden Scale (FBS) and the underlying predictors. One hundred and seventy one primary caregivers, living with 158 patients suffering from chronic psychotic illness and maintained on community basis in Athens area, were interviewed by the use of FBS supplemented by the Family Atmosphere Scale and GHQ. Construction procedure and factor analysis of FBS produced a scale of 23 items in four factors, three of them measuring objective and the fourth one, subjective burden. The scale was also proved to be reliable and valid. Forty-five percent of primary caregivers reported high levels of burden. Psychological impairment (high GHQ scores) was related with high levels of burden and negative family atmosphere. Previous admissions and duration of illness were also found to predict burden. The results suggest that FBS differentiates objective from subjective burden. Psychological well being of carers is affected by the dimensions of perceived burden. PMID:15504647

Madianos, M; Economou, M; Dafni, O; Koukia, E; Palli, A; Rogakou, E

2004-11-01

186

Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes.

Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

2011-01-01

187

The Economic Consequences of Absent Parents. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the belief that marriage bestows large economic gains has generated enthusiasm for policy proposals that encourage the formation and continuation of two-parent families. This study examined the effects of family structure on economic resources, controlling for unobservable family background characteristics. Data were drawn from…

Page, Marianne E.; Stevens, Ann Huff

188

An Extension of the Structural Change Model to International Economic Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper Pasinetti's model of structural economic dynamics (1981) is extended to consider international economic relations. Conditions for full employment, full expenditure of income and equilibrium of the trade balance are established for an open economy that requires capital goods to produce final commodities. Analytical results concerning the benefits from free trade and international learning are formally studied. In

Ricardo Azevedo Araujo; JoanÌlio Rodolpho Teixeira

2003-01-01

189

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

190

Selective mutism in children: A structural family therapy approach to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When children refuse to speak in some social settings, but can understand and speak in other settings, the diagnosis of selective mutism must be considered. A review of the literature describes the disorder, the various types of mutism, and related family dynamics. A family systems approach to treatment using structural family therapy is suggested. The case history presented illustrates one

Diane Wolf Tatem; Robert L. DelCampo

1995-01-01

191

Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

192

An Analysis of Family Role Structures and Interactions in Commercial Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a study of family role structures and family role interaction patterns of U.S. television families appearing during prime time and Saturday morning programs for the 1976-1977 season. The content analysis constitutes a ...

M. Hines

1978-01-01

193

Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

194

[Structural, developmental and functional evaluation of the family of individuals with arterial hypertension].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the structure, development and functionality of the family that suffers from arterial hypertension. This is a qualitative study, developed with two families using the Calgary Model of Family Evaluation. It proposes the use of three categories of analysis: structural developmental and functional, and the use of a genogram and an ecomap. The two families are nuclear, however one is formed by the couple and their three sons who are married and reside in different homes. The other is a single-parent family established by the mother and children. The married son resides at another house in the same backyard with wife and daughter The application of the model of family evaluation allowed knowing the aspects related to the structure, operation and development of the two families that interfere impair or favor the development of the care in their quotidian. PMID:23781723

Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; Cecilio, Hellen Pollyanna Mantelo; Marcon, Sonia Silva

2013-03-01

195

The Family Strain Index (FSI). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of a brief questionnaire for families of children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background\\u000a   Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children affects every member of the family. Practical tools are needed\\u000a to assess the effects of ADHD on families to better understand and address the level of stress, strain and burden that families\\u000a experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To provide the preliminary reliability, validity and factor structure of the Family Strain Index (FSI), a 6-item parent-report\\u000a questionnaire.

Anne W. Riley; Lisa M. Lyman; Georg Spiel; Manfred Döpfner; Maria J. Lorenzo

2006-01-01

196

Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US) Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain information about family structure, daily duration of parent-child conversation, smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each substance use by family structure. Results Adjusting for sex, age, type of housing, parental smoking and school, adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 1.62), weekly drinkers (OR = 1.72) and ever drug users (OR = 1.72), with significant linear increases in ORs from maternal, paternal to no-parent families compared with intact families. Furthermore, current smoking (OR = 1.41) and weekly drinking (OR = 1.46) were significantly more common among adolescents from paternal than maternal families. After adjusting for parent-child conversation time, the ORs for non-intact families remained significant compared with intact families, but the paternal-maternal differences were no longer significant. Conclusions Non-intact families were associated with substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The apparently stronger associations with substance use in paternal than maternal families were probably mediated by the poorer communication with the father.

2010-01-01

197

Energy and the Structure of Social System: Significance for Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the paper is to present a model and suggest hypotheses relating the family as a social system to the concepts of human and natural energy. Human energy is interpreted as the capacity of humans, in this case, family members, for doing work and natural energy as resources such as natural gas, carbon dioxide, and heat. A behavioral…

Keefe, Dennis R.

198

Economic burden of environmental tobacco smoke on Hong Kong families: scale and impact  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the financial cost of doctor consultations for cough, phlegm, and wheeze in children living in a home where family members smoke compared with those not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. To model these costs to provide the Territory of Hong Kong with estimates of potentially avoidable health care resource use. DESIGN: Cross sectional questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: All children (10,615) in classes primary 3 to 6 (aged 8-13 years) attending 27 schools in two districts of Hong Kong in 1992 and their parents. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Doctor consultations during the previous three months for symptoms of either cough, phlegm or wheeze were higher in younger children, ranging from 22.9% in 8 year olds to 8.4% in those aged 12 or over. For those children living in homes with one, or more than one, smoker category (there were four categories of smokers: father, mother, siblings, others), the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for a doctor consultation for any of these symptoms were 1.15 (1.01, 1.31) and 1.38 (1.14, 1.67) respectively. Using US$15 as the minimum cost incurred per consultation, the expected direct cost per annum per child of doctor consultations was 14% higher for children living in a one smoker category home and 25% for two or more compared with exposure to no smokers in the home. Using these values on a territory wide basis, the annual avoidable direct cost associated with exposure to tobacco smoke in children from birth to 12 years of age ranged from US$338,042 to US$991,591. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke not only provides a respiratory health risk for children but also an avoidable excess cost to the family's financial resources and health service providers.  

Peters, J.; McCabe, C. J.; Hedley, A. J.; Lam, T. H.; Wong, C. M.

1998-01-01

199

Household family structure and children's aggressive behavior: A longitudinal study of urban elementary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between contemporary household family structures at fourth-grade and sixth-grade parent- and teacher-rated aggression was examined in an epidemiologically defined population of urban school children. The relationship between family structure and aggression varied by child gender and by parent and teacher ratings in the home and school, respectively. After taking into account family income, urban area, and fourth-grade aggressive

Nancy Vaden-Kiernan; Nicholas S. Ialongo; Jane Pearson; Sheppard Kellam

1995-01-01

200

"Breaking the chain of poverty": family planning, community involvement, and the Population Council-Office of Economic Opportunity alliance.  

PubMed

The Office of Economic Opportunity-Population Council program is an example of a mid-twentieth-century federal government/private foundation cooperative effort to place family planning and maternal health at the center of a fight against entrenched poverty. These joint efforts were the trend in family planning and maternal health provision by the 1960s and had two overlapping but also contradictory goals. The first was to provide contraceptive services to poor women to reduce the numbers of poor children, thus relieving the poor of added mouths to feed. Popular fears of a population explosion, mounting welfare rolls, and an increase in the numbers of African Americans receiving welfare fueled this goal. The second aim, however, was to expand comprehensive maternal health services to help reduce poverty by increasing poor women's involvement in and control over the health institutions that could have significant impact on their lives. While the first goal pivoted on encouraging poor women to bear fewer children, the second sought to integrate poor women into community healthcare delivery systems. PMID:22700715

Nelson, Jennifer

2014-01-01

201

Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

2012-01-01

202

The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2011-01-01

203

A spatial view of the interpersonal structure of family interviews: Similarities and differences across counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the interpersonal structure in interviews conducted by 4 founders of the family therapy movement––N. Ackerman, M. Bowen, D. Jackson, and C. Whitaker––with the same family to determine the extent of similarity and identify common features across counselors. Multidimensional scaling provided a spatial representation of the hidden structure in the communication patterns of these interviews. Each of the 4 analyses

Myrna L. Friedlander; Pamela S. Highlen

1984-01-01

204

Family Structure, Educational Attainment, and Socioeconomic Success: Rethinking the "Pathology of Matriarchy."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tracks the relationship between alternative family structures and children's educational and occupational success over four decades (1960s-1990s) using four nationally representative surveys. Addresses the discrepancies observed in the literature on the effects of family structure on children. States that the findings are most consistent with an…

Biblarz, Timothy J.; Raftery, Adrian E.

1999-01-01

205

Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

2012-01-01

206

Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

1996-01-01

207

Explaining the impact of family structure during adolescence on adult educational attainment: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated a structural equation model that specifies the intervening processes accounting for the modest but statistically significant relationship between family structure (intact family) and educational attainment. Using data from a panel (N = 3,322) tested in the seventh grade, when the subjects were in their twenties, and when the subjects were in their mid-thirties, we observed the mediating processes

Zeng-Yin Chen; Howard B. Kaplan

1999-01-01

208

Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

2010-01-01

209

Family Mechanisms of Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive Women in Drug Recovery  

PubMed Central

Objective Examined the effects of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family intervention for women living with HIV or AIDS, compared to a psycho-educational health group (HG) intervention, and reciprocal relationships between women and family members. Method Women (n = 126) and their family members (n = 269) were randomized to one of two conditions and assessed every 4 months for 12 months. Family functioning, drug use, and psychological distress was reported by multiple family members. Results Multilevel growth curve modeling showed a different family functioning trajectory between SET and HG, B = ?0.05, SE = 0.02, p < .01. There was no intervention effect on the trajectory of family-level drug abstinence or psychological distress, but there was a significant difference in the trajectory of psychological distress after controlling for change in family functioning, B = ?0.28, SE = 0.13, p < .05. There was an indirect effect from treatment through change in family functioning to change in psychological distress, B = 0.29, SE = 0.12, p < .05. With respect to reciprocal effects, family drug abstinence significantly predicted women’s abstinence 4 months later, B = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p < .001. Conclusion Findings demonstrated the interdependence of family members and the impact of family in relapse prevention and partially supported SET’s potential for maintaining family functioning and well-being for women living with HIV or AIDS in drug recovery.

Mitrani, Victoria B.; McCabe, Brian E.; Burns, Myron J.; Feaster, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

210

Sociodemographic Status, Parental Background, Childhood Family Structure, and Attitudes toward Family Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate effects of individual characteristics, parental background, and childhood living arrangements on adults' attitudes toward marriage, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing. Strongest predictors were age, sex, and marital status, with older persons, men, and married persons…

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

1992-01-01

211

Associations between children's physical activities, sedentary behaviours and family structure: a sequential mixed methods approach.  

PubMed

This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands, United Kingdom, participated through questionnaires (n = 381) and semi-structured interviews (n = 62). The results indicated that boys and girls from single parent families spent more time in sedentary activities during the week and at the weekend (P < 0.01) when compared with their intact couple family counterparts. It was identified that children in single-parent families received less parental support due to a lack of time, transport and additional parental responsibilities that created a family environment that encouraged sedentary pursuits. Moreover, the barriers that encouraged sedentary activities also prevented children in single parent families from engaging in lifetime activities during the week. Children from intact couple families recorded more time in lifetime activities than those in single parent families (P < 0.01). Finally, children in two-parent families had more opportunities to engage not only in these activities individually but also in joint activities with their parents, further reinforcing these behaviours. PMID:21059801

Quarmby, T; Dagkas, S; Bridge, M

2011-02-01

212

Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic Site (AstDyS http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys )). The spectroscopic analysis is performed using spectra on the 0.44-0.92 ? m range observed by the SMASS Xu et al. 1995, SMASSII (Bus and Binzel, 2002) and 3OS2 (Lazzaro et al. 2002) surveys, which together total around 2140 asteroids with observed spectra. The asteroid taxonomy used is the Bus taxonomy (Bus et al. 2000). A total of 22 two families were analysed . The families of Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, and Koronis were found to be spectrally homogeneous, which confirms previous studies. The Veritas family, on the other hand, which is quoted in the literature as an heterogeneous family was found to be quite homogeneous in the present work. The Eos family is noteworthy for being at one time spectrally heterogeneous and quite different from the background population. References Bus, S. J., and R. P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey - The Observations. Icarus 158, 106-145. Bus, S. J., R. P. Binzel, and T. H. Burbine 2000. A New Generation of Asteroid Taxonomy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, vol. 35, Supplement, p.A36 35, 36 +. Lazzaro, D., C. A. Angeli, T. Mothe-Diniz, J. M. Carvano, R. Duffard, and M. Florczak 2002. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 34, 859 +. Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, and S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial results. Icarus 115, 1-35. Zappala, V., P. Bendjoya, A. Cellino, P. Farinella, and C. Froeschle 1995. Asteroid families: Search of a 12,487-asteroid sample using two different clustering techniques. Icarus 116, 291-314.

Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

213

Histone Recognition and Large-Scale Structural Analysis of the Human Bromodomain Family  

PubMed Central

Summary Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein interaction modules that specifically recognize ?-N-lysine acetylation motifs, a key event in the reading process of epigenetic marks. The 61 BRDs in the human genome cluster into eight families based on structure/sequence similarity. Here, we present 29 high-resolution crystal structures, covering all BRD families. Comprehensive crossfamily structural analysis identifies conserved and family-specific structural features that are necessary for specific acetylation-dependent substrate recognition. Screening of more than 30 representative BRDs against systematic histone-peptide arrays identifies new BRD substrates and reveals a strong influence of flanking posttranslational modifications, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, suggesting that BRDs recognize combinations of marks rather than singly acetylated sequences. We further uncovered a structural mechanism for the simultaneous binding and recognition of diverse diacetyl-containing peptides by BRD4. These data provide a foundation for structure-based drug design of specific inhibitors for this emerging target family.

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Picaud, Sarah; Mangos, Maria; Keates, Tracy; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Felletar, Ildiko; Volkmer, Rudolf; Muller, Susanne; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Knapp, Stefan

2012-01-01

214

SCOP database in 2004: refinements integrate structure and sequence family data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a comprehensive ordering of all proteins of known structure, according to their evolutionary and structural relationships. Protein domains in SCOP are hierarchically classified into families, superfamilies, folds and classes. The con- tinual accumulation of sequence and structural data allows more rigorous analysis and provides import- ant information for understanding the protein world

Antonina Andreeva; Dave Howorth; Steven E. Brenner; Tim J. P. Hubbard; Cyrus Chothia; Alexey G. Murzin

2004-01-01

215

Consumer, Consumption, and Family Economics/Household Management Research, 1972-82: Survey of the Past and Outlook for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of consumer, consumption, and family economics/household management research published in four journals from 1972-82 reveals a fairly even distribution of articles across the topic areas. The majority of the studies used survey methodology and multiple regression analysis. (SK)

Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed; Nickols, Sharon Y.

1984-01-01

216

Parents' Reliance on the Web to Find Information about Children and Families: Socio-Economic Differences in Use, Skills and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines socio-economic status (SES) differences in parents' Web use, skills, and satisfaction. A total of 120 parents were interviewed about their use of the Web to find child and family information, and they provided feedback as they searched for information online. Findings indicate that the higher the SES level (a) the greater…

Rothbaum, Fred; Martland, Nancy; Jannsen, Joanne Beswick

2008-01-01

217

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

218

Gender, Poverty, Family Structure, and Investments in Children's Education in Kinshasa, Congo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, Congo, focusing on how poverty, household structure, gender, and economic well-being affect investments in children's education. Increased economic well-being translates into greater attainment for both females and males, but does not necessarily reduce gender differences in school…

Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

2001-01-01

219

Molecular structure and chromosome distribution of three repetitive DNA families in Anemone hortensis L. (Ranunculaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure, abundance and location of repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes can characterize the nature of higher plant\\u000a genomes. Here we report on three new repeat DNA families isolated from Anemone hortensis L.; (i) AhTR1, a family of satellite DNA (stDNA) composed of a 554–561 bp long EcoRV monomer; (ii) AhTR2, a stDNA family composed of a 743 bp long HindIII monomer

Jelena Mlinarec; Mike Chester; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Dražena Papeš; Andrew R. Leitch; Višnja Besendorfer

2009-01-01

220

Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp\\/AsnC family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lrp\\/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins is found in both archaea and bacteria. Members of the family influence cellular metabolism in both a global (Lrp) and specific (AsnC) manner, often in response to exogenous amino acid effectors. In the present study we have determined both the first bacterial and the highest resolution structures for members of the family. Escherichia

Paul Thaw; Svetlana E. Sedelnikova; Tatyana Muranova; Sebastian Wiese; Sylvia Ayora; Juan C. Alonso; Arie B. Brinkman; A. P. Akerboom; John van der Oost; John B. Rafferty

2006-01-01

221

Tec family of protein-tyrosine kinases: an overview of their structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tec family is a recently emerging subfamily of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) represented by its first member, Tec. This family is composed of five members, namely Tec, Btk, Itk\\/Emt\\/Tsk, Bmx and Txk\\/Rlk. The most characteristic feature of this family is the presence of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in their protein structure. The PH domain is known to bind

Hiroyuki Mano

1999-01-01

222

Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

2004-01-01

223

Emotional Neglect and Family Structure: Impact on Student Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 69 female and 22 male undergraduates found participants who reported childhood emotional neglect by a primary female caregiver described greater current psychological distress and lower cohesion and adaptability in their family of origin than those reporting no neglect or neglect by a primary male caregiver. (Contains…

Wark, Mary Jo; Kruczek, Theresa; Boley, Amanda

2003-01-01

224

Effect of Family Structure on Life Satisfaction: Australian Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do family arrangements affect subjective well-being? We investigate this issue using data pooled from the IsssA and HILDA, both large, representative national samples of Australia (pooled n = 38 447). Our regression analysis of cross-sectional and panel data examines how large are the differences in life satisfaction according to marital…

Evans, M.D.R.; Kelley, Jonathan

2004-01-01

225

The Fpg/Nei Family of DNA Glycosylases: Substrates, Structures and Search for Damage  

PubMed Central

During the initial stages of the base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway, DNA glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of endogenous oxidative base lesions. The bifunctional formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of the Fpg/Nei family, one of the two families of glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases, the other being the HhH/GPD (or Nth) superfamily. Structural and biochemical developments over the past decades have led to novel insights into the mechanism of damage recognition by the Fpg/Nei family of enzymes. Despite the overall structural similarity among members of this family, these enzymes exhibit distinct features that make them unique. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge of the Fpg/Nei family members, emphasizes their substrate specificities, and describes how these enzymes search for lesions.

Prakash, Aishwarya; Doublie, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S.

2014-01-01

226

Family structure and substance use problems in adolescence and early adulthood: examining explanations for the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Our study has two goals: to evaluate variation in symptoms of substance abuse\\/dependence by family structure and to examine several potential explanations for this association, including differences in socio-eco- nomic status, social support, social stress and perceived approval and use of substances by family and friends. Design Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is used to examine the association between

Anne E. Barrett; R. Jay Turner

2006-01-01

227

Associations of Childhood Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and Nonmarital Fertility across Cohorts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers associations among childhood family structure, childhood religious service attendance, and the probability of having a nonmarital first birth before age 30 for non-Hispanic White women born 1944 to 1964 using data from the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 5,995). We found that attending…

Wildeman, Christopher; Percheski, Christine

2009-01-01

228

An examination of the factor structure of the family environment scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the underlying factor structure of a widely used family assessment tool, the Family Environment Scale. In a factor analysis of data from college students and employees of a New England university (n=828), the presence of 10 unique clusters representing the 10 subscales of the FES was not confirmed. This is the second factor analysis that failed

Rebecca J. Waldron; Ronald M. Sabatelli; Stephen A. Anderson

1990-01-01

229

Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

2013-01-01

230

Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use: An Exploration of Single-Parent Families  

PubMed Central

Data from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey examined a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 8th to 12th grade adolescents in rural and urban schools from across the United States (N = 37,507). Results found that drug use among daughters living with single fathers significantly exceeded that of daughters living with single mothers, while gender of parent was not associated with sons’ usage. This distinction in adolescent drug use between mother-only versus father-only households is largely overlooked in contemporary studies. Factors responsible for variations in sons’ and daughters’ usage in single-parent families have important implications for future drug prevention efforts.

