Sample records for family vibrionaceae reveals

  1. Comparative genomics of the family Vibrionaceae reveals the wide distribution of genes encoding virulence-associated proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G Lilburn; Jianying Gu; Hong Cai; Yufeng Wang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all

  2. Comparative genomics of the family Vibrionaceae reveals the wide distribution of genes encoding virulence-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all these strains, known as the pangenome, are distributed. Information about the core, accessory and panproteome of this family can show how, for example, genes encoding virulence-associated proteins are distributed and help us understand how virulence emerges. Results We deduced the complete set of orthologs for eleven strains from this family. The core proteome consists of 1,882 orthologous groups, which is 28% of the 6,629 orthologous groups in this family. There were 4,411 accessory orthologous groups (i.e., proteins that occurred in from 2 to 10 proteomes) and 5,584 unique proteins (encoded once on only one of the eleven genomes). Proteins that have been associated with virulence in V. cholerae were widely distributed across the eleven genomes, but the majority was found only on the genomes of the two V. cholerae strains examined. Conclusions The proteomes are reflective of the differing evolutionary trajectories followed by different strains to similar phenotypes. The composition of the proteomes supports the notion that genetic exchange among species of the Vibrionaceae is widespread and that this exchange aids these species in adapting to their environments. PMID:20537180

  3. Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

  4. Habitat Segregation and Biochemical Activities of Marine Members of the Family Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Simidu, Usio; Tsukamoto, Kumiko

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of marine members of the family Vibrionaceae with the technique of numerical taxonomy revealed habitat segregation as well as a cosmopolitan nature of species distribution among the vibrios in different marine environments. The bacterial strains analyzed were isolated from seawater, sediments, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish in the Indian Ocean, the South and East China Sea, and West Pacific Ocean, and coastal areas of Japan. A total of 155 morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests were carried out for each of 405 strains examined. The results showed that most of the large taxonomical clusters which emerged from the computation corresponded to ecological groups which have particular niches. For instance, each group of seawater vibrios inhabited a particular water layer of limited depth range, in spite of the fact that strains of the group were isolated from sampling locations spread over a wide area from the Indian Ocean to Japanese coast. Various vibrio groups showed remarkable differences in their physiological and biochemical activities, and the activities of each group seemed to correspond with its ecological niche. The strains which inhabited surface-water layers grew fast and actively utilized many high-molecular-weight organic compounds and carbohydrates that are derived from fresh, easily degradable organic matter present in the surface waters, whereas the middle- and deep-water vibrios did not decompose most of the high-molecular-weight organic compounds except chitin but, rather, utilized some carbohydrates and organic acids which seemed to be derived from refractory particulate organic matter present in the deeper waters. PMID:16346911

  5. Pathogenicity of members of the vibrionaceae family to cultured juvenile sablefish.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Dietrich, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria are a prized seafood species due to their high oil content and white flaky flesh. Raising these species in culture can help to provide an important source of protein for humans and relief to declining wild fish populations. Understanding the environmental factors that influence the production of Sablefish is important for successful culturing. The significance of host-pathogen interactions in Sablefish culture and the resulting environmental implications are unknown. Pathogens could potentially cause losses of cultured Sablefish stocks due to disease, while Sablefish cultured in net pens may also serve as reservoirs for pathogens and potentially transmit disease to wild fish species. In this initial study, the susceptibility of juvenile Sablefish to three bacterial pathogens from the family Vibrionaceae was examined. Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii, and V. splendidus can pose serious economic threats to cultured fish and shellfish. Groups of juvenile Sablefish were exposed to five concentrations of each of the pathogens. Sablefish were susceptible to L. anguillarum, but were resistant to V. ordalii and V. splendidus at exposure concentrations of ?1.32 × 10(7) CFU/mL and ?3.57 × 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively. The greatest L. anguillarum concentration examined (8.7 × 10(6) CFU/mL) resulted in 24% mortality in juvenile Sablefish. A 24% loss of Sablefish stock could significantly influence an aquaculture program. As determined by multiple logistic regression, the survival of Sablefish to L. anguillarum exposure was significantly affected by their body mass, and larger fish had a greater probability of survival. Aquaculture operations could employ various strategies to minimize the loss of juvenile Sablefish by accounting for their size and known susceptibilities to pathogens. Received December 9, 2014; accepted February 7, 2015. PMID:25970236

  6. Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level

    E-print Network

    Chien, Diana M.

    The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria ...

  7. Genome-level homology and phylogeny of Vibrionaceae (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionales) with three new complete genome sequences

    E-print Network

    Dikow, R. B.; Smith, William Leo

    2013-04-11

    Background Phylogenetic hypotheses based on complete genome data are presented for the Gammaproteobacteria family Vibrionaceae. Two taxon samplings are presented: one including all those taxa for which the genome sequences are complete in terms...

  8. [Allomonas--a new group of microorganisms of the Vibrionaceae family. Allomonas enterica in seawater and various hydrobiotas].

    PubMed

    Davyborshch, S G; Kalina, G P

    1985-09-01

    Bacteriological investigations made in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Sea of Japan have revealed that Allomonas enterica are widely spread in sea water and hydrobionts. The prevalence of these microorganisms in biotopes with unfavorable sanitary characteristics and their high correlation with the main indicator microorganisms suggest their importance as indicators, and a high percentage of seafood contaminated with Allomonas necessitates their study as possible causative agents of toxinfections. PMID:2933905

  9. Molecular characterization of cold adaptation based on ortholog protein sequences from Vibrionaceae species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Thorvaldsen; Erik Hjerde; Chris Fenton; Nils P. Willassen

    2007-01-01

    A set of 298 protein families from psychrophilic Vibrio salmonicida was compiled to identify genotypic characteristics that discern it from orthologous sequences from the mesophilic Vibrio\\/Photobacterium\\u000a branch of the gamma-Proteobacteria (Vibrionaceae family). In our comparative exploration we employed alignment based bioinformatical and statistical methods. Interesting\\u000a information was found in the substitution matrices, and the pattern of asymmetries in the amino

  10. Structural analyses reveal two distinct families of nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Matthew J; Ealick, Steven E

    2002-01-01

    The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:11743878

  11. Application of sliding-window discretization and minimization of stochastic complexity for the analysis of fAFLP genotyping fingerprint patterns of Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed

    Dawyndt, Peter; Thompson, Fabiano L; Austin, Brian; Swings, Jean; Koski, Timo; Gyllenberg, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of stochastic complexity (SC) was used as a method for classification of genotypic fingerprints. The method was applied to fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) fingerprint patterns of 507 Vibrionaceae representatives. As the current BinClass implementation of the optimization algorithm for classification only works on binary vectors, the original fingerprints were discretized in a preliminary step using the sliding-window band-matching method, in order to maximally preserve the information content of the original band patterns. The novel classification generated using the BinClass software package was subjected to an in-depth comparison with a hierarchical classification of the same dataset, in order to acknowledge the applicability of the new classification method as a more objective algorithm for the classification of genotyping fingerprint patterns. Recent DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence experiments proved that the classification based on SC-minimization forms separate clusters that contain the fAFLP patterns for all representatives of the species Enterovibrio norvegicus, Vibrio fortis, Vibrio diazotrophicus or Vibrio campbellii, while previous hierarchical cluster analysis had suggested more heterogeneity within the fAFLP patterns by splitting the representatives of the above-mentioned species into multiple distant clusters. As a result, the new classification methodology has highlighted some previously unseen relationships within the biodiversity of the family Vibrionaceae. PMID:15653853

  12. Seasonal Incidence of Autochthonous Antagonistic Roseobacter spp. and Vibrionaceae Strains in a Turbot Larva (Scophthalmus maximus) Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Mette; Riaza, Ana; Formoso, Fernanda; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria inhibitory to fish larval pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two turbot larva rearing farms over a 1-year period. Samples were taken from the rearing site, e.g., tank walls, water, and feed for larvae, and bacteria with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum were isolated using a replica plating assay. Approximately 19,000 colonies were replica plated from marine agar plates, and 341 strains were isolated from colonies causing clearing zones in a layer of V. anguillarum. When tested in a well diffusion agar assay, 173 strains retained the antibacterial activity against V. anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus. Biochemical tests identified 132 strains as Roseobacter spp. and 31 as Vibrionaceae strains. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three strains confirmed the identification as Roseobacter gallaeciensis. Roseobacter spp. were especially isolated in the spring and early summer months. Subtyping of the 132 Roseobacter spp. strains by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with two primers revealed that the strains formed a very homogeneous group. Hence, it appears that the same subtype was present at both fish farms and persisted during the 1-year survey. This indicates either a common, regular source of the subtype or the possibility that a particular subtype has established itself in some areas of the fish farm. Thirty-one antagonists were identified as Vibrio spp., and 18 of these were V. anguillarum but not serotype O1 or O2. Roseobacter spp. strains were, in particular, isolated from the larval tank walls, and it may be possible to establish an antagonistic, beneficial microflora in the rearing environment of turbot larvae and thereby limit survival of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:15574928

  13. Fine Mapping Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Dominican Families

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Zhuo, Degen; Dong, Chuanhui; Blanton, Susan H.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a subclinical measure for atherosclerosis. Previously, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CIMT to chromosomes 7p (MLOD=3.1) and to 14q (MLOD=2.3). We sought to identify the underlying genetic variants within those QTLs, Methods and Results Using the 100 extended Dominican Republican (DR) families (N=1312) used in the original linkage study, we fine mapped the QTLs with 2031 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Promising SNPs in the family dataset were examined in an independent population-based subcohort comprised of DR individuals (N=553) from the Northern Manhattan Study. Among the families, evidence for association (P<0.001) was found in multiple genes (ANLN, AOAH, FOXN3, CCDC88C, PRiMA1, and an intergenic SNP rs1667498), with the strongest association at PRiMA1 (P=0.00007, corrected P=0.047). Additional analyses revealed that the association at these loci, except PRiMA1, was highly significant (P= 0.00004~0.00092) in families with evidence for linkage but not in the rest of families (P=0.13~0.80) and the population-based cohort, suggesting the genetic effects at these SNPs are limited to a subgroup of families. In contrast, the association at PRiMA1 was significant in both families with and without evidence for linkage (P=0.002 and 0.019, respectively), and the population-based subcohort (P=0.047), supporting a robust association. Conclusions We identified several candidate genes for CIMT in DR families. Some of the genes manifest genetic effects within a specific subgroup and others were generalized to all groups. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the contribution of these genes to atherosclerosis. PMID:22423143

  14. The efficacy of family support and family preservation services on reducing child abuse and neglect: what the literature reveals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca OReilly; Lesley Wilkes; Lauretta Luck; Debra Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Globally, child protection services are under-resourced and unable to meet the demands associated with the increasing numbers of families who are being exposed to child abuse and neglect. Family support and family preservation interventions are the methods cited within the literature as those employed by child protection services to address this issue. Intensive family preservation services and cognitive behavioural therapy

  15. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Song, Weibo; Duan, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. To gain insight into the structural and functional evolution of the HIF family, we characterized the HIF? gene from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, and identified several alternatively spliced HIF? isoforms. Whereas HIF? Ia, the full-length isoform, contained a complete oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain, the isoforms Ib, Ic, and Id had 1 or 2 deletions in the ODD domain. When tagged with GFP and tested in mammalian cells, the amphioxus HIF? Ia protein level increased in response to hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment, whereas HIF? Ib, Ic, and Id showed reduced or no hypoxia regulation. Deletion of the ODD sequence in HIF? Ia up-regulated the HIF? Ia levels under normoxia. Gene expression analysis revealed HIF? Ic to be the predominant isoform in embryos and larvae, whereas isoform Ia was the most abundant form in the adult stage. The expression levels of Ib and Id were very low. Hypoxia treatment of adults had no effect on the mRNA levels of these HIF? isoforms. Functional analyses in mammalian cells showed all 4 HIF? isoforms capable of entering the nucleus and activating hypoxia response element–dependent reporter gene expression. The functional nuclear location signal (NLS) mapped to 3 clusters of basic residues. 775KKARL functioned as the primary NLS, but 737KRK and 754KK also contributed to the nuclear localization. All amphioxus HIF? isoforms had 2 functional transactivation domains (TADs). Its C-terminal transactivation (C-TAD) shared high sequence identity with the human HIF-1? and HIF-2? C-TAD. This domain contained a conserved asparagine, and its mutation resulted in an increase in transcriptional activity. These findings reveal many ancient features of the HIF? family and provide novel insights into the evolution of the HIF? family.—Gao, S., Lu, L., Bai, Y., Zhang, P., Song, W., Duan, C. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIF? reveals ancient features of the HIF? family. PMID:24174425

  16. Homozygosity Mapping and Targeted Sanger Sequencing Reveal Genetic Defects Underlying Inherited Retinal Disease in Families from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Mustafa, Bilal; Ayub, Humaira; Ali, Liaqat; Ahmad, Shakeel; Micheal, Shazia; Hussain, Alamdar; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Ahmed, Waqas; Khan, Yar Muhammad; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Collin, Rob W. J.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Qamar, Raheel; Cremers, Frans P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD). Methods We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), or cone dystrophy (CD). We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS) of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families. Results Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:25775262

  17. Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.] PMID:12618374

  18. Analysis of Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals a large new gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Ride, J P; Davies, E M; Franklin, F C; Marshall, D F

    1999-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the currently available Arabidopsis thaliana genomic sequence has revealed the presence of a large number of open reading frames with homology to the stigmatic self-incompatibility (S) genes of Papaver rhoeas. The products of these potential genes are all predicted to be relatively small, basic, secreted proteins with similar predicted secondary structures. We have named these potential genes SPH (S-protein homologues). Their presence appears to have been largely missed by the prediction methods currently used on the genomic sequence. Equivalent homologues could not be detected in the human, microbial, Drosophila or C. elegans genomic databases, suggesting a function specific to plants. Preliminary RT-PCR analysis indicates that at least two members of the family (SPH1, SPH8) are expressed, with expression being greatest in floral tissues. The gene family may total more than 100 members, and its discovery not only illustrates the importance of the genome sequencing efforts, but also indicates the extent of information which remains hidden after the initial trawl for potential genes. PMID:10344198

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko

    2014-01-01

    Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

  20. RNA profiling reveals familial aggregation of molecular subtypes in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In more than 70% of families with a strong history of breast and ovarian cancers, pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 cannot be identified, even though hereditary factors are expected to be involved. It has been proposed that tumors with similar molecular phenotypes also share similar underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In the current study, the aim was to investigate if global RNA profiling can be used to identify functional subgroups within breast tumors from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations and how these subgroupings relate to different breast cancer patients within the same family. Methods In the current study we analyzed a collection of 70 frozen breast tumor biopsies from a total of 58 families by global RNA profiling and promoter methylation analysis. Results We show that distinct functional subgroupings, similar to the intrinsic molecular breast cancer subtypes, exist among non-BRCA1/2 breast cancers. The distribution of subtypes was markedly different from the distribution found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. From 11 breast cancer families, breast tumor biopsies from more than one affected family member were included in the study. Notably, in 8 of these families we found that patients from the same family shared the same tumor subtype, showing a tendency of familial aggregation of tumor subtypes (p-value?=?1.7e-3). Using our previously developed BRCA1/2-signatures, we identified 7 non-BRCA1/2 tumors with a BRCA1-like molecular phenotype and provide evidence for epigenetic inactivation of BRCA1 in three of the tumors. In addition, 7 BRCA2-like tumors were found. Conclusions Our finding indicates involvement of hereditary factors in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which family members may carry genetic susceptibility not just to breast cancer but to a particular subtype of breast cancer. This is the first study to provide a biological link between breast cancers from family members of high-risk non-BRCA1/2 families in a systematic manner, suggesting that future genetic analysis may benefit from subgrouping families into molecularly homogeneous subtypes in order to search for new high penetrance susceptibility genes. PMID:24479546

  1. A multi-faceted analysis of RutD reveals a novel family of ?/? hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Aleksandra A; Petkowski, Janusz J; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Cymborowski, Marcin T; Cooper, David R; Majorek, Karolina A; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Krajewska, Wanda M; Minor, Wladek

    2012-10-01

    The rut pathway of pyrimidine catabolism is a novel pathway that allows pyrimidine bases to serve as the sole nitrogen source in suboptimal temperatures. The rut operon in E. coli evaded detection until 2006, yet consists of seven proteins named RutA, RutB, etc. through RutG. The operon is comprised of a pyrimidine transporter and six enzymes that cleave and further process the uracil ring. Herein, we report the structure of RutD, a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily, which is proposed to enhance the rate of hydrolysis of aminoacrylate, a toxic side product of uracil degradation, to malonic semialdehyde. Although this reaction will occur spontaneously in water, the toxicity of aminoacrylate necessitates catalysis by RutD for efficient growth with uracil as a nitrogen source. RutD has a novel and conserved arrangement of residues corresponding to the ?/? hydrolase active site, where the nucleophile's spatial position occupied by Ser, Cys, or Asp of the canonical catalytic triad is replaced by histidine. We have used a combination of crystallographic structure determination, modeling and bioinformatics, to propose a novel mechanism for this enzyme. This approach also revealed that RutD represents a previously undescribed family within the ?/? hydrolases. We compare and contrast RutD with PcaD, which is the closest structural homolog to RutD. PcaD is a 3-oxoadipate-enol-lactonase with a classic arrangement of residues in the active site. We have modeled a substrate in the PcaD active site and proposed a reaction mechanism. PMID:22641504

  2. A multi-faceted analysis of RutD reveals a novel family of ?/? hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Aleksandra A.; Petkowski, Janusz J.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Cymborowski, Marcin T.; Cooper, David R.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Krajewska, Wanda M.; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    The rut pathway of pyrimidine catabolism is a novel pathway that allows pyrimidine bases to serve as the sole nitrogen source in suboptimal temperatures. The rut operon in E. coli evaded detection until 2006, yet consists of seven proteins named RutA, RutB, etc. through RutG. The operon is comprised of a pyrimidine transporter and six enzymes that cleave and further process the uracil ring. Herein, we report the structure of RutD, a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily, which is proposed to enhance the rate of hydrolysis of aminoacrylate, a toxic side product of uracil degradation, to malonic semialdehyde. Although this reaction will occur spontaneously in water, the toxicity of aminoacrylate necessitates catalysis by RutD for efficient growth with uracil as a nitrogen source. RutD has a novel and conserved arrangement of residues corresponding to the ?/? hydrolase active site, where the nucleophile’s spatial position occupied by Ser, Cys or Asp of the canonical catalytic triad is replaced by histidine. We have used a combination of crystallographic structure determination, modeling and bioinformatics, to propose a novel mechanism for this enzyme. This approach also revealed that RutD represents a previously undescribed family within the ?/? hydrolases. We compare and contrast RutD with PcaD, which is the closest structural homolog to RutD. PcaD is a 3-oxoadipate-enol-lactonase-with a classic arrangement of residues in the active site. We have modeled a substrate in the PcaD active site and proposed a reaction mechanism. PMID:22641504

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of 48 gene families revealing relationships between Hagfishes, Lampreys, and Gnathostomata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuiyan Yu; Weiwei Zhang; Ling Li; Huifang Huang; Fei Ma; Qingwei Li

    2008-01-01

    It has become clear that the extant vertebrates are divided into three major groups, that is, hagfishes, lampreys, and jawed vertebrates. Morphological and molecular studies, however, have resulted in conflicting views with regard to their interrelationships. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships between them, 48 orthologous protein-coding gene families were analyzed. Even as the analysis of 34 nuclear gene families supported

  4. SH3 domain-based phototrapping in living cells reveals Rho family GAP signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hirokazu; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Mason, Frank M; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Soderling, Scott H

    2011-01-01

    Rho family GAPs [guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating proteins] negatively regulate Rho family GTPase activity and therefore modulate signaling events that control cytoskeletal dynamics. The spatial distribution of these GAPs and their specificity toward individual GTPases are controlled by their interactions with various proteins within signaling complexes. These interactions are likely mediated through the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, which is abundant in the Rho family GAP proteome and exhibits a micromolar binding affinity, enabling the Rho family GAPs to participate in transient interactions with multiple binding partners. To capture these elusive GAP signaling complexes in situ, we developed a domain-based proteomics approach, starting with in vivo phototrapping of SH3 domain-binding proteins and the mass spectrometry identification of associated proteins for nine representative Rho family GAPs. After the selection of candidate binding proteins by cluster analysis, we performed peptide array-based high-throughput in vitro binding assays to confirm the direct interactions and map the SH3 domain-binding sequences. We thereby identified 54 SH3-mediated binding interactions (including 51 previously unidentified ones) for nine Rho family GAPs. We constructed Rho family GAP interactomes that provided insight into the functions of these GAPs. We further characterized one of the predicted functions for the Rac-specific GAP WRP and identified a role for WRP in mediating clustering of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and the GABA(A) (?-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor at inhibitory synapses. PMID:22126966

  5. Crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B reveal a dynamic, modular architecture of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2007-05-29

    Catrocollastatin/vascular apoptosis-inducing protein (VAP)2B is a metalloproteinase from Crotalus atrox venom, possessing metalloproteinase/disintegrin/cysteine-rich (MDC) domains that bear the typical domain architecture of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. Here we describe crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B in three different crystal forms, representing the first reported crystal structures of a member of the monomeric class of this family of proteins. The overall structures show good agreement with both monomers of atypical homodimeric VAP1. Comparison of the six catrocollastatin/VAP2B monomer structures and the structures of VAP1 reveals a dynamic, modular architecture that may be important for the functions of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. PMID:17485084

  6. Cellular expression of murine Ym1 and Ym2, chitinase family proteins, as revealed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junko Nio; Wakako Fujimoto; Akihiro Konno; Yasuhiro Kon; Makoto Owhashi; Toshihiko Iwanaga

    2004-01-01

    Ym is one of the chitinase family proteins, which are widely distributed in mammalian bodies and can bind glycosaminoglycans such as heparin\\/heparan sulfate. Ym1 is a macrophage protein produced in parasitic infections, while its isoform, Ym2, is upregulated in lung under allergic conditions. In the present study, we revealed the distinct cellular expression of Ym1 and Ym2 in normal mice

  7. Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Di; Wenying Xu; Zhen Su; Joshua S Yuan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence,

  8. Dominant-Negative Subunits Reveal Potassium Channel Families That Contribute to M-Like Potassium Currents

    E-print Network

    Brown, David

    Currents A. A. Selyanko,1 P. Delmas,1 J. K. Hadley,1 L. Tatulian,1 I. C. Wood,1 M. Mistry,1 B. London,2, and 2Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 M-currents are K currents generated by members of the KCNQ family of K channels (Wang et al., 1998). However

  9. Exome sequencing of extended families with autism reveals genes shared across neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of neurodevelopmental conditions of varying severity, characterized by marked qualitative difficulties in social relatedness, communication, and behavior. Despite overwhelming evidence of high heritability, results from genetic studies to date show that ASD etiology is extremely heterogeneous and only a fraction of autism genes have been discovered. Methods To help unravel this genetic complexity, we performed whole exome sequencing on 100 ASD individuals from 40 families with multiple distantly related affected individuals. All families contained a minimum of one pair of ASD cousins. Each individual was captured with the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon kit, sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq 2000, and the resulting data processed and annotated with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), and SeattleSeq. Genotyping information on each family was utilized in order to determine genomic regions that were identical by descent (IBD). Variants identified by exome sequencing which occurred in IBD regions and present in all affected individuals within each family were then evaluated to determine which may potentially be disease related. Nucleotide alterations that were novel and rare (minor allele frequency, MAF, less than 0.05) and predicted to be detrimental, either by altering amino acids or splicing patterns, were prioritized. Results We identified numerous potentially damaging, ASD associated risk variants in genes previously unrelated to autism. A subset of these genes has been implicated in other neurobehavioral disorders including depression (SLIT3), epilepsy (CLCN2, PRICKLE1), intellectual disability (AP4M1), schizophrenia (WDR60), and Tourette syndrome (OFCC1). Additional alterations were found in previously reported autism candidate genes, including three genes with alterations in multiple families (CEP290, CSMD1, FAT1, and STXBP5). Compiling a list of ASD candidate genes from the literature, we determined that variants occurred in ASD candidate genes 1.65 times more frequently than in random genes captured by exome sequencing (P?=?8.55 × 10-5). Conclusions By studying these unique pedigrees, we have identified novel DNA variations related to ASD, demonstrated that exome sequencing in extended families is a powerful tool for ASD candidate gene discovery, and provided further evidence of an underlying genetic component to a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24410847

  10. Exome Sequencing Reveals Novel Rare Variants in the Ryanodine Receptor and Calcium Channel Genes in Malignant Hyperthermia Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jerry H.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Browning, Brian L.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Gordon, Adam S.; Rieder, Mark J.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Fisher, Nickla A.; Hopkins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background About half of malignant hyperthermia (MH) cases are associated with skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, ?1S subunit (CACNA1S) gene mutations, leaving many with an unknown cause. We chose to apply a sequencing approach to uncover causal variants in unknown cases. Sequencing the exome, the protein-coding region of the genome, has power at low sample sizes and identified the cause of over a dozen Mendelian disorders. Methods We considered four families with multiple MH cases but in whom no mutations in RYR1 and CACNA1S had been identified by Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA. Exome sequencing of two affecteds per family, chosen for maximum genetic distance, were compared. Variants were ranked by allele frequency, protein change, and measures of conservation among mammals to assess likelihood of causation. Finally, putative pathogenic mutations were genotyped in other family members to verify cosegregation with MH. Results Exome sequencing revealed 1 rare RYR1 nonsynonymous variant in each of 3 families (Asp1056His, Val2627Met, Val4234Leu), and 1 CACNA1S variant (Thr1009Lys) in a 4th family. These were not seen in variant databases or in our control population sample of 5379 exomes. Follow-up sequencing in other family members verified cosegregation of alleles with MH. Conclusions Using both exome sequencing and allele frequency data from large sequencing efforts may aid genetic diagnosis of MH. In our sample, it was more sensitive for variant detection in known genes than Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA, and allows for the possibility of novel gene discovery. PMID:24013571

  11. Evolution of the gastrin-cholecystokinin gene family revealed by synteny analysis.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Délia; Tostivint, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Gastrin (GAST) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are two structurally and functionally related peptide hormones that exert many functions, including regulation of gastric and pancreatic secretion, feeding behaviour and energy homeostasis. GAST and CCK genes are assumed to have diverged from a common ancestral gene, over 500 million years ago in the vertebrate lineage. However, although a large number of GAST and CCK-related sequences have been identified both in vertebrate and non-vertebrate species, the evolutionary history of the GAST/CCK family remains little understood. To address this issue, we used extensive genome synteny comparisons of vertebrate chromosomes, in particular to evaluate the impact of whole-genome duplications. In the present study, we confirm that the GAST/CCK family in vertebrates is composed of two paralogous genes, namely GAST and CCK, and even three in teleosts, namely GAST, CCK1 and CCK2. We also show that the GAST and CCK genes arose by duplications of a single ancestral gene through the 2R and that the two copies of the CCK gene found in teleosts have probably been generated through the 3R. Finally, our results suggest that the vertebrate ancestor possessed four members of the GAST/CCK family, of which two have likely been lost during evolution. PMID:24231682

  12. Exome Sequencing Reveals a Novel PRPS1 Mutation in a Family with CMTX5 without Optic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Hyun, Young Se; Kim, Ye Jin; Nam, Soo Hyun; Kim, Sung-hee; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Jin-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Background X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 5 (CMTX5) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase I (PRPS1). There has been only one case report of CMTX5 patients. The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene in a family with CMTX with peripheral neuropathy and deafness. Case Report A Korean family with X-linked recessive CMT was enrolled. The age at the onset of hearing loss of the male proband was 5 months, and that of steppage gait was 6 years; he underwent cochlear surgery at the age of 12 years. In contrast to what was reported for the first patients with CMTX5, this patient did not exhibit optic atrophy. Furthermore, there was no cognitive impairment, respiratory dysfunction, or visual disturbance. Assessment of his family history revealed two male relatives with very similar clinical manifestations. Electrophysiological evaluations disclosed sensorineural hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel p.Ala121Gly (c.362C>G) PRPS1 mutation as the underlying genetic cause of the clinical phenotype. Conclusions A novel mutation of PRPS1 was identified in a CMTX5 family in which the proband had a phenotype of peripheral neuropathy with early-onset hearing loss, but no optic atrophy. The findings of this study will expand the clinical spectrum of X-linked recessive CMT and will be useful for the molecular diagnosis of clinically heterogeneous peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24285972

  13. Analysis of Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals a large new gene family in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Ride; E. M. Davies; F. C. H. Franklin; D. F. Marshall

    1999-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the currently available Arabidopsis thaliana genomic sequence has revealed the presence of a large number of open reading frames with homology to the stigmatic self-incompatibility (S) genes of Papaver rhoeas. The products of these potential genes are all predicted to be relatively small, basic, secreted proteins with similar predicted secondary structures. We have named these potential

  14. Analysis of the C. elegans Argonaute Family Reveals that Distinct Argonautes Act Sequentially during RNAi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erbay Yigit; Pedro J. Batista; Yanxia Bei; Ka Ming Pang; Chun-Chieh G. Chen; Niraj H. Tolia; Leemor Joshua-Tor; Shohei Mitani; Martin J. Simard; Craig C. Mello

    2006-01-01

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins interact with small RNAs to mediate gene silencing. C. elegans contains 27 AGO genes, raising the question of what roles these genes play in RNAi and related gene-silencing pathways. Here we describe 31 deletion alleles representing all of the previously uncharacterized AGO genes. Analysis of single- and multiple-AGO mutant strains reveals functions in several pathways, including (1)

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of Histone Deacetylase Family Members Reveal Similarities Between Differentiating and Aging Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Amber E.; Huszar, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals. PMID:22729928

  16. Homozygosity mapping reveals novel and known mutations in Pakistani families with inherited retinal dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Saqib, Muhammad Arif Nadeem; Nikopoulos, Konstantinos; Ullah, Ehsan; Sher Khan, Falak; Iqbal, Jamila; Bibi, Rabia; Jarral, Afeefa; Sajid, Sundus; Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Venturini, Giulia; Ansar, Muhammad; Rivolta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Inherited retinal dystrophies are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. This extensive heterogeneity poses a challenge when performing molecular diagnosis of patients, especially in developing countries. In this study, we applied homozygosity mapping as a tool to reduce the complexity given by genetic heterogeneity and identify disease-causing variants in consanguineous Pakistani pedigrees. DNA samples from eight families with autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies were subjected to genome wide homozygosity mapping (seven by SNP arrays and one by STR markers) and genes comprised within the detected homozygous regions were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. All families displayed consistent autozygous genomic regions. Sequence analysis of candidate genes identified four previously-reported mutations in CNGB3, CNGA3, RHO, and PDE6A, as well as three novel mutations: c.2656C?>?T (p.L886F) in RPGRIP1, c.991G?>?C (p.G331R) in CNGA3, and c.413-1G?>?A (IVS6-1G?>?A) in CNGB1. This latter mutation impacted pre-mRNA splicing of CNGB1 by creating a -1 frameshift leading to a premature termination codon. In addition to better delineating the genetic landscape of inherited retinal dystrophies in Pakistan, our data confirm that combining homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequencing is a powerful approach for mutation identification in populations where consanguineous unions are common. PMID:25943428

  17. Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1) in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP) family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH) subtype 1G (Ush1g), both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s) of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways. PMID:21261979

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of a triheme cytochrome family from Geobacter sulfurreducens reveals mechanistic and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Leonor; Bruix, Marta; Pessanha, Miguel; Londer, Yuri Y; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2010-07-01

    A family of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens, where they play a crucial role by driving electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular acceptors. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA using NMR and visible spectroscopies was previously achieved under experimental conditions identical to those used for the triheme cytochrome c(7) from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Under such conditions, attempts to obtain NMR data were complicated by the relatively fast intermolecular electron exchange. This work reports the detailed thermodynamic characterization of PpcB, PpcD, and PpcE under optimal experimental conditions. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA was redone under these new conditions to allow a proper comparison of the redox properties with those of other members of this family. The heme reduction potentials of the four proteins are negative, differ from each other, and cover different functional ranges. These reduction potentials are strongly modulated by heme-heme interactions and by interactions with protonated groups (the redox-Bohr effect) establishing different cooperative networks for each protein, which indicates that they are designed to perform different functions in the cell. PpcA and PpcD appear to be optimized to interact with specific redox partners involving e(-)/H(+) transfer via different mechanisms. Although no evidence of preferential electron transfer pathway or e(-)/H(+) coupling was found for PpcB and PpcE, the difference in their working potential ranges suggests that they may also have different physiological redox partners. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to characterize homologous cytochromes from the same microorganism and provide evidence of their different mechanistic and functional properties. These findings provide an explanation for the coexistence of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes in G. sulfurreducens. PMID:20655858

  19. Thermodynamic Characterization of a Triheme Cytochrome Family from Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals Mechanistic and Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Leonor; Bruix, Marta; Pessanha, Miguel; Londer, Yuri Y.; Salgueiro, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A family of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens, where they play a crucial role by driving electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular acceptors. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA using NMR and visible spectroscopies was previously achieved under experimental conditions identical to those used for the triheme cytochrome c7 from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Under such conditions, attempts to obtain NMR data were complicated by the relatively fast intermolecular electron exchange. This work reports the detailed thermodynamic characterization of PpcB, PpcD, and PpcE under optimal experimental conditions. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA was redone under these new conditions to allow a proper comparison of the redox properties with those of other members of this family. The heme reduction potentials of the four proteins are negative, differ from each other, and cover different functional ranges. These reduction potentials are strongly modulated by heme-heme interactions and by interactions with protonated groups (the redox-Bohr effect) establishing different cooperative networks for each protein, which indicates that they are designed to perform different functions in the cell. PpcA and PpcD appear to be optimized to interact with specific redox partners involving e?/H+ transfer via different mechanisms. Although no evidence of preferential electron transfer pathway or e?/H+ coupling was found for PpcB and PpcE, the difference in their working potential ranges suggests that they may also have different physiological redox partners. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to characterize homologous cytochromes from the same microorganism and provide evidence of their different mechanistic and functional properties. These findings provide an explanation for the coexistence of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes in G. sulfurreducens. PMID:20655858

  20. Systematic analysis of maize class III peroxidase gene family reveals a conserved subfamily involved in abiotic stress response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Yang; Han, Guomin; Zhu, Suwen

    2015-07-15

    Class III peroxidases (PRXs) are plant-specific enzymes that play key roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stress during plant growth and development. In this study, we identified 119 nonredundant PRX genes (designated ZmPRXs). These PRX genes were divided into 18 groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We performed systematic bioinformatics analysis of the PRX genes, including analysis of gene structures, conserved motifs, phylogenetic relationships and gene expression profiles. The ZmPRXs are unevenly distributed on the 10 maize chromosomes. In addition, these genes have undergone 16 segmental duplication and 12 tandem duplication events, indicating that both segmental and tandem duplication were the main contributors to the expansion of the maize PRX family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that most duplicated ZmPRXs experienced purifying selection, with limited functional divergence during the duplication events, and comparative analysis among maize, sorghum and rice revealed that there were independent duplication events besides the whole-genome duplication of the maize genome. Furthermore, microarray analysis indicated that most highly expressed genes might play significant roles in root. We examined the expression of five candidate ZmPRXs under H2O2, SA, NaCl and PEG stress conditions using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), revealing differential expression patterns. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the PRX gene family in maize. PMID:25895479

  1. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

  2. Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

  3. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    SciTech Connect

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  4. First genome sequences of Achromobacter phages reveal new members of the N4 family

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multi-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen causing nosocomially acquired infections during the last years. Phages as natural opponents could be an alternative to fight such infections. Bacteriophages against this opportunistic pathogen were isolated in a recent study. This study shows a molecular analysis of two podoviruses and reveals first insights into the genomic structure of Achromobacter phages so far. Methods Growth curve experiments and adsorption kinetics were performed for both phages. Adsorption and propagation in cells were visualized by electron microscopy. Both phage genomes were sequenced with the PacBio RS II system based on single molecule, real-time (SMRT) technology and annotated with several bioinformatic tools. To further elucidate the evolutionary relationships between the phage genomes, a phylogenomic analysis was conducted using the genome Blast Distance Phylogeny approach (GBDP). Results In this study, we present the first detailed analysis of genome sequences of two Achromobacter phages so far. Phages JWAlpha and JWDelta were isolated from two different waste water treatment plants in Germany. Both phages belong to the Podoviridae and contain linear, double-stranded DNA with a length of 72329 bp and 73659 bp, respectively. 92 and 89 putative open reading frames were identified for JWAlpha and JWDelta, respectively, by bioinformatic analysis with several tools. The genomes have nearly the same organization and could be divided into different clusters for transcription, replication, host interaction, head and tail structure and lysis. Detailed annotation via protein comparisons with BLASTP revealed strong similarities to N4-like phages. Conclusions Analysis of the genomes of Achromobacter phages JWAlpha and JWDelta and comparisons of different gene clusters with other phages revealed that they might be strongly related to other N4-like phages, especially of the Escherichia group. Although all these phages show a highly conserved genomic structure and partially strong similarities at the amino acid level, some differences could be identified. Those differences, e.g. the existence of specific genes for replication or host interaction in some N4-like phages, seem to be interesting targets for further examination of function and specific mechanisms, which might enlighten the mechanism of phage establishment in the host cell after infection. PMID:24468270

  5. Exome sequencing reveals a thrombopoietin ligand mutation in a Micronesian family with autosomal recessive aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Syed K.; Olm-Shipman, Adam J.; Wilson, Nathan R.; Abhyankar, Sunil; Ganter, Brigitte; Furness, L. Mike; Fang, Jianwen; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2013-01-01

    We recently identified 2 siblings afflicted with idiopathic, autosomal recessive aplastic anemia. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in thrombopoietin (THPO, c.112C>T) in both affected siblings. This mutation encodes an arginine to cysteine substitution at residue 38 or residue 17 excluding the 21-amino acid signal peptide of THPO receptor binding domain (RBD). THPO has 4 conserved cysteines in its RBD that form 2 disulfide bonds. Our in silico modeling predicts that introduction of a fifth cysteine may disrupt normal disulfide bonding to cause poor receptor binding. In functional assays, the mutant-THPO–containing media shows two- to threefold reduced ability to sustain UT7-TPO cells, which require THPO for proliferation. Both parents and a sibling with heterozygous R17C change have reduced platelet counts, whereas a sibling with wild-type sequence has normal platelet count. Thus, the R17C partial loss-of-function allele results in aplastic anemia in the homozygous state and mild thrombocytopenia in the heterozygous state in our family. Together with the recent identification of THPO receptor (MPL) mutations and the effects of THPO agonists in aplastic anemia, our results have clinical implications in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aplastic anemia and highlight a role for the THPO-MPL pathway in hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:24085763

  6. Differences in conformational dynamics within the Hsp90 chaperone family reveal mechanistic insights

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Christian; Lee, Chung-Tien; Eva Meier-Andrejszki, L.; Nguyen, Minh T. N.; Mayer, Matthias P.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular chaperones of the Hsp90 family are essential in all eukaryotic cells. They assist late folding steps and maturation of many different proteins, called clients, that are not related in sequence or structure. Hsp90 interaction with its clients appears to be coupled to a series of conformational changes. Using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) we investigated the structural dynamics of human Hsp90? (hHsp90) and yeast Hsp82 (yHsp82). We found that eukaryotic Hsp90s are much more flexible than the previously studied Escherichia coli homolog (EcHtpG) and that nucleotides induce much smaller changes. More stable conformations in yHsp82 are obtained in presence of co-chaperones. The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Cpr6 causes a different amide proton protection pattern in yHsp82 than the previously studied TPR-domain protein Sti1. In the simultaneous presence of Sti1 and Cpr6, protection levels are observed that are intermediate between the Sti1 and the Cpr6 induced changes. Surprisingly, no bimodal distributions of the isotope peaks are detected, suggesting that both co-chaperones affect both protomers of the Hsp90 dimer in a similar way. The cochaperones Sba1 was found previously in the crystal structure bound to the ATP hydrolysis-competent conformation of Hsp90, which did not allow to distinguish the mode of Sba1-mediated inhibition of Hsp90's ATPase activity by stabilizing the pre- or post-hydrolysis step. Our HX-MS experiments now show that Sba1 binding leads to a protection of the ATP binding lid, suggesting that it inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by slowing down product release. This hypothesis was verified by a single-turnover ATPase assay. Together, our data suggest that there are much smaller energy barriers between conformational states in eukaryotic Hsp90s than in EcHtpG and that co-chaperones are necessary in addition to nucleotides to stabilize defined conformational states. PMID:25988145

  7. Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2? gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections. PMID:24212573

  8. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species' cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Obraztsova, Anna Y [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Wang, Yanbin [ORNL; Schmoyer, Denise D [ORNL; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Kothe, T Brett [ORNL; Serres, Margrethe H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Romine, Margaret F [ORNL; Fredrickson, Jim K [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a rapid growth in the number of sequenced bacteria and significant progress in the annotation of their genomes, current computational technologies are limited in their capability to associate the genotype of a sequenced bacterial organism with its phenotypic traits. We evaluated two novel, complimentary approaches that can facilitate this task. They are based on correlation between the numbers of the trait-specific protein families or Pfam domains and a quantitative characteristic of the phenotypic trait among different bacterial species. Our first, a top-down approach, involves quantification and comparison of a higher-level characteristic, a bacterial phenotype, to reveal genomic characteristics and specific genes related to the phenotype. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts phenotypes by quantification of molecular functions in the genomes of closely related bacterial species and by following pair-wise correlation of the molecular functions enrichments and their network clustering. The approach is implemented using network analysis tools. The approaches were validated by a comparison of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. Using the first approach, we were able to identify specific domains and gene clusters associated with cold tolerance of these mesophilic species and to predict some novel cellular mechanisms underlying the phenotype. We find that in three tested species both cold and salt tolerance relate to presence in their genome of a specific Na+/H+ antiporter. By using the second approach we identified genomic clusters predicting several environmentally relevant phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway, utilization of ethanolamine, and arsenic and copper resistance. Results of the study confirm validity of the approaches and their utility for (i) computational predictions of phenotypic traits in the sequenced organisms, (ii) revealing genomic determinants of known complex phenotypes, (iii) orthologs prediction, and for (iv) discovery of function of unknown domains and hypothetical proteins.

  9. Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Hanno; Heibl, Christoph; Renner, Susanne S.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the geographical origin of economically important plants is important for genetic improvement and conservation, but has been slowed by uneven geographical sampling where relatives occur in remote areas of difficult access. Less biased species sampling can be achieved when herbarium collections are included as DNA sources. Here, we address the history of Cucurbitaceae, one of the most economically important families of plants, using a multigene phylogeny for 114 of the 115 genera and 25 per cent of the 960 species. Worldwide sampling was achieved by using specimens from 30 herbaria. Results reveal an Asian origin of Cucurbitaceae in the Late Cretaceous, followed by the repeated spread of lineages into the African, American and Australian continents via transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD). North American cucurbits stem from at least seven range expansions of Central and South American lineages; Madagascar was colonized 13 times, always from Africa; Australia was reached 12 times, apparently always from Southeast Asia. Overall, Cucurbitaceae underwent at least 43 successful LDD events over the past 60?Myr, which would translate into an average of seven LDDs every 10?Myr. These and similar findings from other angiosperms stress the need for an increased tapping of museum collections to achieve extensive geographical sampling in plant phylogenetics. PMID:19033142

  10. Novel Family of Carbohydrate-Binding Modules Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6192 ? †

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Angel; Loderer, Christoph; Pompei, Susanne; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Spirochaeta thermophila is a thermophilic, free-living, and cellulolytic anaerobe. The genome sequence data for this organism have revealed a high density of genes encoding enzymes from more than 30 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families and a noncellulosomal enzyme system for (hemi)cellulose degradation. Functional screening of a fosmid library whose inserts were mapped on the S. thermophila genome sequence allowed the functional annotation of numerous GH open reading frames (ORFs). Seven different GH ORFs from the S. thermophila DSM 6192 genome, all putative ?-glycanase ORFs according to sequence similarity analysis, contained a highly conserved novel GH-associated module of unknown function at their C terminus. Four of these GH enzymes were experimentally verified as xylanase, ?-glucanase, ?-glucanase/carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), and CMCase. Binding experiments performed with the recombinantly expressed and purified GH-associated module showed that it represents a new carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds to microcrystalline cellulose and is highly specific for this substrate. In the course of this work, the new CBM type was only detected in Spirochaeta, but recently we found sequences with detectable similarity to the module in the draft genomes of Cytophaga fermentans and Mahella australiensis, both of which are phylogenetically very distant from S. thermophila and noncellulolytic, yet inhabit similar environments. This suggests a possibly broad distribution of the module in nature. PMID:21685171

  11. A DinB variant reveals diverse physiological consequences of incomplete TLS extension by a Y-family DNA polymerase

    E-print Network

    Walker, Graham C.

    The only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, DinB and its mammalian ortholog pol ?, catalyzes proficient bypass of damaged DNA in translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family DNA polymerases, including ...

  12. A DinB variant reveals diverse physiological consequences of incomplete extension by a Y-family DNA polymerase

    E-print Network

    Jarosz, Daniel F.

    The only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, DinB and its mammalian ortholog pol ?, catalyzes proficient bypass of damaged DNA in translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family DNA polymerases, including ...

  13. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    PubMed

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both usually placed in Melanocorypha]; Ammomanopsis grayi and Ammomanes cinctura/deserti [former traditionally placed in Ammomanes]; Chersophilus duponti and Certhilauda spp.; Eremopterix hova [usually placed in Mirafra] and several Mirafra spp.), as well as both highly conserved plumages (e.g. within Mirafra) and strongly divergent lineages (e.g. Eremopterix hova vs. other Eremopterix spp.; Calandrella cinerea complex vs. Eremophila spp.; Eremalauda dunni vs. Chersophilus duponti; Melanocorypha mongolica and male M. yeltoniensis vs. other Melanocorypha spp. and female M. yeltoniensis). Sexual plumage dimorphism has evolved multiple times. Few groups of birds show the same level of disagreement between taxonomy based on morphology and phylogenetic relationships as inferred from DNA sequences. PMID:23792153

  14. Diverse retrotransposon families and an AT-rich satellite DNA revealed in giant genomes of Fritillaria lilies

    PubMed Central

    Ambrožová, Kate?ina; Mandáková, Terezie; Bureš, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Leitch, Ilia J.; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Ji?í; Lysak, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae) comprises species with extremely large genomes (1C = 30 000–127 000 Mb) and a bicontinental distribution. Most North American species (subgenus Liliorhiza) differ from Eurasian Fritillaria species by their distinct phylogenetic position and increased amounts of heterochromatin. This study examined the contribution of major repetitive elements to the genome obesity found in Fritillaria and identified repeats contributing to the heterochromatin arrays in Liliorhiza species. Methods Two Fritillaria species of similar genome size were selected for detailed analysis, one from each phylogeographical clade: F. affinis (1C = 45·6 pg, North America) and F. imperialis (1C = 43·0 pg, Eurasia). Fosmid libraries were constructed from their genomic DNAs and used for identification, sequence characterization, quantification and chromosome localization of clones containing highly repeated sequences. Key Results and Conclusions Repeats corresponding to 6·7 and 4·7 % of the F. affinis and F. imperialis genome, respectively, were identified. Chromoviruses and the Tat lineage of Ty3/gypsy group long terminal repeat retrotransposons were identified as the predominant components of the highly repeated fractions in the F. affinis and F. imperialis genomes, respectively. In addition, a heterogeneous, extremely AT-rich satellite repeat was isolated from F. affinis. The FriSAT1 repeat localized in heterochromatic bands makes up approx. 26 % of the F. affinis genome and substantial genomic fractions in several other Liliorhiza species. However, no evidence of a relationship between heterochromatin content and genome size variation was observed. Also, this study was unable to reveal any predominant repeats which tracked the increasing/decreasing trends of genome size evolution in Fritillaria. Instead, the giant Fritillaria genomes seem to be composed of many diversified families of transposable elements. We hypothesize that the genome obesity may be partly determined by the failure of removal mechanisms to counterbalance effectively the retrotransposon amplification. PMID:21156758

  15. Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage. PMID:21524293

  16. Genome Engineering-Based Analysis of Bearded Family Genes Reveals Both Functional Redundancy and a Nonessential Function in Lateral Inhibition in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chanet, Soline; Vodovar, Nicolas; Mayau, Véronique; Schweisguth, François

    2009-01-01

    Lateral inhibition mediated by Notch receptor signaling regulates the determination of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) in Drosophila. The selection of SOPs from proneural cluster cells appears to rely on a negative feedback loop linking activation of the Notch receptor to downregulation of its ligand Delta within each cell. The molecular basis of this regulatory feedback mechanism is not known. Here, we have tested the role of the Bearded (Brd) family genes in this process. The Drosophila genome encodes eight Brd family members that interact with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) and act as inhibitors of Neur-mediated Delta signaling. Genome engineering technologies were used to create specific deletions of all eight Brd family genes. We find that the Brd family genes m?, m4, and m6 encoded by the Enhancer of split Complex (E(spl)-C) are dispensable for Drosophila development and that deletion of the five Brd family genes encoded by the Brd Complex only reduces viability. However, deletion of all Brd family genes results in embryonic lethality. Additionally, the m?, m4, and m6 genes act redundantly with the other five Brd family genes to spatially restrict Notch activation in stage 5 embryos. These data reveal that the Brd family genes have an essential but redundant activity. While the activity of all eight Brd genes appears to be dispensable for SOP determination, clone border studies indicate that both the relative activity levels of Neur and Brd family members influence competition for the SOP fate during lateral inhibition. We propose that inhibition of Neur–Delta interaction by Brd family members is part of the feedback loop that underlies lateral inhibition in Drosophila. PMID:19528324

  17. The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scot Libants; Kevin Carr; Hong Wu; John H Teeter; Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson; Ziping Zhang; Curt Wilkerson; Weiming Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR) expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR), trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not

  18. A genome-wide phylogenetic reconstruction of family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases revealed the expansion of the family during the adaptation of plants to life on land.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Malnoy, Mickael; Goremykin, Vadim; Nikiforova, Svetlana; Martens, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    For almost a decade, our knowledge on the organisation of the family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) has been limited to the model plant A. thaliana. The availability of other plant genomes represents an opportunity to obtain a broader view of the family in terms of evolution and organisation. Family 1 UGTs are known to glycosylate several classes of plant secondary metabolites. A phylogeny reconstruction study was performed to get an insight into the evolution of this multigene family during the adaptation of plants to life on land. The organisation of the UGTs in the different organisms was also investigated. More than 1500 putative UGTs were identified in 12 fully sequenced and assembled plant genomes based on the highly conserved PSPG motif. Analyses by maximum likelihood (ML) method were performed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships existing between the sequences. The results of this study clearly show that the UGT family expanded during the transition from algae to vascular plants and that in higher plants the clustering of UGTs into phylogenetic groups appears to be conserved, although gene loss and gene gain events seem to have occurred in certain lineages. Interestingly, two new phylogenetic groups, named O and P, that are not present in A. thaliana were discovered. PMID:22077743

  19. A Comparative Genome Analysis of PME and PMEI Families Reveals the Evolution of Pectin Metabolism in Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Maojun; Yuan, Daojun; Gao, Wenhui; Li, Yang; Tan, Jiafu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Pectins are synthesized and secreted to cell walls as highly methyl-esterified polymers and then demethyl-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which are spatially regulated by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). Although PME and PMEI genes are pivotal in plant cell wall formation, few studies have focused on the evolutionary patterns of the PME and PMEI gene families. In this study, the gene origin, evolution, and expression diversity of these two families were systematically analyzed using 11 representative species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and flowering land plants. The results show that 1) for the two subfamilies (PME and proPME) of PME, the origin of the PME subfamily is consistent with the appearance of pectins in early charophyte cell walls, 2) Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of proPME and PMEI families in land plants, 3) Evidence of selection pressure shows that the proPME and PMEI families have rapidly evolved, particularly the PMEI family in vascular plants, and 4) Comparative expression profile analysis of the two families indicates that the eudicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice have different expression patterns. In addition, the gene structure and sequence analyses show that the origin of the PMEI domain may be derived from the neofunctionalization of the pro domain after WGD. This study will advance the evolutionary understanding of the PME and PMEI families and plant cell wall development. PMID:23951288