Hemovich, Vanessa; Crano, William D.

2011-01-01

231

Use of the Family Resource Scale in Children’s Mental Health: Reliability and Validity among Economically Diverse Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adequacy of a family’s resources has implications for child and family service processes and outcomes. The field needs tools to assess resources in a manner relevant to children’s services research. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the FRS among families caring for children who are receiving mental health services and to compare

Ana María Brannan; Brigitte Manteuffel; E. Wayne Holden; Craig Anne Heflinger

2006-01-01

232

Structural insight into the evolution of a new chemokine family from zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The mammalian chemokine family is segregated into four families – CC, CXC, CX3C, and XC—based on the arrangement of cysteines and the corresponding disulfides. Sequencing of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome has identified more than double the amount of human chemokines with the absence of the CX3C family and the presence of a new family, CX. The only other family with a single cysteine in the N-terminal region is the XC family. Human lymphotactin (XCL1) has two interconverting structures due to dynamic changes that occur in the protein. Similar to an experiment with XCL1 that identified the two structural forms, we probed for multiple forms of zCXL1 using heparin affinity. The results suggest only a single form of CXL1 is present. We used sulfur-SAD phasing to determine the three-dimensional structure CXL1. Zebrafish CXL1 (zCXL1) has three disulfides that appear to be important for a stable structure. One disulfide is common to all chemokines except those that belong to the XC family, another is similar to a subset of CC chemokines containing three disulfides, but the third disulfide is unique to the CX family. We analyzed the electrostatic potential of the zCXL1 structure and identified the likely heparin-binding site for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). zCXL1 has a similar sequence identity with human CCL5 and CXCL12, but the structure is more related to CCL5. Our structural analysis supports the phylogenetic and genomic studies on the evolution of the CXL family.

Rajasekaran, Deepa; Fan, Chengpeng; Meng, Wuyi; Pflugrath, James W.; Lolis, Elias J.

2014-01-01

233

Structural Features of the Interleukin10 Family of Cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin-10 (IL-10) family of cytokines includes IL-10, a number of its viral gene homologs, and eight recently discovered cellular cytokines (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IFN-?1, IFN- ?2, IFN- ?3). IL-10 is an intercalated dimer consisting of two six-helix bundle domains. Signal transduction occurs when each domain of IL-10 binds to two receptor chains, IL-10R1 and IL-10R2. Viral homologs

Alexander Zdanov

2004-01-01

234

Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the IL10 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) family of cytokines includes a number of its viral homologs and eight cellular cytokines (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The latter three proteins are also known as IFN-?2, IFN-?3, and IFN-?1, and are recognized as type III (or ?) interferons. Most of the cellular homologs of IL-10 are monomeric in solution, whereas IL-10 and

Alexander Zdanov

2010-01-01

235

The sodium\\/substrate symporter family: structural and functional features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the sodium\\/substrate symporter family (SSSF, TC 2.A.21) catalyze the uptake of a wide variety of solutes including sugars, proline, pantothenate, and iodide into cells of pro- and eukaryotic origin. Extensive analyses of the topology of different SSSF proteins suggest an arrangement of 13 transmembrane domains as a common topological motif. Regions involved in sodium and\\/or substrate binding were

Heinrich Jung

2002-01-01

236

Sorghum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family: structure, function and molecular evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although housekeeping functions have been shown for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31, PEPC) in plants and in prokaryotes, PEPC is mainly known for its specific role in the primary photosynthetic CO2 fixation in C4 and CAM plants. We have shown that in Sorghum, a monocotyledonous C4 plant, the enzyme is encoded in the nucleus by a small multigene family. Here

Loïc Lepiniec; Eliane Keryer; Herve Philippe; Pierre Gadal; Claude Crétin

1993-01-01

237

Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using\\u000a state-level panel data from the 1981–2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both\\u000a the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of

Craig Gundersen; James Patrick Ziliak

2004-01-01

238

Career Education: Learning with a Purpose. Secondary Guide-Vol. 4. Home Economics, Family/Community Relations, Home Management, Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Field Trip Sites and Guest Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide offers a compilation of teacher-developed career education materials which may be integrated with secondary level curriculum in home economics. Suggested activities and ideas are presented as unit plans in the following areas of home economics: family relations/family living, home management, child development, foods and nutrition,…

Atkinson, Marilyn; And Others

239

Oligomeric structure diversity within the GIY-YIG nuclease family.  

PubMed

The GIY-YIG nuclease domain has been identified in homing endonucleases, DNA repair and recombination enzymes, and restriction endonucleases. The Type II restriction enzyme Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily and, like most of other family members, including the homing endonuclease I-TevI, is a monomer. It recognizes the palindromic sequence 5'-CCGC/GG-3' ("/" marks the cleavage position) and cuts it to generate 3'-staggered ends. The Eco29kI monomer, which contains a single active site, either has to nick sequentially individual DNA strands or has to form dimers or even higher-order oligomers upon DNA binding to make a double-strand break at its target site. Here, we provide experimental evidence that Eco29kI monomers dimerize on a single cognate DNA molecule forming the catalytically active complex. The mechanism described here for Eco29kI differs from that of Cfr42I isoschisomer, which also belongs to the GIY-YIG family but is functional as a tetramer. This novel mechanism may have implications for the function of homing endonucleases and other enzymes of the GIY-YIG family. PMID:19361436

Ibryashkina, Elena M; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Solonin, Alexander S; Zakharova, Marina V; Siksnys, Virginijus

2009-03-20

240

Family Economic Empowerment and Mental Health Among AIDS-Affected Children Living in AIDS-Impacted Communities: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Southwestern Uganda  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We examine whether an innovative family economic empowerment intervention addresses mental health functioning of AIDS-affected children in communities heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS in Uganda. METHODS A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) consisting of two study arms: a treatment condition (n=179) and a control condition (n=118) was used to examine the impact of the family economic empowerment intervention on children’s levels of hopelessness and depression. The intervention comprised of matched children savings accounts, financial management workshops, and mentorship. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months post-intervention. RESULTS Using multivariate analysis with several socio-economic controls, we find that children in the treatment condition (receiving the intervention) report significant improvement in their mental health functioning. Specifically, the intervention reduces hopelessness and depression levels. On the other hand, children in the control condition (not receiving the intervention) report no changes on both measures. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that children with poor mental health functioning living in communities affected by HIV/AIDS may benefit from innovative family economic empowerment interventions. As measures of mental health functioning, both hopelessness and depression have long-term negative psychosocial and developmental impacts on children. These findings have implications for public health programs intended for long-term care and support of children living in resource poor, AIDS-impacted communities.

Han, Chang-Keun; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah

2012-01-01

241

Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study  

PubMed Central

Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals) were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66), or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4) predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79). Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

Haukka, Jari K; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lonnqvist, Jouko

2004-01-01

242

The impact of structural family therapy training on conceptual and executive therapy skills.  

PubMed

The importance of empirical evaluations of family therapy training is gaining increased recognition. This study reports the results of a controlled assessment of a training seminar in structural family therapy. Changes in the conceptual and executive skills of 44 therapy trainees (22 family trainees and 22 controls) were assessed over a 16-week period using repertory grid and videotaped therapy simulation techniques. Results indicated significant conceptual gains in family therapy trainees, but only among those with little previous exposure to family training. Differences in the overall number as well as the type of interventions were also noted. Results generally supported the predicted impact of therapy training, but left unanswered questions regarding the unique impact of family therapy training over individual training. These qualifications are discussed and directions for future work are highlighted. PMID:3817132

Zaken-Greenberg, F; Neimeyer, G J

1986-12-01

243

Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2010-01-01

244

Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.  

PubMed

Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's) PMID:12222474

Hsuing, P C

1988-06-01

245

The economic impact of bank structure: a review of recent literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent passage of the Financial Services Modernization Act, along with numerous bank mergers over the past few years, has focused attention on the banking system in general and on the sector's industrial organization in particular. Because of this, economists have recently begun developing theoretical models to more fully understand the economic impact of the industry's market structure. Mark Guzman

Mark G. Guzman

2000-01-01

246

High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic transition turns the inherited wage structure upside down. Changes are rapid and dramatic. The Polish example shows that even in the first year of market-oriented reforms, there was a marked increase in earnings inequality, a dramatic rise in the wage premium for white-collar skills, and a significant jump in the returns to education. In contrast, skills acquired under the

Jan Rutkowski

1996-01-01

247

Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?  

PubMed

The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm. PMID:1469676

Tumwine, J K

1992-12-01

248

Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

1981-01-01

249

The Structure and Equilibrium Conditions of a Generalized Economic Canopy: A Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note draws upon ecological models to describe the structure and equilibrium conditions of a generalized economic canopy consisting of three interactive economies assumed to be in competitive epiphytic, parasitic, and host relationships to each other. The maintained hypothesis is that generally (a) parasites are a drag on their hosts, (b) epiphytes interfere with normal functioning of both parasites and

V. Heinrich S. Amavilah

2005-01-01

250

The development of structural complexity in the child's concept of family: the effect of cognitive stage, sex, and intactness of family.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight boys and 28 girls at each of the Piagetian preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational cognitive stages were given an interview focusing on their concepts of family. Half of each group were from intact families, and half were from divorced families. Interviews were scored for two structural aspects of the concept of family: conceptual level, and use of dimensions that structure the concept. The complexity of children's concepts was strongly related to cognitive stage and, to a lesser degree, to sex. Frequency of use of concept dimensions was strongly affected by general developmental level, though not specifically cognitive stage, and by intactness of family, but to a lesser degree by sex. Specific information is provided on the effect of these factors on perceptions of family composition, parental roles, and breadth of family activities. PMID:2625631

Wedemeyer, N V; Bickhard, M H; Cooper, R G

1989-12-01

251

Data Analysis Strategy for Revealing Multivariate Structures in Social-Economic Data Warehouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This research work,is aimed at the development,of data analysis strategy in a com- plex, multidimensional, and dynamic domain. Our universe of discourse is concerned with the data mining,techniques of data warehouses,revealing the importance of multivariate structures of social-economic data which influence criminality. Distinct tasks require different data structures and various data mining,exercises in data warehouses. The proposed,problem,solution strategy allows

Dale Dzemydiene; Vitalija Rudzkiene

2003-01-01

252

Comprehensive genome analysis of 203 genomes provides structural genomics with new insights into protein family space  

PubMed Central

We present an analysis of 203 completed genomes in the Gene3D resource (including 17 eukaryotes), which demonstrates that the number of protein families is continually expanding over time and that singleton-sequences appear to be an intrinsic part of the genomes. A significant proportion of the proteomes can be assigned to fewer than 6000 well-characterized domain families with the remaining domain-like regions belonging to a much larger number of small uncharacterized families that are largely species specific. Our comprehensive domain annotation of 203 genomes enables us to provide more accurate estimates of the number of multi-domain proteins found in the three kingdoms of life than previous calculations. We find that 67% of eukaryotic sequences are multi-domain compared with 56% of sequences in prokaryotes. By measuring the domain coverage of genome sequences, we show that the structural genomics initiatives should aim to provide structures for less than a thousand structurally uncharacterized Pfam families to achieve reasonable structural annotation of the genomes. However, in large families, additional structures should be determined as these would reveal more about the evolution of the family and enable a greater understanding of how function evolves.

Marsden, Russell L.; Lee, David; Maibaum, Michael; Yeats, Corin; Orengo, Christine A.

2006-01-01

253

Gender Liberation, Economic Squeeze, or Fear of Strangers: Why Fathers Provide Infant Care in Dual-Earner Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the experiences of families in which fathers care for their newborn infants when mothers return to work after childbirth. Documents the hours of care provided by fathers while mothers are at work, the simultaneous use of other child-care arrangements, and the average savings per family. Explores three possible motivations for families to…

Glass, Jennifer

1998-01-01

254

Sequence and Structural Links between Distant ADP-Ribosyltransferase Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The low resolution structure of the Pseudomonas aeroginosa exotoxin A (ETA) presented in 1986 provided the first tantalizing three-dimensional view of an ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT)\\u000a catalytic domain. The major features of this protein fold have recurred in the more recently solved crystal structures of\\u000a the cholera toxin-related heatlabile enterotoxin (LT), diphtheria toxin (DT) and pertussis toxin (PT). A core set of

J. Fernando Bazan; Friedrich Koch-Nolte

255

Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

2012-01-01

256

The Association between Current Intergenerational Family Relationships and Sibling Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between sibling structure variables (i.e., gender, number of sisters, number of brothers, sibling spacing, number of siblings, and birth order, all men, and all women siblings) and current relationships with parents and spouse/partners. Participants included 519 adults between the ages of 19 and 59 years. Two…

Lawson, David M.; Brossart, Daniel F.

2004-01-01

257

Attributions of Fathering Behaviors Among Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family Structure, and Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers’ behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers’ positive and negative behaviors. Results indicated that for positive events girls made significantly more stable attributions, whereas boys made more unstable attributions. Mexican American adolescents tended to make more unstable attributions for positive events than European Americans, and adolescents from intact families made more stable attributions for positive events than adolescents from stepfamilies. Implications are discussed for the role of attributions in father-adolescent relationships as prime for intervention in families.

Finlay, Andrea K.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Saenz, Delia S.; Baham, Melinda E.; Parke, Ross D.; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford

2014-01-01

258

Two Pfam protein families characterized by a crystal structure of protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila  

PubMed Central

Background Every genome contains a large number of uncharacterized proteins that may encode entirely novel biological systems. Many of these uncharacterized proteins fall into related sequence families. By applying sequence and structural analysis we hope to provide insight into novel biology. Results We analyze a previously uncharacterized Pfam protein family called DUF4424 [Pfam:PF14415]. The recently solved three-dimensional structure of the protein lpg2210 from Legionella pneumophila provides the first structural information pertaining to this family. This protein additionally includes the first representative structure of another Pfam family called the YARHG domain [Pfam:PF13308]. The Pfam family DUF4424 adopts a 19-stranded beta-sandwich fold that shows similarity to the N-terminal domain of leukotriene A-4 hydrolase. The YARHG domain forms an all-helical domain at the C-terminus. Structure analysis allows us to recognize distant similarities between the DUF4424 domain and individual domains of M1 aminopeptidases and tricorn proteases, which form massive proteasome-like capsids in both archaea and bacteria. Conclusions Based on our analyses we hypothesize that the DUF4424 domain may have a role in forming large, multi-component enzyme complexes. We suggest that the YARGH domain may play a role in binding a moiety in proximity with peptidoglycan, such as a hydrophobic outer membrane lipid or lipopolysaccharide.

2013-01-01

259

Crystal structure of the Src family tyrosine kinase Hck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of the haematopoietic cell kinase Hck has been determined at 2.6\\/2.9 Å resolution. Inhibition of enzymatic activity is a consequence of intramolecular interactions of the enzyme's Src-homology domains SH2 and SH3, with concomitant displacement of elements of the catalytic domain. The conformation of the active site has similarities with that of inactive cyclin-dependent protein kinases.

Frank Sicheri; Ismail Moarefi; John Kuriyan

1997-01-01

260

Non-invasive sampling of schistosomes from humans requires correcting for family structure.  

PubMed

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations. PMID:24069499

Steinauer, Michelle L; Christie, Mark R; Blouin, Michael S; Agola, Lelo E; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Mutuku, Martin W; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mkoji, Gerald M; Loker, Eric S

2013-01-01

261

Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure  

PubMed Central

For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult parasite populations.

Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

262

A computational approach to structural properties of glycoside hydrolase family 4 from bacteria.  

PubMed

Structural bioinformatics approaches applied to the alpha- and beta-glycosidases from the GH4 enzyme family reveal that, despite low sequence identity, these enzymes possess quite similar global structural characteristics reflecting a common reaction mechanism. Locally, there are a few distinctive structural characteristics of GH4 alpha- and beta-glycosidases, namely, surface cavities with different geometric characteristics and two regions with highly dissimilar structural organizations and distinct physicochemical properties in the alpha- and beta-glucosidases from Thermotoga maritima. We suggest that these structurally dissimilar regions may be involved in specific protein-protein interactions and this hypothesis is sustained by the predicted distinct functional partners of the investigated proteins. Also, we predict that alpha- and beta-glycosidases from the GH4 enzyme family interact with difenoconazole, a fungicide, but there are different features of these interactions especially concerning the identified structurally distinct regions of the investigated proteins. PMID:24340303

Craciun, Dana; Vlad-Oros, Beatrice; Filimon, Nicoleta; Ostafe, Vasile; Isvoran, Adriana

2013-01-01

263

Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia  

PubMed Central

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin mutations. Methods: In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20–70 years) with 50% risk for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, and structural and functional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxelwise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures. Using resting-state fMRI scans, we assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to frontoinsula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior cingulate cortex. Results: Although carriers (n = 37) and noncarriers (n = 38) had similar neuropsychological performance, worse performance on Stroop III, Ekman faces, and Happé cartoons correlated with higher age in carriers, but not controls. Reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity throughout frontotemporal white matter tracts were found in carriers and correlated with higher age. Reductions in functional aMCC connectivity were found in carriers compared with controls, and connectivity between frontoinsula and aMCC seeds and several brain regions significantly decreased with higher age in carriers but not controls. We found no significant differences or age correlations in posterior cingulate cortex connectivity. No differences in regional gray matter volume were found. Conclusions: This study convincingly demonstrates that alterations in structural and functional connectivity develop before the first symptoms of FTD arise. These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI may have the potential to become sensitive biomarkers for early FTD in future clinical trials.

Dopper, Elise G.P.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; Jiskoot, Lize C.; den Heijer, Tom; de Graaf, J. Roos A.; de Koning, Inge; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Seelaar, Harro; Seeley, William W.; Veer, Ilya M.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rizzu, Patrizia

2013-01-01

264

Mechanistic and Structural Analysis of a Family 31  Glycosidase and Its Glycosyl-enzyme Intermediate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the first structure of a family 31 -glycosidase, that of YicI from Escherichia coli, both free and trapped as a 5-fluoroxylopyranosyl-enzyme in- termediate via reaction with 5-fluoro--D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. Our 2.2-Å resolution structure shows an inti- mately associated hexamer with structural elements from several monomers converging at each of the six active sites. Our kinetic and mass spectrometry

Andrew L. Lovering; Seung Seo Lee; Young-Wan Kim; Stephen G. Withers; Natalie C. J. Strynadka

2004-01-01

265

Structure and function of interleukin-22 and other members of the interleukin-10 family.  

PubMed

The IL-10 family of cytokines is comprised of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and IFN-lambdas (IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The IL-10 family members bind to shared class II cytokine receptor chains that associate in various combinations in heterodimeric complexes. Upon interleukin/receptor complex formation, these proteins switch on the Jak/STAT pathway and elicit pleiotropic biological responses whose variety sharply contrasts with their structural similarities. IL-10 family members are involved in several human diseases and health conditions and hence their structural analyses may provide valuable information to design specific therapeutic strategies. In this review, we describe the human interleukin-10 family of cytokines, focusing on their structures and functions, with particular attention given to IL-22 and IL-10. We report on the recently published structures of IL-10 cytokine family members and their complexes with cognate transmembrane and soluble receptors as well as on interleukin physiology and physiopathology. PMID:20454917

Trivella, Daniela Barretto Barbosa; Ferreira-Júnior, José Ribamar; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

2010-09-01

266

SocioEconomic Structure of the Deep Water Pink Shrimp Fisheries in the Marmara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was done to be determined the socio-economic structure of shrimp fishery in the Marmara sea. The main material of this research is the original data which has been obtained by face-to-face interviewing with the vessel owners via using questionnaires during 2003-2004 shrimp fishery season. In the questionnaires the fallowing data has been taken places which are given respectively

H. Güngör; G. Güngör

267

Nutritional assessment of pre-school children in rural villages of the family dynamics, lifestyles and nutrition study (1997-2001) I. Socio-economic status of households.  