  20. Structural and kinetic studies of imidazole binding to two members of the cytochrome c 6 family reveal an important role for a conserved heme pocket residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badri S. Rajagopal; Michael T. Wilson; Derek S. Bendall; Christopher J. Howe; Jonathan A. R. Worrall

    2011-01-01

    The amino acid at position 51 in the cytochrome c\\u000a 6 family is responsible for modulating over 100 mV of heme midpoint redox potential. As part of the present work, the X-ray\\u000a structure of the imidazole adduct of the photosynthetic cytochrome c\\u000a 6 Q51V variant from Phormidium laminosum has been determined. The structure reveals the axial Met ligand is dissociated from

  1. Crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals a new protein family with an RNA recognition motif-like domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Ebihara; Min Yao; Ryoji Masui; Isao Tanaka; Shigeyuki Yokoyama; Seiki Kuramitsu

    2006-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 at 1.9 Aresolution. This protein is a member of the Escherichia coli ygcH sequence family, which contains ;15 sequence homologs of bacterial origin. These homologs have a high isoelectric point. The crystal structure reveals that TTHB192 consists of two independently folded domains, and that each domain

  2. Mutational and Structural Analysis of l-N-Carbamoylase Reveals New Insights into a Peptidase M20/M25/M40 Family Member

    PubMed Central

    García-Pino, Abel; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Loris, Remy; Gavira, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    N-Carbamoyl-l-amino acid amidohydrolases (l-carbamoylases) are important industrial enzymes used in kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures of N-carbamoyl-amino acids due to their strict enantiospecificity. In this work, we report the first l-carbamoylase structure belonging to Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 (BsLcar), at a resolution of 2.7 Å. Structural analysis of BsLcar and several members of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family confirmed the expected conserved residues at the active site in this family, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed their relevance to substrate binding. We also found an unexpectedly conserved arginine residue (Arg234 in BsLcar), proven to be critical for dimerization of the enzyme. The mutation of this sole residue resulted in a total loss of activity and prevented the formation of the dimer in BsLcar. Comparative studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family is a “small-molecule binding domain,” allowing further evolutionary considerations for this enzyme family. PMID:22904279

  3. Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Double-stranded (ds) RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among dsRNA viruses. Results In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Conclusions Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses. PMID:22716092

  4. The Barley Genome Sequence Assembly Reveals Three Additional Members of the CslF (1,3;1,4)-?-Glucan Synthase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Miriam; Wright, Frank; MacKenzie, Katrin; Hedley, Pete E.; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Marshall, David; Waugh, Robbie; Halpin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    An important component of barley cell walls, particularly in the endosperm, is (1,3;1,4)-?- glucan, a polymer that has proven health benefits in humans and that influences processability in the brewing industry. Genes of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F gene family have been shown to be involved in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan synthesis but many aspects of the biosynthesis are still unclear. Examination of the sequence assembly of the barley genome has revealed the presence of an additional three HvCslF genes (HvCslF11, HvCslF12 and HvCslF13) which may be involved in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan synthesis. Transcripts of HvCslF11 and HvCslF12 mRNA were found in roots and young leaves, respectively. Transient expression of these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in phenotypic changes in the infiltrated leaves, although no authentic (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan was detected. Comparisons of the CslF gene families in cereals revealed evidence of intergenic recombination, gene duplications and translocation events. This significant divergence within the gene family might be related to multiple functions of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucans in the Poaceae. Emerging genomic and global expression data for barley and other cereals is a powerful resource for characterising the evolution and dynamics of complete gene families. In the case of the CslF gene family, the results will contribute to a more thorough understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in grass cell walls. PMID:24595438

  5. Genome-wide identification of BURP domain-containing genes in rice reveals a gene family with diverse structures and responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xipeng; Hou, Xin; Xie, Kabin; Xiong, Lizhong

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a gene family encoding proteins containing BURP domains have diverse functions in plants, but systematic characterization of this gene family have not been reported. In this study, 17 BURP family genes (OsBURP01-17) were identified and analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L.). These genes have diverse exon-intron structures and distinct organization of putative motifs. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of BURP protein sequences from rice and other plant species, the BURP family was classified into seven subfamilies, including two subfamilies (BURP V and BURP VI) with members from rice only and one subfamily (BURP VII) with members from monocotyledons only. Two BURP gene clusters, belonging to BURP V and BURP VI, were located in the duplicated region on chromosome 5 and 6 of rice, respectively. Transcript level analysis of BURP genes of rice in various tissues and organs revealed different tempo-spatial expression patterns, suggesting that these genes may function at different stages of plant growth and development. Interestingly, all the genes of the BURP VII subfamily were predominantly expressed in flower organs. We also investigated the expression patterns of BURP genes of rice under different stress conditions. The results suggested that, except for two genes (OsBURP01 and OsBURP13), all other members were induced by at least one of the stresses including drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. Two genes (OsBURP05 and OsBURP16) were responsive to all the stress treatments and most of the OsBURP genes were responsive to salt stress. Promoter sequence analysis revealed an over-abundance of stress-related cis-elements in the stress-responsive genes. The data presented here provide important clues for elucidating the functions of genes of this family. PMID:19363683

  6. Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-08-01

    Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species. PMID:25185409

  7. Study of large inbred Friedreich ataxia families reveals a recombination between D9S15 and the disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Belal, S.; Ben Hamida, C.; Hentati, F.; Ben Hamida, M. (Institut National de Neurologie, Tunis (Tunisia)); Panayides, K.; Ioannou, P.; MIddleton, L.T. (Cyprus Inst. of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia (Cyprus)); Sirugo, G.; Koenig, S.; Mandel, J.L (LGME-CNRS, Strasbourg (France)); Beckmann, J. (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

    1992-12-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. Precise linkage mapping of the Friedreich ataxia locus (FRDA) in 9q13-q21 should lead to the isolation of the defective gene by positional cloning. The two closest DNA markers, D9S5 and D9S15, show very tight linkage to FRDA, making difficult the ordering of the three loci. The authors present a linkage study of three large Friedreich ataxia families of Tunisian origin, with several multiallelic markers around D9S5 and D9S15. Haplotype data were used to investigate genetic homogeneity of the disease in these geographically related families. A meiotic recombination was found in a nonaffected individual, which excludes a 150-kb segment, including D9S15, as a possible location for the Freidreich ataxia gene and which should orient the search in the D9S5 region. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Clade classification of monolignol biosynthesis gene family members reveals target genes to decrease lignin in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    van Parijs, F R D; Ruttink, T; Boerjan, W; Haesaert, G; Byrne, S L; Asp, T; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Muylle, H

    2015-07-01

    In monocots, lignin content has a strong impact on the digestibility of the cell wall fraction. Engineering lignin biosynthesis requires a profound knowledge of the role of paralogues in the multigene families that constitute the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. We applied a bioinformatics approach for genome-wide identification of candidate genes in Lolium perenne that are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of monolignols. More specifically, we performed functional subtyping of phylogenetic clades in four multigene families: 4CL, COMT, CAD and CCR. Essential residues were considered for functional clade delineation within these families. This classification was complemented with previously published experimental evidence on gene expression, gene function and enzymatic activity in closely related crops and model species. This allowed us to assign functions to novel identified L. perenne genes, and to assess functional redundancy among paralogues. We found that two 4CL paralogues, two COMT paralogues, three CCR paralogues and one CAD gene are prime targets for genetic studies to engineer developmentally regulated lignin in this species. Based on the delineation of sequence conservation between paralogues and a first analysis of allelic diversity, we discuss possibilities to further study the roles of these paralogues in lignin biosynthesis, including expression analysis, reverse genetics and forward genetics, such as association mapping. We propose criteria to prioritise paralogues within multigene families and certain SNPs within these genes for developing genotyping assays or increasing power in association mapping studies. Although L. perenne was the target of the analyses presented here, this functional subtyping of phylogenetic clades represents a valuable tool for studies investigating monolignol biosynthesis genes in other monocot species. PMID:25683375

  9. High-Resolution Survey in Familial Parkinson Disease Genes Reveals Multiple Independent Copy Number Variation Events in PARK2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Nuytemans, Karen; Bademci, Guney; Jauregui, Cherylyn; Martin, Eden R.; Scott, William K.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Zuchner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    A high density comparative genomic hybridization array was designed to evaluate CNVs in the genomic region of six familial PD genes in 181 PD cases and 67 controls. No CNV was found in PARK7, ATP13A2, PINK1, and LRRK2. Intronic-only CNVs were found in SNCA and PARK2 but were not associated with PD risk. A whole-gene duplication of SNCA was found in one case. The allele frequency of PARK2 exonic CNV is significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.02), higher in early-onset (AAO ? 40) than in late-onset cases (P = 0.001), and higher in familial than in sporadic cases (P = 0.005). Except for single exon 2 duplications, all PARK2 exonic CNVs have different breakpoints, even when the same exon(s) were involved. In conclusion, except for SNCA and PARK2, CNVs are not a major contributing mechanism for the familial PD genes examined. The majority of PARK2 exonic CNVs are not recurrent. PMID:23616242

  10. New Comparative Analysis Based on the Secondary Structure of SSU-rRNA Gene Reveals the Evolutionary Trend and the Family-Genus Characters of Mobilida (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study. PMID:26037381

  11. Functional analysis of a group A streptococcal glycoside hydrolase Spy1600 from family 84 reveals it is a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and not a hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, William L; Macauley, Matthew S; Taylor, Edward J; Robinson, Charlotte E; Charnock, Simon J; Davies, Gideon J; Vocadlo, David J; Black, Gary W

    2006-10-15

    Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is the causative agent of severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis (the so-called 'flesh eating disease') and toxic-shock syndrome. Spy1600, a glycoside hydrolase from family 84 of the large superfamily of glycoside hydrolases, has been proposed to be a virulence factor. In the present study we show that Spy1600 has no activity toward galactosaminides or hyaluronan, but does remove beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine from mammalian glycoproteins--an observation consistent with the inclusion of eukaryotic O-glycoprotein 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosidases within glycoside hydrolase family 84. Proton NMR studies, structure-reactivity studies for a series of fluorinated analogues and analysis of 1,2-dideoxy-2'-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoso-[2,1-d]-Delta2'-thiazoline as a competitive inhibitor reveals that Spy1600 uses a double-displacement mechanism involving substrate-assisted catalysis. Family 84 glycoside hydrolases are therefore comprised of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases using a conserved catalytic mechanism involving substrate-assisted catalysis. Since these enzymes do not have detectable hyaluronidase activity, many family 84 glycoside hydrolases are most likely incorrectly annotated as hyaluronidases. PMID:16822234

  12. Reassessing Breeding Investment in Birds: Class-Wide Analysis of Clutch Volume Reveals a Single Outlying Family

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David M.; Anderson, Susan E.; Olson, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive investment is typically considered in terms of size and number of propagules produced. Compared with a thorough understanding of the overall patterns and ecological correlates of avian clutch size, egg size has received less attention and the total effort invested in laying a clutch of eggs is rarely considered. We used clutch volume as an alternative estimate of reproductive investment and present the first class-level analysis of clutch volume in birds using 1,364 randomly-selected species in 204 families. The relationship between body mass and egg volume was very strong (r2 = 0.946), validating previous studies identifying four families (Apterygidae, Pelecanoidiididae, Sternidae and Dromadidiae) with disproportionately large eggs. Clutch volume was also closely related to body mass (r2 = 0.909) and all but one of the taxa with disproportionately large eggs conformed to the overall relationship, their greater egg dimensions compensated by diminished clutch size. The only family which departed significantly from the relationship between body mass and clutch volume was the mound builders (Megapodiidae)—the only group of birds that do not rely on body heat for incubation. Although previously known for laying large clutches of large eggs containing disproportionately large yolks, the remarkable investment of megapodes in reproduction (more than seven times greater than other birds of comparable mass) has been hitherto overlooked. We consider the evolutionary basis and ecological implications of this finding, suggesting that energetic costs associated with incubation act as an upper limit on reproductive output of other birds. We recommend clutch volume as a sensitive, fine-grained measure of reproductive effort for research at a wide range of scales and advocate further analysis of ecological correlates of clutch volume in birds and amniotes generally. PMID:25633998

  13. Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

  14. Proteomic analysis of murine Piwi proteins reveals a role for arginine methylation in specifying interaction with Tudor family members

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Wohlschlegel, James; Qu, Jun; Jonsson, Zophonias; Huang, Xinhua; Chuma, Shinichiro; Girard, Angelique; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Hannon, Gregory J.; Aravin, Alexei A.

    2009-01-01

    In germ cells, Piwi proteins interact with a specific class of small noncoding RNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Together, these form a pathway that represses transposable elements, thus safeguarding germ cell genomes. Basic models describe the overall operation of piRNA pathways. However, the protein compositions of Piwi complexes, the critical protein–protein interactions that drive small RNA production and target recognition, and the precise molecular consequences of conserved localization to germline structures, call nuage, remains poorly understood. We purified the three murine Piwi family proteins, MILI, MIWI, and MIWI2, from mouse germ cells and characterized their interacting protein partners. Piwi proteins were found in complex with PRMT5/WDR77, an enzyme that dimethylates arginine residues. By immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies and by mass spectrometry, we found that Piwi proteins are arginine methylated at conserved positions in their N termini. These modifications are essential to direct complex formation with specific members of the Tudor protein family. Recognition of methylarginine marks by Tudor proteins can drive the localization of Piwi proteins to cytoplasmic foci in an artificial setting, supporting a role for this interaction in Piwi localization to nuage, a characteristic that correlates with proper operation of the piRNA pathway and transposon silencing in multiple organisms. PMID:19584108

  15. Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

  16. Revealing the evolution, the stability and the escapes of families of resonant periodic orbits in Hamiltonian systems

    E-print Network

    Euaggelos E. Zotos

    2013-07-02

    We investigate the evolution of families of periodic orbits in a bisymmetrical potential made up of a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator with only one quartic perturbing term, in a number of resonant cases. Our main objective is to compute sufficiently and accurately the position and the period of the periodic orbits. For the derivation of the above quantities (position and period) we deploy in each resonance case semi-numerical methods. The comparison of our semi-numerical results with those obtained by the numerical integration of the equations of motion indicates that, in every case the relative error is always less than 1% and therefore, the agreement is more than sufficient. Thus, we claim that semi-numerical methods are very effective tools for computing periodic orbits. We also study in detail, the case when the energy of the orbits is larger than the escape energy. In this case, the periodic orbits in almost all resonance families become unstable and eventually escape from the system. Our target is to calculate the escape period and the escape position of the periodic orbits and also monitor their evolution with respect to the value of the energy.

  17. Analysis of DNA Methylation in a Three-Generation Family Reveals Widespread Genetic Influence on Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Timothy E.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Pauli, Florencia; Parker, Stephanie L.; Kucera, Katerina S.; Willard, Huntington F.; Myers, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The methylation of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides is essential for cellular differentiation and the progression of many cancers, and it plays an important role in gametic imprinting. To assess variation and inheritance of genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation simultaneously in humans, we applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to somatic DNA from six members of a three-generation family. We observed that 8.1% of heterozygous SNPs are associated with differential methylation in cis, which provides a robust signature for Mendelian transmission and relatedness. The vast majority of differential methylation between homologous chromosomes (>92%) occurs on a particular haplotype as opposed to being associated with the gender of the parent of origin, indicating that genotype affects DNA methylation of far more loci than does gametic imprinting. We found that 75% of genotype-dependent differential methylation events in the family are also seen in unrelated individuals and that overall genotype can explain 80% of the variation in DNA methylation. These events are under-represented in CpG islands, enriched in intergenic regions, and located in regions of low evolutionary conservation. Even though they are generally not in functionally constrained regions, 22% (twice as many as expected by chance) of genes harboring genotype-dependent DNA methylation exhibited allele-specific gene expression as measured by RNA-seq of a lymphoblastoid cell line, indicating that some of these events are associated with gene expression differences. Overall, our results demonstrate that the influence of genotype on patterns of DNA methylation is widespread in the genome and greatly exceeds the influence of imprinting on genome-wide methylation patterns. PMID:21852959

  18. Sequence Comparisons of Odorant Receptors among Tortricid Moths Reveal Different Rates of Molecular Evolution among Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Steinwender, Bernd; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In insects, odorant receptors detect volatile cues involved in behaviours such as mate recognition, food location and oviposition. We have investigated the evolution of three odorant receptors from five species within the moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotrotrix, family Tortricidae, which fall into distinct clades within the odorant receptor multigene family. One receptor is the orthologue of the co-receptor Or83b, now known as Orco (OR2), and encodes the obligate ion channel subunit of the receptor complex. In comparison, the other two receptors, OR1 and OR3, are ligand-binding receptor subunits, activated by volatile compounds produced by plants - methyl salicylate and citral, respectively. Rates of sequence evolution at non-synonymous sites were significantly higher in OR1 compared with OR2 and OR3. Within the dataset OR1 contains 109 variable amino acid positions that are distributed evenly across the entire protein including transmembrane helices, loop regions and termini, while OR2 and OR3 contain 18 and 16 variable sites, respectively. OR2 shows a high level of amino acid conservation as expected due to its essential role in odour detection; however we found unexpected differences in the rate of evolution between two ligand-binding odorant receptors, OR1 and OR3. OR3 shows high sequence conservation suggestive of a conserved role in odour reception, whereas the higher rate of evolution observed in OR1, particularly at non-synonymous sites, may be suggestive of relaxed constraint, perhaps associated with the loss of an ancestral role in sex pheromone reception. PMID:22701634

  19. Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-mannanases from Podospora anserina reveal differences upon manno-oligosaccharide catalysis.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2013-05-17

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the -4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the -4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

  20. Exome sequencing reveals a heterozygous DLX5 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant split-hand/foot malformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Xin, Qian; Li, Lin; Li, Jiangxia; Zhang, Changwu; Qiu, Rongfang; Qian, Chenmin; Zhao, Hailing; Liu, Yongchao; Shan, Shan; Dang, Jie; Bian, Xianli; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

    2014-09-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital limb deformity due to the absence or dysplasia of central rays of the autopod. Six SHFM loci have already been identified. Here we describe a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant SHFM1 that has previously been mapped to 7q21.2-21.3. The two affected family members, mother and son, showed deep median clefts between toes, ectrodactyly and syndactyly; the mother also showed triphalangeal thumbs. Exome sequencing and variant screening of candidate genes in the six loci known to be responsible for SHFM revealed a novel heterozygous mutation, c.558G>T (p.(Gln186His)), in distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5). As DLX5 encodes a transcription factor capable of transactivating MYC, we also tested whether the mutation could affect DLX5 transcription acitivity. Results from luciferase reporter assay revealed that a mutation in DLX5 compromised its transcriptional activity. This is the first report of a mutation in DLX5 leading to autosomal-dominant SHFM1. PMID:24496061

  1. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf-associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family betaflexiviridae.

    PubMed

    Villamor, D E V; Susaimuthu, J; Eastwell, K C

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that closely related viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae are associated with a number of diseases that affect sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and other Prunus spp. Cherry rusty mottle-associated virus (CRMaV) is correlated with the appearance of cherry rusty mottle disease (CRMD), and Cherry twisted leaf-associated virus (CTLaV) is linked to cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLD) and apricot ringpox disease (ARPD). Comprehensive analysis of previously reported full genomic sequences plus those determined in this study representing isolates of CTLaV, CRMaV, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus revealed segregation of sequences into four clades corresponding to distinct virus species. High-throughput sequencing of RNA from representative source trees for CRMD, CTLD, and ARPD did not reveal additional unique virus sequences that might be associated with these diseases, thereby further substantiating the association of CRMaV and CTLaV with CRMD and CTLD or ARPD, respectively. Based on comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values, phylogenetic relationships with other triple-gene block-coding viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae, genome organization, and natural host range, a new genus (Robigovirus) is suggested. PMID:25496302

  2. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-Mannanases from Podospora anserina Reveal Differences upon Manno-oligosaccharide Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2013-01-01

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the ?4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the ?4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

  3. Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae) reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Moriwake, Virginia N; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L; Bowen, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200-360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

  4. Phylogeographic Analyses of Submesophotic Snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis “marshi” (Family Lutjanidae) Reveal Concordant Genetic Structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kimberly R.; Moriwake, Virginia N.; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E. Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200–360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. “marshi” (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436–490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10–11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DEAMIDASE OF THE BACTERIAL PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE CYCLE REVEALS A NOVEL BROADLY CONSERVED AMIDOHYDROLASE FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, Luca; Bocci, Paolo; Amici, Adolfo; Brunetti, Lucia; Ruggieri, Silverio; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Sorci, Leonardo; Raffaelli, Nadia

    2011-09-27

    The pyridine nucleotide cycle (PNC) is a network of salvage and recycling routes maintaining homeostasis of NAD(P) cofactor pool in the cell. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase (EC 3.5.1.42), one of the key enzymes of the bacterial PNC was originally described in Enterobacteria, but the corresponding gene eluded identification for over 30 years. A genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism across hundreds bacterial species suggested that NMN deamidase reaction is the only possible way of nicotinamide salvage in the marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. This prediction was verified via purification of native NMN deamidase from S. oneidensis followed by the identification of the respective gene, termed pncC. Enzymatic characterization of the PncC protein, as well as phenotype analysis of deletion mutants, confirmed its proposed biochemical and physiological function in S. oneidensis. Of the three PncC homologs present in E. coli, NMN deamidase activity was confirmed only for the recombinant purified product of the ygaD gene. A comparative analysis at the level of sequence and three dimensional structure, which is available for one of the PncC family member, shows no homology with any previously described amidohydrolases. Multiple alignment analysis of functional and non functional PncC homologs, together with NMN docking experiments, allowed us to tentatively identify the active site area and conserved residues therein. An observed broad phylogenomic distribution of predicted functional PncCs in bacterial kingdom is consistent with a possible role in detoxification of NMN, resulting from NAD utilization by DNA ligase.

  6. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Obraztsova, Anna; Wang, Yanbing; Schmoyer, Denise D.; Kora, Guruprasad; Park, Byung H.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Romine, Margaret F.; Land, Miriam L.; Kothe, Terence B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Shewanella can thrive in different environments and demonstrate significant variability in their metabolic and ecophysiological capabilities including cold and salt tolerance. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are largely unknown. In this study we address the problem by a comparison of the physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. We have employed two novel approaches based on association of a phenotypic trait with the number of the trait-specific protein families (Pfam domains) and on the conservation of synteny (order in the genome) of the trait-related genes. Our first approach is top-down and involves experimental evaluation and quantification of the species’ cold tolerance followed by identification of the correlated Pfam domains and genes with a conserved synteny. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts novel phenotypes of the species by calculating profiles of each Pfam domain among their genomes and following pair-wise correlation of the profiles and their network clustering. Using the first approach we find a link between cold and salt tolerance of the species and the presence in the genome of a Na+/H+ antiporter gene cluster. Other cold tolerance related genes includes peptidases, chemotaxis sensory transducer proteins, a cysteine exporter, and helicases. Using the bottom-up approach we found several novel phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species, including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway in S. woodyi, degradation of ethanolamine by S. benthica, and propanediol degradation by S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. sp. W3-18-1.

  7. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

  8. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy. PMID:19948012

  9. Analysis of Arabidopsis Transcription Factor Families Revealed Extensive Capacity for Cell-to-Cell Movement as Well as Discrete Trafficking Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yeonggil; Huang, Lijun; Chu, Hyosub; Han, Xiao; Cho, Won Kyong; Jeon, Che Ok; Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Jong-Chan; Lucas, William J.; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2011-01-01

    In plants, cell-to-cell communication is pivotal for the orchestration of cell fate determination, organ development, and the integration of whole plant physiology. One of the strategies for intercellular communication uses symplasmic communication channels, called plasmodesmata (PD). These PD establish unique cytoplasmic channels for the intercellular exchange not only of metabolites and small signaling molecules, but also of regulatory proteins and RNAs to allow for local orchestration of development and physiology. A number of non-cell-autonomous transcription factors (NCATFs) have been shown to function in the coordination of specific regulatory networks. To further explore the potential of such NCATFs, a genome-wide screen was performed on the transcription factor (TF) families in Arabidopsis. We here report that, among the 76 TFs examined, 22 were shown to move beyond their sites of transcription in the root apex; these NCATFs belonged to 17 TF families, including homeobox, GRAS, and MYB. Expression studies performed on variously-sized mCherry constructs identified a range of PD size exclusion limits within tissues of the root. In addition, our studies showed that actual protein level was an important factor controlling the range of TF intercellular movement. Interestingly, our studies on CAPRICE movement revealed tissue-specificity with respect to the mode of intercellular trafficking. These findings are discussed with respect to the regulation between cell-autonomous or non-cell-autonomous action. PMID:22080370

  10. Extensive Morphological Convergence and Rapid Radiation in the Evolutionary History of the Family Geoemydidae (Old World Pond Turtles) Revealed by SINE Insertion Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Sasaki; Yuichirou Yasukawa; Kazuhiko Takahashi; Seiko Miura; ANDREW M. SHEDLOCK; Norihiro Okada

    2006-01-01

    The family Geoemydidae is one of three in the superfamily Testudinoidea and is the most diversified family of extant turtle species. The phylogenetic relationships in this family and among related families have been vigorously investigated from both morphological and molecular viewpoints. The evolutionary history of Geoemydidae, however, remains controversial. Therefore, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Geoemydidae and related species,

  11. Interaction of a putative BH3 domain of clusterin with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hwa; Ha, Ji-Hyang [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yul [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kwang-Hee [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Yong [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Sup [Division of Structural and Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637511 (Singapore)] [Division of Structural and Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637511 (Singapore); Park, Sung Goo; Park, Byoung Chul [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Gwan-Su, E-mail: gsyi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seung-Wook, E-mail: swchi@kribb.re.kr [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Identification of a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil region of nCLU. {yields} The nCLU BH3 domain binds to BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. {yields} A conserved binding mechanism of nCLU BH3 and the other pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides with Bcl-X{sub L}. {yields} The absolutely conserved Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L.} {yields} Molecular understanding of the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU as a novel BH3-only protein. -- Abstract: Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate and breast cancers. Although CLU is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell survival, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the pro-apoptotic function of nuclear CLU (nCLU) remains unclear. In this study, we identified a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil (CC2) region of nCLU by sequence analysis and characterized the molecular interaction of the putative nCLU BH3 domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical shift perturbation data demonstrated that the nCLU BH3 domain binds to pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. A structural model of the Bcl-X{sub L}/nCLU BH3 peptide complex reveals that the binding mode is remarkably similar to those of other Bcl-X{sub L}/BH3 peptide complexes. In addition, mutational analysis confirmed that Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain, absolutely conserved in the BH3 motifs of BH3-only protein family, are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L}. Taken altogether, our results suggest a molecular basis for the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU by elucidating the residue specific interactions of the BH3 motif in nCLU with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

  12. The Vanadium Iodoperoxidase from the Marine Flavobacteriaceae Species Zobellia galactanivorans Reveals Novel Molecular and Evolutionary Features of Halide Specificity in the Vanadium Haloperoxidase Enzyme Family

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Jean-Baptiste; Rebuffet, Etienne; Delage, Ludovic; Grijol, Romain; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Rzonca, Justyna; Potin, Philippe; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases (VHPO) are key enzymes that oxidize halides and are involved in the biosynthesis of organo-halogens. Until now, only chloroperoxidases (VCPO) and bromoperoxidases (VBPO) have been characterized structurally, mainly from eukaryotic species. Three putative VHPO genes were predicted in the genome of the flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, a marine bacterium associated with macroalgae. In a phylogenetic analysis, these putative bacterial VHPO were closely related to other VHPO from diverse bacterial phyla but clustered independently from eukaryotic algal VBPO and fungal VCPO. Two of these bacterial VHPO, heterogeneously produced in Escherichia coli, were found to be strictly specific for iodide oxidation. The crystal structure of one of these vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidases, Zg-VIPO1, was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at 1.8 ?, revealing a monomeric structure mainly folded into ?-helices. This three-dimensional structure is relatively similar to those of VCPO of the fungus Curvularia inaequalis and of Streptomyces sp. and is superimposable onto the dimeric structure of algal VBPO. Surprisingly, the vanadate binding site of Zg-VIPO1 is strictly conserved with the fungal VCPO active site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that specific amino acids and the associated hydrogen bonding network around the vanadate center are essential for the catalytic properties and also the iodide specificity of Zg-VIPO1. Altogether, phylogeny and structure-function data support the finding that iodoperoxidase activities evolved independently in bacterial and algal lineages, and this sheds light on the evolution of the VHPO enzyme family. PMID:25261522

  13. Families with Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Susanne R.; Sparfeldt, Jorn; Rost, Detlef H.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of families with gifted adolescents have revealed conflicting results. Adolescents, mothers, and fathers of 84 families with a gifted adolescent and of 95 families with a non-gifted adolescent evaluated their family system independently. Dependent variables were cohesion, democratic family style (adaptability), organisation, achievement…

  14. Sequencing of Pax6 Loci from the Elephant Shark Reveals a Family of Pax6 Genes in Vertebrate Genomes, Forged by Ancient Duplications and Divergences

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Philippe; Loosli, Felix; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Murdoch, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro; van Heyningen, Veronica; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

    2013-01-01

    Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/P? internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a “small eye” phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent family of Pax6 genes, forged by ancient duplication events and by independent, lineage-specific gene losses. PMID:23359656

  15. The Vanadium Iodoperoxidase from the marine flavobacteriaceae species Zobellia galactanivorans reveals novel molecular and evolutionary features of halide specificity in the vanadium haloperoxidase enzyme family.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jean-Baptiste; Rebuffet, Etienne; Delage, Ludovic; Grijol, Romain; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Rzonca, Justyna; Potin, Philippe; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Leblanc, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases (VHPO) are key enzymes that oxidize halides and are involved in the biosynthesis of organo-halogens. Until now, only chloroperoxidases (VCPO) and bromoperoxidases (VBPO) have been characterized structurally, mainly from eukaryotic species. Three putative VHPO genes were predicted in the genome of the flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, a marine bacterium associated with macroalgae. In a phylogenetic analysis, these putative bacterial VHPO were closely related to other VHPO from diverse bacterial phyla but clustered independently from eukaryotic algal VBPO and fungal VCPO. Two of these bacterial VHPO, heterogeneously produced in Escherichia coli, were found to be strictly specific for iodide oxidation. The crystal structure of one of these vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidases, Zg-VIPO1, was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at 1.8 Å, revealing a monomeric structure mainly folded into ?-helices. This three-dimensional structure is relatively similar to those of VCPO of the fungus Curvularia inaequalis and of Streptomyces sp. and is superimposable onto the dimeric structure of algal VBPO. Surprisingly, the vanadate binding site of Zg-VIPO1 is strictly conserved with the fungal VCPO active site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that specific amino acids and the associated hydrogen bonding network around the vanadate center are essential for the catalytic properties and also the iodide specificity of Zg-VIPO1. Altogether, phylogeny and structure-function data support the finding that iodoperoxidase activities evolved independently in bacterial and algal lineages, and this sheds light on the evolution of the VHPO enzyme family. PMID:25261522

  16. Differential expression and interaction specificity of the heterotrimeric G-protein family in Brassica nigra reveal their developmental- and condition-specific roles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roshan; Arya, Gulab C; Bisht, Naveen C

    2014-11-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprised of ?, ? and ? subunits, are important signal transducers across phyla. The G-proteins are well characterized in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, and their inventories are possible from a few other plant species; however, information about the roles played by G-proteins in regulating various growth and developmental traits particularly from polyploid crops is still awaited. In this study, we have isolated one G? (BniB.G?1), three G? (BniB.G?1-BniB.G?3) and four G? (BniB.G?1-BniB.G?4) coding sequences from the paleopolyploid Brassica nigra, a major condiment crop of the Brassicaceae family. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that whole-genome triplication events in the Brassica lineage had proportionally increased the inventory of the G? subunit, but not of the G? and G? subunits in B. nigra. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that members of the G-protein subunit genes have distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns and were differentially altered in response to various stress and phytohormone treatments, thereby suggesting differential transcriptional regulation of G-protein genes in B. nigra. Interestingly, specific members of G-protein subunits were co-expressed across plant developmental stages, and in response to different elicitor treatments. Yeast-based interaction screens further predicted that the B. nigra G-protein subunits interacted in most of the possible combinations, although showing a high degree of interaction specificity between different G-protein subunits. Our data on physical interactions coupled with the co-expression pattern of the multiple G-protein subunit genes suggested that tissue- and condition-specific functional combinations of G??? heterotrimers may exist in paleopolyploid B. nigra, to control diverse growth and development processes. PMID:25231958

  17. Genome-wide identification of BURP domain-containing genes in rice reveals a gene family with diverse structures and responses to abiotic stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xipeng Ding; Xin Hou; Kabin Xie; Lizhong Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a gene family encoding proteins containing BURP domains have diverse functions in plants,\\u000a but systematic characterization of this gene family have not been reported. In this study, 17 BURP family genes (OsBURP01–17) were identified and analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L.). These genes have diverse exon–intron structures and distinct organization of putative motifs. Based on the

  18. Cloning of a new familial t(3;8) translocation associated with conventional renal cell carcinoma reveals a 5 kb microdeletion and no gene involved in the rearrangement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Rodriguez-Perales; Susan M. Gribble; Laura Valle; Nigel P. Carter; Lucia Conde; Miguel Urioste; Javier Benitez; Juan C. Cigudosa

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the molecular cloning of a familial translocation, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.2), that segregates with the conventional renal cell carcinoma (conventional RCC). We had previously reported the family history and, through loss of heterozigosity and comparative genomic hybridization, detected the loss of the 3p chromosome arm and somatic mutation in the retained von Hippel-Lindau gene in some members of the family.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Diverged Patterns of Codon Bias, Gene Expression, and Rates of Sequence Evolution in Picea Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms. PMID:25747252

  20. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  1. The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

  2. Functional complementation analyses reveal that the single PRAT family protein of trypanosoma brucei is a divergent homolog of Tim17 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weems, Ebony; Singha, Ujjal K; Hamilton, VaNae; Smith, Joseph T; Waegemann, Karin; Mokranjac, Dejana; Chaudhuri, Minu

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protozoan that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses a single member of the presequence and amino acid transporter (PRAT) protein family, which is referred to as TbTim17. In contrast, three homologous proteins, ScTim23, ScTim17, and ScTim22, are found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that TbTim17 cannot rescue Tim17, Tim23, or Tim22 mutants of S. cerevisiae. We expressed S. cerevisiae Tim23, Tim17, and Tim22 in T. brucei. These heterologous proteins were properly imported into mitochondria in the parasite. Further analysis revealed that although ScTim23 and ScTim17 were integrated into the mitochondrial inner membrane and assembled into a protein complex similar in size to TbTim17, only ScTim17 was stably associated with TbTim17. In contrast, ScTim22 existed as a protease-sensitive soluble protein in the T. brucei mitochondrion. In addition, the growth defect caused by TbTim17 knockdown in T. brucei was partially restored by the expression of ScTim17 but not by the expression of either ScTim23 or ScTim22, whereas the expression of TbTim17 fully complemented the growth defect caused by TbTim17 knockdown, as anticipated. Similar to the findings for cell growth, the defect in the import of mitochondrial proteins due to depletion of TbTim17 was in part restored by the expression of ScTim17 but was not complemented by the expression of either ScTim23 or ScTim22. Together, these results suggest that TbTim17 is divergent compared to ScTim23 but that its function is closer to that of ScTim17. In addition, ScTim22 could not be sorted properly in the T. brucei mitochondrion and thus failed to complement the function of TbTim17. PMID:25576485

  3. Clinical and Molecular Studies Reveal a PSEN1 Mutation (L153V) in a Peruvian Family with Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Olivas, Mario R.; Yu, Chang-En; Mazzetti, Pilar; Mata, Ignacio F.; Meza, Maria; Lindo-Samanamud, Saul; Leverenz, James B.; Bird, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene mutations are found in 30 to 70% of familial early onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) cases (onset <60 years). Prevalence of these mutations is highly variable including ethnic differences worldwide. No Peruvian kindred with familial AD (FAD) have been described. Standardized clinical evaluation and cognitive assessment was completed in a Peruvian family with severe EOAD. Clinical course was characterized by very early onset (before age 35 years), progressive cognitive impairment with early memory loss, spatial disorientation and executive dysfunction. We sequenced all exons of PSEN1 in the proband and identified a c.475C>G DNA change resulting in a p.L153V missense mutation in the transmembrane domain 2 of the gene. This mutation is also present in the three additional affected siblings but not in a non-affected family member consistent with segregation of this mutation with the disease. This is the first report of a Peruvian family affected with EOAD associated with a PSEN1 mutation. This same mutation has been reported previously in English and French families, but a novel variants very close to the mutation and ancestry informative markers analysis suggests the mutation might be of Amerindian or African origin in this Peruvian family. PMID:24495933

  4. Dissection of Genomewide-Scan Data in Extended Families Reveals a Major Locus and Oligogenic Susceptibility for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sudha K.; Song, Danhong; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Schick, James H.; Humphrey, Jennifer; Millard, Christopher; Liptak, Rachel; Russo, Karlie; Jun, Gyungah; Lee, Kristine E.; Fijal, Bonnie; Elston, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a degenerative disease of the retinal pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina, we conducted a genomewide scan in 34 extended families (297 individuals, 349 sib pairs) ascertained through index cases with neovascular disease or geographic atrophy. Family and medical history was obtained from index cases and family members. Fundus photographs were taken of all participating family members, and these were graded for severity by use of a quantitative scale. Model-free linkage analysis was performed, and tests of heterogeneity and epistasis were conducted. We have evidence of a major locus on chromosome 15q (GATA50C03 multipoint P=1.98×10-7; empirical P?1.0×10-5; single-point P=3.6×10-7). This locus was present as a weak linkage signal in our previous genome scan for ARMD, in the Beaver Dam Eye Study sample (D15S659, multipoint P=.047), but is otherwise novel. In this genome scan, we observed a total of 13 regions on 11 chromosomes (1q31, 2p21, 4p16, 5q34, 9p24, 9q31, 10q26, 12q13, 12q23, 15q21, 16p12, 18p11, and 20q13), with a nominal multipoint significance level of P?.01 or LOD ?1.18. Family-by-family analysis of the data, performed using model-free linkage methods, suggests that there is evidence of heterogeneity in these families. For example, a single family (family 460) individually shows linkage evidence at 8 loci, at the level of P<.0001. We conducted tests for heterogeneity, which suggest that ARMD susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9p24, 10q26, and 15q21 are not present in all families. We tested for mutations in linked families and examined SNPs in two candidate genes, hemicentin-1 and EFEMP1, in subsamples (145 and 189 sib pairs, respectively) of the data. Mutations were not observed in any of the 11 exons of EFEMP1 nor in exon 104 of hemicentin-1. The SNP analysis for hemicentin-1 on 1q31 suggests that variants within or in very close proximity to this gene cause ARMD pathogenesis. In summary, we have evidence for a major ARMD locus on 15q21, which, coupled with numerous other loci segregating in these families, suggests complex oligogenic patterns of inheritance for ARMD. PMID:14691731

  5. The structure of SSO2064, the first representative of Pfam family PF01796, reveals a novel two-domain zinc-ribbon OB-fold architecture with a potential acyl-CoA-binding role

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, S. Sri; Aravind, L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Caruthers, Jonathan; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    SSO2064 is the first structural representative of PF01796 (DUF35), a large prokaryotic family with a wide phylogenetic distribution. The structure reveals a novel two-domain architecture comprising an N-terminal, rubredoxin-like, zinc ribbon and a C-terminal, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. Additional N-terminal helical segments may be involved in protein–protein interactions. Domain architectures, genomic context analysis and functional evidence from certain bacterial representatives of this family suggest that these proteins form a novel fatty-acid-binding component that is involved in the biosynthesis of lipids and polyketide antibiotics and that they possibly function as acyl-CoA-binding proteins. This structure has led to a re-evaluation of the DUF35 family, which has now been split into two entries in the latest Pfam release (v.24.0). PMID:20944206

  6. Small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2) reveals the roles of the formin family of proteins in spindle assembly and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Cheol; Jo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Namgoong, Suk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic actin reorganization is the main driving force for spindle migration and asymmetric cell division in mammalian oocytes. It has been reported that various actin nucleators including Formin-2 are involved in the polarization of the spindle and in asymmetric cell division. In mammals, the formin family is comprised of 15 proteins. However, their individual roles in spindle migration and/or asymmetric division have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we employed a newly developed inhibitor for formin family proteins, small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2), to assess the functions of the formin family in mouse oocyte maturation. Treatment with SMIFH2 during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes inhibited maturation by decreasing cytoplasmic and cortical actin levels. In addition, treatment with SMIFH2, especially at higher concentrations (500 ?M), impaired the proper formation of meiotic spindles, indicating that formins play a role in meiotic spindle formation. Knockdown of the mDia2 formins caused a similar decrease in oocyte maturation and abnormal spindle morphology, mimicking the phenotype of SMIFH2-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggested that besides Formin-2, the other proteins of the formin, including mDia family play a role in asymmetric division and meiotic spindle formation in mammalian oocytes. PMID:25837661

  7. Functional Analysis of the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor Family in Poplar Reveals Biochemical Diversity and Multiplicity in Defense against Herbivores1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Major, Ian T.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the functional and biochemical variability of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) genes of Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides. Phylogenetic analysis, expressed sequence tag databases, and western-blot analysis confirmed that these genes belong to a large and diverse gene family with complex expression patterns. Five wound- and herbivore-induced genes representing the diversity of the KTI gene family were selected for functional analysis and shown to produce active KTI proteins in Escherichia coli. These recombinant KTI proteins were all biochemically distinct and showed clear differences in efficacy against trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and elastase-type proteases, suggesting functional specialization of different members of this gene family. The in vitro stability of the KTIs in the presence of reducing agents and elevated temperature also varied widely, emphasizing the biochemical differences of these proteins. Significantly, the properties of the recombinant KTI proteins were not predictable from primary amino acid sequence data. Proteases in midgut extracts of Malacosoma disstria, a lepidopteran pest of Populus, were strongly inhibited by at least two of the KTI gene products. This study suggests that the large diversity in the poplar (Populus spp.) KTI family is important for biochemical and functional specialization, which may be important in the maintenance of pest resistance in long-lived plants such as poplar. PMID:18024557

  8. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. PMID:25481634

  9. Analysis of four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori reveals new viewpoints of the evolution and functions of this gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingxiang Zhou; Tianyi Zhang; Weihua Xu; Linlin Yu; Yongzhu Yi; Zhifang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: achaete-scute complexe (AS-C) has been widely studied at genetic, developmental and evolutional levels. Genes of this family encode proteins containing a highly conserved bHLH domain, which take part in the regulation of the development of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Many AS-C homologs have been isolated from various vertebrates and invertebrates. Also, AS-C genes are duplicated during

  10. Genome-Wide Transcription Profiles Reveal Genotype-Dependent Responses of Biological Pathways and Gene-Families in Daphnia Exposed to Single and Mixed Stressors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

  11. Importance of gene duplication in the evolution of genomic imprinting revealed by molecular evolutionary analysis of the type I MADS-box gene family in Arabidopsis species.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of molecular evolution of imprinted genes is controversial and the entire picture is still to be unveiled. Recently, a relationship between the formation of imprinted genes and gene duplication was reported in genome-wide survey of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because gene duplications influence the molecular evolution of the duplicated gene family, it is necessary to investigate both the pattern of molecular evolution and the possible relationship between gene duplication and genomic imprinting for a better understanding of evolutionary aspects of imprinted genes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary changes of type I MADS-box genes that include imprinted genes by using relative species of Arabidopsis thaliana (two subspecies of A. lyrata and three subspecies of A. halleri). A duplicated gene family enables us to compare DNA sequences between imprinted genes and its homologs. We found an increased number of gene duplications within species in clades containing the imprinted genes, further supporting the hypothesis that local gene duplication is one of the driving forces for the formation of imprinted genes. Moreover, data obtained by phylogenetic analysis suggested "rapid evolution" of not only imprinted genes but also its closely related orthologous genes, which implies the effect of gene duplication on molecular evolution of imprinted genes. PMID:24039992

  12. Phylogenic analysis revealed an expanded C?H?-homeobox subfamily and expression profiles of C?H? zinc finger gene family in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dianguang; Wang, Yonglin; Deng, Chenglin; Hu, Ruowen; Tian, Chengming

    2015-05-15

    C2H2 zinc finger (CZF) proteins are a major class of transcription factors that play crucial roles in fungal growth, development, various stress responses, and virulence. Little genome-wide data is available regarding the roles of CZF proteins in Verticillium dahliae, a destructive pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in more than 200 plant species. We identified a total of 79 typical CZF genes in V. dahliae. Comparative analysis revealed that four plant pathogenic fungi, V. dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, and Botrytis cinerea, have comparable numbers of predicted CZF genes with similar characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identified a C2H2-homeobox subfamily in V. dahliae containing seven genes with similar gene structures. V. dahliae and F. oxysporum (Hypocreomycetidae) have more genes of this subfamily than M. oryzae (Sordariomycetidae) and B. cinerea (Leotiomycetes). Furthermore, gene-expression analysis of the smoke tree wilt fungus V. dahliae strain XS11 using digital gene-expression profiling and RT-qPCR revealed that a number of CZF genes were differentially expressed during microsclerotia formation, nutritional starvation, and simulated in planta conditions. Furthermore, the expression profiles revealed that some CZF genes were overrepresented during multiple stages, indicating that they might play diverse roles. Our results provide useful information concerning the functions of CZF genes in microsclerotia formation, nutritional stress responses, and pathogenicity in V. dahliae, and form a basis for future functional studies of these genes. PMID:25725127

  13. The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (Pgip) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, R; Roberti, S; Di Giovanni, M; Capodicasa, C; Melaragni, M; Sella, L; Tosi, P; Favaron, F

    2006-08-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and determined the properties of the encoded protein products. Sequence analysis showed that these genes form two clusters: one cluster of about 5 kbp containing Gmpgip1 and Gmpgip2, and the other containing Gmpgip3 and Gmpgip4 within a 60 kb fragment of a separate BAC clone. Sequence diversification of the four members resides mainly in the xxLxLxx region that includes residues forming the beta-sheet B1. When compared with other legume Pgip genes, Gmpgip3 groups with the bean genes Pvpgip1 and Pvpgip2, suggesting that these genes are closer to the ancestral gene. At the protein level, only GmPGIP3 shows the capability to inhibit fungal PGs. The spectrum of inhibition of GmPGIP3 against eight different fungal PGs mirrors that of the PGIP purified from soybean tissues and is similar to that of the bean PvPGIP2, one of the most efficient inhibitors so far characterized. We also report that the four Gmpgip genes are differentially regulated after wounding or during infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Following fungal infection Gmpgip3 is up regulated promptly, while Gmpgip2 is delayed. PMID:16501991

  14. Temporal and spatial expression of polygalacturonase gene family members reveals divergent regulation during fleshy fruit ripening and abscission in the monocot species oil palm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell separation that occurs during fleshy fruit abscission and dry fruit dehiscence facilitates seed dispersal, the final stage of plant reproductive development. While our understanding of the evolutionary context of cell separation is limited mainly to the eudicot model systems tomato and Arabidopsis, less is known about the mechanisms underlying fruit abscission in crop species, monocots in particular. The polygalacturonase (PG) multigene family encodes enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of pectin homogalacturonan within the primary cell wall and middle lamella. PG activity is commonly found in the separation layers during organ abscission and dehiscence, however, little is known about how this gene family has diverged since the separation of monocot and eudicots and the consequence of this divergence on the abscission process. Results The objective of the current study was to identify PGs responsible for the high activity previously observed in the abscission zone (AZ) during fruit shedding of the tropical monocot oil palm, and to analyze PG gene expression during oil palm fruit ripening and abscission. We identified 14 transcripts that encode PGs, all of which are expressed in the base of the oil palm fruit. The accumulation of five PG transcripts increase, four decrease and five do not change during ethylene treatments that induce cell separation. One PG transcript (EgPG4) is the most highly induced in the fruit base, with a 700–5000 fold increase during the ethylene treatment. In situ hybridization experiments indicate that the EgPG4 transcript increases preferentially in the AZ cell layers in the base of the fruit in response to ethylene prior to cell separation. Conclusions The expression pattern of EgPG4 is consistent with the temporal and spatial requirements for cell separation to occur during oil palm fruit shedding. The sequence diversity of PGs and the complexity of their expression in the oil palm fruit tissues contrast with data from tomato, suggesting functional divergence underlying the ripening and abscission processes has occurred between these two fruit species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of EgPG4 with PGs from other species suggests some conservation, but also diversification has occurred between monocots and eudicots, in particular between dry and fleshy fruit species. PMID:22920238

  15. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in marine deep-sea shrimps of the family Oplophoridae (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Wong, Juliet M; Pérez-Moreno, Jorge L; Chan, Tin-Yam; Frank, Tamara M; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    Bioluminescence is essential to the survival of many organisms, particularly in the deep sea where light is limited. Shrimp of the family Oplophoridae exhibit a remarkable mechanism of bioluminescence in the form of a secretion used for predatory defense. Three of the ten genera possess an additional mode of bioluminescence in the form of light-emitting organs called photophores. Phylogenetic analyses can be useful for tracing the evolution of bioluminescence, however, the few studies that have attempted to reconcile the relationships within Oplophoridae have generated trees with low-resolution. We present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Oplophoridae to date, with 90% genera coverage using seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) across 30 oplophorid species. We use our resulting topology to trace the evolution of bioluminescence within Oplophoridae. Previous studies have suggested that oplophorid visual systems may be tuned to differentiate the separate modes of bioluminescence. While all oplophorid shrimp possess a visual pigment sensitive to blue-green light, only those bearing photophores have an additional pigment sensitive to near-ultraviolet light. We attempt to characterize opsins, visual pigment proteins essential to light detection, in two photophore-bearing species (Systellaspis debilis and Oplophorus gracilirostris) and make inferences regarding their function and evolutionary significance. PMID:25482362

  16. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  17. Next generation sequencing in a family with autosomal recessive Kahrizi syndrome (OMIM 612713) reveals a homozygous frameshift mutation in SRD5A3

    PubMed Central

    Kahrizi, Kimia; Hu, Cougar Hao; Garshasbi, Masoud; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Ghadami, Shirin; Kariminejad, Roxana; Ullmann, Reinhard; Chen, Wei; Ropers, H-Hilger; Kuss, Andreas W; Najmabadi, Hossein; Tzschach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    As part of a large-scale, systematic effort to unravel the molecular causes of autosomal recessive mental retardation, we have previously described a novel syndrome consisting of mental retardation, coloboma, cataract and kyphosis (Kahrizi syndrome, OMIM 612713) and mapped the underlying gene to a 10.4-Mb interval near the centromere on chromosome 4. By combining array-based exon enrichment and next generation sequencing, we have now identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.203dupC; p.Phe69LeufsX2) in the gene for steroid 5?-reductase type 3 (SRD5A3) as the disease-causing change in this interval. Recent evidence indicates that this enzyme is required for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol, a step that is essential for N-linked protein glycosylation. Independently, another group has recently observed SRD5A3 mutations in several families with a type 1 congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG type Ix, OMIM 212067), mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia and eye disorders. Our results show that Kahrizi syndrome and this CDG Ix subtype are allelic disorders, and they illustrate the potential of next-generation sequencing strategies for the elucidation of single gene defects. PMID:20700148

  18. Comparative analysis of the Dicer-like gene family reveals loss of miR162 target site in SmDCL1 from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Fenjuan; Qiu, Deyou; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-01-01

    DCL1, the core component for miRNA biogenesis, is itself regulated by miR162 in Arabidopsis. MiRNA-mediated feedback regulation of AtDCL1 is important to maintain the proper level of DCL1 transcripts. However, it is unknown whether the miRNA-mediated regulation of DCL1 is conserved among plants. We analyzed the SmDCL gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies, using a comprehensive approach integrating genome-wide prediction, molecular cloning, gene expression profiling, and posttranscriptional regulation analysis. A total of five SmDCLs were identified. Comparative analysis of SmDCLs and AtDCLs showed an apparent enlargement of SmDCL introns in S. miltiorrhiza. The absence of miR162 in S. miltiorrhiza and the loss of miR162 target site in SmDCL1 were unexpectedly found. Further analysis showed that the miR162 target site was not present in DCL1 from ancient plants and was gained during plant evolution. The gained miR162 target site might be lost in a few modern plants through nucleotide mutations. Our results provide evidence for the gain and loss of miR162 and its target sites in Dicer-like genes during evolution. The data is useful for understanding the evolution of miRNA-mediated feedback regulation of DCLs in plants. PMID:25970825

  19. Visualization of a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad of the Neisseria meningitidis peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase reveals mechanistic conservation in SGNH esterase family members

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Allison H.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Bonis, Mathilde; Michaud, Yann; Raynal, Bertrand; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; White, Stephen W.; Haouz, Ahmed; Boneca, Ivo G.