PubMed

This paper presents the socio-economic profile of households in the Family Dynamics Study (FDS) (1997-2001) and makes comparisons with the earlier Functional Groups Study (FGS) (1992-1996). For the current study, FGS villages with a high prevalence of child malnutrition were purposively selected. In each village selected, all households were included, and interviews with a structured questionnaire were conducted in April-May 1998. Incomes were generally low and incidence of poverty was high; 49.6% of the households were under the poverty line income, of which 37.2% were poor and 12.4% were hard core poor. Overall, only 23.2% of heads of households were in agricultural occupations, others being primarily waged workers and petty traders. Livestock rearing was widespread (57.8%), and most households (90.4%) owned at least one motorised vehicle, the most common being the motorcycle. The majority of households had refrigerators (73.6%), washing machines (58.8%), and televisions (91.1%); but telephones (42.2%), mobile phones (6.1%) and computers (2.3%) were less common. Although 99.7% of households had electricity supply and 95.1% had either a flush or pour flush latrine, only 57.4% had piped water supply. In comparison to the FGS, poverty in the current study is lower (49.6% of FDS households are poor compared to 55.2% of FGS households), the proportion of household heads in agricultural occupations is also lower (26.9% compared to 55.3%), while all other socioeconomic indicators were better, except for piped water supply, which remains inadequate for households in the current study. PMID:22692437

Chee, Heng Leng; Khor, Geoklin; Arshad, Fatimah; Wanmuda, Wanabdulmanan; Shabdin, Ahmadaffendi; Abusamah, Asnarulkhadi; Abdullah, Rohani; Bidin, Sitijamilah; Emby, Zahid; Mohdmarjan, Zamaliah

2002-03-01

268

The FEN-1 family of structure-specific nucleases in eukaryotic DNA replication, recombination and repair.  

PubMed

Unlike the most well-characterized prokaryotic polymerase, E. coli DNA pol l, none of the eukaryotic polymerases have their own 5' to 3' exonuclease domain for nick translation and Okazaki fragment processing. In eukaryotes, FEN-1 is an endo- and exonuclease that carries out this function independently of the polymerase molecules. Only seven nucleases have been cloned from multicellular eukaryotic cells. Among these, FEN-1 is intriguing because it has complex structural preferences; specifically, it cleaves at branched DNA structures. The cloning of FEN-1 permitted establishment of the first eukaryotic nuclease family, predicting that S. cerevisiae RAD2 (S. pombe Rad13) and its mammalian homolog, XPG, would have similar structural specificity. The FEN-1 nuclease family includes several similar enzymes encoded by bacteriophages. The crystal structures of two enzymes in the FEN-1 nuclease family have been solved and they provide a structural basis for the interesting steric requirements of FEN-1 substrates. Because of their unique structural specificities, FEN-1 and its family members have important roles in DNA replication, repair and, potentially, recombination. Recently, FEN-1 was found to specifically associate with PCNA, explaining some aspects of FEN-1 function during DNA replication and potentially in DNA repair. PMID:9080773

Lieber, M R

1997-03-01

269

Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

Stoney, Louise

270

Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

Cauthen, Nancy K.

271

A novel gene family NBPF: intricate structure generated by gene duplications during primate evolution.  

PubMed

Partial and complete genome duplications occurred during evolution and resulted in the creation of new genes and gene families. We identified a novel and intricate human gene family located primarily in regions of segmental duplications on human chromosome 1. We named it NBPF, for neuroblastoma breakpoint family, because one of its members is disrupted by a chromosomal translocation in a neuroblastoma patient. The NBPF genes have a repetitive structure with high intragenic and intergenic sequence similarity in both coding and noncoding regions. These similarities might expose these genomic regions to illegitimate recombination, resulting in structural variation in the NBPF genes. The encoded proteins contain a highly conserved domain of unknown function, which we have named the NBPF repeat. In silico analysis combined with the isolation of multiple full-length cDNA clones showed that several members of this gene family are abundantly expressed in a large variety of tissues and cell lines. Strikingly, no discernable orthologues could be identified in the completed genomes of fruit fly, nematode, mouse, or rat, but sequences with low homology could be isolated from the draft canine and bovine genomes. Interestingly, this gene family shows primate-specific duplications that result in species-specific arrays of NBPF homologous sequences. Overall, this novel NBPF family reflects the continuous evolution of primate genomes that resulted in large physiological differences, and its potential role in this process is discussed. PMID:16079250

Vandepoele, Karl; Van Roy, Nadine; Staes, Katrien; Speleman, Frank; van Roy, Frans

2005-11-01

272

The role of family structure and attachment in college student hookups.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between family structure and hooking up among emerging adults (N = 881) and the extent to which attachment moderated this relationship. Neither family structure nor number of structure transitions were related to the number of hookup partners in the past 12 months. Having an avoidant attachment, being an underclassman, consuming more alcohol, and not being in an exclusive relationship were related to having a greater number of hookup partners, and avoidant attachment was a stronger indicator of hooking up for men than for women. Among those who had hooked up in the past 12 months (63.8 %), family structure did not significantly differentiate those having a penetrative sex hookup (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) versus a non-penetrative sex hookup (i.e., kissing and/or sexual touching only). Findings were discussed in terms of their methodological implications for studying hookups, such as the collection of event level data and examining how family structure influences other correlates of hooking up. PMID:23733154

Garneau, Chelsea; Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

2013-11-01

273

Family structure, marital discord and offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood: a prospective study.  

PubMed

With marital breakdown and discord relatively common, we examined whether family structure and the quality of marital relationship have a long-term impact on offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of family structure and marital discord in the family with a wide range of offspring's mental health and problem behaviours at 21 years. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population based birth cohort study, which commenced in Brisbane, Australia in 1981. Mothers and children were followed up at birth, 6 months and 5, 14 and 21 years after the initial interview. Marital status and marital quality were assessed at the 14 year follow-up. Young Adult Self-Report sub-scales of mental health and problem behaviours were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Type of family structure and the quality of marital relationship (at the 14-year follow-up) predicted offspring's psychopathology at 21 years. When a selected group of confounding factors were included in the multivariate analyses, children who lived with a step-father, un-partnered mother, or in families where parents had conflict in marital relationship reported higher symptoms of psychopathology at 21 years. The association between marital problems and young adult psychopathology does not appear to be confounded by a wide range of confounding variables. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of these associations to develop preventive programmes. PMID:23949103

Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

2013-11-01

274

Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program, SHCOST, was used to perform economic analyses of operational test sites. The program allows consideration of the economic parameters which are important to the solar system user. A life cycle cost and cash flow comparison is made between a solar heating system and a conventional system. The program assists in sizing the solar heating system. A sensitivity study and plot capability allow the user to select the most cost effective system configuration.

Forney, J. A.; Walker, D.; Lanier, M.

1979-01-01

275

Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women  

PubMed Central

Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas.

Molina, Kristine M.; Alcantara, Carmela

2013-01-01

276

Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.  

PubMed

Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

2013-02-01

277

Do family structure and poverty affect sexual risk behaviors of undergraduate students in Nigeria?  

PubMed

This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to understanding the role of family structure and poverty on risky sexual behaviours. A representative sample of 1,301 undergraduate students was randomly selected from the various faculties that made up the University. Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from single parent homes showed lower likelihood of having multiple sexual partners. Also poverty was found not to be a critical determinant of risky sexual behaviour. Given the unclear nature of the findings, future study should explore further understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students. PMID:24558790

Odimegwu, Clifford; Adedini, Sunday A

2013-12-01

278

Evolution, functional divergence and conserved exon-intron structure of bHLH/PAS gene family.  

PubMed

bHLH/PAS genes encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with bHLH, PAS and PAS_3 domain. bHLH/PAS genes are involved in many essential physiological and developmental processes, such as hypoxic response neural development, the circadian clock, and learning ability. Despite their important functions, the origin and evolution of this bHLH/PAS gene family has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to explore the origin, evolution, gene structure conservation of this gene family and provide a model to analyze the evolution of other gene families. Our results show that genes of the bHLH/PAS family only exist in metazoans. They may have originated from the common ancestor of metazoans and expanded into vertebrates. We identified bHLH/PAS genes in more than ten species representing the main lineages and constructed the phylogenetic trees (Beyasian, ML and NJ) to classify them into three groups. The exon-intron structure analysis revealed that a relatively conserved "1001-0210" eight-exon structure exists in most groups and lineages. In addition, we found the exon fusion pattern in several groups in this conserved eight-exon structure. Further analysis indicated that bHLH/PAS protein paralogs evolved from several gene duplication events followed by functional divergence and purifying selection. We presented a phylogenetic model to describe the evolutionary history of the exon structures of bHLH/PAS genes. Taken together, our study revealed the evolutionary model, functional divergence and gene structure conservation of bHLH/PAS genes. These findings provide clues for the functional and evolutionary mechanism of bHLH/PAS genes. PMID:24202550

Yan, Jun; Ma, Zhaowu; Xu, Xiaopeng; Guo, An-Yuan

2014-02-01

279

Effects of Family Structure on High School Students' Academic Achievement and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As students lose traditional family structure, some studies indicate that their academic behavior may be affected. The purpose of this study is to measure the difference in achievement of high school students from single-parent homes compared to those from intact homes. The study is limited to Snook Independent School District (Texas),…

Sears, Vikki

280

An Examination of Referrals to the School Counselor by Race, Gender, and Family Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study addressing student referral differences based on family structure, gender, and race in teacher-initiated contact to school counselors. Researchers used secondary data from the National Education Longitudinal Study. They used logit log linear analyses in this data analysis. Significant differences existed for all…

Adams, Jennifer R.; Benshoff, James M.; Harrington, Sonja Y.

2007-01-01

281

Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has recently posted Population Division Working Paper No. 23, on its website. This paper, Poverty, Family Structure, and Child Well-Being: Indicators From the SIPP, by Jason M. Fields and Kristin E. Smith, examines the efficacy of SIPP as a measure of child well-being.

Fields, Jason M.; Smith, Kristin E.

1998-01-01

282

Family Structure Variables as Predictors of Educational and Vocational Aspirations of High School Seniors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an examination of educational and vocational aspirations of high school studentsby family structure variables. The data is from the High School and Beyond (NCES) data set. Differences are described and the implications for further research are discussed. The exrsting research on student aspirations has examined a broad array of variables. Many of the studies

THOMAS D. HANSEN; WALTER G. McINTIRE

283

Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale: Effects of Social Desirability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented for 64 subjects a replication of the Family Environment Scale's maximum likelihood factor structure for which the two-factor, Varimax-rotated solution was found to be stable when the correlations among the subscales were corrected for the effects of social desirability response bias. (Author)

Fowler, Patrick C.

1982-01-01

284

Family Structure, Parental Investment, and Educational Outcomes among Black South Africans. Population Studies Center Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between family structure, expenditures on education, and children's educational outcomes for black South Africans, using the nationally representative 1995 October Household Survey. The analyses focused on 28,215 individuals, ages 10 to 24 years, who had not completed secondary schools. The findings indicated…

Anderson, Kermyt G.

285

Is There a Relationship between Family Structure and Substance Use among Public Middle School Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between family structure and substance use in a sample of 2,138 public middle school students in a southern state. The CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey was utilized and adjusted logistic regression models were created separately for four race/gender categories (African American females/males, and…

Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

2007-01-01

286

The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

2012-01-01

287

Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

288

Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

2012-01-01

289

Structure of the Archaeal Pab87 Peptidase Reveals a Novel Self-Compartmentalizing Protease Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-compartmentalizing proteases orchestrate protein turnover through an original architecture characterized by a central catalytic chamber. Here we report the first structure of an archaeal member of a new self-compartmentalizing protease family forming a cubic-shaped octamer with D4 symmetry and referred to as CubicO. We solved the structure of the Pyrococcus abyssi Pab87 protein at 2.2 Å resolution using the anomalous

Vanessa Delfosse; Eric Girard; Catherine Birck; Michaël Delmarcelle; Marc Delarue; Olivier Poch; Patrick Schultz; Claudine Mayer; Bostjan Kobe

2009-01-01

290

The Relationships Between Children's Self-Concepts and Evaluations of Parents as a Function of Family Structure and Family Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inventory results indicated that children's self-concepts from happy divorced family environments were not significantly correlated with their ratings of parental figures. Self-concepts of happy children from unhappy divorced families and intact families (whether happy or unhappy) were found to be generally related to their evaluations of their…

Parish, Thomas S.; Nunn, Gerald D.

1981-01-01

291

Impact of Family Structure on Stimulant Use among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of family structure on pharmacologic stimulant use among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data Source Nationally representative, population-based sample of the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2003 linked with drug event files from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 1998 to 2005. Study Design Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of stimulant use for each individual during 2 years of observation after adjustment for sociodemographic, health, and family characteristics. Stratified analyses were also conducted to examine whether family characteristics had different impacts within single-mother and dual-parent households. Principal Findings Stimulant use varied based on children's sociodemographic and health characteristics. In multivariate analyses, associations between children's household structure, parental education, and stimulant use appeared to be mediated by children's access to care and health status. However, in full multivariate models, there remained a robust positive association between family size and stimulant use. Conclusions These findings highlight the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children.

Rabbani, Atonu; Alexander, G Caleb

2009-01-01

292

Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted.

Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

2014-01-01

293

The Community Economic Development Tradition in Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada: Ideological Continuities and Discontinuities between the Antigonish Movement and the Family of Community Development Corporations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts activities and organizational structures of two Canadian community development initiatives: the Antigonish Movement and the Family of Cape Breton community development corporations. Finds ideological differences in the view of property and profit, governance and accountability, and role of education. Concludes that Antigonish is more…

MacAulay, Scott

2001-01-01

294

Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database  

SciTech Connect

The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

1991-02-01

295

Structures of human exonuclease I DNA complexes suggest a unified mechanism for nuclease family  

PubMed Central

Summary Human exonuclease 1 (hExo1) plays important roles in DNA repair and recombination processes that maintain genomic integrity. It is a member of the 5? structure-specific nuclease family of exonucleases and endonucleases that includes FEN-1, XPG, and GEN1. We present structures of hExo1 in complex with a DNA substrate, followed by mutagenesis studies, and propose a common mechanism by which this nuclease family recognizes and processes diverse DNA structures. hExo1 induces a sharp bend in the DNA at nicks or gaps. Frayed 5? ends of nicked duplexes resemble flap junctions, unifying the mechanisms of endo- and exo-nucleolytic processing. Conformational control of a mobile region in the catalytic site suggests a mechanism for allosteric regulation by binding to protein partners. The relative arrangement of substrate binding sites in these enzymes provides an elegant solution to a complex geometrical puzzle of substrate recognition and processing.

Orans, Jillian; McSweeney, Elizabeth A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Hast, Michael A.; Hellinga, Homme W.; Modrich, Paul; Beese, Lorena S.

2011-01-01

296

Structural Characterization of the Predominant Family of Histidine Kinase Sensor Domains  

SciTech Connect

Histidine kinase (HK) receptors are used ubiquitously by bacteria to monitor environmental changes, and they are also prevalent in plants, fungi, and other protists. Typical HK receptors have an extracellular sensor portion that detects a signal, usually a chemical ligand, and an intracellular transmitter portion that includes both the kinase domain itself and the site for histidine phosphorylation. While kinase domains are highly conserved, sensor domains are diverse. HK receptors function as dimers, but the molecular mechanism for signal transduction across cell membranes remains obscure. In this study, eight crystal structures were determined from five sensor domains representative of the most populated family, family HK1, found in a bioinformatic analysis of predicted sensor domains from transmembrane HKs. Each structure contains an inserted repeat of PhoQ/DcuS/CitA (PDC) domains, and similarity between sequence and structure is correlated across these and other double-PDC sensor proteins. Three of the five sensors crystallize as dimers that appear to be physiologically relevant, and comparisons between ligated structures and apo-state structures provide insights into signal transmission. Some HK1 family proteins prove to be sensors for chemotaxis proteins or diguanylate cyclase receptors, implying a combinatorial molecular evolution.

Zhang, Z.; Hendrickson, W

2010-01-01

297

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here.

Giguere, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

298

Structure-Guided Recombination Creates an Artificial Family of Cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

Creating artificial protein families affords new opportunities to explore the determinants of structure and biological function free from many of the constraints of natural selection. We have created an artificial family comprising ˜3,000 P450 heme proteins that correctly fold and incorporate a heme cofactor by recombining three cytochromes P450 at seven crossover locations chosen to minimize structural disruption. Members of this protein family differ from any known sequence at an average of 72 and by as many as 109 amino acids. Most (>73%) of the properly folded chimeric P450 heme proteins are catalytically active peroxygenases; some are more thermostable than the parent proteins. A multiple sequence alignment of 955 chimeras, including both folded and not, is a valuable resource for sequence-structure-function studies. Logistic regression analysis of the multiple sequence alignment identifies key structural contributions to cytochrome P450 heme incorporation and peroxygenase activity and suggests possible structural differences between parents CYP102A1 and CYP102A2.

Otey, Christopher R; Landwehr, Marco; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Hiraga, Kaori; Bloom, Jesse D

2006-01-01

299

HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS, PRESERVICE AND INSERVICE LEVELS, THEIR INTEREST IN TEACHING, THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILDREN AND FAMILIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MAJOR QUESTIONS EXPLORED IN THIS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH STUDY WERE--(1) WHAT ARE THE ATTITUDES OF PRESENT AND PROSPECTIVE HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS TOWARD CHILDREN, TEACHING, AND INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS DIFFERENT FROM THEMSELVES, (2) WHAT EARLY COLLEGE EXPERIENCES MIGHT MODIFY THESE ATTITUDES, AND (3) WHAT EXPERIENCES AS JUNIORS, SENIORS, AND…

CHADDERDON, HESTER; AND OTHERS

300

A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

301

Common and Distant Structural Characteristics of Feruloyl Esterase Families from Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Background Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. Conclusions/Significance Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for short listing the putative substrates prior to docking studies or for post-processing docking results to remove false positives. Our study exemplifies how computational predictions can complement to the information obtained through experimental methods.

Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Mapelli, Valeria; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

2012-01-01

302

Structural Elucidation of Dextran Degradation Mechanism by Streptococcus mutans Dextranase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 66*  

PubMed Central

Dextranase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes dextran ?-1,6 linkages. Streptococcus mutans dextranase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66, producing isomaltooligosaccharides of various sizes and consisting of at least five amino acid sequence regions. The crystal structure of the conserved fragment from Gln100 to Ile732 of S. mutans dextranase, devoid of its N- and C-terminal variable regions, was determined at 1.6 Å resolution and found to contain three structural domains. Domain N possessed an immunoglobulin-like ?-sandwich fold; domain A contained the enzyme's catalytic module, comprising a (?/?)8-barrel; and domain C formed a ?-sandwich structure containing two Greek key motifs. Two ligand complex structures were also determined, and, in the enzyme-isomaltotriose complex structure, the bound isomaltooligosaccharide with four glucose moieties was observed in the catalytic glycone cleft and considered to be the transglycosylation product of the enzyme, indicating the presence of four subsites, ?4 to ?1, in the catalytic cleft. The complexed structure with 4?,5?-epoxypentyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, revealed that the epoxide ring reacted to form a covalent bond with the Asp385 side chain. These structures collectively indicated that Asp385 was the catalytic nucleophile and that Glu453 was the acid/base of the double displacement mechanism, in which the enzyme showed a retaining catalytic character. This is the first structural report for the enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66, elucidating the enzyme's catalytic machinery.

Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kim, Young-Min; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Kimura, Atsuo

2012-01-01

303

Structural elucidation of dextran degradation mechanism by streptococcus mutans dextranase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66.  