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase (Ape1), which is required for host survival in Neisseria sp., belongs to the diverse SGNH hydrolase superfamily, which includes important viral and bacterial virulence factors. Here, multi-domain crystal structures of Ape1 with an SGNH catalytic domain and a newly identified putative peptidoglycan-detection module are reported. Enzyme catalysis was performed in Ape1 crystals and key catalytic intermediates along the SGNH esterase hydrolysis reaction pathway were visualized, revealing a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad, a mechanistic detail that has not previously been observed. This substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad shifts the established dogma on these enzymes, generating valuable insight into the structure-based design of drugs targeting the SGNH esterase superfamily. PMID:25286847

  20. Visualization of a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad of the Neisseria meningitidis peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase reveals mechanistic conservation in SGNH esterase family members.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison H; Veyrier, Frédéric J; Bonis, Mathilde; Michaud, Yann; Raynal, Bertrand; Taha, Muhamed Kheir; White, Stephen W; Haouz, Ahmed; Boneca, Ivo G

    2014-10-01

    Peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase (Ape1), which is required for host survival in Neisseria sp., belongs to the diverse SGNH hydrolase superfamily, which includes important viral and bacterial virulence factors. Here, multi-domain crystal structures of Ape1 with an SGNH catalytic domain and a newly identified putative peptidoglycan-detection module are reported. Enzyme catalysis was performed in Ape1 crystals and key catalytic intermediates along the SGNH esterase hydrolysis reaction pathway were visualized, revealing a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad, a mechanistic detail that has not previously been observed. This substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad shifts the established dogma on these enzymes, generating valuable insight into the structure-based design of drugs targeting the SGNH esterase superfamily. PMID:25286847

  1. Translocation and functional analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system effectors reveals two novel effector families of the Pseudomonas syringae complex.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; Aragón, Isabel M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Murillo, Jesús; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 causes olive knot disease and is a model pathogen for exploring bacterial infection of woody hosts. The type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire of this strain includes 31 effector candidates plus two novel candidates identified in this study which have not been reported to translocate into plant cells. In this work, we demonstrate the delivery of seven NCPPB 3335 effectors into Nicotiana tabacum leaves, including three proteins from two novel families of the P. syringae complex effector super-repertoire (HopBK and HopBL), one of which comprises two proteins (HopBL1 and HopBL2) that harbor a SUMO protease domain. When delivered by P. fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS, all seven effectors were found to suppress the production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species. Moreover, six of these effectors, including the truncated versions of HopAA1 and HopAZ1 encoded by NCPPB 3335, suppressed callose deposition. The expression of HopAZ1 and HopBL1 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and, additionally, expression of HopBL2 by this strain significantly increased its competitiveness in N. benthamiana. DNA sequences encoding HopBL1 and HopBL2 were uniquely detected in a collection of 31 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains and other P. syringae strains isolated from woody hosts, suggesting a relevant role of these two effectors in bacterial interactions with olive and other woody plants. PMID:24329173

  2. Expression of the bifunctional Bacillus subtilis TatAd protein in Escherichia coli reveals distinct TatA/B-family and TatB-specific domains.

    PubMed

    Barnett, James P; Lawrence, Janna; Mendel, Sharon; Robinson, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the Tat protein export pathway of Gram-negative bacteria, TatA and TatB are homologous proteins that carry out distinct and essential functions in separate sub-complexes. In contrast, Gram-positive Tat systems usually lack TatB and the TatA protein is bifunctional. We have used a mutagenesis approach to delineate TatA/B-type domains in the bifunctional TatAd protein from Bacillus subtilis. This involved expression of mutated TatAd variants in Escherichia coli and tests to determine whether the variants could function as TatA or TatB by complementing E. coli tatA and/or tatB mutants. We show that mutations in the C-terminal half of the transmembrane span and the subsequent FGP 'hinge' motif are critical for TatAd function with its partner TatCd subunit, and the same determinants are required for complementation of either tatA or tatB mutants in Escherichia coli. This is thus a critical domain in both TatA and TatB proteins. In contrast, substitution of a series of residues at the N-terminus specifically blocks the ability of TatAd to substitute for E. coli TatB. The results point to the presence of a universally conserved domain in the TatA/B-family, together with a separate N-terminal domain that is linked to the TatB-type function in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21479530

  3. Analysis of four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori reveals new viewpoints of the evolution and functions of this gene family

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Zhang, Tianyi; Xu, Weihua; Yu, Linlin; Yi, Yongzhu; Zhang, Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    Background achaete-scute complexe (AS-C) has been widely studied at genetic, developmental and evolutional levels. Genes of this family encode proteins containing a highly conserved bHLH domain, which take part in the regulation of the development of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Many AS-C homologs have been isolated from various vertebrates and invertebrates. Also, AS-C genes are duplicated during the evolution of Diptera. Functions besides neural development controlling have also been found in Drosophila AS-C genes. Results We cloned four achaete-scute homologs (ASH) from the lepidopteran model organism Bombyx mori, including three proneural genes and one neural precursor gene. Proteins encoded by them contained the characteristic bHLH domain and the three proneural ones were also found to have the C-terminal conserved motif. These genes regulated promoter activity through the Class A E-boxes in vitro. Though both Bm-ASH and Drosophila AS-C have four members, they are not in one by one corresponding relationships. Results of RT-PCR and real-time PCR showed that Bm-ASH genes were expressed in different larval tissues, and had well-regulated expressional profiles during the development of embryo and wing/wing disc. Conclusion There are four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori, the second insect having four AS-C genes so far, and these genes have multiple functions in silkworm life cycle. AS-C gene duplication in insects occurs after or parallel to, but not before the taxonomic order formation during evolution. PMID:18321391

  4. Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

  5. Metabolic engineering of raffinose-family oligosaccharides in the phloem reveals alterations in carbon partitioning and enhances resistance to green peach aphid.

    PubMed

    Cao, Te; Lahiri, Ipsita; Singh, Vijay; Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti; Ayre, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT) leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT plants. When added to an artificial diet, RFOs did not have a negative effect on aphid fecundity, suggesting that although aphid resistance in the transgenic plants is enhanced, it is not due to direct toxicity of RFO toward the insect. PMID:23882277

  6. Genetic analysis of the Replication Protein A large subunit family in Arabidopsis reveals unique and overlapping roles in DNA repair, meiosis and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Aklilu, Behailu B.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Culligan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds single-stranded DNA. In plants, multiple genes encode the three RPA subunits (RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3), including five RPA1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests two distinct groups composed of RPA1A, RPA1C, RPA1E (ACE group) and RPA1B, RPA1D (BD group). ACE-group members are transcriptionally induced by ionizing radiation, while BD-group members show higher basal transcription and are not induced by ionizing radiation. Analysis of rpa1 T-DNA insertion mutants demonstrates that although each mutant line is likely null, all mutant lines are viable and display normal vegetative growth. The rpa1c and rpa1e single mutants however display hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and combination of rpa1c and rpa1e results in additive hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Combination of the partially sterile rpa1a with rpa1c results in complete sterility, incomplete synapsis and meiotic chromosome fragmentation, suggesting an early role for RPA1C in promoting homologous recombination. Combination of either rpa1c and/or rpa1e with atr revealed additive hypersensitivity phenotypes consistent with each functioning in unique repair pathways. In contrast, rpa1b rpa1d double mutant plants display slow growth and developmental defects under non-damaging conditions. We show these defects in the rpa1b rpa1d mutant are likely the result of defective DNA replication leading to reduction in cell division. PMID:24335281

  7. Getting a High-Speed Family Connection: Associations between Family Media Use and Family Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    The way families have used the media has substantially changed over the past decade. Within the framework of family systems theory, this paper examines the relations between family media use and family connection in a sample of 453 adolescents (mean age of child = 14.32 years, SD = 0.98, 52% female) and their parents. Results revealed that cell…

  8. Classification of gas5 as a Multi-Small-Nucleolar-RNA (snoRNA) Host Gene and a Member of the 5?-Terminal Oligopyrimidine Gene Family Reveals Common Features of snoRNA Host Genes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine M.; Steitz, Joan A.

    1998-01-01

    We have identified gas5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as a non-protein-coding multiple small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene similar to UHG (U22 host gene). Encoded within the 11 introns of the mouse gas5 gene are nine (10 in human) box C/D snoRNAs predicted to function in the 2?-O-methylation of rRNA. The only regions of conservation between mouse and human gas5 genes are their snoRNAs and 5?-end sequences. Mapping the 5? end of the mouse gas5 transcript demonstrates that it possesses an oligopyrimidine tract characteristic of the 5?-terminal oligopyrimidine (5?TOP) class of genes. Arrest of cell growth or inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, pactamycin, or rapamycin—which specifically inhibits the translation of 5?TOP mRNAs—results in accumulation of the gas5 spliced RNA. Classification of gas5 as a 5?TOP gene provides an explanation for why it is a growth arrest specific transcript: while the spliced gas5 RNA is normally associated with ribosomes and rapidly degraded, during arrested cell growth it accumulates in mRNP particles, as has been reported for other 5?TOP messages. Strikingly, inspection of the 5?-end sequences of currently known snoRNA host gene transcripts reveals that they all exhibit features of the 5?TOP gene family. PMID:9819378

  9. Indicators of Familial Alcoholism in Children's Kinetic Family Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Donna H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to delineate indicators in children's depictions of family that suggest the presence of parental alcoholism. Kinetic Family Drawings from two groups of children were collected. Statistical analysis revealed two of six items of the evaluation - depiction of isolation of self and isolation of other family members - were significantly higher…

  10. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  11. America Revealed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-22

    The tagline on the America Revealed website says it all: "America Revealed explores the hidden patterns and rhythms that make America work." A remarkable series from PBS, the show talks about everything from how fresh seafood is sourced to how farmers combat crop pests. The Stories section includes a collage of images that, when scrolled over, provide accounts from a variety of people and industries. First-time visitors might want to watch the "Introduction to Manufacturing" series, which explores items that are made in the United States. Visitors can also use the Map section to look for stories of note from around the country, from Long Island to Southern California. The Teachers area includes ten lesson plans and links to additional resources. Finally, visitors can click on the Episodes area to watch complete episodes of the program.

  12. IGSF9 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-06-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene, whereas vertebrates contain two to four genes. In cnidarians, the gene appears to encode a secreted protein, but transmembrane isoforms of the protein have also evolved, and in many species, alternative splicing facilitates the expression of both transmembrane and secreted isoforms. In most species, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle and mammalian IGSF9 proteins are contradictory. PMID:23417431

  13. Earth Revealed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1992-01-01

    What goes on during an earthquake? Who came up with the theory of plate tectonics? What can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of life on Earth? These are all fine questions, and students and educators with a thirst for geological knowledge will find the answers to these (and many more) questions in the "Earth Revealed" television series. Offered as part of the Annenberg Media website, the 26-part series includes such episodes as "Geologic Time", "Mountain Building", and "The Birth of a Theory". As with many of the Annenberg Media offerings, visitors can view entire episodes here, and they can also take a look at a list of additional resources.

  14. Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: Analysis of linkage to 2p 15-16 places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123 and reveals genetic heterogeneity in seven Canadian families

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.; Young, T.L. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada)); Narod, S.A.; Tonin, P.; Ginsburg, O.; Miller, S. (Montreal General Hospital, Montreal (Canada) Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)); Morasse, J. (Hopital St-Francois d'Assise, Quebec City (Canada)); Cox, J.; Fitzgerald, G.W.N. (Grenfell Regional Health Services, St. Anthony, Newfoundland (Canada)); Jothy, S. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait responsible for approximately 6% of colorectal cancers. Linkage of the HNPCC trait to the D2S123 locus on 2p 15-16 has previously been reported in two families. This HNPCC locus is now designated [open quotes]COCA1[close quotes]. The authors have tested seven Canadian HNPCC families, who have a variety of clinical presentations, for linkage to a panel of microsatellite polymorphisms in the vicinity of D2S123. One family was clearly linked to the COCA1 locus (LOD = 4.21), and a second family is likely to be linked (LOD = 0.92). In three families linkage was excluded. In the remaining two families the data were inconclusive. In the linked family, individuals with cancer of the endometrium or ureter share a common haplotype with 12 family members with colorectal cancer. This supports the suspected association between these extracolonic neoplasms and the HNPCC syndrome. In addition, five of the six individuals with adenomatous polyps (but no colorectal cancer) have the same haplotype as the affected individuals, while the sixth carries a recombination. One individual with colorectal cancer carries a recombination that places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123. This study localizes the COCA1 gene to an 8-cM region that is consistent with the location of the hMSH2 gene. The authors also confirm that families presently classified as HNPCC are genetically heterogeneous. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  16. Georgians Revealed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What was life like during the Georgian era in Britain? During the period between 1714 and 1830, cities and towns were transformed, conspicuous consumption became the pastime of the emerging middle classes, and gardening and shopping for leisure became commonplace. This digital companion to the British Library's "Georgians Revealed" exhibit brings together some of the key books and newspapers from the period, along with details about guided tours through the physical exhibitions, a Georgian London walking tour, and more. For those unable to view the exhibit in person, this companion site provides brief but detailed narratives on interesting facets of the exhibit, including dancing with the Georgians and celebrity culture. The site is rounded out by an excellent timeline of key events from the time of George I (1714-1727) to George IV (1820-1830) accompanied by vivid illustrations and portraiture.

  17. Sibling Ordinal Position and Family Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, James J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Results for the 30 families as seen as "teaching-demonstration" families suggest that Adler's contention that more "first and youngest" children reveal problems and concerns (as defined by their parents) is correct. (Author)

  18. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  19. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  20. Family Therapy, Control, and Controllingness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Heatherington

    1990-01-01

    Family therapies have a reputation for being highly controlling relative to individual therapies. It is argued that this assumption is based on a narrow definition of controllingness and has not been systematically examined. This article explicates four metatheoretical dimensions of therapist controllingness and uses them to compare a range of individual and family therapies. The analysis reveals substantive differences between

  1. Cloning, Functional Identification and Sequence Analysis of Flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase and Flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase cDNAs Reveals Independent Evolution of Flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase in the Asteraceae Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Seitz; Christian Eder; Bettina Deiml; Sandra Kellner; Stefan Martens; Gert Forkmann

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites which function as protectants against UV light and pathogens and are\\u000a involved in the attraction of pollinators as well as seed and fruit dispersers. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of\\u000a flavonoids is determined by the activity of two members of the vast and versatile cytochrome P450 protein (P450) family, the\\u000a flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H)

  2. Family member involvement in hastened death.

    PubMed

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L; Pearlman, Robert A; Koenig, Barbara A; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R; Bharucha, Ashok J

    2007-02-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family care-giving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared for adverse events; "tying up loose ends" included dealing with family members' fear of legal consequences; and "moving ahead" involved a greater risk of complicated grief when families encountered complications during the dying process. These results highlight the positive and negative consequences of family members' participation in a hastened death. PMID:17410692

  3. Genetic analysis of familial spontaneous pneumothorax in an Indian family.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anindita; Paul, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Esita; Kundu, Susmita; Roy, Bidyut

    2015-06-01

    Familial spontaneous pneumothorax is one of the phenotypes of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), an autosomal dominant condition associated with folliculin (FLCN). We investigated clinical and genetic data of an Indian family having two patients suffering from spontaneous pneumothorax in the absence of skin lesions or renal tumors. HRCT scan of patient's lung revealed paracardiac cysts, and DNA sequencing of all 14 exons of FLCN from patients showed the presence of heterozygous "C allele" deletion in the poly-cytosine (poly-C) tract of exon 11 leading to truncated folliculin. This mutation was also observed in four asymptomatic members of the family. Our results confirmed the presence of deletion mutation in poly-C tract of FLCN in members of BHDS family. This is the first report of genetic insight in a BHDS family from India but in-depth studies with a larger sample set are necessary to understand mechanism of familial pneumothorax. PMID:25827758

  4. Family Theory and Family Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

  5. Analysis of deep sequencing microRNA expression profile from human embryonic stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells reveals possible role of let-7 microRNA family in downstream targeting of Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston Koh; Chen Tian Sheng; Betty Tan; Qian Yi Lee; Vladimir Kuznetsov; Lim Sai Kiang; Vivek Tanavde

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent literature has revealed that genetic exchange of microRNA between cells can be essential for cell-cell communication, tissue-specificity and developmental processes. In stem cells, as in other cells, this can be accomplished through microvesicles or exosome mediated transfer. However, molecular profiles and functions of microRNAs within the cells and in their exosomes are poorly studied. Next generation sequencing technologies

  6. FAMILY GEMINIVIRIDAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses geminivirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vi...

  7. FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vira...

  8. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  9. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  10. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  11. Genetic recombination at the human RH locus: A family study of the red-cell Evans phenotype reveals a transfer of exons 2-6 from the RHD to the RHCE gene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Reid, M. [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Inst., New York, NY (United States); Ghosh, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human RH locus appears to consist of two structural genes, D and CE, which map on the short arm p34-36 of chromosome 1 and specify a most complex system of blood-group genetic polymorphisms. Here we describe a family study of the Evans (also known as {open_quotes}D..{open_quotes}) phenotype, a codominant trait associated with both qualitative and quantitative changes in D-antigen expression. A cataract-causing mutation was also inherited in this family and was apparently cotransmitted with Evans, suggesting a chromosomal linkage of these two otherwise unrelated traits. Southern blot analysis and allele-specific PCR showed the linkage of Evans with a SphI RFLP marker and the presence of a hybrid gene in the RH locus. To delineate the pattern of gene expression, the composition and structure of Rh-polypeptide transcripts were characterized by reverse transcriptase-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. This resulted in the identification of a novel Rh transcript expressed only in the Evans-positive erythroid cells. Sequence analysis showed that the transcript maintained a normal open reading frame but occurred as a CE-D-CE composite in which exons 2-6 of the CE gene were replaced by the homologous counterpart of the D gene. This hybrid gene was predicted to encode a CE-D-CE fusion protein whose surface expression correlates with the Evans phenotype. The mode and consequence of such a recombination event suggest the occurrence, in the RH locus, of a segmental DNA transfer via the mechanism of gene conversion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. [Family ideology].

    PubMed

    Kornblit, A

    1982-06-01

    This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

  13. Family History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  14. Families & Friendships

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  15. Family Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Relationships Self-Advocacy Navigating Services Autism Source Legal Resources Treatment Options Biomedical Treatments Nonmedical Interventions Related Approaches Evaluating Options Family Issues Stress Siblings Community Inclusion Autism and Faith Future Planning Government Benefits and ...

  16. Crystal Structures of the Catalytic Domain of a Novel Glycohydrolase Family 23 Chitinase from Ralstonia sp. A-471 Reveals a Unique Arrangement of the Catalytic Residues for Inverting Chitin Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arimori, Takao; Kawamoto, Noriko; Shinya, Shoko; Okazaki, Nobuo; Nakazawa, Masami; Miyatake, Kazutaka; Fukamizo, Tamo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Tamada, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Chitinase C from Ralstonia sp. A-471 (Ra-ChiC) has a catalytic domain sequence similar to goose-type (G-type) lysozymes and, unlike other chitinases, belongs to glycohydrolase (GH) family 23. Using NMR spectroscopy, however, Ra-ChiC was found to interact only with the chitin dimer but not with the peptidoglycan fragment. Here we report the crystal structures of wild-type, E141Q, and E162Q of the catalytic domain of Ra-ChiC with or without chitin oligosaccharides. Ra-ChiC has a substrate-binding site including a tunnel-shaped cavity, which determines the substrate specificity. Mutation analyses based on this structural information indicated that a highly conserved Glu-141 acts as a catalytic acid, and that Asp-226 located at the roof of the tunnel activates a water molecule as a catalytic base. The unique arrangement of the catalytic residues makes a clear contrast to the other GH23 members and also to inverting GH19 chitinases. PMID:23658014

  17. Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Nancy M.; Hildreth, Gladys J.

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of a sample of 100 picture storybooks about family life published 1943-1993 reveals no significant differences in the frequency of appearance of different family types or ethnicities over time. Dominant images remained the nuclear (63%) and Caucasian (67%) family. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  18. Psychopathology and family variables of relatives of children with conduct disorder: A family study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Kay Aebly

    1993-01-01

    There is continued interest in the influence of biological, psychological, and sociological factors on conduct disorder. A review of the literature reveals conduct disorder to be associated with family psychopathology. The current project investigates the association of family variables: psychopathology, especially antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and substance abuse; assaultive behavior, marital discord, family violence, socioeconomic status, and life stress on

  19. The Families of Lesbian and Gay Men: A New Frontier in Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Demo, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A review of 8,000 articles in family research journals revealed that research on lesbian and gay families is limited and that studies that do exist have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. Challenges the neglect of this population in family studies, and discusses theoretical implications. (JPS)

  20. Family Lessons and Funds of Knowledge: College-Going Paths in Mexican American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez

    2011-01-01

    Families are crucial in the development of a college-going culture in the home. This qualitative study illustrates that Mexican American families are no exception. Using a multiple case study design, this study explored the funds of knowledge present in Mexican American families. Findings from this study reveal how daily educational practices,…

  1. Family Relational Values in the Parent-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Smith, Susan E.; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This study measured the relational family values system of upper-middle-class mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the United States. Results revealed that participants shared common family values that mainly reflected the importance of individualism, equality in family relationships, family member interdependence, and parental guidance. Parent…

  2. Families Speak to Early Childhood Teachers: Impressions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Suzanne B.; Dykes, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Investigators interviewed 54 families of children with disabilities ages seven through nine to examine the expectations that families of young children hold for their child's teacher. Responses themes were examined to determine if a pattern existed between families of different groups of children. Results reveal many families expressed true…

  3. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  4. Familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2015-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. It is important to increase awareness of this disorder in physicians and patients to reduce the burden of this disorder. PMID:25939291

  5. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  6. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  7. Revealing a Child's Pathology: Physicians' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scelles, Regine; Aubert-Godard, Anne; Gargiulo, Marcela; Avant, Monique; Gortais, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 12 physicians and 12 care-givers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. We explored physicians' experiences when they revealed a diagnosis. We also tried to understand which family members the physician was thinking of, with whom they identified themselves, and their first choice of the person to whom they prefer to…

  8. Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae: a minireview.

    PubMed

    King, S; Scholz, T

    2001-09-01

    Examination of the original descriptions of genera placed within the family Opisthorchiidae has revealed that only 33 of the original 43 genera are valid members of this family. Further study of these descriptions should also reveal that many of the subfamilies are also invalid. With reference to the original descriptions of these genera, and subsequent literature, a brief survey of the family has been compiled. Information on the spectrum of definitive hosts that these helminths parasitize is provided, as well as information on the life cycles, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic impacts of the family. More in-depth information is given on those species that are of particular medical importance; namely, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus. The final aims of this review are to provide information on the entire genera of the family Opisthorchiidae, which will aid understanding of the phylogenetic relationships not only within the family, but also within the Class Trematoda. PMID:11590910

  9. Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae: a minireview

    PubMed Central

    King, Sandie

    2001-01-01

    Examination of the original descriptions of genera placed within the family Opisthorchiidae has revealed that only 33 of the original 43 genera are valid members of this family. Further study of these descriptions should also reveal that many of the subfamilies are also invalid. With reference to the original descriptions of these genera, and subsequent literature, a brief survey of the family has been compiled. Information on the spectrum of definitive hosts that these helminths parasitize is provided, as well as information on the life cycles, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic impacts of the family. More in-depth information is given on those species that are of particular medical importance; namely, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus. The final aims of this review are to provide information on the entire genera of the family Opisthorchiidae, which will aid understanding of the phylogenetic relationships not only within the family, but also within the Class Trematoda. PMID:11590910

  10. Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime L. Marks; Chun Bun Lam; Susan M. McHale

    2009-01-01

    Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns\\u000a emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers,\\u000a and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed\\u000a three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian

  11. Teaching family therapy theory: Do something different

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Maynard

    1996-01-01

    A literature review revealed few papers discussing the process of teaching family therapy. Described are some alternative teaching methods for a beginning level course. A film about a troubled family stimulated discussion and construction of a series of hypothetical therapy sessions. Course evaluations improved and students were encouraged about applying specific theories to practice. Innovative teaching provides protection against instructor

  12. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  13. The Family Dynamics of Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Birth order effects on intellectual performance show both positive and negative results. Considers the intellectual aspects of siblings' changing environments, explaining that birth order and family size effects depend crucially on the age at which children are tested. Within-family data conceal patterns of aggregate effects that are revealed by…

  14. Female-Headed Families: Trends and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenberg, Esther; Reinhardt, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    Current demographic data reveal that the form of the American family is undergoing dramatic change. One change is the unprecedented rise in the number of female-headed families. Reviews current demographic trends, examines the factors behind these changes and their implications, and proposes areas for further research. (Author)

  15. The Impact of Family Life Events and Changes on the Health of a Chronically Ill Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between family stress and changes in health of a child with cystic fibrosis. Data from parents (N=100) and clinic records revealed that a decline in pulmonary functioning was associated with family life changes, especially in family development and relationships, family management and decisions, and family finances.…

  16. Transforming Training. Families Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    The Families Matter series of papers from the Harvard Family Research Project advances the concept of family-centered child care, advocating an approach to early childhood education that addresses the development of the child and family together. Grounded in family support principles, which build on family strengths and work from a community's…

  17. Family to Family: Reconstructing Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Greenwich, CT.

    Family foster care, the mainstay of public child welfare systems, is in critical need of reform. Following a discussion of the efforts of the Annie E. Casey Foundation to assist communities and agencies in confronting this crisis, this paper describes the Family to Family Initiative, a system founded on the view that family foster care reform must…

  18. Fathering and Acculturation: Immigrant Indian Families with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Anju; Belsky, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Investigates patterns of father involvement and the influence of acculturation in a sample of Indian immigrant families. Results, based on naturalistic observations of 40 families, revealed three types of fathers: engaged, caretaker, and disengaged. Disengaged belonged to the least acculturated families, whereas the most acculturated were the most…

  19. In-Home Family Therapy: Indicators of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorgason, Jeremy B.; McWey, Lenore M.; Felts, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we explore how specific individual, family, and family-within-community characteristics, as well as aspects of in-home family therapy, relate to responses to treatment. The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale scores and Global Assessment of Functioning scores were used as outcome measures. Results revealed significant…

  20. GSDM family genes meet autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2015-07-15

    In the previous issue of Biochemical Journal, Shi et al. [(2015) 468, 325-336] report that Gasdermin (Gsdm) family proteins regulate autophagy activity, which is counter-balanced by the opposite functions of well-conserved N- and C-terminal domains of the proteins. The Gsdm family was originally identified as the causative gene of dominant skin mutations exhibiting alopecia. Each member of the Gsdm gene family shows characteristic expression patterns in the epithelium, which is tissue and differentiation stage-specific. Previous phenotype analyses of mutant mice, biochemical analyses of proteins and genome-wide association studies showed that the Gsdm gene family might be involved in epithelial cell development, apoptosis, inflammation, carcinogenesis and immune-related diseases. To date, however, their molecular function(s) remain unclear. Shi et al. found that mutations in the C-terminal domain of Gsdma3, a member of the Gsdm family, induce autophagy. Further studies revealed that the wild-type N-terminal domain has pro-autophagic activity and that the C-terminal domain conversely inhibits this N-terminal function. These opposite functions of the two domains were also observed in other Gsdm family members. Thus, their study provides a new insight into the function of Gsdm genes in epithelial cell lineage, causality of cancers and immune-related diseases including childhood-onset asthma. PMID:26171832

  1. Shared vision promotes family firm performance

    PubMed Central

    Neff, John E.