PubMed

Dextranase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes dextran ?-1,6 linkages. Streptococcus mutans dextranase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66, producing isomaltooligosaccharides of various sizes and consisting of at least five amino acid sequence regions. The crystal structure of the conserved fragment from Gln(100) to Ile(732) of S. mutans dextranase, devoid of its N- and C-terminal variable regions, was determined at 1.6 Å resolution and found to contain three structural domains. Domain N possessed an immunoglobulin-like ?-sandwich fold; domain A contained the enzyme's catalytic module, comprising a (?/?)(8)-barrel; and domain C formed a ?-sandwich structure containing two Greek key motifs. Two ligand complex structures were also determined, and, in the enzyme-isomaltotriose complex structure, the bound isomaltooligosaccharide with four glucose moieties was observed in the catalytic glycone cleft and considered to be the transglycosylation product of the enzyme, indicating the presence of four subsites, -4 to -1, in the catalytic cleft. The complexed structure with 4',5'-epoxypentyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, revealed that the epoxide ring reacted to form a covalent bond with the Asp(385) side chain. These structures collectively indicated that Asp(385) was the catalytic nucleophile and that Glu(453) was the acid/base of the double displacement mechanism, in which the enzyme showed a retaining catalytic character. This is the first structural report for the enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66, elucidating the enzyme's catalytic machinery. PMID:22337884

Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kim, Young-Min; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Kimura, Atsuo

2012-06-01

304

The Combined Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions and Indels on the Evolution of Structure within Protein Families  

PubMed Central

Background In the process of protein evolution, sequence variations within protein families can cause changes in protein structures and functions. However, structures tend to be more conserved than sequences and functions. This leads to an intriguing question: what is the evolutionary mechanism by which sequence variations produce structural changes? To investigate this question, we focused on the most common types of sequence variations: amino acid substitutions and insertions/deletions (indels). Here their combined effects on protein structure evolution within protein families are studied. Results Sequence-structure correlation analysis on 75 homologous structure families (from SCOP) that contain 20 or more non-redundant structures shows that in most of these families there is, statistically, a bilinear correlation between the amount of substitutions and indels versus the degree of structure variations. Bilinear regression of percent sequence non-identity (PNI) and standardized number of gaps (SNG) versus RMSD was performed. The coefficients from the regression analysis could be used to estimate the structure changes caused by each unit of substitution (structural substitution sensitivity, SSS) and by each unit of indel (structural indel sensitivity, SIDS). An analysis on 52 families with high bilinear fitting multiple correlation coefficients and statistically significant regression coefficients showed that SSS is mainly constrained by disulfide bonds, which almost have no effects on SIDS. Conclusions Structural changes in homologous protein families could be rationally explained by a bilinear model combining amino acid substitutions and indels. These results may further improve our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of protein structures.

Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yuxiao; Wang, Lushan; Gao, Peiji

2010-01-01

305

Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase.  

PubMed

RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

2013-08-01

306

Family-wide chemical profiling and structural analysis of PARP and tankyrase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family proteins are currently in clinical trials as cancer therapeutics, yet the specificity of many of these compounds is unknown. Here we evaluated a series of 185 small-molecule inhibitors, including research reagents and compounds being tested clinically, for the ability to bind to the catalytic domains of 13 of the 17 human PARP family members including the tankyrases, TNKS1 and TNKS2. Many of the best-known inhibitors, including TIQ-A, 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, olaparib, ABT-888 and rucaparib, bound to several PARP family members, suggesting that these molecules lack specificity and have promiscuous inhibitory activity. We also determined X-ray crystal structures for five TNKS2 ligand complexes and four PARP14 ligand complexes. In addition to showing that the majority of PARP inhibitors bind multiple targets, these results provide insight into the design of new inhibitors. PMID:22343925

Wahlberg, Elisabet; Karlberg, Tobias; Kouznetsova, Ekaterina; Markova, Natalia; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Pol, Ewa; Frostell, Åsa; Ekblad, Torun; Öncü, Delal; Kull, Björn; Robertson, Graeme Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Schüler, Herwig; Weigelt, Johan

2012-03-01

307

Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database  

SciTech Connect

These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

1991-02-01

308

Child Care Subsidies and the Economic Well-Being of Recipient Families: A Survey and Implications for Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secular increase over the past several decades in the number of families where both the husband and wife work in the paid labor force, coupled with the surge in labor force participation of single mothers in the 1990s, has heightened policy focus on child care options for working parents; federal and state governments are now major players…

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research, 2008

2008-01-01

309

The Effects of Family Background, Test Scores, Personality Traits and Schooling on Economic Success. Volume III. Supplementary Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains eleven appendixes, varying from 5 to 165 pages, which describe the sample used in the analysis of ten surveys of American men aged 25-64 to determine the effects of family background, adolescent personality traits, cognitive test scores, and earnings in maturity. The appendixes are (1) 1970 Census 1/1000 Sample; (2) 1962…

Jencks, Christopher; And Others

310

Mutational patterns in RNA secondary structure evolution examined in three RNA families.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to study mutational patterns in the evolution of RNA secondary structure. We analyzed bacterial tmRNA, RNaseP and eukaryotic telomerase RNA secondary structures, mapping structural variability onto phylogenetic trees constructed primarily from rRNA sequences. We found that secondary structures evolve both by whole stem insertion/deletion, and by mutations that create or disrupt stem base pairing. We analyzed the evolution of stem lengths and constructed substitution matrices describing the changes responsible for the variation in the RNA stem length. In addition, we used principal component analysis of the stem length data to determine the most variable stems in different families of RNA. This data provides new insights into the evolution of RNA secondary structures and patterns of variation in the lengths of double helical regions of RNA molecules. Our findings will facilitate design of improved mutational models for RNA structure evolution. PMID:21698102

Srivastava, Anuj; Cai, Liming; Mrázek, Jan; Malmberg, Russell L

2011-01-01

311

A Generation at Risk: Growing Up in an Era of Family Upheaval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last three decades, remarkable transformations have occurred in the American family, including changes in economic well-being, gender roles, family relationships, and family structure. Based on a 15-year study begun in 1980, this book examines young Americans coming of age in the 1980s and 1990s among families experiencing these social…

Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

312

Structure, pharmacology and therapeutic prospects of family C G-protein coupled receptors.  

PubMed

Family C of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) from humans is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate (mGlu(1-8)) receptors, two heterodimeric gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors, a calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), three taste (T1R) receptors, a promiscuous L-alpha-amino acid receptor (GPRC6A), and five orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are characterised by a large amino-terminal domain, which bind the endogenous orthosteric agonists. Recently, a number of allosteric modulators binding to the seven transmembrane domains of the receptors have also been reported. Family C GPCRs regulate a number of important physiological functions and are thus intensively pursued as drug targets. So far, two drugs acting at family C receptors (the GABA(B) agonist baclofen and the positive allosteric CaR modulator cinacalcet) have been marketed. Cinacalcet is the first allosteric GPCR modulator to enter the market, which demonstrates that the therapeutic principle of allosteric modulation can also be extended to this important drug target class. In this review we outline the structure and function of family C GPCRs with particular focus on the ligand binding sites, and we present the most important pharmacological agents and the therapeutic prospects of the receptors. PMID:17266540

Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Wellendorph, Petrine; Jensen, Anders A

2007-01-01

313

Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

1994-09-01

314

Structure of the amphioxus nebulin gene and evolution of the nebulin family genes.  

PubMed

Nebulin family genes are believed to have diverged from a single gene during the evolution of vertebrates. We determined the structure of the amphioxus nebulin gene and showed that in addition to the features of the human nebulin gene, this gene had a LIM domain, secondary super repeats and a giant exon with 98 nebulin repeats containing unique sequences. A transcript of this gene amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction had a LIM domain, three nebulin repeats and an SH3 domain. This transcript was similar to an isoform of human nebulette (Lasp-2). Phylogenetic analysis using the LIM and SH3 domains of the nebulin family proteins showed that amphioxus nebulin is located outside the vertebrate nebulin family group in the phylogenetic tree. These results indicated that the amphioxus nebulin gene had a unified structure among nebulin, nebulette, lasp-1 and N-RAP of vertebrates, and that these nebulin family genes diverged from the amphioxus nebulin gene during the course of vertebrate evolution. PMID:19406219

Hanashima, Akira; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Sumiko

2009-08-15

315

The Impact of Economic Migration on Children?s Cognitive Development: Evidence from the Mexican Family Life Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the Mexican Family Life Survey to estimate the impact of a household member?s migration to the United States on the cognitive development of children remaining in Mexico. While there is no developmental effect of a child?s sibling migrating to the United States, there is an adverse effect when another household member?typically the child?s parent?migrates. This

Elizabeth Powers

2011-01-01

316

[Working with families in the early stages of psychosis: a structured intervention for caregivers].  

PubMed

In the field of early psychosis psychoeducation is considered fundamental to increase coping skills with diseases and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. The more recent and updated guidelines on schizophrenia underline the extreme importance of the families involvement in treatment of young people in the initial phases of illness. "Families are the main support for many young patients. They could be the primary carers but they have also to face individual and social consequences following the onset course. Where feasible, family members must be involved in the treatment". This work describes the components of the work with families carried on by the Centre for the early detection of psychoses and high-risk situations--Programma 2000 ("Niguarda Ca' Granda" Hospital-Milan) and is mostly focused on psychoeducation and on Expressed Emotions aspects. Even the advances suggested by the international literature drove Programma 2000 to define both the steps of caregivers assessment and intervention. During the last ten years, Programma 2000 has followed 191 caregivers. Aims of this work is to verifier the outcome of the "pilot project", started in 2007, projected specifically to increase the normally used strategies to improve the caregivers adherence and involvement in the therapeutic process. The individualized multi-componential intervention has been structured in 8 session over one years. Outcome measures used in this article are the scores of the Camberwell Family Interview and from the Psychosis Knowledge Assessement Semistructured Interview (VCP). The subjects enrolled in the structured pilot project were 25 family caregiver to young (18-30 yrs old) patients. Results shows change in the Expressed Emotion level: 13% of families moved from High Expressed Emotion to Low Expressed Emotion. Furthermore data on the knowledge of illness knowledge level illustrate a reduction in the percentage, from 47% to 18%, of carers who have just a very vague knowledge of illness, and an increase from 16% to 27% of carers who obtain a good level of specific knowledge. In conclusion we can sustain mental health expert with aim to treatment project programme individualized and multi-componential tailored for young's caregiver at the onset phase of psychosis. PMID:19288779

Alpi, A; Cocchi, A; Meneghelli, A; Pafumi, N; Patelli, G

2008-01-01

317

Factor structure of the Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (MHSIP) Family and Youth satisfaction surveys.  

PubMed

Two studies of the Mental Health Statics Improvement Project (MHSIP) Family and Youth consumer satisfaction surveys factor structure and psychometrics were conducted. In study 1, the 2002-2006 Youth Services Survey for Families (N = 6,007) was administered to parents of children receiving services, and in study 2, the 2002-2004 Youth Services Survey (N = 1,718) was administered to children age 12-18 receiving services. Factor analyses across both studies found five factors that strongly supported the hypothesized scale domains of outcomes, satisfaction, cultural sensitivity, participation, and access. Scales based on these factors had good reliability with an average coefficient alpha of 0.85. The average convergent validity correlation between scale scores from the parent and child surveys was r = 0.62. Overall, the results supported the structure, reliability, and validity of the surveys. PMID:23636620

Shafer, Alan B; Temple, Judith M

2013-07-01

318

Synthesis-Guided Structure Revision of the Sarcodonin, Sarcoviolin and Hydnellin Natural Product Family  

PubMed Central

A sweeping structural revision of the sarcodonin natural product family (published structures: 1a–13a) is proposed after extensive studies aimed at their chemical synthesis. Key features of revised structure 1b include replacement of the N,N-dioxide moiety with an oxime, ring opening of the central diketopiperazine, and transposition of the terphenyl wing from the 1?-2? position of 1a to the 2?-3? position of 1b. This structure revision arose from the serendipitous synthesis of a benzodioxane aminal (44) whose structure was unambiguously determined by X-Ray crystallography and whose spectral properties bore considerable resemblance to the published data for the sarcodonins. A versatile new method for O-arylation of hydroxamic acids is also reported herein, as well as a manganese(III)-mediated ?-oxidation of hydroxamic acids to aminals.

Lin, David W.; Masuda, Takeshi; Biskup, Moritz B.; Nelson, Jonathan D.; Baran, Phil S.

2011-01-01

319

The structure and mechanism of the family of retinal proteins from halophilic archaea.  

PubMed

Retinal proteins from halophilic archaea provide a unique opportunity to analyze vectorial ion translocation. Studies on its structure, conformational changes, proton conduction and electrogenic steps have helped to elucidate the catalytic cycle of bacteriorhodopsin in increasing detail. Experimental modulation of the vectoriality and ion specificity by altering the substrate availability, point mutations and light conditions for the different retinal proteins allows the proposal of a general model of ion transport for this protein family. PMID:9729742

Oesterhelt, D

1998-08-01

320

Structural and Mechanistic Characterization of L-Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from the PHP Family of Proteins  

PubMed Central

l-Histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-histidinol phosphate to L-histidinol and inorganic phosphate, the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of L-histidine. HPP from the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) family of proteins possesses a trinuclear active site and a distorted (?/?)7-barrel protein fold. This group of enzymes is closely related to the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The mechanism of phosphomonoester bond hydrolysis by the PHP family of HPP enzymes was addressed. Recombinant HPP from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis that was expressed in Escherichia coli contained a mixture of iron and zinc in the active site and had a catalytic efficiency of ~103 M?1 s?1. Expression of the protein under iron-free conditions resulted in the production of enzyme with a two orders of magnitude improvement in catalytic efficiency and a mixture of zinc and manganese in the active site. Solvent isotope and viscosity effects demonstrated that proton transfer steps and product dissociation steps are not rate-limiting. X-ray structures of HPP were determined with sulfate, L-histidinol/phosphate, and a complex of L-histidinol and arsenate bound in the active site. These crystal structures and the catalytic properties of variants were used to identify the structural elements required for catalysis and substrate recognition by the HPP family of enzymes within the amidohydrolase superfamily.

Ghodge, Swapnil V.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ronald; Almo, Steven C.; Raushel, Frank M.

2013-01-01

321

Analysis on conservation of disulphide bonds and their structural features in homologous protein domain families  

PubMed Central

Background Disulphide bridges are well known to play key roles in stability, folding and functions of proteins. Introduction or deletion of disulphides by site-directed mutagenesis have produced varying effects on stability and folding depending upon the protein and location of disulphide in the 3-D structure. Given the lack of complete understanding it is worthwhile to learn from an analysis of extent of conservation of disulphides in homologous proteins. We have also addressed the question of what structural interactions replaces a disulphide in a homologue in another homologue. Results Using a dataset involving 34,752 pairwise comparisons of homologous protein domains corresponding to 300 protein domain families of known 3-D structures, we provide a comprehensive analysis of extent of conservation of disulphide bridges and their structural features. We report that only 54% of all the disulphide bonds compared between the homologous pairs are conserved, even if, a small fraction of the non-conserved disulphides do include cytoplasmic proteins. Also, only about one fourth of the distinct disulphides are conserved in all the members in protein families. We note that while conservation of disulphide is common in many families, disulphide bond mutations are quite prevalent. Interestingly, we note that there is no clear relationship between sequence identity between two homologous proteins and disulphide bond conservation. Our analysis on structural features at the sites where cysteines forming disulphide in one homologue are replaced by non-Cys residues show that the elimination of a disulphide in a homologue need not always result in stabilizing interactions between equivalent residues. Conclusion We observe that in the homologous proteins, disulphide bonds are conserved only to a modest extent. Very interestingly, we note that extent of conservation of disulphide in homologous proteins is unrelated to the overall sequence identity between homologues. The non-conserved disulphides are often associated with variable structural features that were recruited to be associated with differentiation or specialisation of protein function.

Thangudu, Ratna R; Manoharan, Malini; Srinivasan, N; Cadet, Frederic; Sowdhamini, R; Offmann, Bernard

2008-01-01

322

Extension Home Economics in the '80s: Issues--Trends--Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use as a reference and resource in program development by home economics extension staff, this report identifies national trends and educational needs of families in relation to extension programs for families. Changing population patterns, economic indicators, social structures, and health problems are discussed in terms of their…

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Cooperative Extension Service.

323

Female-Headed Families and Poverty in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 March supplements of the Current Population Surveys, this study examines changing household and family structure in metro and nonmetro areas and corresponding changes in poverty, emphasizing female-headed families with children under age 18. We also pay particular attention to the structure and economic

Snyder, Anastasia R.; McLaughlin, Diane K.

2004-01-01

324

The family-wide structure and function of human dual-specificity protein phosphatases.  

PubMed

Dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DUSPs), which dephosphorylate both phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine, play vital roles in immune activation, brain function and cell-growth signalling. A family-wide structural library of human DUSPs was constructed based on experimental structure determination supplemented with homology modelling. The catalytic domain of each individual DUSP has characteristic features in the active site and in surface-charge distribution, indicating substrate-interaction specificity. The active-site loop-to-strand switch occurs in a subtype-specific manner, indicating that the switch process is necessary for characteristic substrate interactions in the corresponding DUSPs. A comprehensive analysis of the activity-inhibition profile and active-site geometry of DUSPs revealed a novel role of the active-pocket structure in the substrate specificity of DUSPs. A structure-based analysis of redox responses indicated that the additional cysteine residues are important for the protection of enzyme activity. The family-wide structures of DUSPs form a basis for the understanding of phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction and the development of therapeutics. PMID:24531476

Jeong, Dae Gwin; Wei, Chun Hua; Ku, Bonsu; Jeon, Tae Jin; Chien, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Jae Kwan; Park, So Ya; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Ryu, Sun Young; Park, Hwangseo; Kim, Deok-Soo; Kim, Seung Jun; Ryu, Seong Eon

2014-02-01

325

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases  

SciTech Connect

Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform specificity.

Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Toronto); (Colorado)

2011-12-14

326

Predictive Bcl-2 Family Binding Models Rooted in Experiment or Structure  

PubMed Central

Proteins of the Bcl-2 family either enhance or suppress programmed cell death and are centrally involved in cancer development and resistance to chemotherapy. BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 proteins promote cell death by docking an ?-helix into a hydrophobic groove on the surface of one or more of five pro-survival Bcl-2 receptor proteins. There is high structural homology within the pro-death and pro-survival families, yet a high degree of interaction specificity is nevertheless encoded, posing an interesting and important molecular recognition problem. Understanding protein features that dictate Bcl-2 interaction specificity is critical for designing peptide-based cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. In this study, we present peptide SPOT arrays and deep sequencing data from yeast display screening experiments that significantly expand the BH3 sequence space that has been experimentally tested for interaction with five human anti-apoptotic receptors. These data provide rich information about the determinants of Bcl-2 family specificity. To interpret and use the information, we constructed two simple data-based models that can predict affinity and specificity when evaluated on independent data sets within a limited sequence space. We also constructed a novel structure-based statistical potential, called STATIUM, which is remarkably good at predicting Bcl-2 affinity and specificity, especially considering it is not trained on experimental data. We compare the performance of our three models to each other and to alternative structure-based methods and discuss how such tools can guide prediction and design of new Bcl-2 family complexes.

DeBartolo, Joe; Dutta, Sanjib; Reich, Lothar; Keating, Amy E.

2013-01-01

327

Family support and ease of access link socio-economic status and sports club membership in adolescent girls: a mediation study  

PubMed Central

Background Much research has been conducted into the determinants of physical activity (PA) participation among adolescent girls. However, the more specific question of what are the determinants of particular forms of PA participation, such as the link between participation through a sports club, has not been investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between participation in a sports club and socio-economic status (SES), access to facilities, and family and peer support, for female adolescents. Methods A survey of 732 female adolescent school students (521 metropolitan, 211 non-metropolitan; 489 Year 7, 243 Year 11) was conducted. The survey included demographic information (living arrangements, ethnicity indicators, and indicators of SES such as parental education and employment status and locality); access to facilities; and family and peer support (travel, encouragement, watching, praise, joint participation). For each characteristic, sports club participants and non-participants were compared using chi-square tests. Multiple mediation analyses were used to investigate the role of access, family and peer support in the link between SES and sport participation. Results There were significant associations (p<0.05) between sports club participation and: all demographic characteristics; all measures of family and peer support; and access to sport-related facilities. Highest levels of participation were associated with monolingual Australian-born families, with two parents, at least one of whom was well-educated, with both parents employed, and high levels of parental assistance, engagement and support. Participation in club sport among both younger and older adolescent girls was significantly positively associated with the SES of both their neighbourhoods and their households, particularly in metropolitan areas. These associations were most strongly mediated by family support and by access to facilities. Conclusions To facilitate and promote greater participation in club sport among adolescent girls from low SES neighbourhoods and households, strategies should target modifiable determinants such as facility access and parental support. This will involve improving access to sports facilities and promoting, encouraging and assisting parents to provide support for their daughters’ participation in sport clubs.