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance. PMID:26042075

  2. Nikia Reveal Creative Director

    E-print Network

    ;What is brand? · A name, term, sign, symbol or design intended to identify and differentiate oneBUCKEYE BRAND Nikia Reveal Creative Director Brand and Marketing University Communications reveal.4@osu.edu #12;What does she do, again? · Define and articulate the brand · Protect the brand (by

  3. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Marais, A David

    2004-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), defined as the heritable occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholesterol deposits in tendons and premature heart disease, is caused by at least four genes in sterol and lipoprotein pathways and displays varying gene-dose effects. The genes are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH) adaptor protein. All of these disorders have in common defective clearance of LDL within a complex system of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Normal cellular cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed before describing the disorders, their metabolic derangements and their clinical effects. FH is classified as two simplified phenotypes of disease according to the severity of the metabolic derangement. The dominantly inherited heterozygous phenotype comprises defects in the LDL receptor, apoB100, and neural apoptosis regulatory cleavage protein. The homozygous phenotype is co-dominant in defects of the LDL receptor, and occurs also as the ARH of adapter protein mutations. Defective binding of apoB100 does not result in a significant gene dose effect, but enhances the severity of heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. The genetic diagnosis of FH has provided greater accuracy in definition and detection of disease and exposes information about migration of populations. All of these disorders pose a high risk of atherosclerosis, especially in the homozygous phenotype. Studies of influences on the phenotype and responses to treatment are also discussed in the context of the metabolic derangements. PMID:18516203

  4. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  5. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted suicide as compared to intermediate-knit families or loose-knit families. Moreover, familism increased the odds of being in the tight-knit family vs. the loose-knit family and the odds of being in the tight-knit family vs. the intermediate-knit. Results suggest that familism may protect against suicide behavior among Latinas via its influence on family environment. PMID:21463357

  6. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Kelly E; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), this study examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews where they reported on daily stressors, affect, and physical health symptoms. Results revealed racial similarities in family stressor exposure. Both races were also emotionally reactive to family arguments and family network events (i.e., events that happen to a family member), whereas African Americans were more physically reactive to family arguments. For African Americans, reactivity to family arguments endured; the increased negative affect and physical symptoms associated with family arguments lasted into the next day. Findings provide evidence for racial similarities and differences, suggesting that family relationships are universally stressful, whereas the negative effects of family stressors are more enduring among African Americans. PMID:23543937

  7. Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059

  8. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  9. Boston University Family Medicine

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    Boston University Family Medicine Global Health CollaborativeFamily Medicine As part of the Department of Family Medicine at Boston University, the Collaborative is committed to introducing and improving Family Medicine programs around the world. Family Medicine is a holistic specialty that attends

  10. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  11. Choosing a Family Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who takes care of the whole family. Family doctors create caring relationships with patients and their families. They really get know their patients. They listen to them and help them make the right health care decisions. What do family doctors do? Family doctors take care of the physical, ...

  12. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife. PMID:19946806

  13. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

  14. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

  15. Family Reunion Health Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTH GUIDE 1. Send a Kidney Health Message Hi Family, I came across this information and thought ... mails to family members. Before the Reunion 1. Hi family! Taking care of your kidneys is important. ...

  16. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic disorders in which a person lacks a protein needed ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is caused by a defective gene that is passed down through families. Persons with this ...

  17. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  18. Understanding Fragile Families

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of life for fragile families living in major cities today. The overall aims of Fragile Family are ... 000 couples in 20 of the nation’s largest cities. Of the families that participated in the study, ...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STRESS IN THE VIBRIONACEAE WILLIAM SOTO1

    E-print Network

    Nishiguchi, Michele

    ) (refer to Table 1.). Numerous species are pathogenic and cause disease in aquatic animals and humans , AND MICHELE K. NISHIGUCHI1 1 New Mexico State University, Department of Biology,Box 30001, MSC 3AF, Las Cruces.5-3% NaCl for optimum growth. Additionally, most species are susceptible to the vibriostatic agent 0

  20. Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Horsenettle

    E-print Network

    Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Horsenettle Solanum carolinense L. Life cycle Spreading to erect to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Horsenettle continued Flowers and fruit

  1. Stress on the Job: How Family Literacy Program Directors Perceive Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Chen, Chia-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined stress among family literacy administrators, although studies in other contexts reveal occupational stress can lead to illness, distress, and organizational problems. This article presents findings from a recent study of stress among family literacy program directors in Texas. Findings reveal family literacy program…

  2. Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, B S; Beaty, T H; Steinberg, G D; Childs, B; Walsh, P C

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated familial clustering of prostate cancer. To define the nature of this familial aggregation and to assess whether Mendelian inheritance can explain prostate cancer clustering, proportional hazards and segregation analyses were performed on 691 families ascertained through a single prostate cancer proband. The proportional hazards analyses revealed that two factors, early age at onset of disease in the proband and multiple affected family members, were important determinants of risk of prostate cancer in these families. Furthermore, segregation analyses revealed that this clustering can be best explained by autosomal dominant inheritance of a rare (q = 0.0030) high-risk allele leading to an early onset of prostate cancer. The estimated cumulative risk of prostate cancer for carriers revealed that the allele was highly penetrant: by age 85, 88% of carriers compared to only 5% of noncarriers are projected to be affected with prostate cancer. The best fitting autosomal dominant model further suggested that this inherited form of prostate cancer accounts for a significant proportion of early onset disease but overall is responsible for a small proportion of prostate cancer occurrence (9% by age 85). These data provide evidence that prostate cancer is inherited in Mendelian fashion in a subset of families and provide a foundation for gene mapping studies of heritable prostate cancer. Characterization of genes involved in inherited prostate cancer could provide important insight into the development of this disease in general. PMID:1565627

  3. Families living with chronic illness: beliefs about illness, family, and health care.

    PubMed

    Årestedt, Liselott; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs can be described as the lenses through which we view the world. With emerging illness, beliefs about the illness experience become important for nurses to understand to enhance well-being and healing. The aim of this study was to illuminate illness beliefs of families living with chronic illness. A qualitative design was chosen, including repeated narrative research interviews with seven Swedish families living with chronic illness. Hermeneutic analysis was used to interpret the transcribed family interviews. The result described beliefs in families, both within and across families. Both core beliefs and secondary beliefs about illness, family, and health care were revealed. Illness beliefs have importance for how families respond to and manage situations that arise from their encounters with illness. Nurses have to make space for and listen to families' stories of illness to become aware of what beliefs may support and encourage family well-being and healing. The Illness Beliefs Model provides a touchstone whereby nurses can distinguish both individual and shared beliefs within families living with chronic illness and provide ideas for family intervention if needed. PMID:25794513

  4. Work and Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Career Success, and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 111 entrepreneurs revealed that work characteristics/pressures influence work more than family commitment; parental demands and partner support influence family more than work commitment. Women devote more time to family and men to work. Autonomy enables entrepreneurs to minimize the intrusion of family on work. (SK)

  5. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

  6. Traceability for system families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Streitferdt

    2001-01-01

    System families are an idea of software reuse in a specific problem domain. Existing methods have little requirements engineering support for system family development. This short paper proposes a requirements metamodel for system family development. Traceability throughout model elements is a necessary precondition for preserving the consistency of the complete family model during development and is a main issue in

  7. FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of Family medicine is the medical specialty which provides continuing the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity. (1986) (2003) Quality Healthcare In Family Medicine Quality

  8. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  9. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  10. Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM

    E-print Network

    Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM] FLICKR, MARCO CASTELLANI The Nutshell Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed Researchers identify new mutations in schizophrenia patients without a family history of the disease. By Jef

  11. Familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lung, M S; Trainer, A H; Campbell, I; Lipton, L

    2015-05-01

    Identifying individuals with a genetic predisposition to developing familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the management of the affected individual and their family. In order to do so, the physician requires an understanding of the different gene mutations and clinical manifestations of familial CRC. This review summarises the genetics, clinical manifestations and management of the known familial CRC syndromes, specifically Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated neoplasia, juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. An individual suspected of having a familial CRC with an underlying genetic predisposition should be referred to a familial cancer centre to enable pre-test counselling and appropriate follow up. PMID:25955461

  12. Improving Youth Mental Health through Family-Based Prevention In Family Homeless Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Cynthia J; Acri, Mary C; Goldstein, Leah; Bannon, William; Beharie, Nisha; McKay, Mary M

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examines changes in suicidal ideation among a sample (N = 28) of homeless youth, ages 11-14, residing within family shelters in a large metropolitan area. Changes in suicidal ideation from pretest to posttest are compared across two group approaches to delivering HIV prevention. Youth and their families participating in the HOPE Family Program, incorporating a family strengthening approach, are compared to those receiving a traditional health education-only approach. Multivariate analyses reveal that youth in the HOPE Family Program were 13 times more likely to report a decrease of suicidal ideation. These findings indicate that health education programs integrating a family strengthening approach hold promise for positively impacting mental health outcomes for vulnerable youth. PMID:25157200

  13. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  14. US weapons secrets revealed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

    1993-01-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  15. Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones)

    E-print Network

    Stahlavsky, Frantisek

    Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae (Arachnida. 2004. Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae of prophase I chromosomes in males revealed an achiasmatic mode of meiosis. Findings of the achiasmatic

  16. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers. PMID:11491437

  17. Family assessment: Centripetal and centrifugal family systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Kelsey-smith; W. Robert Beavers M. D

    1981-01-01

    A consideration of interactional style is useful to both researchers and clinicians interested in family assessment. This paper offers data and process evaluation scales designed to determine family interactional style, conceptualized as a continuum ranging from centripetal (CP) to centrifugal (CF), and containing at the midpoint a mixed area in which facets of both the CP and the CF styles

  18. Family Literacy for Family-Oriented People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountainbird, Pauline

    A Massachusetts family literacy project, the Northampton Family Literacy Project, is described, in which adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners enrolled in a community educational center in order to learn English as their children enrolled in a child care program at the local library. Both groups were involved in language activities,…

  19. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  20. Family psychology and family therapy: Comparisons and contrasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Labate

    1992-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between family psychology as a still nonexistent academic discipline and family therapy as a profession and as a method of intervention. Family psychology is interested in the whole functionality-dysfunctionality continuum, while family therapy is mainly concerned with dysfunctionalities. While family psychology focuses reductionistically on the relationship of the individual within the family, family therapy focuses holistically on

  1. Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

  2. Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew W Hahn; Mira V Han; Sang-Gook Han

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and

  3. Dual-Earner Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents eight articles focused on dual-earner families in terms of career choices, family adjustment problems, role conflicts, marital relationships, housework activities, and preschool children's sex role identities. (HLM)

  4. Contacting My Donor Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a ... can take to get started. The process of writing your letter may take some time, but at ...

  5. About Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or sibling) have the diagnosis of an Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia (IIP) and at least one of the family members has the most common form of IIP, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, family members can be second degree ...

  6. [Cervicobrachial neuralgia revealing neurosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Tekaya, R; Hamdi, W; Azzouz, D; Bouaziz, M; Jaafoura, M H; Ladeb, M F; Kchir, M Montacer

    2008-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) or neurofibrosarcoma, previously described as malignant Schwannoma or neurosarcoma, is an extremely rare cause of malignancy localized in the neck. Half of reported cases occurred in patients with neurofibromatosis in Von Recklinghausen disease type I. Typical features include high grade malignancy and a tendency to recurrence and distant metastases. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with neurosarcoma of the neck, which was revealed by a cervicobrachial neuralgia. The physical examination found a mass on the left side of the neck. Plain radiographs showed osteoarthritis. MRI showed a well-defined paravertebral mass. Pathologic diagnosis was neurosarcoma. Radiotherapy was delivered. PMID:18342062

  7. Shipwrecks Reveal Ocean Currents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abandoned ships and other objects lost at sea may ride ocean currents for months or even years before sinking or washing ashore. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, describes how scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute plotted the trajectories of abandoned sailing ships, whose positions were reported by 19th century sea captains. The tracks of these derelict ships reveal oceanic circualtion patterns, particularly the Gulf Stream, which sometimes transported these derelicts from the coast of the Carolinas across the Atlantic to Great Britain, a journey which took about ten months. The segment is three minutes five seconds in length.

  8. Family Involvement Questionnaire: A Multivariate Assessment of Family Participation in Early Childhood Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fantuzzo; Erin Tighe; Stephanie Childs

    2000-01-01

    The study developed and evaluated the Family Involvement Questionnaire (FIQ), a multidimensional scale of family involvement in early childhood education. The FIQ was guided by theory and coconstructed with parents and teachers in preschool, kindergarten, and 1st-grade programs in a large urban school district. Demographic and FIQ data were collected from 641 parents. Factor analyses revealed 3 involvement constructs: school-based

  9. Family Issues for the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabelli, Alan

    This presentation reviews the characteristics of the Canadian family at present. Discussion focuses on divorce, family structure, reproductive technology, fertility, family size, family mobility, family support, government role, women's participation in the labor force, daily family routines, television viewing, work and the family, the need for…

  10. Gender in family therapy supervision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorana S. Nelson

    1991-01-01

    While gender has taken its place as a fundamental construct in family therapy theory, little has been written about gender in family therapy supervision. This paper attempts to redefine gender as it pertains to families, family therapy, and family therapy supervision; call attention to aspects of gender as they apply to training in family therapy and family therapy supervision; and

  11. Restorying family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shlomo Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a multi-systemic model of therapy developed by the author over the past decade and summarizes the main products of this project: Explication of key family systems notions, strategic family play therapy, multi-systemic therapy, and culturally-competent family therapy. The model incorporates beyond the family system, culture, wider ecosystems, psychodynamics, and the individual's neuropsychological, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. The

  12. Family Systems Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Gavazzi

    \\u000a Family systems theory provides users with a holistic framework that centers attention on the interactive and bidirectional\\u000a nature of relationships within families with adolescents. The family systems framework enjoys widespread use in the family\\u000a intervention literature, as well as having been increasingly employed within the child and adolescent developmental literatures.\\u000a In the present chapter, attention is paid to a number

  13. Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice

    E-print Network

    Zuna, Nina

    2005-05-05

    Government Performance and Results Act (1993) APR Program goal: Enhance the development of infants and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and support their families in meeting their special needs 1 Family Indicator: The percentage of families participating... Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...

  14. Graduate School INTERNATIONAL FAMILY

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    to generate, diffuse, and apply knowledge needed to strengthen communities' capacity for family support graduates as (1) scholars in interdisciplinary institutes or academic departments on child and family rights as applied to children and families around the world, the program builds a comparative

  15. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  16. The Family Farm Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

  17. Family Violence: Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ellen R.; And Others

    Problems related to family violence are complex and multi-faceted and involve large numbers of people in this country. A number of types of violence in families are identified initially; however, the manual focuses on the concerns of battered women, or interspousal abuse. Information focuses on: (1) the nature, causes and effects of family

  18. Fatherhood and Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

  19. Families for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoultz, Bonnie, Ed.; Kalyanpur, Maya, Ed.

    This bulletin reflects the commitment of Syracuse University's Center on Human Policy to the idea that children belong with families. The bulletin contains a policy statement which recommends; that all children, regardless of disability, belong with families and need enduring relationships with adults; that families with severely disabled children…

  20. Family Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  1. Families and Fragile Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency is designed to give you and your family some general information about Fragile X syndrome, its causes, its or actors. They are individuals with Fragile X syndrome and their families. Through these images, you'll see

  2. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  3. Explorations in Family Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B.; Kahn, Alfred J.

    1976-01-01

    Despite a national ideology that the formulation of a family policy would represent unacceptable government intervention, recognition is growing that no modern industrial society can avoid policies that affect the family. The real choice is between a deliberate, coherent family policy and one of inconsistency and mischance. (Author)

  4. Employment Characteristics of Families

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

  5. Year of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Agriculture, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

  6. Founding-Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Anderson; David M. Reeb

    2003-01-01

    AbstractWe investigate the relation between founding-family ownership and firm performance. We find that family ownership is both prevalent and substantial; families are present in one-third of the S&P 500 and account for 18 percent of outstanding equity. Contrary to our conjecture, we find family firms perform better than nonfamily firms. Additional analysis reveals that the relation between family holdings and

  7. Children's Use of Retreats in Family Child Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Nanci

    2006-01-01

    The use of retreat spaces by 65 children in 9 family child care homes was assessed in this study. Family child care providers used daily diaries to collect information about children's retreat frequency and associated behavior. The findings revealed that nearly half of the children used informal, readily available retreats during the research…

  8. Family strategies in a post-reform Chinese village

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xiaolei

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is based on my fieldwork conducted in Kong Huayuan Village, a North China village, during the summer of 2000. I will present an empirical case study addressing the changes in family strategies to reveal the evolution of family patterns...

  9. The Good Daughter Dilemma: Latinas Managing Family and School Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    This study documents strategies employed by Latina doctoral graduate students to balance family relationships with the demands of school to maintain their status of a "good daughter". In-depth interviews reveal some women integrate family and school by explaining the demands placed on them to enlist support while others keep their two social…

  10. Results Not Typical: One Latino Family's Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Jimenez Hernandez, Norma V.; Luevanos, Ruth; Jimenez, Dulcemonica; Jimenez, Abel, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this narrative, five adult siblings bring their voices together to tell the stories of their interwoven college experiences--how they influenced, supported, and relied on one another and other family members. As the stories unfold, they reveal the strengths of the familial ties that provide meaning and purpose to the college experience, the…

  11. Marital discord in intact families: Sex differences in child adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Purcell; Nadine J. Kaslow

    1994-01-01

    Sex differences in child adjustment in response to marital discord in intact families are reviewed. The global hypothesis that boys are more adversely affected than are girls is examined. Contrary to this hypothesis, the review reveals that in intact families maladjustment in boys is not always related to concurrent marital discord more than is malad-justment in girls. However, the association

  12. Families Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae: are they distinct?

    PubMed

    Thaenkham, Urusa; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Waikagul, Jitra

    2012-03-01

    Superfamily Opisthorchioidea Looss, 1899 consists of three well-known families, Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae, and Cryptogonimidae, with basic similarities in morphology and life-cycles. Many species in the first two of these families are human pathogens, such as Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, Clonorchis sinensis, Haplorchis spp. and Metagonimus spp. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic study on the classification of Digenea revealed a paraphyletic relationship between Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae. For our study, we gathered and analyzed all available data in GenBank, together with new data of nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of the families within the Opisthorchioidea. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses suggested that families Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae are inseparable from each other, with the former nested within the latter. Groupings in molecular trees are generally consistent with morphological features used in taxonomy. PMID:21740979

  13. Asteroid family ages

    E-print Network

    Spoto, Federica; Knezevic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with $\\sim 384,000$ numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the $45$ dynamical families with $>250$ members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for $37$ collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are pro...

  14. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis: An apparent familial form?

    PubMed

    Ying, Tracey; Hill, Prue; Desmond, Michael; Agar, John; Mallett, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fibrillary glomerulonephritis is a rare cause of glomerulonephritis characterized by non-amyloid fibrillary deposits of unknown aetiology. It is generally considered idiopathic but may be associated with secondary causes such as monoclonal gammopathy, hepatitis B and C infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. We report two Australian families with apparent familial fibrillary glomerulonephritis inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and postulate the existence of a primary familial entity. Family 1 consists of an affected father and daughter; the daughter progressed to end-stage renal failure within 18 months of diagnosis, despite immunosuppressive therapy. The father, however, remains stable at 10 months follow up. Family 2 comprises an affected mother and son; the mother commenced haemodialysis 5 years after diagnosis and subsequently underwent successful renal transplantation. The son is presently stable at last follow-up after 5 years. A further review of the second family history reveals a third family member (maternal father) dying of 'Bright's disease'. We describe their histopathology, clinical progression and treatment outcomes, and provide a review of the current understanding of this heterogeneous condition that is associated with poor renal outcomes. PMID:26063488

  15. When Values and Behaviors Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students' Experiences Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Kimberly; Harper, Kim; Ball, Kellie; Liang, David

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study reveals the discomfort seven immigrant bachelor of social work students reported experiencing when the behaviors expected of them as Canadian social workers conflicted with their fundamental family values. Behaviorally, participants had assimilated to Canadian and to social work cultures; however, the values they held from…

  16. The importance of the family system in family business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona K. Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Most researchers overlook the family system in the pursuit of family business studies and research. They mistakenly have assumed that the study of only the family business is sufficient to understand the influence and effect of the family itself. The importance the family system is documented as well as the evolution of family business as a field of

  17. FA (Fanconi Anemia) Family Newsletter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our mailing list form . View our current newsletter: Spring 2015 - Family Newsletter #57 Past newsletters: Fall 2014 - Family Newsletter #56 Spring 2014 - Family Newsletter #55 Fall 2013 - Family Newsletter # ...

  18. Family Literacy Schools, teachers and

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    1 Family Literacy Schools, teachers and family literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A snapshot of National Family Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A representative community organization . . . 7 Supporting regional cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Family Literacy: Programming that Works

  19. FAMILIES FIRST: Keys to Successful Family Functioning Family Roles

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    develop- ment of children and adults. Examples of this role are a parent helping a child make it through, par- ents are expected to teach, discipline, and provide for their children. And children are expected to cooperate and respect their parents. As family members age, they take on additional roles, such as becoming

  20. The Growth of a Family

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

  1. Family dynamics and family psychotherapy of psychosomatic.

    PubMed

    Wirsching, M; Stierlin, H

    1979-01-01

    Family therapy of psychosomatic disorders is oftern difficult and comparable to the therapy of psychotic patients. Nonetheless, the results published today by authors such as Minuchin and Selvini and our own experiences are promising indeed. We have found that what seemed to be a deep-rooted psychic structure changed rapidly and enduringly if the relationship field changed. Amelioration of symptoms is in many cases easily attained if they are understood in their function within a relational system. Also, we regard the system or family approach as a chance for medical practice. The general practioner who usually deals with family systems has, in our view, an ideal position to bring about change if he uses his authority and trust properly. He has to obtain a positive, not pathology-oriented view and should use family and social resources in spite of engaging in an often fruitless and endless contact with the designated patient, which only serves to maintain and even to increase the homeostatic lock of the family system. PMID:550166

  2. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  3. [Family planning in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M S; Fonseca, J P; Aguinaga, H; Busch, C J; Marlet, J M

    1978-02-01

    In 1970, 41.6% of the Brazilian population was represented by children aged 0-14, and by 21.3% of women in fertile age; the birth rate was 36.9/1000. Without an appropriate national program of family planning, Brazil will have in the year 2000, 218.8 million inhabitants. The need for family planning services in Brazil is evident, even more so since abortion is forbidden, unless for therapeutic reasons. A national family planning program should include a complete range of maternal and child services, and screening for high-risk women; in other words, family planning should be thought of and used as preventive medicine. Family planning is not so much a right as a duty of the couple. The Catholic church, largely prevalent in Brazil, approves of family planning when practiced with the means allowed by the church itself. PMID:12311569

  4. Three cases of kindred with familial breast cancer in which carrier detection by BRCA gene testing was performed on family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Nomizu; Takeshi Sakuma; Mutsuo Yamada; Masami Matsuzaki; Naoto Katagata; Fumiaki Watanabe; Mitsuhiro Nihei; Chikashi Ishioka; Seiichi Takenoshita; Rikiya Abe

    We performed presymptomatic carrier detection by BRCA gene testing of the family members of three familial breast cancer kindred diagnosed with pathogenetic mutation in BRCA genes. All members were over 20 years of age. We explained familial breast cancer and BRCA gene testing, and obtained autonomic consent before gene testing. Genetic testing revealed twins in a family were dizygotic.\\u000a In another

  5. Metabolic Regulation by p53 Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Berkers, Celia R.; Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Cheung, Eric C.; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs. PMID:23954639

  6. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  7. The family and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Reiss, D

    1976-02-01

    The author discusses the role of the family in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests how this research might be integrated with our growing knowledge of the biology of schizophrenia. Abnormalities of family interaction-particularly communication deviances-are frequently associated with schizophrenia and may play a causal, rather than epiphenomenal, role in its pathogenesis. Communication processes in family life affect the child's development of attentional and perceptual capacities, which also have strong biologic roots. The author suggests that the study of normal and abnormal perceptual development might be a meeting ground for researchers in the areas of the biological and familial theories of schizophrenia. PMID:1082721

  8. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  9. Temperature treatments during larval development reveal extensive heritable and plastic variation in gene

    E-print Network

    Wheat, Christopher

    Temperature treatments during larval development reveal extensive heritable and plastic variation heritability of larval development traits and associated variation in gene expression in the Glanville significantly among families sampled from hundreds of local populations, indicating substantial heritable

  10. Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

  11. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  12. Early mother–child separation, parenting, and child well-being in Early Head Start families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Howard; Anne Martin; Lisa J. Berlin; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on theories of attachment and family instability, this study examined associations between early mother–child separation and subsequent maternal parenting behaviors and children's outcomes in a sample of 2080 families who participated in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, the vast majority of whom were poor. Multiple regression models revealed that, controlling for baseline family and maternal characteristics

  13. CHANGING FAMILY LIFE: CASE OF MEN'S ALCOHOLISM IN RURAL SRI LANKA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANOJA WICKRAMASINGHE

    1993-01-01

    Alcoholism is neither accepted nor encouraged by women or by society. Yet, men's alcoholism is increasing, while the family disputes and violence against women associated with it are also observable. However, the negative impacts on family and society are underestimated and unrecognized due to considering alcoholism as an issue in a family domain. Findings of this study, reveal that the

  14. An Intergenerational Analysis of Expectations for Women's Career and Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Karen A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines career and family role expectations and attitudes of female university students and both of their parents. Data from 292 families reveal rather traditional attitudes toward mothering, egalitarian attitudes toward marital roles, and little frustration about future career and family roles. Age, sex, and socioeconomic differences are…

  15. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  16. An intergenerational analysis of expectations for women's career and family roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Schroeder; Linda L. Blood; Diane Maluso

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the career and family role expectations and attitudes of women university students and both of their parents. Data collected from 292 families revealed that most daughters and their parents were traditional in their attitudes toward mothering, held somewhat egalitarian attitudes toward marital roles, and generally expected daughters to experience little frustration regarding future career and family roles.