2013-01-01

328

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-05-11

329

The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2008-06-24

330

A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family  

PubMed Central

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation.

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

2014-01-01

331

Subfamily structure and evolution of the human L1 family of repetitive sequences.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of the available 3'-portions of the human L1 (LINE-1) family of repeated sequences indicates that all the sequences can be classified in two major subfamilies. The division is based on patterns of diagnostic bases shared within L1 subfamilies of sequences but differing between them. The overall ratio of replacement to synonymous positions, occupied by the diagnostic bases in the large open reading frame of the L1 sequence, is 1.15. This indicates that both subfamilies were obtained from genes coding for functional proteins. The L1 subfamilies appear to be of different ages and may represent a "fossil record" of the same active gene at different times in the history of primates. The younger subfamily can be split further into at least two closely related branches of sequences. The above facts combined with the recent data for the Alu subfamily structure show that LINE and SINE families of interspersed repeats share discontinuous patterns in their evolution. These data are consistent with the model that both Alu and L1 families, as well as other pseudogene families, contain active genes producing discrete layers of pseudogenes throughout the history of primates. Models of evolutionary processes that could generate these discontinuities are discussed together with the possible biological role of Alu and L1 genes. PMID:2515296

Jurka, J

1989-12-01

332

Role of the Candida albicans MNN1 gene family in cell wall structure and virulence  

PubMed Central

Background The Candida albicans cell wall is the first point of contact with the host, and its outer surface is heavily enriched in mannoproteins modified through the addition of N- and O-mannan. Previous work, using mutants with gross defects in glycosylation, has clearly identified the importance of mannan in the host-pathogen interaction, immune recognition and virulence. Here we report the first analysis of the MNN1 gene family, which contains six members predicted to act as ?-1,3 mannosyltransferases in the terminal stages of glycosylation. Findings We generated single null mutants in all members of the C. albicans MNN1 gene family, and disruption of MNN14 led to both in vitro and in vivo defects. Null mutants in other members of the family demonstrated no phenotypic defects, suggesting that these members may display functional redundancy. The mnn14? null mutant displayed hypersensitivity to agents associated with cell wall and glycosylation defects, suggesting an altered cell wall structure. However, no gross changes in cell wall composition or N-glycosylation were identified in this mutant, although an extension of phosphomannan chain length was apparent. Although the cell wall defects associated with the mnn14? mutant were subtle, this mutant displayed a severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Mnn14 plays a distinct role from other members of the MNN1 family, demonstrating that specific N-glycan outer chain epitopes are required in the host-pathogen interaction and virulence.

2013-01-01

333

A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family.  

PubMed

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell-cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

2014-01-01

334

Crystal structure of the glycosidase family 73 peptidoglycan hydrolase FlgJ  

SciTech Connect

Glycoside hydrolase (GH) categorized into family 73 plays an important role in degrading bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The flagellar protein FlgJ contains N- and C-terminal domains responsible for flagellar rod assembly and peptidoglycan hydrolysis, respectively. A member of family GH-73, the C-terminal domain (SPH1045-C) of FlgJ from Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. SPH1045-C exhibited bacterial cell lytic activity most efficiently at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C. The X-ray crystallographic structure of SPH1045-C was determined at 1.74 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The enzyme consists of two lobes, {alpha} and {beta}. A deep cleft located between the two lobes can accommodate polymer molecules, suggesting that the active site is located in the cleft. Although SPH1045-C shows a structural homology with family GH-22 and GH-23 lysozymes, the arrangement of the nucleophile/base residue in the active site is specific to each peptidoglycan hydrolase.

Hashimoto, Wataru; Ochiai, Akihito; Momma, Keiko; Itoh, Takafumi [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Maruyama, Yukie [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murata, Kousaku [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

2009-03-27

335

Structural and regulatory roles of muscle ankyrin repeat protein family in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The biological response of muscle to eccentric contractions (ECs) results in strengthening and protection from further injury. However, the cellular basis for this response remains unclear. Previous studies identified the muscle ankyrin repeat protein (MARP) family, consisting of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), ankyrin repeat domain 2/ankyrin repeat protein with PEST and proline-rich region (Ankrd2/Arpp), and diabetes-associated ankyrin repeat protein (DARP), as rapidly and specifically upregulated in mice after a single bout of EC. To determine the role of these genes in skeletal muscle, a survey of skeletal muscle structural and functional characteristics was performed on mice lacking all three MARP family members (MKO). There was a slight trend toward MKO muscles having a slower fiber type distribution but no differences in muscle fiber size. Single MKO fibers were less stiff, tended to have longer resting sarcomere lengths, and expressed a longer isoform of titin than their wild-type counterparts, indicating that these proteins may play a role in the passive mechanical behavior of muscle. Finally, MKO mice showed a greater degree of torque loss after a bout of ECs compared with wild-type mice, although they recovered from the injury with the same or even improved time course. This recovery was associated with enhanced expression of the muscle regulatory genes MyoD and muscle LIM protein (MLP), suggesting that the MARP family may play both important structural and gene regulatory roles in skeletal muscle. PMID:17392382

Barash, Ilona A; Bang, Marie-Louise; Mathew, Liby; Greaser, Marion L; Chen, Ju; Lieber, Richard L

2007-07-01

336

Structure of a Baculovirus Sulfhydryl Oxidase, a Highly Divergent Member of the Erv Flavoenzyme Family ?  

PubMed Central

Genomes of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) encode enzymes that catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine amino acid residues in proteins, a function essential for the proper assembly and propagation of NCLDV virions. Recently, a catalyst of disulfide formation was identified in baculoviruses, a group of large double-stranded DNA viruses considered phylogenetically distinct from NCLDVs. The NCLDV and baculovirus disulfide catalysts are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding sulfhydryl oxidases related to the cellular Erv enzyme family, but the baculovirus enzyme, the product of the Ac92 gene in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), is highly divergent at the amino acid sequence level. The crystal structure of the Ac92 protein presented here shows a configuration of the active-site cysteine residues and bound cofactor similar to that observed in other Erv sulfhydryl oxidases. However, Ac92 has a complex quaternary structural arrangement not previously seen in cellular or viral enzymes of this family. This novel assembly comprises a dimer of pseudodimers with a striking 40-degree kink in the interface helix between subunits. The diversification of the Erv sulfhydryl oxidase enzymes in large double-stranded DNA viruses exemplifies the extreme degree to which these viruses can push the boundaries of protein family folds.

Hakim, Motti; Mandelbaum, Amitai; Fass, Deborah

2011-01-01

337

A spatiotemporal structure: common to subatomic systems, biological processes, and economic cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model derived based on a quasi-stability concept applied to momentum conservation (Naitoh, JJIAM, 2001, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008, 2010) has revealed the spatial structure of various systems. This model explains the reason why particles such as biological cells, nitrogenous bases, and liquid droplets have bimodal size ratios of about 2:3 and 1:1. This paper shows that the same theory holds true for several levels of parcels from baryons to stars in the cosmos: specifically, at the levels of nuclear force, van der Waals force, surface tension, and the force of gravity. A higher order of analysis clarifies other asymmetric ratios related to the halo structure seen in atoms and amino acids. We will also show that our minimum hypercycle theory for explaining the morphogenetic cycle (Naitoh, Artificial Life Robotics, 2008) reveals other temporal cycles such as those of economic systems and the circadian clock as well as the fundamental neural network pattern (topological pattern). Finally, a universal equation describing the spatiotemporal structure of several systems will be derived, which also leads to a general concept of quasi-stability.

Naitoh, Ken

2012-03-01

338

Structure and function of the mammalian fibrillin gene family: implications for human connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

Fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor ? binding proteins (LTBPs) are components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. While fibrillins are integral to the 10nm microfibrils, and often associated with elastin, all family members are likely to have an additional role in regulating the bioavailability of transforming growth factor ? (TGB?). Both fibrillins and LTBPs are large glycoproteins, containing a series of calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains as well as a number of copies of a unique 8 cysteine domain found only in this protein superfamily. There are three mammalian fibrillins and four LTBPs. Fibrillin monomers link head to tail in microfibrils which can then form two and three dimensional structures. In some tissues elastin is recruited to the fibrillin microfibrils to provide elasticity to the tissue. LTBPs are part of the TGB? large latent complex which sequesters TGB? in the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 appears to bind to LTBPs to assist in this process and is thus involved in regulating the bioavailability of TGB?. Mutation of fibrillin genes results in connective tissue phenotypes which reflect both the increased level of active TGB? and the structural failure of the extracellular matrix due to the absence or abnormality of fibrillin protein. Fibrillinopathies include Marfan syndrome, familial ectopia lentis, familial thoracic aneurysm (mutations of FBN1) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (mutation of FBN2). There are no diseases currently associated with mutation of FBN3 in humans, and this gene is no longer active in rodents. Expression patterns of fibrillin genes are consistent with their role in extracellular matrix structure of connective tissue. FBN1 expression is high in most cell types of mesenchymal origin, particularly bone. Human and mouse FBN2 expression is high in fetal cells and has more restricted expression in mesenchymal cell types postnatally. FBN3 is expressed early in development (embryonic and fetal tissues) in humans. The fibrillins are thus important in maintaining the structure and integrity of the extracellular matrix and, in combination with their sequence family members the LTBPs, also contribute to the regulation of the TGF? family of major growth factors. PMID:22921888

Davis, Margaret R; Summers, Kim M

2012-12-01

339

The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burden???1% of annual household income). Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n?=?1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years old) seeking treatment for diarrhea in six Bolivian hospitals. Caregivers were surveyed on demographics, clinical symptoms, direct (e.g. medication, consult fees), and indirect (e.g. lost wages) costs. Multivariate regression models (n?=?551) were used to assess relationships of covariates to the outcomes of cost burden (linear model) and catastrophic cost (logistic model). Results We determined that cost burden and catastrophic cost shared the same significant (p?economic impact of pediatric diarrhea from the familial perspective and provides insight into potential areas of intervention to reduce associated economic burden.

2014-01-01

340

The Plant Proteome Folding Project: Structure and Positive Selection in Plant Protein Families  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the relationship between the structure, function, and evolution of proteins, particularly in land plant species. We have developed a database with predicted protein domains for five plant proteomes (http://pfp.bio.nyu.edu) and used both protein structural fold recognition and de novo Rosetta-based protein structure prediction to predict protein structure for Arabidopsis and rice proteins. Based on sequence similarity, we have identified ?15,000 orthologous/paralogous protein family clusters among these species and used codon-based models to predict positive selection in protein evolution within 175 of these sequence clusters. Our results show that codons that display positive selection appear to be less frequent in helical and strand regions and are overrepresented in amino acid residues that are associated with a change in protein secondary structure. Like in other organisms, disordered protein regions also appear to have more selected sites. Structural information provides new functional insights into specific plant proteins and allows us to map positively selected amino acid sites onto protein structures and view these sites in a structural and functional context.

Pentony, M. M.; Winters, P.; Penfold-Brown, D.; Drew, K.; Narechania, A.; DeSalle, R.; Bonneau, R.; Purugganan, M. D.

2012-01-01

341

Disorder and Structure in the Rab11 Binding Domain of Rab11-Family Interacting Protein 2†,‡  

PubMed Central

Rab11 plays a central role in plasma membrane recycling which returns cellular receptors for re-use at the cell surface. A recently identified family of Rab11 interacting proteins (FIP) includes FIP2. The C-terminal region of FIP2 is essential for colocalization with Rab11 on early endosomes and to enable formation of higher order oligomers. Rab11 binding and oligomerization of FIP2 are separable. Here we have determined the three-dimensional structure of the 40 residue coiled-coil oligomerization domain of FIP2 in the absence of Rab11 using NMR methods. The N-terminal half showed strong NOE cross-peaks and well dispersed NMR resonances, whereas the C-terminal half had fewer NOE cross-peaks and less chemical shift dispersion. The C-terminal 10 residues were mostly disordered. The final structures of the dimer had favorable Ramachandran angles and a root-mean-square deviation of 0.59 ± 0.13 Å over superimposed backbone residues. The structure allows a comparison to a structure of FIP2 in complex with Rab11 that was determined crystallographically. In complex with Rab11, the C-terminal residues are not disordered, but have a helical structure that predicts residual dipolar coupling constants that are incompatible with those measured on the unbound FIP2. In both structures, a histidine residue is found at the normally hydrophobic position of the heptad repeat of the coiled-coil and here we show its ionization destabilizes the coiled-coil structure. Together these data allow us to build a model in which the binding of FIP-family proteins to Rab11 can be described in terms of conformational changes and that suggests new modes of regulation.

Wei, Jie; Liu, Yuqi; Bose, Kakoli; Henry, Gillian D.; Baleja, James D.

2009-01-01

342

How WASP-family proteins and the Arp2\\/3 complex convert intracellular signals into cytoskeletal structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most cells, the structure of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by Rho-family G proteins. Recent work has outlined a highly conserved signaling pathway from G protein activation to actin assembly. The key downstream components are WASP family proteins — adaptor molecules that bind multiple signaling and cytoskeletal proteins — and the Arp2\\/3 complex — a multi-functional protein complex that

R Dyche Mullins

2000-01-01

343

Molecular Structure and Diversity of PBAN/pyrokinin Family Peptides in Ants.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. These peptides, found in all insects studied thus far, have been conserved throughout evolution. The most well studied physiological function is regulation of moth sex pheromone biosynthesis through the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), although several developmental functions have also been reported. Over the past years we have extended knowledge of the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides to ants, focusing mainly on the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60?years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. However, virtually nothing is known about the regulation of these pheromone systems. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of PBAN/pyrokinin immunoreactive neurons in the fire ant, and identified and characterized PBAN and additional neuropeptides. We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects. PMID:22654860

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

2012-01-01

344

Molecular Structure and Diversity of PBAN/pyrokinin Family Peptides in Ants  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. These peptides, found in all insects studied thus far, have been conserved throughout evolution. The most well studied physiological function is regulation of moth sex pheromone biosynthesis through the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), although several developmental functions have also been reported. Over the past years we have extended knowledge of the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides to ants, focusing mainly on the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60?years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. However, virtually nothing is known about the regulation of these pheromone systems. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of PBAN/pyrokinin immunoreactive neurons in the fire ant, and identified and characterized PBAN and additional neuropeptides. We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects.

Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

2012-01-01

345

Interferon-? Is Functionally an Interferon but Structurally Related to the Interleukin-10 Family*  

PubMed Central

Interferon-? (IFN-?) is an antiviral cytokine that signals through a distinct receptor complex, composed of the IFN-?R1 and interleukin-10R2 (IL-10R2) receptor chains. We have determined the crystal structure of human IFN-?3 and characterized the interaction with its receptor complex through structure-based site-directed mutagenesis. The ability of IFN-?3 mutants to signal was determined by measuring the antiviral activity and induced STAT2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data show that, although IFN-? is functionally an interferon, it is clearly structurally related to members of the IL-10 family. In particular, we found an interesting similarity between IFN-? and IL-22, and we suggest that IFN-? and IL-22 possess parallel functions, protecting epithelial tissue against viral and bacterial infections, respectively.

Gad, Hans Henrik; Dellgren, Christoffer; Hamming, Ole J.; Vends, Susanne; Paludan, S?ren R.; Hartmann, Rune

2009-01-01

346

Crystal structures of glycoside hydrolase family 3 ?-glucosidase 1 from Aspergillus aculeatus.  

PubMed

GH3 (glycoside hydrolase family 3) BGLs (?-glucosidases) from filamentous fungi have been widely and commercially used for the supplementation of cellulases. AaBGL1 (Aspergillus aculeatus BGL1) belongs to the GH3 and shows high activity towards cellooligosaccharides up to high degree of polymerization. In the present study we determined the crystal structure of AaBGL1. In addition to the substrate-free structure, the structures of complexes with glucose and various inhibitors were determined. The structure of AaBGL1 is highly glycosylated with 88 monosaccharides (18 N-glycan chains) in the dimer. The largest N-glycan chain comprises ten monosaccharides and is one of the largest glycans ever observed in protein crystal structures. A prominent insertion region exists in a fibronectin type III domain, and this region extends to cover a wide surface area of the enzyme. The subsite +1 of AaBGL1 is highly hydrophobic. Three aromatic residues are present at subsite +1 and are located in short loop regions that are uniquely present in this enzyme. There is a long cleft extending from subsite +1, which appears to be suitable for binding long cellooligosaccharides. The crystal structures of AaBGL1 from the present study provide an important structural basis for the technical improvement of enzymatic cellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:23537284

Suzuki, Kentaro; Sumitani, Jun-ichi; Nam, Young-Woo; Nishimaki, Toru; Tani, Shuji; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Fushinobu, Shinya

2013-06-01

347

Completing the structural family portrait of the human EphB tyrosine kinase domains.  

PubMed

The EphB receptors have key roles in cell morphology, adhesion, migration and invasion, and their aberrant action has been linked with the development and progression of many different tumor types. Their conflicting expression patterns in cancer tissues, combined with their high sequence and structural identity, present interesting challenges to those seeking to develop selective therapeutic molecules targeting this large receptor family. Here, we present the first structure of the EphB1 tyrosine kinase domain determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.5Å. Our comparative crystalisation analysis of the human EphB family kinases has also yielded new crystal forms of the human EphB2 and EphB4 catalytic domains. Unable to crystallize the wild-type EphB3 kinase domain, we used rational engineering (based on our new structures of EphB1, EphB2, and EphB4) to identify a single point mutation which facilitated its crystallization and structure determination to 2.2 Å. This mutation also improved the soluble recombinant yield of this kinase within Escherichia coli, and increased both its intrinsic stability and catalytic turnover, without affecting its ligand-binding profile. The partial ordering of the activation loop in the EphB3 structure alludes to a potential cis-phosphorylation mechanism for the EphB kinases. With the kinase domain structures of all four catalytically competent human EphB receptors now determined, a picture begins to emerge of possible opportunities to produce EphB isozyme-selective kinase inhibitors for mechanistic studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:24677421

Overman, Ross C; Debreczeni, Judit E; Truman, Caroline M; McAlister, Mark S; Attwood, Teresa K

2014-05-01

348

Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure

Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

2013-01-01

349

Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2013-01-31

350

Turkmenistan: An Economic Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Geography and Climate; History and Government; Population and Labor Force; Structure and Performance of the Economy; Economic Reform; Foreign Economic Relations; Living Standards and Social Indicators; Appendix.

1993-01-01

351

Families of solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation and structural transitions between them  

SciTech Connect

Solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for superconductors are obtained for a Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa} close to unity. The families of solutions with arbitrary number n of flux quanta in a unit cell are analyzed. It is shown that under certain conditions, a cascade of phase transitions between different structures in a magnetic field appears near T{sub c}. Algebraic equations are derived for determining the boundaries of coexistence of different phases on the (T, H{sub 0}) plane.

Ovchinnikov, Yu. N., E-mail: ovc@itp.ac.ru [Max-Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems (Germany)

2013-09-15

352

New molecular structure offers first picture of a protein family vital to human health  

Cancer.gov

The 20 proteins in the Wnt family are some of the most important proteins in controlling how an organism develops and grows, but for 30 years scientists have not known what these vital proteins actually look like. The proteins have eluded standard visualization techniques, in large part because they do not dissolve well in the water-based liquids normally used for biochemical studies. But once a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and colleagues in his Stanford University School of Medicine lab thought of an approach to make the proteins behave better, they succeeded in solving the first structure of a Wnt protein.

353

Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16,224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We have investigated these two factors for associations with overweight; our studies, in the context of previous findings, are the focus of this review. PMID:24507855

Hunsberger, Monica

2014-02-01

354

The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

2011-01-01

355

Solution structure of coactosin reveals structural homology to ADF/cofilin family proteins.  