  17. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  18. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed Central

    Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192

  19. Assessment of Troubled Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Thomas, Katherine H.

    1997-01-01

    Tests the utility of four standardized instruments used in assessing 105 families that sought services in a juvenile corrections setting for their teenage children. Results demonstrate that parents and adolescents can complete standardized assessment instruments and that the information provided can help in understanding distressed families. (RJM)

  20. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  1. Family-Friendly Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…

  2. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  3. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  4. Marinating the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Karen A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

  5. Explaining Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

    A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy" (Marguerite Stevenson…

  6. Golden Matrix Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

  7. Family Support and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  8. [Inclusive Recreation and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyne, Linda A., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies…

  9. Familial Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fallahian

    2003-01-01

    Familial molar pregnancies and gestational trophoblastic disease are exceedingly rare. In this case report, a family including four sisters and their cousin had molar pregnancies. Eldest sister had repeated molar pregnancies. Second sister had early abortion at her first pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy following blighted ovum by intrauterine insemination at her second pregnancy. Third sister had two molar pregnancies

  10. Alcoholism and Family Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Theodore

    Historically, alcoholism has been defined as an individual problem, and as a result, family factors have received little attention. During the past decade, however, a new theoretical-methodological perspective has been introduced which draws upon general systems theory for rationale, family theory for substance, and behavioral psychology for…

  11. Family/Individual Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on personal and family health. The units cover: (1) personal health and wellness (including the decisions and other factors that influence health, principles of personal health, and stress management); (2) family health (including coping…

  12. Ontogeny in the Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Kölliker

    2005-01-01

    When ontogeny takes place in a family, and parents provide essential resources for development, the parents become an environmental component to the development of a wide range of offspring traits. Because differences among parents may partly reflect genetic variation, this environmental component contains genes and may itself evolve. Also, when offspring play an active role in family interactions, offspring become

  13. Adlerian Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the competencies basic to Adlerian therapy--including influencing psychological movement, working with the family communication system, focusing on the real issue, aligning goals and dealing with resistance, stimulating social interest, encouragement, and tentative hypotheses, and antisuggestion. A specific process for helping the family

  14. Democratization of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    Discusses several issues related to a modern approach in the interpretation of civil freedom and its relationship to the notion of family. First, presents some definitions and distinctions regarding the sociology of political freedom, which it suggests should become the sociology of citizenship. Then, applies those ideas to families, particularly…

  15. The Nkosi Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Elda

    This book for beginning readers presents the story of the South African Nkosi family. The seven members of the family share their feelings, likes and dislikes, and hopes and dreams. Readers are encouraged to figure out what the characters like, want, feel, and dream and to share their own likes, desires, feelings, and dreams. The book is written…

  16. Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert P. Moreno, Chair, 315 of Child and Family Studies (CFS) is involved in the scientific investigation of children and families of specialization: (a) Early Child Development, (b) Youth and Family Development, (c) Early Childhood Education (4

  17. Families First: Keys to Successful Family Functioning An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    families promote the emotional, physical and social welfare of individual family members. Among the many unit. Unlike any other social group, families are able to provide the close emotional support needed, physical, and social development of individual family members Healthy families are able to cope

  18. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family

  19. Family Learning Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How do families learn together when they come to a museum? It's a little-explored question, and one that staff members at the USS Constitution Museum in Boston were interested in exploring. In 2004, they started the Family Learning Project with support via a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services to explore this matter, along with looking at effective, low-cost exhibit techniques. The museum studied their own "Sailors Speak" exhibition, in order to answer questions that included: "What kinds of historical text could engage families most effectively?" A basic overview of their mission can be found in the "About" area, and then visitors will want to look over their findings in sections like "10 Steps to Encourage Family Learning" and "Developing Content to Engage Families".

  20. Ten adaptive strategies for family and work balance: advice from successful families.

    PubMed

    Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; Ziemba, S J; Current, L R

    2001-10-01

    Despite negative media images and social dynamics insensitive to the lives of many dual-career couples, research shows that these families are largely healthy and thriving. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies of middle-class, dual-earner couples (N = 47) with children that are successfully managing family and work. Guided by grounded-theory methodology, analysis of interview data revealed that these successful couples structured their lives around 10 major strategies: Valuing family, striving for partnership, deriving meaning from work, maintaining work boundaries, focusing and producing at work, taking pride in dual earning, prioritizing family fun, living simply, making decisions proactively, and valuing time. Each adaptive strategy is defined and illustrated through the participants' own words. Clinical applications for therapists working with dual-earner couples are offered. PMID:11594013

  1. Familial juvenile polyposis coli with APC gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Roh, S A; Yu, C S; Lee, H I; Gong, G

    1997-10-01

    Familial juvenile polyposis has been known to have malignant potential, but their genetic relation to familial adenomatous polyposis has not been proven yet. Two young brothers with intermittent rectal bleeding revealed multiple juvenile polyposis. Their father had a history of rectal cancer with multiple colonic polyps. Four frequent exons of APC gene mutation were tested from these patients' white blood cells by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The 21-yr-old brother had a missense mutation (GAA-->GGA) at codon 1309, whereas the 18-yr-old brother showed a missense mutation (ATA-->GTA) at codon 1304 in exon 15 of APC gene. Three of four first-degree relatives were affected with familial juvenile polyposis, familial juvenile polyposis with adenomatous change, and rectal cancer with multiple polyps. The APC gene mutation of familial juvenile polyposis in this case suggests a genetic relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis. PMID:9382065

  2. Evidence of a third locus for benign familial convulsions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T B; Shevell, M I; Andermann, E; Ryan, S G; Leach, R J

    1996-05-01

    Two autosomal dominant forms of benign idiopathic epilepsy of early life have been described: benign neonatal familial convulsions and benign infantile familial convulsions. Herein we describe a pedigree with familial convulsions in which the age of onset is intermediate between that seen in these two disorders. Two genes responsible for benign neonatal familial convulsions have been mapped to chromosome 20q and to chromosome 8q. Previously, the chromosome 20q benign neonatal familial convulsions locus had been excluded in this pedigree. Further linkage analysis in our laboratory revealed that the chromosome 8 benign neonatal familial convulsions locus also is not responsible for seizures in this pedigree. These results indicate that there are at least three loci responsible for autosomal dominant benign epilepsies of early life. PMID:8734025

  3. Canadian Families (Les Familles Canadiennes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Structural changes that have taken place in Canadian families in recent decades are described in this booklet. Topical sections are as follows: (1) What Counts in Canadian Families (importance of (importance of family); (2) The Family--Variations on a Theme origins, family structure, seniors aged 60 and over, how lives are spent, religion); (3)…

  4. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family

  5. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePLUS

    Listen to this page Does Addiction Run in Families? Addiction can run in families. If people in your family have addictions, you are more likely to become ... En español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history ...

  6. Lights, Camera--Families--Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Doreen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the family night concert as a way to involve family members in music education, where they can participate in the orchestra or as part of a family act. Describes how to create the family concert. Includes a sample invitation and a program to a family night performance. (CMK)

  7. Family Oriented Geographic Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen Ann Lalk

    This paper describes a program of geographic education through field experience trips for family groups. Developed at Delta College in Michigan, the approach is unique because it emphasizes learning experiences for families rather than for individual students. The family is interpreted to include nuclear families, single-parent families with…

  8. [The family and schizophrenia. An interactional study].

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, M C

    1982-02-25

    The analysis of family discussions in which father, mother and schizophrenic son participated revealed marked differences in the interactional styles of both parents. Whereas the fathers of the schizophrenic patients behaved much like fathers of sons with an acute surgical disease, The mothers did show varying emotional reactions, communicational deviances, and changes in role behavior. These results are interpreted in the context of different sex-role related patterns of burden and coping styles. PMID:7084878

  9. Observed and Perceived Dyadic and Systemic Functioning in Families of Preadolescents With Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rachael Millstein Coakley; Jennifer S. Hommeyer; Wendy E. Shapera; Venette C. Westhoven

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine dyadic and systemic family functioning across several domains (conflict, cohesion, and stress) in families of preadolescents with spina bifida in comparison to families of able-bodied preado- lescents (8- and 9-year olds; n 68 in each sample). Methods: Mother-, father-, and child-reported questionnaire data and observational ratings of family behav- ior were employed. Results: Findings revealed significant group

  10. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  11. Childhood cancer: differential effects on the family members.

    PubMed

    Cornman, B J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe individual, dyadic, and family responses to childhood cancer and related current-life stresses, self-esteem issues, marital satisfaction, and perceptions of family environments. A descriptive, correlational design was used with 20 families who had at least one well child and one child with cancer. Parents and children were asked to create drawings using a projective drawing technique called Kinetic Family Drawings (KFDs), then these drawings were compared with norms on the following quantitative measures: Schedule of Recent Experiences, Life Events Scale for Adolescents and Life Events Scale for Children, Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Results supported a need to evaluate each family member's individual responses to childhood cancer, given the importance of the family as a social environment for children. Results revealed an informative and, at times, varied profile across instruments and family members in the areas of adjustment, life stresses, self-esteem, marital satisfaction, and views of the family environment. For example, mothers reported significantly lower self-esteem than fathers. Yet, with the KFD, no significant differences on scores were found between family members. PMID:8278281

  12. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Create a Family Health History? In This Topic Why Create a Family Health History? Family History ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Talking With Your Doctor The information in this ...

  13. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  14. ABC Foundation Adler Family Foundation

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    of Allentown Baer-Kaelin Foundation Dexter F. and Dorothy H. Baker Foundation The David M. and Barbara Baldwin. Keller Family Foundation Robert P. Kelly Family Foundation Letha J. Kemper Family Trust Philip I. Kent

  15. Families and Fragile X Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Scientific Research Planning Scientific Resources Research Families & Fragile X Syndrome: Index Skip sharing on social media links Share ... Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency, the NICHD family ...

  16. Family Health and Medical Record.

    E-print Network

    Shirer, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    ,,, "' Family member Date Type of injury Doctor r {\\ ............. Family member Cause of sensitivity/allergic reaction Office/clinic/ hospital ,--.... Instructions/ medication 13 I 14 15 Medical and oEJntal Checkups I Family member Date Type...

  17. Strengthening Our Military Families

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PSD-9. With the involvement of the National Economic Council, Office of the First Lady, and the ... goal of the program is to mitigate the economic hardship of deployed members and their families. The ...

  18. Media Time Family Pledge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Media Time Family Pledge Article Body At the beginning and end ... them. Kids learn best with small lessons over time as opposed to one big lecture or sit- ...

  19. Helping Friends and Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... counselor specializing in treating families dealing with a chronic illness. Notify school social workers and teachers about your ... professional who has experience working with people facing chronic disease can help one or both of you deal ...

  20. Veterans and their families 

    E-print Network

    McKie, Linda; Morrison, Zoe; Thomson, Fionagh; Alstead, Allan

    This briefing paper reports on the outcomes of a range of activities undertaken with a number of veterans, veterans’ families, and third and public sector organisations located in Scotland. Our aim was to explore the resettlement experiences...

  1. Families with Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  2. My Fact Family

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Gehron

    2012-08-15

    Students will use cut out people shapes and number cards to create two addition problems and two subtraction problems using the same three numbers of a fact family to explore the commutative property.

  3. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You might go shopping as a family, visit museums and zoos, do chores that everyone participates in, go on hikes or bike rides, or attend religious services. On weekends children in the middle years can usually be allowed ...

  4. Familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

  5. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  6. [Orem's family evaluation].

    PubMed

    Dumas, L; de Montigny, F

    1993-11-01

    Nurses are beginning to realize that clients' deficits influence family members and, conversely, that family members play an important role in the development and resolution of these deficits. The authors attempted to find published literature describing a family nursing evaluation based upon Orem's conceptual framework. Previous nursing research has described how Orem's model is applied to nursing interventions with individual clients, but none has addressed the application of nursing interventions to multiperson units within a family situation. The authors developed their own concept from their personal and family experiences and a theoretical background of Orem's model. They chose to integrate systemic and communication theory, and developmental and functional approaches with Orem's concept of nursing care of multiperson units. According to the authors, this approach is consistent with Orem's model and represents a holistic vision of the family. Orem emphasizes that the nurse intervening with multiperson units should understand the structure and function of groups and be able to identify the actual ongoing process. Although Orem's theoretical framework is not based upon a systemic approach, the authors believe that it is possible to blend the systemic theory concepts with Orem's model. This article reviews the three basic concepts found within Orem's conceptual framework: self-care; self-care deficit, and nursing systems. The authors also outline their theoretical assumptions for the use of this approach with family nursing interventions, based upon six functional dimensions of the family as described by Epstein et al. and Guttman. In addition, the article provides a concrete example of how nursing evaluation can be structured within this scheme of reference. PMID:8261376

  7. [Systemic family therapy].

    PubMed

    Desmarouet, Jean; Goldziuk, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Systemic family therapy traces its roots to several disciplines and invites us to change our focus on the world. In the framework of therapy, it is based on a particular approach which aims not only to help the patient who is suffering, but also to support the other members of the family in order to find a new balance and a more flexible way of functioning. PMID:25095585

  8. Poaceae (Grass family) Rhizomatous perennial.

    E-print Network

    Poaceae (Grass family) Life cycle Rhizomatous perennial. Leaves Bright green leaves are hairless. Patch of Johnsongrass. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Poaceae (Grass family) Johnsongrass

  9. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  10. Spatiotemporal Model of Family Engagement: A Qualitative Study of Family-Driven Perspectives on Family Engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudette V Fette; Cynthia R Glimpse; Staci Lee Rodarmel; Aurelia Carter; Patti Derr; Helene Fallon; Kim Miller

    2009-01-01

    The Family-School-Community Partnerships Practice Group of the National Community of Practice on Collaborative School Behavioral Health conducted a survey of 30 families across the United States in an effort to develop a family-driven definition of family engagement. Literature on family engagement is reviewed, qualitative methods using a grounded theory approach are described and a model of family engagement is presented.

  11. Evolution of a multigene family of chorion proteins in silkmoths.

    PubMed

    Rodakis, G C; Moschonas, N K; Kafatos, F C

    1982-05-01

    The evolution of the A family of chorion genes was examined by comparing new protein and DNA sequences from the silkmoths Antheraea pernyi and Bombyx mori with previously known sequences from Antheraea polyphemus. The comparisons indicated that the A family and its major subfamilies are ancient and revealed how parts of the genes corresponding to distinct regions of the protein structure have evolved, both by base substitutions and by segmental reduplications and deletions. PMID:7110139

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with familial polyposis of the colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujio Zeze; Keiichi Ohsato; Hiromichi Mitani; Ryusuke Ohkuma; Osamu Koide

    1983-01-01

    A case is reported of a 33-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with familial polyposis of the colon. During\\u000a subtotal colectomy for diffuse colonic polyposis, a small tumor was excised from the right lobe of the liver. Histologic examination\\u000a revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. The association of primary hepatoma in familial polyposis of the colon is very rare. However,\\u000a it is well

  13. Evolution of the Rice Xa21 Disease Resistance Gene Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Yuan Song; Guo-Liang Wang; Pamela C. R

    1997-01-01

    The rice disease resistance gene Xa21, encoding a receptor-like kinase, is a member of a multigene family. Sequence analysis of seven family members revealed two distinkt classes of genes. One member from each class encodes a receptor kinase-like open reading frame. The other five members encode truncated open reading frames of the pre- dicted receptor kinase. A highly conserved 233-bp

  14. Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2011-01-01

    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family

  15. The centrality of values in families and family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Trotzer

    1981-01-01

    Values are discussed in terms of development, nature, and implications for family therapy. Clinical examples are used to demonstrate concepts and a model is presented which depicts how the various leverages utilized in family therapy relate to family values. Individual development, cultural heritage (legacy), the nuclear family system, and the contemporary context are described as factors which interact to form

  16. Selfobject functions of the family: Implications for family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ungar; Judith E. Levene

    1994-01-01

    The application of Self-Psychology theory to family functioning adds to our models of understanding and intervention in family therapy. This article develops a theory of the family as a supraordinate selfobject and explores diverse clinical applications of the theory. The family as a selfobject matrix enhances the self development of the child by the provision of continuity through the maintenance

  17. Children in Maritally Violent Families: A Look at Family Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullette, Lyn Cobin

    1987-01-01

    Maritally violent families are examined. Two types of violent families are described. Type I families use violence to establish a hierarchy and maintain control over members. In type II families, violence is used to express anger or to react to stress. Both types may cause behavioral problems in the children. (VM)

  18. Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Ambika Krishnakumar, Chair, 315 Irene Kehres, Director of Undergraduate Studies, 315-443-9634 The Department of Child and Family Studies healthy family and child development. Students are involved in learning both in class and field

  19. Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert P. Moreno, Chair, 315-443-1715 The Department of Child and Family Studies (CFS) is involved in the scientific investigation of children of four tracks of specialization: (a) Early Child Development, (b) Youth and Family Development, (c) Early

  20. Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert P. Moreno, Chair, 315 UNDERGRADUATE Robert P. Moreno, Undergraduate Program Director, 315-443-1715 The Department of Child and Family.S. degree program pursue interests in one of four tracks of specialization: (a) Early Child Development, (b

  1. Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert Moreno, Chair, 315 Carter, Undergraduate Program Director, 315-443-1715 The Department of Child and Family Studies (CFS family and child development. Students are involved in learning both in class and field experiences so

  2. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  3. Family Systems Consultation: Opportunities for Teaching in Family Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan H. McDaniel; Thomas Campbell; Lyman C. Wynne; Timothy Weber

    1988-01-01

    Family-systems consultation offers opportunities to teach residents basic concepts and relevant skills for working with families in family medicine. The application of systems theory to the consultation process helps clarify the role of the consultant-teacher in relation to the patient or family and the consultee-practitioner. Residents are able to gain experience interviewing and assessing families from their own practices with

  4. Attitudes toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Gille, H

    1984-06-01

    Many of the 135 countries participating in the 1974 UN World Population Conference were far from accepting the basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so. Considerable progress has been made since then, and the number of developing countries that provide direct government support for family planning has increased to over 60%. Many have liberalized laws and regulations which restricted access to modern contraceptive methods, and a growing number provide family planning services within their health care programs. A few have recognized the practice of family planning as a constitutional right. In late 1983 at the Second African Population Conference, recognition of family as a human right was strongly contested by several governments, particularly those of West Africa. in developed countries most of the women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are using contraceptives. Of the major developing regions the highest use level is in Latin America, wherein most countries 1/3 to 1/2 of married women are users. Levels in Asian countries range from up to 10% in Afghanistan, Nepal, and Pakistan to up to 40% in the southeastern countries. China, a special case, now probably exceeds an overall use level of 2/3 of married women. Contraceptive use is lowest in Africa. There is room for improvement even among many of the successful family planning programs, as access to contraceptives usually is not sufficient to overcome limiting factors. To ensure the individual's free choice and strengthen the acceptability and practice of family planning, all available methods should be provided in service programs and inluded in information and education activities. Family planning programs should engage local community groups, including voluntary organizations, in all aspects of planning, management, and allocation of resources. At the government level a clear political commitment to family planning and population policies is essential as is administrative support. All government agencies concerned with socioeconomic benefit to the family and the community need to be involved in the coordinated planning and implementation. PMID:12339637

  5. The Economy, Families and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The recession has impacted American families and the schools their children attend like nothing in recent memory. Many families continue to struggle with the impact of joblessness. The number of homeless children and youth is staggering. Families struggle with access to health care, growing hunger and greater instability in the family unit.…

  6. Stable Black Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    This document is the final report of a study conducted to determine what factors contribute to strong Black family life and how these strong families solve problems, in order to add to the knowledge base on stable families so as to enhance practical intervention with families in need, and to identify models of self-help strategies used by stable…

  7. BOUNDING FAMILIES OF RULED SURFACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCISCO JAVIER GALLEGO; LUIS GIRALDO; IGNACIO SOLS

    In this paper we provide a sharp bound for the dimension of a family of ruled surfaces of degree d in P3 K. We also nd the families with maximal dimension: the family of ruled surfaces containing two unisecant skew lines, when d 9 and the family of rational ruled surfaces, when d 9. The rst tool we use is

  8. The Power of Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

    This report presents the early findings from the analysis of a family literacy demonstration project under the direction of the National Center for Family Literacy. The data in this report are based upon the experiences of over 300 families who participated in the Toyota Families for Learning Program during the 1992-1993 school year. The first…

  9. The Crises in Family Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Gross

    1992-01-01

    This article critically examines the theoretical base of family therapy. It is argued that family therapy lacks a unified theoretical base. The “theories” underlying family therapy are seen as practical guidelines rather than comprehensive models of family functioning, hence, there is not a close link between theory and practice in this field. Furthermore, those theories do not specify the processes

  10. Family Health and Medical Record. 

    E-print Network

    Shirer, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    .................................... . ............................... 12 Accidental Injury Record ........... . ..... .... .......... .... . . .. . .. . ... . ..................... 13 Allergy/Sensitivity Record ................................................. .. ................ 14 Medical and Dental Checkups... about your family's health, a system of record keeping is helpful, if not necf 'ry. This Family Health and Medical Record booklet pre es a way for you to ~ 3p track of heaiL .. . nforn.ation about your family. If families used only one doctor and one...

  11. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR FAMILY PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Kissman; Kathleen Tunney

    2001-01-01

    This paper highlights the content of a course designed to prepare students for family practice, with emphasis on mothers as primary caregivers. A model is presented of relatively healthy family interactions characterized by co-parenting and equitable division of labor in the home. The strengths perspective is applied to family prac- tice with mother-headed families where noncustodial fathers share responsibilities for

  12. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret M. Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research design was developed to explore a simple question: Is “family engagement” simply a new phrase or is it a synonym for “family involvement?” This study explored to what degree school leaders gained an understanding of family engagement; more importantly, to what degree did the administrators and teachers implement” family engagement” by the end of the first year?