PubMed

Coactosin is a small (MW approximately 15 kDa) evolutionarily conserved actin filament binding protein. It displays remote sequence homology to ADF/cofilin proteins and to the ADF-H domains of twinfilin and Abp1/drebrin. However, biochemical analyses have demonstrated that coactosin has a very different role in actin dynamics from the ones of ADF/cofilin, twinfilin or Abp1/drebrin. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of coactosin/actin interaction, we determined the three-dimensional structure of mouse coactosin by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. We find that the coactosin structure is homologous to ADF/cofilin and to the ADF-H domains of twinfilin. Furthermore, the regions that have been shown to be important for actin filament interactions in ADF/cofilins are structurally conserved in coactosin suggesting that these two proteins interact with F-actin through a conserved interface. Our analysis also identifies key structural differences between these proteins that may account for the differences in biochemical activities and cellular roles of these proteins. PMID:15474017

Hellman, Maarit; Paavilainen, Ville O; Naumanen, Perttu; Lappalainen, Pekka; Annila, Arto; Permi, Perttu

2004-10-01

356

The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

2012-01-01

357

Untangling structure-function relationships in the rhomboid family of intramembrane proteases.  

PubMed

Rhomboid proteases are a family of integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in critical regulatory roles in a wide array of cellular processes and signaling events. The determination of crystal structures of the prokaryotic rhomboid GlpG from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae has ushered in an era of unprecedented understanding into molecular aspects of intramembrane proteolysis by this fascinating class of protein. A combination of structural studies by X-ray crystallography, and biophysical and spectroscopic analyses, combined with traditional enzymatic and functional analysis has revealed fundamental aspects of rhomboid structure, substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism. This review summarizes these remarkable advances by examining evidence for the proposed catalytic mechanism derived from inhibitor co-crystal structures, conflicting models of rhomboid-substrate interaction, and recent work on the structure and function of rhomboid cytosolic domains. In addition to exploring progress on aspects of rhomboid structure, areas for future research and unaddressed questions are emphasized and highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. PMID:24099005

Brooks, Cory L; Lemieux, M Joanne

2013-12-01

358

A "structural" water molecule in the family of fatty acid binding proteins.  

PubMed Central

A single water molecule (w135), buried within the structure of rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), is investigated by NMR, molecular dynamics simulations, and analysis of known crystal structures. An ordered water molecule was found in structurally analogous position in 24 crystal structures of nine different members of the family of fatty acid binding proteins. There is a remarkable conservation of the local structure near the w135 binding site among different proteins from this family. NMR cross-relaxation measurements imply that w135 is present in the I-FABP:ANS (1-sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene) complex in solution with the residence time of >300 ps. Mean-square positional fluctuations of w135 oxygen observed in MD simulations (0.18 and 0.13 A2) are comparable in magnitude to fluctuations exhibited by the backbone atoms and result from highly constrained binding pocket as revealed by Voronoi volumes (averages of 27.0 +/- 1.8 A3 and 24.7 +/- 2.2 A3 for the two simulations). Escape of w135 from its binding pocket was observed only in one MD simulation. The escape process was initiated by interactions with external water molecules and was accompanied by large deformations in beta-strands D and E. Immediately before the release, w135 assumed three distinct states that differ in hydrogen bonding topology and persisted for about 15 ps each. Computer simulations suggest that escape of w135 from the I-FABP matrix is primarily determined by conformational fluctuations of the protein backbone and interactions with external water molecules.

Likic, V. A.; Juranic, N.; Macura, S.; Prendergast, F. G.

2000-01-01

359

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function.

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

360

The carbohydrate-binding module family 20--diversity, structure, and function.  

PubMed

Starch-active enzymes often possess starch-binding domains (SBDs) mediating attachment to starch granules and other high molecular weight substrates. SBDs are divided into nine carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) families, and CBM20 is the earliest-assigned and best characterized family. High diversity characterizes CBM20s, which occur in starch-active glycoside hydrolase families 13, 14, 15, and 77, and enzymes involved in starch or glycogen metabolism, exemplified by the starch-phosphorylating enzyme glucan, water dikinase 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana and the mammalian glycogen phosphatases, laforins. The clear evolutionary relatedness of CBM20s to CBM21s, CBM48s and CBM53s suggests a common clan hosting most of the known SBDs. This review surveys the diversity within the CBM20 family, and makes an evolutionary comparison with CBM21s, CBM48s and CBM53s, discussing intrafamily and interfamily relationships. Data on binding to and enzymatic activity towards soluble ligands and starch granules are summarized for wild-type, mutant and chimeric fusion proteins involving CBM20s. Noticeably, whereas CBM20s in amylolytic enzymes confer moderate binding affinities, with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range for the starch mimic beta-cyclodextrin, recent findings indicate that CBM20s in regulatory enzymes have weaker, low millimolar affinities, presumably facilitating dynamic regulation. Structures of CBM20s, including the first example of a full-length glucoamylase featuring both the catalytic domain and the SBD, are summarized, and distinct architectural and functional features of the two SBDs and roles of pivotal amino acids in binding are described. Finally, some applications of SBDs as affinity or immobilization tags and, recently, in biofuel and in planta bioengineering are presented. PMID:19682075

Christiansen, Camilla; Abou Hachem, Maher; Janecek, Stefan; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

2009-09-01

361

Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members  

PubMed Central

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-01

362

Crystal structure and snapshots along the reaction pathway of a family 51 ?-l-arabinofuranosidase  

PubMed Central

High-resolution crystal structures of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6, a family 51 glycosidase, are described. The enzyme is a hexamer, and each monomer is organized into two domains: a (?/?)8-barrel and a 12-stranded ? sandwich with jelly-roll topology. The structures of the Michaelis complexes with natural and synthetic substrates, and of the transient covalent arabinofuranosyl– enzyme intermediate represent two stable states in the double displacement mechanism, and allow thorough examination of the catalytic mechanism. The arabinofuranose sugar is tightly bound and distorted by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. The two catalytic residues are 4.7 ? apart, and together with other conserved residues contribute to the stabilization of the oxocarbenium ion-like transition state via charge delocalization and specific protein–substrate interactions. The enzyme is an anti-protonator, and a 1.7 ? electrophilic migration of the anomeric carbon takes place during the hydrolysis.

Hovel, Klaus; Shallom, Dalia; Niefind, Karsten; Belakhov, Valery; Shoham, Gil; Baasov, Timor; Shoham, Yuval; Schomburg, Dietmar

2003-01-01

363

Structure of a UPF0150-family protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8  

PubMed Central

TTHA0281 is a hypothetical protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8 that belongs to an uncharacterized protein family, UPF0150, in the Pfam database and to COG1598 in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups. The X-ray crystal structure of the protein was determined by a multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and was refined at 1.9?Å resolution to a final R factor of 18.5%. The TTHA0281 monomer adopts an ?-?-?-?-? fold and forms a homotetramer. Based on the properties and functions of structural homologues of the TTHA0281 monomer, the TTHA0281 protein is speculated to be involved in RNA metabolism, including RNA binding and cleavage.

Okazaki, Nobuo; Kumei, Maki; Manzoku, Miho; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Shinkai, Akeo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2007-01-01

364

Cas3p Belongs to a Seven-Member Family of Capsule Structure Designer Proteins  

PubMed Central

The polysaccharide capsule is the main virulence factor of the basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Four genes (CAP10, CAP59, CAP60, and CAP64) essential for capsule formation have been previously identified, although their roles in the biosynthetic pathway remain unclear. A genetic and bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of six CAP64-homologous genes, named CAS3, CAS31, CAS32, CAS33, CAS34, and CAS35, in the C. neoformans genome. This gene family is apparently specific in a subclass of the basidiomycete fungi. Single as well as double deletions of these genes in all possible combinations demonstrated that none of the CAP64-homologous genes were essential for capsule formation, although the cas35? strains displayed a hypocapsular phenotype. The chemical structure of the glucuronomannan (GXM) produced by the CAS family deletants revealed that these genes determined the position and the linkage of the xylose and/or O-acetyl residues on the mannose backbone. Hence, these genes are all involved in assembly of the GXM structure in C. neoformans.

Moyrand, Frederique; Chang, Yun C.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Janbon, Guilhem

2004-01-01

365

Structural basis for selectivity of the isoquinoline sulfonamide family of protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

A large family of isoquinoline sulfonamide compounds inhibits protein kinases by competing with adenosine triphosphates(ATP), yet interferes little with the activity of other ATP-using enzymes such as ATPases and adenylate cyclases. One such compound, N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-chloroisoquinoline-8-sulfonamide (CK17), is selective for casein kinase-1 isolated from a variety of sources. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe casein kinase-1 complexed with CK17, refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 17.8% at 2.5 angstrom resolution. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of the ATP-competing inhibition and the origin of their selectivity toward different protein kinases. Selectivity for protein kinases versus other enzymes is achieved by hydrophobic contacts and the hydrogen bond with isoquinoline ring. We propose that the hydrogen bond involving the ring nitrogen-2 atom of the isoquinoline must be preserved, but that the ring can flip depending on the chemical substituents at ring positions 5 and 8. Selectivity for individual members of the protein kinase family is achieved primarily by interactions with these substituents. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3

Xu, R M; Carmel, G; Kuret, J; Cheng, X

1996-01-01

366

Child Welfare and the Economic Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that current economic problems may be an indication of deep, long term economic crisis. Points out implications of economic crises for families and human services, and suggests four options for responding as a society to economic hard times. (RH)

Garbarino, James

1984-01-01

367

Changing Economics in the South: Preparing Our Youth. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Nashville, TN, April 24, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met in Nashville, Tennessee, to gather information on the education and employment futures of youth in the South. Testimony was heard from experts in education, training, and economic development. Organizations represented included universities in the region, adolescent dropout and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

368

Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. To gain insight into the structural and functional evolution of the HIF family, we characterized the HIF? gene from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, and identified several alternatively spliced HIF? isoforms. Whereas HIF? Ia, the full-length isoform, contained a complete oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain, the isoforms Ib, Ic, and Id had 1 or 2 deletions in the ODD domain. When tagged with GFP and tested in mammalian cells, the amphioxus HIF? Ia protein level increased in response to hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment, whereas HIF? Ib, Ic, and Id showed reduced or no hypoxia regulation. Deletion of the ODD sequence in HIF? Ia up-regulated the HIF? Ia levels under normoxia. Gene expression analysis revealed HIF? Ic to be the predominant isoform in embryos and larvae, whereas isoform Ia was the most abundant form in the adult stage. The expression levels of Ib and Id were very low. Hypoxia treatment of adults had no effect on the mRNA levels of these HIF? isoforms. Functional analyses in mammalian cells showed all 4 HIF? isoforms capable of entering the nucleus and activating hypoxia response element-dependent reporter gene expression. The functional nuclear location signal (NLS) mapped to 3 clusters of basic residues. (775)KKARL functioned as the primary NLS, but (737)KRK and (754)KK also contributed to the nuclear localization. All amphioxus HIF? isoforms had 2 functional transactivation domains (TADs). Its C-terminal transactivation (C-TAD) shared high sequence identity with the human HIF-1? and HIF-2? C-TAD. This domain contained a conserved asparagine, and its mutation resulted in an increase in transcriptional activity. These findings reveal many ancient features of the HIF? family and provide novel insights into the evolution of the HIF? family.-Gao, S., Lu, L., Bai, Y., Zhang, P., Song, W., Duan, C. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family. PMID:24174425

Gao, Shan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Song, Weibo; Duan, Cunming

2014-04-01

369

Crystal structure of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase: a new structural family with the P-loop nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase fold.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP-oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase, (transphosphorylating), E.C. 4.1.1.49; PCK) from Escherichia coli strain K12 has been determined using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement, density modification, and partial model phase combination, and refined to a conventional R-index of 0.204 (Rfree = 0.244) at 1.9 A resolution. Each PCK molecule consists of a 275 residue N-terminal domain and 265 residue C-terminal or mononucleotide-binding domain, with the active site postulated to be within a cleft between the two domains. PCK is an open-faced, mixed alpha/beta protein, with each domain having an alpha/beta folding topology as found in several other mononucleoside-binding enzymes. The putative phosphate-binding site of ATP adopts the P-loop motif common to many ATP and GTP-binding proteins, and is similar in structure to that found within adenylate kinase. However, the beta-sheet topology within the mononucleotide-binding fold of PCK differs from all other families within the P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase superfamily, therefore suggesting it represents the first member in a new family of such proteins. The mononucleotide-binding domain is also different in structure compared to the classical mononucleotide-binding fold (CMBF) common to adenylate kinase, p21ras, and elongation factor-Tu. Several amino acid residues, including R65, K212, K213, H232, K254, D269, K288 and R333 appear to make up the active site of the enzyme, and are found to be absolutely conserved among known members of the ATP-dependent PCK family. A cysteine residue is located near the active-site, as has been suggested for other PCKs, although in the E. coli enzyme C233 is buried and so is most likely not involved in substrate binding or catalysis. Two binding sites of the calcium-analog TB3+ have been determined, one within the active site coordinating to the side-chain of D269, and the other within the C-terminal domain coordinating to the side-chains of E508 and E511. PMID:8609605

Matte, A; Goldie, H; Sweet, R M; Delbaere, L T

1996-02-16

370

The Sensitivity of Multiregional Economic Structure to Improved Interregional Accessibility 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recently developed Japanese Multi-Regional Econometric Input-output Model is an extended interregional econometric IO model. The interregional economic transactions by sectors are endogenously determined from the conditions of economic situation and trade barriers. In Japan, a society with a decreasing population, further investment in the transportation infrastructure has become a pressing issue. Employing the trade endogenized framework, the exogenous changes

Norihiko Yamano; Kazumi Hitomi; Norihisa Sakurai

371

Crystal structure of a putative quorum sensing-regulated protein (PA3611) from the Pseudomonas-specific DUF4146 family.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in humans and other organisms and is an important cause of infection especially in patients with compromised immune defense mechanisms. The PA3611 gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a secreted protein of unknown function, which has been recently classified into a small Pseudomonas-specific protein family called DUF4146. As part of our effort to extend structural coverage of novel protein space and provide a structure-based functional insight into new protein families, we report the crystal structure of PA3611, the first structural representative of the DUF4146 protein family. Proteins 2014; 82:1086-1092. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24174223

Das, Debanu; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Grant, Joanna C; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Tien, Henry J; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

2014-06-01

372

Structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of 12 genes of the MAGE family  

SciTech Connect

The authors reported previously that human gene MAGE-1 directs the expression of a tumor antigen recognized on a melanoma by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes. Probing cosmid libraries with a MAGE-1 sequence, they identified 11 closely related genes. The analysis of hamster-human somatic cell hybrids indicated that the 12 MAGE genes are located in the q terminal region of chromosome X. Like MAGE-1, the 11 additional MAGE genes have their entire coding sequence located in the last exon, which shows 64%-85% identity with that of MAGE-1. The coding sequences of the MAGE genes predict the same main structural features for all MAGE proteins. In contrast, the promoters and first exons of the 12 MAGE genes show considerable variability, suggesting that the existence of this gene family enables the same function to be expressed under different transcriptional controls. The expression of each MAGE gene was evaluated by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Six genes of the MAGE family including MAGE-1 were found to be expressed at a high level in a number of tumors of various histological types. None was expressed in a large panel of healthy tissues, with the exception of testis and placenta. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

De Plaen, E.; Szikora, J.P.; De Smet, C.; Brasseur, F.; Bruggen, P. van der; Lethe, B.; Lurquin, C.; Traversari, C.; Gaforio, J.J.; Chomez, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

1994-12-31

373

Structural analysis of a MIP family protein from the digestive tract of Cicadella viridis.  

PubMed

Homopteran insects, and especially Cicadella viridis, display in their digestive tract a specialized epithelial differentiation, the filter chamber (FC) acting as a water-shunting complex. The main intrinsic membrane protein of the FC is a 25,000-Da polypeptide (P25). In this paper we demonstrate that this P25 polypeptide is a member of the MIP family of membrane channel proteins, and that P25 forms homotetramers in the native membranes. Using polymerase chain reaction, a 360-base pair cDNA, named cic, was isolated from RNA of the FC. cic encodes a 119-amino acid polypeptide (CIC) whose homologies with MIP26, AQP1 (CHIP), AQP2, and gamma-TIP are 38, 38, 34, and 20%, respectively. Using a specific antibody raised against a 15-amino acid peptide from the CIC sequence, we concluded that CIC and P25 are identical entities, and hence that P25 belongs to the MIP family. We investigated the quaternary structure of P25 in the membranes of the FC using biophysical analysis of P25 nondenaturing detergent micelles, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and image processing of conventional transmission electron microscopic images. All those different approaches converged to the conclusion that P25 exists as an homotetramer forming a regular two-dimensional array in the membranes. PMID:7542238

Beuron, F; Le Cahérec, F; Guillam, M T; Cavalier, A; Garret, A; Tassan, J P; Delamarche, C; Schultz, P; Mallouh, V; Rolland, J P

1995-07-21

374

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065, a member of the IclR transcriptional factor family.  

PubMed

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 A resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed of two domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains the winged helix-turn-helix motif, and the C-terminal presumed regulatory domain is involved in binding signal molecule. In a proposed signal-binding site, a bound Zn(2+) ion was found. In the crystal, TM-IclR forms a dimer through interactions between DNA-binding domains. In the dimer, the DNA-binding domains are 2-fold related, but the dimer is asymmetric with respect to the orientation of signal-binding domains. Crystal packing analysis showed that TM-IclR dimers form a tetramer through interactions exclusively by signal-binding domains. A model is proposed for binding of IclR-like factors to DNA, and it suggests that signal-dependent transcription regulation is accomplished by affecting an oligomerization state of IclR and therefore its affinity for DNA target. PMID:11877432

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Kim, Youngchang; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Laskowski, Roman; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei

2002-05-24

375

Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3  

PubMed Central

Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold.

Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2013-01-01

376

Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family.  

PubMed

DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated. PMID:21169690

Elias, Mikael; Liebschner, Dorothee; Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric

2011-01-01

377

Complex structural and regulatory evolution of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene family.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system is a neuroendocrine machinery that has been associated with phenotypic diversification in a number of vertebrate lineages. Central to the highly pleiotropic melanocortin system is the pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) gene family, a family of pre-prohormones that each give rise to melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone (ACTH), ?-lipotropin hormone, and ?-endorphin. Here we examine the structure, tissue expression profile, and pattern of cis transcriptional regulation of the three pomc paralogs (?1, ?2, and ?) in the model cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and other cichlids, teleosts, and mammals. We found that the hormone-encoding regions of pomc ?1, pomc ?2 and pomc ? are highly conserved, with a few notable exceptions. Surprisingly, the pomc ? gene of cichlids and pomacentrids (damselfish) encodes a novel melanocortin peptide, ?-MSH, as a result of a tandem duplication of the segment encoding ACTH. All three genes are expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues, but pomc ?1 and ?2 show a more spatially restricted expression profile than pomc ?. In addition, the promoters of each pomc gene have diverged in nucleotide sequence, which may have facilitated the diverse tissue-specific expression profiles of these paralogs across species. Increased understanding of the mechanisms regulating pomc gene expression will be invaluable to the study of pomc in the context of phenotypic evolution. PMID:24188887

Harris, Rayna M; Dijkstra, Peter D; Hofmann, Hans A

2014-01-01

378

Changing Family Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the definition of family. Considers three facets of the contemporary family measured by U.S. Census statistics: (1) marriage and divorce trends; (2) declining fertility; and (3) the rise in single-headed families. Addresses the societal changes (economic, cultural, legal, and technological) that have influenced the changes in family

Seibert, M. Therese; Willetts, Marion C.

2000-01-01

379

Mediators of Maternal Depression and Family Structure on Child BMI: Parenting Quality and Risk Factors for Child Overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers

Regina L. McConley; Sylvie Mrug; M. Janice Gilliland; Richard Lowry; Marc N. Elliott; Mark A. Schuster; Laura M. Bogart; Luisa Franzini; Soledad L. Escobar-Chaves; Frank A. Franklin

2011-01-01

380

The SmtB\\/ArsR family of metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors: structural insights into prokaryotic metal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SmtB\\/ArsR family of prokaryotic metalloregulatory transcriptional repressors represses the expression of operons linked to stress-inducing concentrations of di- and multivalent heavy metal ions. Derepression results from direct binding of metal ions by these homodimeric ‘metal sensor’ proteins. An evolutionary analysis, coupled with comparative structural and spectroscopic studies of six SmtB\\/ArsR family members, suggests a unifying ‘theme and variations’ model,

Laura S. Busenlehner; Mario A. Pennella; David P. Giedroc

2003-01-01

381

Conservation of RNA secondary structures in two intron families including mitochondrial-, chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded members.  

PubMed Central

Two families of fungal mitochondrial introns that include all known sequences have been recognized. These families are now extended to incorporate a plant mitochondrial intron and several introns in chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded rRNA and tRNA precursors. Members of the same family share distinctive sequence stretches and a number of potential RNA secondary structures that would bring these stretches and the intron-exon junctions into relatively close proximity. Using several of these introns which have been extensively studied by either biochemical or genetic means, an attempt is made to integrate the available data into a common picture.

Michel, F; Dujon, B

1983-01-01

382

Avidin related protein 2 shows unique structural and functional features among the avidin protein family  

PubMed Central

Background The chicken avidin gene family consists of avidin and several avidin related genes (AVRs). Of these gene products, avidin is the best characterized and is known for its extremely high affinity for D-biotin, a property that is utilized in numerous modern life science applications. Recently, the AVR genes have been expressed as recombinant proteins, which have shown different biotin-binding properties as compared to avidin. Results In the present study, we have employed multiple biochemical methods to better understand the structure-function relationship of AVR proteins focusing on AVR2. Firstly, we have solved the high-resolution crystal structure of AVR2 in complex with a bound ligand, D-biotin. The AVR2 structure reveals an overall fold similar to the previously determined structures of avidin and AVR4. Major differences are seen, especially at the 1–3 subunit interface, which is stabilized mainly by polar interactions in the case of AVR2 but by hydrophobic interactions in the case of AVR4 and avidin, and in the vicinity of the biotin binding pocket. Secondly, mutagenesis, competitive dissociation analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to compare and study the biotin-binding properties as well as the thermal stability of AVRs and avidin. These analyses pinpointed the importance of residue 109 for biotin binding and stability of AVRs. The I109K mutation increased the biotin-binding affinity of AVR2, whereas the K109I mutation decreased the biotin-binding affinity of AVR4. Furthermore, the thermal stability of AVR2(I109K) increased in comparison to the wild-type protein and the K109I mutation led to a decrease in the thermal stability of AVR4. Conclusion Altogether, this study broadens our understanding of the structural features determining the ligand-binding affinities and stability as well as the molecular evolution within the protein family. This novel information can be applied to further develop and improve the tools already widely used in avidin-biotin technology.

Hytonen, Vesa P; Maatta, Juha AE; Kidron, Heidi; Halling, Katrin K; Horha, Jarno; Kulomaa, Tuomas; Nyholm, Thomas KM; Johnson, Mark S; Salminen, Tiina A; Kulomaa, Markku S; Airenne, Tomi T

2005-01-01

383

Analytic structure of a family of hyperboloidal beams of potential interest for advanced LIGO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with a study of the analytic structure of a family of hyperboloidal beams introduced by Bondarescu and Thorne which generalizes the nearly-flat and nearly-concentric mesa beam configurations of interest for advanced LIGO. Capitalizing on certain results from the applied optics literature on flat-top beams, a physically-insightful and computationally-effective representation is derived in terms of rapidly-converging Gauss-Laguerre expansions. A generalization (involving fractional Fourier transform operators of complex order) of some recently discovered duality relations between the nearly-flat and nearly-concentric mesa configurations is obtained. Possible implications for the advanced-LIGO optical cavity design are discussed.

Galdi, Vincenzo; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Pierro, Vincenzo; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Agresti, Juri; D'Ambrosio, Erika; Desalvo, Riccardo

2006-06-01

384

Structural Features and Biological Properties of Ellagitannins in Some Plant Families of the Order Myrtales  

PubMed Central

Plant tannins, including hydrolysable and condensed varieties, are well known antioxidants in medicinal plants, foods, and edible fruits. Their diverse biological properties and potential for disease prevention have been demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo assays. A number of ellagitannins, the largest group of hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from dicotyledoneous angiosperms and characterized. This diverse class of tannins is sub-grouped into simple ellagitannins, C-glycosidic ellagitannins, complex tannins (condensates of C-glycosidic tannins with flavan-3-ol), and oligomers up to pentamers. This review outlines and describes the chemotaxonomic significance of structural features in various types of ellagitannins found in plants belonging to the Myrtaceae, Onagraceae, and Melastomataceae families, which are all included in the order Myrtales. Any biological activities that have been reported, including antitumor and antibacterial effects as well as enzyme inhibition, are also reviewed.

Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio

2010-01-01

385

A New Branch in the Family: Structure of Aspartate-[beta]-semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Methanococcus jannaschii  

SciTech Connect

The structure of aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) from Methanococcus jannaschii has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing of a selenomethionine-substituted derivative to define a new branch in the family of ASADHs. This new structure has a similar overall fold and domain organization despite less than 10% conserved sequence identity with the bacterial enzymes. However, the entire repertoire of functionally important active site amino acid residues is conserved, suggesting an identical catalytic mechanism but with lower catalytic efficiency. A new coenzyme-binding conformation and dual NAD/NADP coenzyme specificity further distinguish this archaeal branch from the bacterial ASADHs. Several structural differences are proposed to account for the dramatically enhanced thermostability of this archaeal enzyme. Finally, the intersubunit communication channel connecting the active sites in the bacterial enzyme dimer has been disrupted in the archaeal ASADHs by amino acid changes that likely prevent the alternating sites reactivity previously proposed for the bacterial ASADHs.

Faehnle, Christopher R.; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2010-07-13

386

Structural Basis for WDR5 Interaction (Win) Motif Recognition in Human SET1 Family Histone Methyltransferases*  

PubMed Central

Translocations and amplifications of the mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) gene are associated with aggressive myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias in humans. MLL1 is a member of the SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases, which are required for transcription of genes involved in hematopoiesis and development. MLL1 associates with a subcomplex containing WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30 (WRAD), which together form the MLL1 core complex that is required for sequential mono- and dimethylation of H3K4. We previously demonstrated that WDR5 binds the conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif of MLL1 in vitro, an interaction that is required for the H3K4 dimethylation activity of the MLL1 core complex. In this investigation, we demonstrate that arginine 3765 of the MLL1 Win motif is required to co-immunoprecipitate WRAD from mammalian cells, suggesting that the WDR5-Win motif interaction is important for the assembly of the MLL1 core complex in vivo. We also demonstrate that peptides that mimic SET1 family Win motif sequences inhibit H3K4 dimethylation by the MLL1 core complex with varying degrees of efficiency. To understand the structural basis for these differences, we determined structures of WDR5 bound to six different naturally occurring Win motif sequences at resolutions ranging from 1.9 to 1.2 ?. Our results reveal that binding energy differences result from interactions between non-conserved residues C-terminal to the Win motif and to a lesser extent from subtle variation of residues within the Win motif. These results highlight a new class of methylation inhibitors that may be useful for the treatment of MLL1-related malignancies.

Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Patel, Anamika; Skalnik, David G.; Cosgrove, Michael S.

2012-01-01

387

Structural Steel and Precast Concrete Contractors: 2002. 2002 Economic Census: Construction, Industry Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to the Economic Census; Tables ( Industry Statistics on 2002 NAICS Basis Distributed Among 1997 NAICS-Based Industries for the United States: 2002, Employment Statistics for Establishments by State: 2002, General Statistics for Esta...

2004-01-01

388

Local Bank Office Ownership, Deposit Control, Market Structure, and Economic Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The restructuring of commercial banking has heightened interest in its economic consequences both for the economy as a whole and for those most likely to bear adverse consequences; small businesses, small banks, and rural areas. Most previous research on ...

R. N. Collender S. L. Shaffer

2000-01-01

389

Backbone assignment and secondary structure of Rnd1, an unusual Rho family small GTPase.  

PubMed

Rho GTPases have attracted considerable interest as signaling molecules due to their variety of functional roles in cells. Rnd1 is a relatively recently discovered Rho GTPase with no enzymatic activity against its bound GTP nucleotide, setting it apart from other family members. Research has revealed a critical role for Rnd1 not only in neurite outgrowth, dendrite development, axon guidance, but also in gastric cancer and in endothelial cells during inflammation. Structural information is crucial for understanding the mechanism that forms the basis for protein-protein interactions and functions, but until recently there were no reports of NMR studies directly on the Rnd1 protein. In this paper we report assignments for the majority of Rnd1 NMR resonances based on 2D and 3D NMR spectra. Rnd1 assignment was a challenging task, however, despite optimization strategies that have facilitated NMR studies of the protein (Cao and Buck in Small GTPase 2:295-304, 2012). Besides common triple-resonance experiments, 3D HNCA, 3D HN(CO)CA, 3D HNCO which are usually employed for sequence assignment, 3D NOESY experiments and specific labeling of 13 kinds of amino acids were also utilized to gain as many (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N resonances assignments as possible. For 170 cross peaks observed out of 183 possible mainchain N-H correlations in the (1)H-(15)N TROSY spectrum, backbone assignment was finally completed for 127 resonances. The secondary structure was then defined by chemical shifts and TALOS+ based on the assignments. The overall structure in solution compares well with that of Rnd1 in a crystal, except for two short segments, residues 77-83 and residues 127-131. Given that some features are shared among Rho GTPases, Rnd1 assignments are also compared with two other family members, Cdc42 and Rac1. The overall level of Rnd1 assignment is lower than for Cdc42 and Rac1, consistent with its lower stability and possibly increased internal dynamics. However, while the Rnd1 switch II region remained un-assigned, the switch I region could be more fully assigned compared to Cdc42 and Rac1. The NMR assignment and structure analysis reported here provides a robust basis for future study of the binding between Rnd1 and other proteins, as well as for further studies of the molecular function of this unusual GTPase. PMID:22618864

Cao, Shufen; Mao, Xi'an; Liu, Deli; Buck, Matthias

2013-10-01

390

Crystal structure of family 14 polysaccharide lyase with pH-dependent modes of action.  

PubMed

The Chlorella virus enzyme vAL-1 (38 kDa), a member of polysaccharide lyase family 14, degrades the Chlorella cell wall by cleaving the glycoside bond of the glucuronate residue (GlcA) through a beta-elimination reaction. The enzyme consists of an N-terminal cell wall-attaching domain (11 kDa) and a C-terminal catalytic module (27 kDa). Here, we show the enzyme characteristics of vAL-1, especially its pH-dependent modes of action, and determine the structure of the catalytic module. vAL-1 also exhibited alginate lyase activity at alkaline pH, and truncation of the N-terminal domain increased the lyase activity by 50-fold at pH 7.0. The truncated form vAL-1(S) released di- to hexasaccharides from alginate at pH 7.0, whereas disaccharides were preferentially generated at pH 10.0. This indicates that vAL-1(S) shows two pH-dependent modes of action: endo- and exotypes. The x-ray crystal structure of vAL-1(S) at 1.2 A resolution showed two antiparallel beta-sheets with a deep cleft showing a beta-jelly roll fold. The structure of GlcA-bound vAL-1(S) at pH 7.0 and 10.0 was determined: GlcA was found to be bound outside and inside the cleft at pH 7.0 and 10.0, respectively. This suggests that the electric charges at the active site greatly influence the binding mode of substrates and regulate endo/exo activity. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that vAL-1(S) has a specific amino acid arrangement distinct from other alginate lyases crucial for catalysis. This is, to our knowledge, the first study in which the structure of a family 14 polysaccharide lyase with two different modes of action has been determined. PMID:19846561

Ogura, Kohei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

2009-12-18

391

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

392

Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes (sands, steep slopes etc.), 0.51 M ha on heavily eroded lands and 0.49 M ha of liner stands (field protective and run off - protective shelterbelts). Such a development has a solid economic background within post Kyoto international policies. Suggested measures in the forest sector are considered as a first step in transition to sustainable forest management, implementation of urgent adaptation activities to climate change and would allow substantially intensified multi-service use of forests (including impacts on major biogeochemical cycles, increasing wood harvest at ~25% etc.). We present major indicators of the carbon budget of forest and agro-forest ecosystems for the last two decades and for the next 20 years in the framework of the two above scenarios. This research was supported by the European Community's Framework Programme (FP7) via GESAPU project (n°247645).

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

2013-04-01

393

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

394

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-­terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

395

Economic Burden of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The economic burden of cancer is the economic cost to the nation associated with expenditures on cancer preventive, screening and treatment services, the economic cost associated with time and effort spent by patients and their families undergoing cancer treatment and the economic cost associated with lost productivity due to cancer-related disability and premature death. One approach to estimating this burden is the Cost-of-Illness study, that uses various national level data sources to obtain estimates of these various components.

396

Consumer Economic Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the concept of consumer economic socialization as it has developed in the literature. Specifically,\\u000a it covers the context in which the following have been studied: economic socialization; children and adolescents’ developmental\\u000a competencies in understanding and participating in economic and consumer processes; and major agents of economic socialization,\\u000a including culture, media, schools, peers, and families. Needs for further

Beutler Ivan; Lori Dickson

397

Mammalian molybdo-flavoenzymes, an expanding family of proteins: structure, genetics, regulation, function and pathophysiology.  

PubMed Central

The molybdo-flavoenzymes are structurally related proteins that require a molybdopterin cofactor and FAD for their catalytic activity. In mammals, four enzymes are known: xanthine oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase and two recently described mouse proteins known as aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 2. The present review article summarizes current knowledge on the structure, enzymology, genetics, regulation and pathophysiology of mammalian molybdo-flavoenzymes. Molybdo-flavoenzymes are structurally complex oxidoreductases with an equally complex mechanism of catalysis. Our knowledge has greatly increased due to the recent crystallization of two xanthine oxidoreductases and the determination of the amino acid sequences of many members of the family. The evolution of molybdo-flavoenzymes can now be traced, given the availability of the structures of the corresponding genes in many organisms. The genes coding for molybdo-flavoenzymes are expressed in a cell-specific fashion and are controlled by endogenous and exogenous stimuli. The recent cloning of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor has increased our knowledge on the assembly of the apo-forms of molybdo-flavoproteins into the corresponding holo-forms. Xanthine oxidoreductase is the key enzyme in the catabolism of purines, although recent data suggest that the physiological function of this enzyme is more complex than previously assumed. The enzyme has been implicated in such diverse pathological situations as organ ischaemia, inflammation and infection. At present, very little is known about the pathophysiological relevance of aldehyde oxidase, aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 2, which do not as yet have an accepted endogenous substrate.

Garattini, Enrico; Mendel, Ralf; Romao, Maria Joao; Wright, Richard; Terao, Mineko

2003-01-01

398

Crystal Structures of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 20 Lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum *  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-? resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a ?2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near 4E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a 4C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed.

Ito, Tasuku; Katayama, Takane; Hattie, Mitchell; Sakurama, Haruko; Wada, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ashida, Hisashi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Stubbs, Keith A.; Fushinobu, Shinya

2013-01-01

399

Optimal Power Flow procedure for real-time security and economic re-dispatching in a market structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possibility of utilizing Optimal Active Power Flow (OAPF) and Optimal Reactive Power Flow (ORPF) algorithms for on-line safety and economic re-dispatching in an Ancillary Services Market (MSD) structure. It is described a procedure that the Italian Transmission System Operator (TERNA) has implemented recently for real-time operation. Starting from a real-time snapshot, the procedure ranks all the

F. Bassi; C. Bruno; P. Crisafulli; G. Giannuzzi; L. Gorello; S. Pasquini; M. Pozzi; R. Zaottini

2009-01-01

400

Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W  

PubMed Central

Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed.

Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Rety, Stephane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphael; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sebastien; Hugueney, Philippe

2012-01-01

401

Functional proteomic and structural insights into molecular recognition in the nitrilase family enzymes  

PubMed Central

Nitrilases are a large and diverse family of non-peptidic C-N hydrolases. The mammalian genome encodes eight nitrilase enzymes, several of which remain poorly characterized. Prominent among these are nitrilase-1 (Nit1) and nitrilase-2 (Nit2), which, despite having been shown to exert effects on cell growth and possibly serving as tumor suppressor genes, are without known substrates or selective inhibitors. In previous studies, we identified several nitrilases, including Nit1 and Nit2, as targets for dipeptide-chloroacetamide activity-based proteomics probes. Here, we have used these probes, in combination with high-resolution crystallography and molecular modeling, to systematically map the active site of Nit2 and identify residues involved in molecular recognition. We report the 1.4 Å crystal structure of mouse Nit2, and use this structure to identify residues that discriminate probe-labeling between the Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes. Interestingly, some of these residues are conserved across all vertebrate Nit2 enzymes and, conversely, not found in any vertebrate Nit1 enzymes, suggesting that they are key discriminators of molecular recognition between these otherwise highly homologous enzymes. Our findings thus point to a limited set of active site residues that establish distinct patterns of molecular recognition among nitrilases and provide chemical probes to selectively perturb the function of these enzymes in biological systems.

Barglow, Katherine T.; Saikatendu, Kumar S.; Bracey, Michael H.; Huey, Ruth; Morris, Garrett M.; Olson, Arthur J.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

2009-01-01

402

Functional Proteomic And Structural Insights Into Molecular Recognition in the Nitrilase Family Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Nitrilases are a large and diverse family of nonpeptidic C-N hydrolases. The mammalian genome encodes eight nitrilase enzymes, several of which remain poorly characterized. Prominent among these are nitrilase-1 (Nit1) and nitrilase-2 (Nit2), which, despite having been shown to exert effects on cell growth and possibly serving as tumor suppressor genes, are without known substrates or selective inhibitors. In previous studies, we identified several nitrilases, including Nit1 and Nit2, as targets for dipeptide-chloroacetamide activity-based proteomics probes. Here, we have used these probes, in combination with high-resolution crystallography and molecular modeling, to systematically map the active site of Nit2 and identify residues involved in molecular recognition. We report the 1.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of mouse Nit2 and use this structure to identify residues that discriminate probe labeling between the Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes. Interestingly, some of these residues are conserved across all vertebrate Nit2 enzymes and, conversely, not found in any vertebrate Nit1 enzymes, suggesting that they are key discriminators of molecular recognition between these otherwise highly homologous enzymes. Our findings thus point to a limited set of active site residues that establish distinct patterns of molecular recognition among nitrilases and provide chemical probes to selectively perturb the function of these enzymes in biological systems.

Barglow, K.T.; Saikatendu, K.; Bracey, M.H.; Huey, R.; Morris, G.M.; Olson, A.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Cravatt, B.F.

2009-05-11

403

Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum.  

PubMed

Enzymes acting on ?-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of ?-l-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a ?-l-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked ?-l-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and ?-l-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional ?-sandwich domains, with one ?-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn(2+) coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the ?-l-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. PMID:24680821

Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo; Kim, Seonah; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Ishiwata, Akihiro; Kaeothip, Sophon; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Beckham, Gregg T; Ito, Yukishige; Fushinobu, Shinya

2014-04-25

404

Genomic Structure and Evolution of Multigene Families: "Flowers" on the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

We report the results of an extensive investigation of genomic structures in the human genome, with a particular focus on relatively large repeats (>50?kb) in adjacent chromosomal regions. We named such structures “Flowers” because the pattern observed on dot plots resembles a flower. We detected a total of 291 Flowers in the human genome. They were predominantly located in euchromatic regions. Flowers are gene-rich compared to the average gene density of the genome. Genes involved in systems receiving environmental information, such as immunity and detoxification, were overrepresented in Flowers. Within a Flower, the mean number of duplication units was approximately four. The maximum and minimum identities between homologs in a Flower showed different distributions; the maximum identity was often concentrated to 100% identity, while the minimum identity was evenly distributed in the range of 78% to 100%. Using a gene conversion detection test, we found frequent and/or recent gene conversion events within the tested Flowers. Interestingly, many of those converted regions contained protein-coding genes. Computer simulation studies suggest that one role of such frequent gene conversions is the elongation of the life span of gene families in a Flower by the resurrection of pseudogenes.

Kim, Hie Lim; Iwase, Mineyo; Igawa, Takeshi; Nishioka, Tasuku; Kaneko, Satoko; Katsura, Yukako; Takahata, Naoyuki; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

405

Structure of the Archaeal Pab87 Peptidase Reveals a Novel Self-Compartmentalizing Protease Family  

PubMed Central

Self-compartmentalizing proteases orchestrate protein turnover through an original architecture characterized by a central catalytic chamber. Here we report the first structure of an archaeal member of a new self-compartmentalizing protease family forming a cubic-shaped octamer with D4 symmetry and referred to as CubicO. We solved the structure of the Pyrococcus abyssi Pab87 protein at 2.2 Å resolution using the anomalous signal of the high-phasing-power lanthanide derivative Lu-HPDO3A. A 20 Å wide channel runs through this supramolecular assembly of 0.4 MDa, giving access to a 60 Å wide central chamber holding the eight active sites. Surprisingly, activity assays revealed that Pab87 degrades specifically d-amino acid containing peptides, which have never been observed in archaea. Genomic context of the Pab87 gene showed that it is surrounded by genes involved in the amino acid/peptide transport or metabolism. We propose that CubicO proteases are involved in the processing of d-peptides from environmental origins.

Delfosse, Vanessa; Girard, Eric; Birck, Catherine; Delmarcelle, Michael; Delarue, Marc; Poch, Olivier; Schultz, Patrick; Mayer, Claudine

2009-01-01

406

Fungal cytochrome p450 monooxygenases: their distribution, structure, functions, family expansion, and evolutionary origin.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

407

Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

2012-01-01

408

Helicobacter pylori: Clonal Population Structure and Restricted Transmission within Families Revealed by Molecular Typing  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infects up to 50% of the human population worldwide. The infection occurs predominantly in childhood and persists for decades or a lifetime. H. pylori is believed to be transmitted from person to person. However, tremendous genetic diversity has been reported for these bacteria. In order to gain insight into the epidemiological basis of this phenomenon, we performed molecular typing of H. pylori isolates from different families. Fifty-nine H. pylori isolates from 27 members of nine families were characterized by using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of five PCR-amplified genes, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA, and by vacA and cagA genotyping. The 16S rRNA gene exhibited little allelic variation, as expected for a unique bacterial species. In contrast, the vacA, flaA, ureAB, and lspA-glmM genes were highly polymorphic, with a mean genetic diversity of 0.83, which exceeds the levels recorded for all other bacterial species. In conjunction with PFGE, 59 H. pylori isolates could be differentiated into 21 clonal types. Each individual harbored only one clone, occasionally with a clonal variant. Identical strains were always found either between siblings or between a mother and her children. Statistical analysis revealed clonality of population structure in all isolates. The results of this study suggest the possible coexistence of a large array of clonal lineages that are evolving in each individual in isolation from one another. Transmission appears to occur primarily from mother to child and perhaps between siblings.

Han, Shan-Rui; Zschausch, Hans-Christoph E.; Meyer, Heinz-Georg W.; Schneider, Thomas; Loos, Michael; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Maeurer, Markus J.

2000-01-01

409

Structural dynamics of the ?E22 (Osaka) familial Alzheimer's disease-linked amyloid ?-protein  

PubMed Central

A familial form of Alzheimer disease (AD) recently was described in a kindred in Osaka, Japan. This kindred possesses an amyloid ?-protein (A?) precursor mutation within the A? coding region that results in the deletion of Glu22 (?E22). We report here results of studies of [?E22]A?40 and ?E22A?42 that sought to elucidate the conformational dynamics, oligomerization behavior, fibril formation kinetics, fibril morphology, and fibril stability of these mutant peptides. Both [?E22]A? peptides had extraordinary ?-sheet formation propensities. The [?E22]A?40 mutant formed ?-sheet secondary structure elements ?400-fold faster. Studies of ?-sheet stability in the presence of fluorinated alcohol cosolvents or high pH revealed that the ?E22 mutation substantially increased stability, producing a rank order of [?E22]A?42 >> A?42 > [?E22]A?40 > A?40. The mutation facilitated formation of oligomers by [?E22]A?42 (dodecamers and octadecamers) that were not observed with A?42. Both A?40 and A?42 peptides formed nebulous globular and small string-like structures immediately upon solvation from lyophilizates, whereas short protofibrillar and fibrillar structures were evident immediately in the ?E22 samples. Determination of the critical concentration for fibril formation for the [?E22]A? peptides showed it to be ?1/2 that of the wild type homologues, demonstrating that the mutations causes a modest increase in fibril stability. The magnitude of this increase, when considered in the context of the extraordinary increase in ?-sheet propensity for the ?E22 peptides, suggests that the primary biophysical effect of the mutation is to accelerate conformational changes in the peptide monomer that facilitate oligomerization and higher-order assembly.

Inayathullah, Mohammed; Teplow, David B.

2012-01-01

410

Family therapy.  

PubMed

Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, 'insulin'. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the 'family'. Underestimating family's perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered. PMID:24251191

Altamash, Shaikh

2013-10-01

411

Family therapy  

PubMed Central

Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ‘insulin’. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ‘family’. Underestimating family's perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

Altamash, Shaikh

2013-01-01

412

Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1  

SciTech Connect

The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D. (Sinai); (MSKCC); (Emory)

2010-07-20

413

Structure-critical distribution of aromatic residues in the fibronectin type III protein family.  

PubMed

Over a thousand individual Fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain sequences, extracted from more than 60 different FnIII-dependent protein super-structures, were downloaded from curated database resources. Three regions of extreme sequence conservation within the well-characterized FnIII ?-sandwich structure were respectively defined by near absolute conservation of a tryptophan (Trp) in ?-strand-B, tyrosines (Tyr) in both ?-strand-C and ?-strand-F, and a leucine (Leu) residue in the unstructured region immediately preceding ?-strand-F. Employing these four conserved landmarks, the entire FnIII sequence dataset was vertically registered to align the three conserved regions, and the cumulative distribution of all other amino acid functionality was determined and plotted relative to these landmark residues. Conserved aromatic sites were each found to be flanked by aliphatic residues that assure localization of these sites to the inaccessible hydrophobic interface between major sheet structures. Mapping the location of conserved aromatic sites in numerous PDB structures demonstrated the consistent pair-wise co-localization of the indole side-chain of the conserved strand-B Trp site to within 0.35 nm of the phenolic side-chain of the strand-C Tyr site located 8-14 amino acids distal. Likewise, the side-chain of the strand-F Tyr site co-localized to within 0.45 nm of the aliphatic side-chain of the conserved Leu that uniformly precedes it by six residues. While classic hydropathy-based theories would deem the "burying" of Tyr and Trp side-chains and/or their association with hydrophobic FnIII core residues thermodynamically unnecessary, alternative contributions of conserved Trp and Tyr residues, and particularly the role of the absolutely conserved tyrosine phenolic -OH in native FnIII structure-function are considered. A more global role for conserved FnIII aromaticity is also discussed in light of the aromatic conservation observed in other well-established protein families. PMID:24563228

Hoxha, Ema; Campion, Stephen R

2014-04-01

414

Structure and Change in the Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of economically disadvantaged children in free play nursery contexts provided further evidence for the cross-cultural applicability of Schaefer's three-dimensional scheme in assessing classroom competencies. Several implications of the configurational approach are a new way of thinking about competence measurement, its differentiated…

Emmerich, Walter

415

Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

Heady, Earl O.

416

The Association of Sexual Behaviors with Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Race/Ethnicity among U.S. Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), family structure, and race/ethnicity to adolescent sexual behaviors that are key determinants of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data from the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that differences in adolescent sexual behavior by race and SES were not large enough to…

Santelli, John S.; Lowry, Richard; Brener, Nancy D.; Robin, Leah

2000-01-01

417

Influence of Family Communication Structure and Vanity Trait on Consumption Behavior: A Case Study of Adolescent Students in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between family communication structure, vanity trait, and related consumption behavior. The study used an empirical method with adolescent students from the northern part of Taiwan as the subjects. Multiple statistical methods and the SEM model were used for testing the hypotheses. The…

Chang, Wei-Lung; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Lin, Tai-An; Wen, Yung-Sung

2008-01-01

418

How Family, Community, and Work Structured High Blood Pressure AccountsFrom African Americans in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure is one of the most often researched, yet least understood health disparities among African Americans. This descriptive, critical discourse analysis examined how family and community demographics and paid and unpaid work structured participants' accounts of high blood pressure experiences in Washington State. Thirty-seven urban-dwelling African American women (n = 17) and men (n = 20) in Washington

Doris M. Boutain; Clarence Spigner

2008-01-01

419

Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases  

SciTech Connect

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F. (Sunesis); (Biogen)

2010-11-15

420

Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of

Douglas J. Marcotte; Yu-Ting Liu; Robert M. Arduini; Catherine A. Hession; Konrad Miatkowski; Craig P. Wildes; Patrick F. Cullen; Victor Hong; Brian T. Hopkins; Elisabeth Mertsching; Tracy J. Jenkins; Michael J. Romanowski; Darren P. Baker; Laura F. Silvian

2010-01-01

421

Crystal structure of the YDR533c S. cerevisiae protein, a class II member of the Hsp31 family.  

PubMed

The ORF YDR533c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a 25.5 kDa protein of unknown biochemical function. Transcriptome analysis of yeast has shown that this gene is activated in response to various stress conditions together with proteins belonging to the heat shock family. In order to clarify its biochemical function, we determined the crystal structure of YDR533c to 1.85 A resolution by the single anomalous diffraction method. The protein possesses an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and a putative Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad common to a large enzyme family containing proteases, amidotransferases, lipases, and esterases. The protein has strong structural resemblance with the E. coli Hsp31 protein and the intracellular protease I from Pyrococcus horikoshii, which are considered class I and class III members of the Hsp31 family, respectively. Detailed structural analysis strongly suggests that the YDR533c protein crystal structure is the first one of a class II member of the Hsp31 family. PMID:15130476

Graille, Marc; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Leulliot, Nicolas; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Li de la Sierra Gallay, Ines; Jacquamet, Lilian; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Liger, Dominique; Poupon, Anne; Janin, Joel; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

2004-05-01

422

Structural analysis of type II variants within the mouse intracisternal A-particle sequence family.  

PubMed Central

Intracisternal A-particle (IAP) elements are present in multiple copies in the mouse and other rodent genomes. The bulk of this sequence family in Mus musculus consists of 7 Kb long elements, but the majority of IAP sequences involved in known transpositions have been deleted forms. The present study describes a subset of deleted IAP sequences (type II IAP) characterized by insertion of a particular short sequence element (AIIins). AIIins are interspersed and the majority occur as part of the type II IAP elements in the mouse genome. AIIins sequences are absent or in low copy number outside Mus musculus. We have isolated clones containing AIIins from a mouse genomic DNA library and have sequenced three isolates of AIIins and their surrounding IAP sequences to define the detailed structure of type II elements. AIIins are 272, 268 and 264 bp long and 90% homologous in sequence. They are bracketed by 9 bp duplications, suggesting they may be inserted elements. A 75 bp region containing a core enhancer sequence is repeated at the 5' end in type II IAP elements. Insertion into the IAP genome, with potential to encode an integrase function, may have played a role in the amplification of AIIins. Images

Lueders, K K; Mietz, J A

1986-01-01

423

Structure and Promoter Characterization of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 B10 Gene  

PubMed Central

Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5?-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from ?145 to ?140 bp and ?193 to ?190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4,091 bp of the 5?-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5?-deletions revealed that a ?255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity.

Liu, Ziwen; Zhong, Linlin; Krishack, Paulette A; Robbins, Sarah; Cao, Julia X; Zhao, Yupei; Chung, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

2009-01-01

424

Structural and spatial determinants regulating TC21 activation by RasGRF family nucleotide exchange factors.  

PubMed

RasGRF family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange on several Ras GTPases, including H-Ras and TC21. Although the mechanisms controlling RasGRF function as an H-Ras exchange factor are relatively well characterized, little is known about how TC21 activation is regulated. Here, we have studied the structural and spatial requirements involved in RasGRF 1/2 exchange activity on TC21. We show that RasGRF GEFs can activate TC21 in all of its sublocalizations except at the Golgi complex. We also demonstrate that TC21 susceptibility to activation by RasGRF GEFs depends on its posttranslational modifications: farnesylated TC21 can be activated by both RasGRF1 and RasGRF2, whereas geranylgeranylated TC21 is unresponsive to RasGRF2. Importantly, we show that RasGRF GEFs ability to catalyze exchange on farnesylated TC21 resides in its pleckstrin homology 1 domain, by a mechanism independent of localization and of its ability to associate to membranes. Finally, our data indicate that Cdc42-GDP can inhibit TC21 activation by RasGRF GEFs, demonstrating that Cdc42 negatively affects the functions of RasGRF GEFs irrespective of the GTPase being targeted. PMID:19692568

Calvo, Fernando; Crespo, Piero

2009-10-01

425

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 79 ?-Glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum  

PubMed Central

We present the first structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 79 ?-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum, both as a product complex with ?-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and as its trapped covalent 2-fluoroglucuronyl intermediate. This enzyme consists of a catalytic (?/?)8-barrel domain and a ?-domain with irregular Greek key motifs that is of unknown function. The enzyme showed ?-glucuronidase activity and trace levels of ?-glucosidase and ?-xylosidase activities. In conjunction with mutagenesis studies, these structures identify the catalytic residues as Glu173 (acid base) and Glu287 (nucleophile), consistent with the retaining mechanism demonstrated by 1H NMR analysis. Glu45, Tyr243, Tyr292–Gly294, and Tyr334 form the catalytic pocket and provide substrate discrimination. Consistent with this, the Y292A mutation, which affects the interaction between the main chains of Gln293 and Gly294 and the GlcA carboxyl group, resulted in significant loss of ?-glucuronidase activity while retaining the side activities at wild-type levels. Likewise, although the ?-glucuronidase activity of the Y334F mutant is ?200-fold lower (kcat/Km) than that of the wild-type enzyme, the ?-glucosidase activity is actually 3 times higher and the ?-xylosidase activity is only 2.5-fold lower than the equivalent parameters for wild type, consistent with a role for Tyr334 in recognition of the C6 position of GlcA. The involvement of Glu45 in discriminating against binding of the O-methyl group at the C4 position of GlcA is revealed in the fact that the E45D mutant hydrolyzes PNP-?-GlcA approximately 300-fold slower (kcat/Km) than does the wild-type enzyme, whereas 4-O-methyl-GlcA-containing oligosaccharides are hydrolyzed only 7-fold slower.

Michikawa, Mari; Ichinose, Hitomi; Momma, Mitsuru; Biely, Peter; Jongkees, Seino; Yoshida, Makoto; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Withers, Stephen G.; Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi

2012-01-01

426

Banking in the European Economic Community: Structure, Competition, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In most countries, banking is a heavily regulated industry. “ Indeed, banking is among the most heavily regulated of economic\\u000a activities.” 1 And even after years of attempts in several countries to disencumber this industry from regulations that foster inefficiencies\\u000a and, contrary to original intent, distort incentives for risk-taking, it remains highly regulated. Governments have played\\u000a a major role in

Joseph Bisignano

427

CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE AND ROLES OF SPANISH-AMERICAN FAMILIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…

KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

428

The Theory, Structure, and Techniques for the Inclusion of Children in Family Therapy: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many barriers prevent therapists from including young children in family therapy, despite the theoretical belief that every family member should be present. Although there is a wealth of literature describing how to include children, the information has not been compiled in a way that is easily accessible to therapists. In this article, we report…

Lund, Lori K.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A.

2002-01-01

429

Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

2008-01-01

430

A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.  

PubMed

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7?Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6?Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

2014-05-01

431

Communication Processes that Mediate Family Communication Patterns and Mental Well-Being: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis of Young Adults from Divorced and Nondivorced Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, demand/withdraw patterns and feeling caught were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and young adults' mental well-being. Participants included 567 young adults from divorced and nondivorced families. For young adults in nondivorced families, family conversation orientations had both a positive, direct effect on…

Schrodt, Paul; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

2007-01-01

432

From Soil to Structure, a Novel Dimeric ?-Glucosidase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 Isolated from Compost Using Metagenomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

A recent metagenomic analysis sequenced a switchgrass-adapted compost community to identify enzymes from microorganisms that were specifically adapted to switchgrass under thermophilic conditions. These enzymes are being examined as part of the pretreatment process for the production of “second-generation” biofuels. Among the enzymes discovered was JMB19063, a novel three-domain ?-glucosidase that belongs to the GH3 (glycoside hydrolase 3) family. Here, we report the structure of JMB19063 in complex with glucose and the catalytic variant D261N crystallized in the presence of cellopentaose. JMB19063 is first structure of a dimeric member of the GH3 family, and we demonstrate that dimerization is required for catalytic activity. Arg-587 and Phe-598 from the C-terminal domain of the opposing monomer are shown to interact with bound ligands in the D261N structure. Enzyme assays confirmed that these residues are absolutely essential for full catalytic activity.

McAndrew, Ryan P.; Park, Joshua I.; Heins, Richard A.; Reindl, Wolfgang; Friedland, Gregory D.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Northen, Trent; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.

2013-01-01

433

Structural Model of the Y-Family DNA Polymerase V/RecA Mutasome  

PubMed Central

To synthesize past DNA damaged by chemicals or radiation, cells have lesion bypass DNA polymerases (DNAPs), most of which are in the Y-Family. One class of Y-Family DNAPs includes DNAP ? in eukaryotes and DNAP V in bacteria, which have low fidelity when replicating undamaged DNA. In E. coli, DNAP V is carefully regulated to insure it is active for lesion bypass only, and one mode of regulation involves interaction of the polymerase subunit (UmuC) and two regulatory subunits (UmuD?) with a RecA-filament bound to ss-DNA. Taking a docking approach, ~150,000 unique orientations involving UmuC, UmuD? and RecA were evaluated to generate models, one of which was judged best able to rationalize the following published findings. (1) In the UmuD?2C/RecA-filament model, R64-UmuC interacts with S117-RecA, which is known to be at the UmuC/RecA interface. (2) At the model’s UmuC/RecA interface, UmuC has three basic amino acids (K59/R63/R64) that anchor it to RecA. No other Y-Family DNAP has three basic amino acids clustered in this region, making it a plausible site for UmuC to form its unique interaction with RecA. (3) In the model, residues N32/N33/D34 of UmuC form a second interface with RecA, which is consistent with published findings. (4) Active UmuD? is generated when 24 amino acids in the N-terminal tail of UmuD are proteolyzed, which occurs when UmuD2C binds the RecA-filament. When UmuD is included in an UmuD2C/RecA-filament model, plausible UmuD/RecA contacts guide the UmuD cleavage site (C24/G25) into the UmuD proteolysis active site (S60/K97). One contact involves E11-UmuD interacting with R243-RecA, where the latter is known to be important for UmuD cleavage. (5) The UmuD2C/RecA-filament model rationalizes published findings that at least some UmuD-to-UmuD? cleavage occurs intermolecularly. (6) Active DNAP V is known to be the heterotetramer UmuD?2C/RecA, a model of which can be generated by a simple rearrangement of the RecA monomer at the 3?-end of the RecA-filament. The rearranged UmuD?2C/RecA model rationalizes published findings about UmuD? residues in proximity to RecA. In summary, docking and molecular simulations are used to develop an UmuD?2C/RecA model, whose structure rationalizes much of the known properties of the active form of DNA polymerase V.

Chandani, Sushil; Loechler, Edward L.

2012-01-01

434

X-ray crystal structure of bone marrow kinase in the x chromosome: a Tec family kinase.  

PubMed

Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 Å resolution and PP2 at 1.9 Å resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors. PMID:21883956

Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, Chiehying Y; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J

2011-11-01