  13. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  14. Family health in chronic illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Lisa Newsome Wicks

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence family health in families coping with a member diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The relationships between family health and four dependent variables (time since diagnosis, perception of symptom severity, concurrent family stressors, and caregiver burden) were tested. The study model incorporated concepts derived from King's conceptual framework

  15. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  16. Eating disturbances, diabetes and the family: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, S I; Rodin, G M; Olmsted, M P; Daneman, D

    1998-01-01

    This study of 113 adolescent females with IDDM and their mothers investigated whether: (1) interaction patterns are more dysfunctional in families of girls with eating disturbances than in those without; and (2) the relationship between family functioning and metabolic control is mediated by an eating disturbance. Based on self-reported eating attitudes and behaviors, subjects were categorized as Nondisturbed (N = 56), Mildly Disturbed (N = 37), and Highly Disturbed (N = 20). Mothers and daughters rated overall family functioning (FES), and daughters rated parental relationships (IPPA, MFP). Metabolic control was assessed using HbA1c levels. MANCOVA illustrated that eating disturbances are associated with the perception of poor communication with mothers and fathers, a lack of trust in their accessibility and responsiveness, and overall family environments perceived to be conflictual and inadequate in support and structure. Regression analyses revealed that the presence and severity of an eating disturbance mediates the influence of family functioning on metabolic control. PMID:9587890

  17. Coping as a caregiver for an elderly family member.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Jordan M; Womble, Frances E

    2015-07-01

    With nearly 30% of the adult U.S. population acting as caregivers for sick, disabled, or elderly family members, it is imperative that caregivers become better equipped to cope with this challenging role. Although caregiving is regarded as an arduous endeavor, caring for an older family member may actually produce positive experiences. This study examines how caregivers use communication as a tool to cope with caring for an older family member. Over a span of 15 months, more than 150 caregiver stories were gathered from AgingCare.com, analyzed thematically, and categorized. The results show that stories utilize emotion-based techniques, including humor (20%), positive framing (16%), and acceptance (11%), to reveal that lasting, meaningful bonds can develop between caregivers and caregivers' relatives. These techniques allow caregivers to redefine their familial role and to find comfort in disheartening situations. Thus, coping is a truly communicative event since emotions can facilitate behaviors directed at ailing family members. PMID:25062386

  18. Preventive Medicine and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Christie-Seely, Janet

    1981-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the links between the family system and illness, emphasizing the importance of prevention on a family level for physical as well as psychological illness. Brief preventive counselling on routine visits is possible if the physician knows the family well and understands the principles of the family as a system. Periods of high risk when illness and family dysfunction increase in incidence are the normal “crises” of the family life cycle, medical crises of illness, hospitalization and death, and non-medical crises. High-risk families should be identified; secondary prevention is an important role for the family physician who sees family problems at a much earlier stage than the psychiatrist or marital or family therapist. PMID:21289689

  19. The Expansion of the PRAME Gene Family in Eutheria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Yang, Yang; Yasue, Hiroshi; Bharti, Arvind K.; Retzel, Ernest F.; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The PRAME gene family belongs to the group of cancer/testis genes whose expression is restricted primarily to the testis and a variety of cancers. The expansion of this gene family as a result of gene duplication has been observed in primates and rodents. We analyzed the PRAME gene family in Eutheria and discovered a novel Y-linked PRAME gene family in bovine, PRAMEY, which underwent amplification after a lineage-specific, autosome-to-Y transposition. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two major evolutionary clades. Clade I containing the amplified PRAMEYs and the unamplified autosomal homologs in cattle and other eutherians is under stronger functional constraints; whereas, Clade II containing the amplified autosomal PRAMEs is under positive selection. Deep-sequencing analysis indicated that eight of the identified 16 PRAMEY loci are active transcriptionally. Compared to the bovine autosomal PRAME that is expressed predominantly in testis, the PRAMEY gene family is expressed exclusively in testis and is up-regulated during testicular maturation. Furthermore, the sense RNA of PRAMEY is expressed specifically whereas the antisense RNA is expressed predominantly in spermatids. This study revealed that the expansion of the PRAME family occurred in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in a lineage-dependent manner. Differential selection forces have shaped the evolution and function of the PRAME family. The positive selection observed on the autosomal PRAMEs (Clade II) may result in their functional diversification in immunity and reproduction. Conversely, selective constraints have operated on the expanded PRAMEYs to preserve their essential function in spermatogenesis. PMID:21347312

  20. IRAS asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Williams, J. G.; Tedesco, E. F.; Matson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sampled the entire asteroid population at wavelengths from 12 to 100 microns during its 1983 all sky survey. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) includes updated results for more recently numbered as well as other additional asteroids with reliable orbital elements. Albedos and diameters were derived from the observed thermal emission and assumed absolute visual magnitudes and then entered into the IMPS database at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for members of the Themis, Eos, Koronis and Maria asteroid families and compared with their visual colors. The IMPS results for the small (down to about 20 km) asteroids within these major families confirm trends previously noted for their larger members. Each of these dynamical families which are defined by their similar proper elements appears to have homogeneous physical properties.

  1. Emotional Problems — A Family Affair

    PubMed Central

    Weston, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is important for the family physician to be able to utilize family treatment concepts to help him understand the families in his care. He should recognize how family dysfunction contributes to the problems of his individual patients. He should be able to help these families recognize and deal with many of their problems and should be aware of his own limitations and when consultation is indicated. PMID:20468782

  2. Familial partial epilepsy with variable foci: a new family with suggestion of linkage to chromosome 22q12.

    PubMed

    Morales-Corraliza, José; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Sanz, Raúl; Díaz-Otero, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Delicado, Eva; Serratosa, José M

    2010-09-01

    Familial partial epilepsy with variable foci (FPEVF) is an autosomal dominant form of partial epilepsy characterized by the presence of epileptic seizures originating from different cerebral lobes in different members of the same family. Linkage to chromosomes 22q12 and 2q36 has been reported, although only six families have been published. We studied a new FPEVF family including nine affected individuals. The phenotype in this family was similar to that previously described and consisted of nocturnal and daytime seizures with semiology suggesting a frontal lobe origin. A video-EEG (electroencephalography) recording of the proband's seizures is presented and revealed hyperkinetic seizures of frontal lobe origin preceded by left frontal spikes. We excluded linkage to chromosome 2q36 and found a suggestion of linkage to chromosome 22q12 with a lod score of 2.64 (h = 0) for marker D22S689. PMID:20659149

  3. 1.OA Fact Families

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Fact Family work sheets * Blank addition and subtraction frames (2 of each) * Numbers cards in fact-family sets Actions As a whole class, t...

  4. Familial Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar

    2010-06-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

  5. Familial pancreatic lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    James, J A; Milligan, D W; Morgan, G J; Crocker, J

    1998-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is not commonly a familial condition. This is believed to be the first two cases of primary pancreatic lymphoma within a single family. The two cases, a brother and sister, both presented in their 60s and were diagnosed histologically as having high grade B cell lymphoma affecting the pancreas, an uncommon primary site. Both responded well to treatment with chemotherapy and were in remission at the time of writing. On further investigation it was found that their mother also presented with a malignant lymphoma of cervical nodes 30 years earlier and subsequently died of the disease. Images PMID:9577380

  6. Three thousand families: English Canada's colonizing vision and British family settlement, 1919-39.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    After the First World War, Canada's immigration policy became more restrictive and immigration more controlled. For English Canadians, immigration of the "right type" of people—those from the British Isles—remained vital to strengthening the nation. This article examines the 3,000 Family Scheme, a joint British-Canadian settlement project in which British families, comprised of over 18,000 individuals, were relocated to homesteads as colonizers of Canada's remote areas. There, many endured isolation and hardship, and were largely blamed for their own plight. A nation-building project that failed, the 3,000 Family Scheme reveals the connections among several enduring national myths in the interwar years: the potential for agricultural expansion, British superiority, and the capabilities of a maturing Canadian state to control the settlement process. PMID:22413177

  7. Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, U.; Mors, O.; Ewald, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

    1996-02-16

    Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This gives rise to the suspicion that sex chromosome aneuploidy may somehow be related to the development of psychosis. But since the data set is small, especially with respect to schizophrenia, further studies are needed to elucidate this observation. In one family, cosegregation of the disease locus with a marker on chromosome 21 was seen. Therefore, further research should determine if chromosome 21 contains a gene for manic depressive illness. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Family Patterns Associated with Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Darryl N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used family systems perspective to explore familial transactional patterns related to anorexia nervosa among 22 families with an anorexic child and 22 matched control families. Identified 7 family groups with unique family dynamics differentiating one from another. With no single family pattern characterizing families of anorexics, results…

  9. Family psychopathology: Cross training graduate marital and family therapy students in family assessment and psychiatric nosology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Melton Strozier; Mary Anne Armour

    1993-01-01

    The structure of a course entitled Family Therapy with Major Psychopathology taught annually in the Mercer University Graduate Marriage and Family Therapy Program is presented. An epistemological presentation regarding the interface of psychiatric nosology and family systems assessment is discussed. Methods of diagnosing and assessing dysfunctional family systems are presented and training in individual psychiatric nosology is discussed, with particular

  10. Family Support Builds Stronger Families: The Roots of Family-Supportive Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiderman, Ethel

    2009-01-01

    Parent Services Project (PSP) is one model of family support that emerged from the heightened awareness of families' needs. Founded in 1980 to integrate family support into four San Francisco Bay Area early childhood programs, PSP since has spread to more than 800 organizations serving 30,000 families in Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida,…

  11. Family management after the sudden death of a family member.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Debra L

    2012-02-01

    Although more is known about how individuals within families make decisions and manage more discrete issues when a family member is dying, less is known about how families as a unit manage after the sudden death of a family member. The article discusses an investigation that was conducted to better understand how families respond to the life-threatening illness or injury and eventual death of a family member. The purpose of the study was to define Family Management Styles (FMSs) and determine distinctive characteristics of each FMS used by families after the death of a family member who had life-sustaining therapy withdrawn as a result of an unexpected, life-threatening illness or injury. Interviews are conducted with 8 families (22 family members) 1 to 2 years after the death of their family members. A modified typology of FMSs based on a directed analysis that was then inductively modified includes: progressing, accommodating, maintaining, struggling, and floundering. Understanding FMSs and how FMSs may change over time, reflecting the changing focus of family work, will further aid in the development of family-focused interventions as well as develop FMSs within the context of end of life. PMID:22223496

  12. Psychological sequelae of combat violence: A review of the impact of PTSD on the veteran's family and possible interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Galovski; Judith A Lyons

    2004-01-01

    This review of the literature reveals that veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to combat violence affects veterans' familial relationships and the psychological adjustment of family members. Previous study within other trauma populations has conceptualized the negative impact of an individual's traumatic stress on his\\/her family members as “secondary traumatization.” This review examines the processes by which secondary traumatization

  13. Hereditary Desmoid Disease in a Family with a Germline Alu I Repeat Mutation of the APC Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. Halling; Carlo R. Lazzaro; Ronald Honchel; José A. Bufill; Steven M. Powell; Carola A. S. Arndt; Noralane M. Lindor

    1999-01-01

    Two families with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors have recently been shown to have germline mutations at the 3? end of the APC gene. We subsequently identified an Amish family with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors. Genetic analysis performed on one family member, a 47-year-old man with multiple desmoid tumors and no colon polyps, revealed a protein truncating mutation in

  14. Family medicine curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Douglas; Schipper, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED The Family Medicine Residency Program at the University of Alberta has used academic sessions and clinical-based teaching to prepare residents for private practice. Before the new curriculum, academic sessions were large group lectures given by specialists. These sessions lacked consistent quality, structured topics, and organization. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The program was designed to improve the quality and consistency of academic sessions by creating a new curriculum. The goals for the new curriculum included improved organizational structure, improved satisfaction from the participants, improved resident knowledge and confidence in key areas of family medicine, and improved performance on licensing examinations. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The new curriculum is faculty guided but resident organized. Twenty-three core topics in family medicine are covered during a 2-year rotating curriculum. Several small group activities, including problem-based learning modules, journal club, and examination preparation sessions, complement larger didactic sessions. A multiple-source evaluation process is an essential component of this new program. CONCLUSION The new academic curriculum for family medicine residents is based on a variety of learning styles and is consistent with the principles of adult learning theory. This structured curriculum provides a good basis for further development. Other programs across the country might want to incorporate these ideas into their current programming. PMID:18272637

  15. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  16. Family & Consumer Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Kay Murray; Knoxville Susan Rogers; R. D. San; Kay M. Wilder; Evans Hall

    PurposesTo instill a knowledge of the role and significance of social, economic, and political influences on human life; • To provide students with the understanding of the development of personal and interpersonal skills for successful personal, professional, and family life; multicultural relations; integrity, and high moral values; • To educate students in the comprehension of physical, emotional and social development

  17. UNH Veterans & Family weekend

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    1st annual UNH Veterans & Family weekend Golf Tournament Friday, October 24, 2014 We're proud to announce the 1st annual UNH Veterans Golf Tournament. The University of New Hampshire Student Armed Forces Association (SAFA) is pleased to announce their first annual Veteran Charity Golf Tournament! New Hampshire

  18. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bourbon; A. C. Alves; A. M. Medeiros; S. Silva; A. K. Soutar

    2008-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised clinically by an increased level of circulating LDL cholesterol that leads to lipid accumulation in tendons and arteries, premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although Portugal should have about 20,000 cases, this disease is severely under-diagnosed in our country, this being the first presentation of Portuguese data on FH. A total

  19. All in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Even as a little girl, Dr. Nitasha Sharma aspired to become a college professor like her parents, whose careers let the family spend entire summers or longer in either her mother's native Brooklyn, New York, or her father's native India. She dreamed of long vacations as a grown-up and going home for lunch on weekdays. But during a stay in India…

  20. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  1. Supporting Family Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Umbarger, Gardner T.; Rade, Karin C.; Aldridge, Kathryn; Niemeyer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic/rehabilitative, and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message…

  2. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  3. MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...

  4. Order: Coleoptera Family: Chrysomelidae

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Order: Coleoptera Family: Chrysomelidae Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) Size: Adults numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals

  5. New Student & Family Programs

    E-print Network

    Staum, Jeremy

    Student & Family Programs (NSFP) Andrea Farnan, Grad Intern, NSFPDaniel MacKenzie, Assistant Director #12; Pay Tuition and Fees ­ Due September 1st Complete loan and financial aid to-do list in CAESAR (Ship to School Vendor) to arrive to NU no later than Sept. 10th · Boxes through that process

  6. Family First Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The typical superintendent these days is male (though the percentage of female superintendents is steadily rising, now accounting for one in four, according to AASA's 2010 decennial study of the superintendency), in his 40s and almost always married with children. When educators become superintendents, the issues of family dynamics and related…

  7. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  8. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  9. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  10. The identification of family subtype based on the assessment of subclinical levels of psychosis in relatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. Previous studies have distinguished between familial and sporadic forms of schizophrenia and have suggested clinical differentiation between patients and relatives from sporadic and multiplex families. We will introduce a more refined method to distinguish between family subtypes based on psychosis dimension profiles in the relatives of schizophrenia patients. Methods Positive, negative, disorganization, mania, and depression scores were assessed in 1,392 relatives. Mixed Model Latent Class Analysis was used to identify family subtypes. A family subtype is a relatively homogeneous group of families with similar symptom profiles in the relatives in these families. Next, we investigated in 616 schizophrenia patients whether family subtype was associated with symptom profiles, IQ, cannabis dependence/abuse, or age of onset of psychosis. Results Based on the data of relatives, we identified two different family types: “healthy” and “at risk for psychiatric disorder”. Patients from at risk families obtained higher positive scores compared to patients from healthy families (Wald(1)?=?6.6293, p?=?0.010). No significant differences were found in any of the remaining variables. Conclusions Our findings confirm the existence of high-risk families and although we did not establish an etiological basis for the distinction between family types, genetic studies might reveal whether family subtype is associated with genetic heterogeneity. PMID:22759464

  11. Perceived versus used workplace flexibility in Singapore: predicting work-family fit.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Scoville, D Phillip; Hill, E Jeffrey; Childs, Geniel; Leishman, Joan M; Nally, Kathryn S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of 2 types of workplace flexibility to work-family fit and work, personal, and marriage-family outcomes using data (N = 1,601) representative of employed persons in Singapore. We hypothesized that perceived and used workplace flexibility would be positively related to the study variables. Results derived from structural equation modeling revealed that perceived flexibility predicted work-family fit; however, used flexibility did not. Work-family fit related positively to each work, personal, and marriage-family outcome; however, workplace flexibility only predicted work and personal outcomes. Findings suggest work-family fit may be an important facilitating factor in the interface between work and family life, relating directly to marital satisfaction and satisfaction in other family relationships. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18855513

  12. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The...

  13. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The...

  14. Families with children who are technology dependent: normalization and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined family functioning and normalization in 103 mothers of children ?16 years of age dependent on medical technology (mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition/medication, respiratory/nutritional support) following initiation of home care. Differences in outcomes (mother's depressive symptoms, normalization, family functioning), based on the type of technology used, were also examined. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, the Functional Status II-Revised Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, a Normalization Scale subscale, and the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Thirty-five percent of the variance in family functioning was explained primarily by the mothers' level of depressive symptoms. Several variables were significant predictors of normalization. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in outcomes based on the type of technology used. Mothers of technology-dependent children are at high risk for clinical depression that may affect family functioning. This article concludes with clinical practice and policy implications. PMID:21148462

  15. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  16. Family practice clinics. Survey of family practice residents' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, H.; Levitt, C.

    1993-01-01

    All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time. PMID:8219838

  17. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  18. Family Counseling Interventions: Understanding Family Systems and the Referral Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article describes concepts underlying the idea of the "family as a system"; compares and contrasts four approaches to family therapy (those of Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin); and offers suggestions to teachers referring parents for family counseling. (DB)

  19. Multiple Perspectives Within the Family: Family Relationship Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the larger network of family relationships (parent-adolescent, marital, and sibling relations) affect adolescent adjustment. The second aim was to identify distinct patterns of family relationships and to examine whether these different family relationship patterns are…

  20. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, John

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

  1. It Pays to Value Family: Work and Family Tradeoffs Reconsidered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Cappelli; Jill Constantine; Clint Chadwick

    2000-01-01

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN work and family has become a popular research area in the field of management. While there are a range of specific issues under the broad work and family heading, most seem to center on possible conflicts between the two domains—whether the requirements of the workplace have a negative effect on family life and whether the demands of

  2. As Families Grow Older: Information for Family Caregivers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halls, Dolores M.; And Others

    This document presents the final report of the "As Families Grow Older" project, a continuing education program for aging network service providers and family members in 23 counties throughout New Mexico which was designed to promote family well-being. It describes how the project, which was in operation from April 1986 through January 1987,…

  3. Egalitarian Spouse Relations and Wives' Marital Satisfaction in Intergenerationally Linked Puerto Rican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; Procidano, Mary E.

    1989-01-01

    Examined egalitarian spouse roles in relation to marital satisfaction of wives among intergenerationally linked Puerto Rican families. Results revealed that, in each generation of wives, marital satisfaction was associated with egalitarian spouse roles. (Author/NB)

  4. Was Your Glass Left Half Full? Family Dynamics and Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Students' levels of a frequently studied adaptive schema (optimism) as a function of parenting variables (parental authority, family intrusiveness, parental overprotection, parentification, parental psychological control, and parental nurturance) were investigated. Results revealed that positive parenting styles were positively related to the…

  5. Family Life across the Border: Mexican Wives Left Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado de Snyder, V. Nelly

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive psychosocial investigation of 202 Mexican women who had never been out of Mexico and who were married to immigrant workers in the United States revealed that the women experienced stress associated with the welfare of the absent husband, acquisition of new responsibilities and obligations, and family disintegration. (KS)

  6. Familial varices of the small and large bowel.

    PubMed

    Morini, S; Caruso, F; De Angelis, P

    1993-02-01

    Two familial cases of varices confined to the small and the large bowel are reported. Both patients were diagnosed in advanced age because of recurrent intestinal bleeding. The study of the entire gastrointestinal tract revealed an unexpected wide involvement and the primary nature of the varices. Moreover, both patients had coexistent adenomatous polyps. PMID:8491140

  7. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  8. Youths' Socialization to Work and School within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents' reported work experiences was aligned to youths' perception of their parents' success in the…

  9. Higgs family symmetry and supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    Patt, Brian Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate building models of family symmetry that give the Higgs fields family structure. We construct several models, starting with 2 generation models then moving onto 3 generation models. These models ...

  10. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  11. Veterans and Military Family Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Service members and veterans face some different health issues from civilians. Their families also face some unique challenges. Families may have to cope with Separation from their loved ones Anxiety over ...

  12. Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family) Ivyleaf morningglory

    E-print Network

    Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family) Ivyleaf morningglory Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. Life cycle morningglory flowers. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family gray, brown or black seeds with one round and two flattened surfaces. Reproduction: Seeds. Erect hairs

  13. Plantaginaceae (Plantain family) Broadleaf plantain

    E-print Network

    Plantaginaceae (Plantain family) Broadleaf plantain Plantago major L. Life cycle Rosette (Plantain family) Broadleaf plantain continued Flowers and fruit Leafless stalks bear long, dense, cylinder petioles, usually wavy leaf margins and dull dark brown to black seeds. #12;

  14. Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Wild buckwheat

    E-print Network

    Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Wild buckwheat Polygonum convolvulus L. Life cycle Twining summer. Wild buckwheat plant. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Polygonaceae (Smartweed family, dull black, three-sided fruit. Reproduction Seeds. Wild buckwheat flowers. Similar weeds Mile

  15. Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family) Field bindweed

    E-print Network

    Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family) Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis L. Life cycle Twining bindweed seedling. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Convolvulaceae (Morningglory family) Field or black seeds with one round and two flattened surfaces. Reproduction Seeds, creeping roots and rhizomes

  16. Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Smooth groundcherry

    E-print Network

    Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Smooth groundcherry Physalis longifolia Nutt. var. subglabrata Christmas tree weeds. #12;Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Smooth groundcherry continued Smooth groundcherry. Reproduction Seeds and rhizomes. Smooth groundcherry leaf. Smooth groundcherry flower. #12;Solanaceae

  17. Potential regulatory elements of nematode vitellogenin genes revealed by interspecies sequence comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Zucker-Aprison; Thomas Blumenthal

    1989-01-01

    Summary  The nematode,Caenorhabditis elegans, has a six-member gene family encoding vitellogenins, the yolk protein precursors. These genes are expressed exclusively\\u000a in the intestine of the adult hermaphrodite. Here we report the cloning of all five members of the homologous gene family\\u000a from anotherCaenorhabditis species,Caenorhabditis briggsae. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these genes reveals they are about 85% identical to theC. elegans genes

  18. Exploring family physician stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. Joseph; Brown, Judith Belle; Stewart, Moira

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the nature of professional stress and the strategies used by family physicians to deal with this stress. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Ten key-informant family physicians. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. A total of 40 key informants were identified, based on selected criteria; 24 provided consent. The potential participants were rank-ordered for interviews to provide maximum variation in age, sex, and years in practice. Interviews were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed until thematic saturation was reached, as determined through an iterative process. This occurred after 10 in-depth interviews. Immersion and crystallization techniques were used. MAIN FINDINGS The participants described professional stresses and strategies at the personal, occupational, and health care system levels. Personal stressors included personality traits and the need to balance family and career, which were countered by biological, psychological, social, and spiritual strategies. Occupational stressors included challenging patients, high workload, time limitations, competency issues, challenges of documentation and practice management, and changing roles within the workplace. Occupational stressors were countered by strategies such as setting limits, participating in continuing medical education, soliciting support from colleagues and staff, making use of teams, improving patient-physician relationships, exploring new forms of remuneration, and scheduling appropriately. Stressors affecting the wider health care system included limited resources, imposed rules and regulations, lack of support from specialists, feeling undervalued, and financial concerns. CONCLUSION Family physicians face a multitude of challenges at personal, occupational, and health care system levels. A systems approach provides a new framework in which proactive strategies can augment more than one level of a system and, in contrast, reactive strategies can have negative inputs for different system levels. PMID:19282541

  19. Why family planning matters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey T. Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces\\u000a health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are\\u000a the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective

  20. Galileo - Ganymede Family Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This videotape is a continuation of tape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036029. When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, the project scientist and engineers gather together with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received. This videotape presents the last part of that meeting, which culminates in the announcement of the confirmation of the fly-by, and a review of the current trajectory status.

  1. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Davit-Spraul; Emmanuel Gonzales; Christiane Baussan; Emmanuel Jacquemin

    2009-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1\\/50,000 and 1\\/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile

  2. Lipidomics of familial longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won; Dane, Adrie; Troost, Jorne; Paliukhovich, Iryna; Kloet, Frans M; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Slagboom, Eline P

    2013-01-01

    Middle-aged offspring of nonagenarians, as compared to their spouses (controls), show a favorable lipid metabolism marked by larger LDL particle size in men and lower total triglyceride levels in women. To investigate which specific lipids associate with familial longevity, we explore the plasma lipidome by measuring 128 lipid species using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 1526 offspring of nonagenarians (59 years ± 6.6) and 675 (59 years ± 7.4) controls from the Leiden Longevity Study. In men, no significant differences were observed between offspring and controls. In women, however, 19 lipid species associated with familial longevity. Female offspring showed higher levels of ether phosphocholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) species (3.5–8.7%) and lower levels of phosphoethanolamine PE (38:6) and long-chain triglycerides (TG) (9.4–12.4%). The association with familial longevity of two ether PC and four SM species was independent of total triglyceride levels. In addition, the longevity-associated lipid profile was characterized by a higher ratio of monounsaturated (MUFA) over polyunsaturated (PUFA) lipid species, suggesting that female offspring have a plasma lipidome less prone to oxidative stress. Ether PC and SM species were identified as novel longevity markers in females, independent of total triglycerides levels. Several longevity-associated lipids correlated with a lower risk of hypertension and diabetes in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort. This sex-specific lipid signature marks familial longevity and may suggest a plasma lipidome with a better antioxidant capacity, lower lipid peroxidation and inflammatory precursors, and an efficient beta-oxidation function. PMID:23451766

  3. The family Parvoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Chiorini, John A.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Pintel, David J.; Qiu, Jianming; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria; Tattersall, Peter; Tijssen, Peter; Gatherer, Derek; Davison, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    A set of proposals to rationalize and extend the taxonomy of the family Parvoviridae is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Viruses in this family infect a wide range of hosts, as reflected by the longstanding division into two subfamilies: the Parvovirinae, which contains viruses that infect vertebrate hosts, and the Densovirinae, encompassing viruses that infect arthropod hosts. Using a modified definition for classification into the family that no longer demands isolation as long as the biological context is strong, but does require a near-complete DNA sequence, 134 new viruses and virus variants were identified. The proposals introduce new species and genera into both subfamilies, resolve one misclassified species, and improve taxonomic clarity by employing a series of systematic changes. These include identifying a precise level of sequence similarity required for viruses to belong to the same genus and decreasing the level of sequence similarity required for viruses to belong to the same species. These steps will facilitate recognition of the major phylogenetic branches within genera and eliminate the confusion caused by the near-identity of species and viruses. Changes to taxon nomenclature will establish numbered, non-Latinized binomial names for species, indicating genus affiliation and host range rather than recapitulating virus names. Also, affixes will be included in the names of genera to clarify subfamily affiliation and reduce the ambiguity that results from the vernacular use of “parvovirus” and “densovirus” to denote multiple taxon levels. PMID:24212889

  4. Family perspectives on problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A P; Ruef, M

    1996-10-01

    Data from interviews with 17 families who have a member with mental retardation and problem behavior were reported. The interview was focused on the families' definition of problem behavior, current challenges they face, and successful approaches for helping individuals with problem behavior and their families as well as suggestions from families about what kinds of information they believe would help them in addressing challenges. Key recommendations focus on the implications of this information for research, demonstration, and training activities. PMID:8908993

  5. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  6. Girls' Perspectives on Family Scripts About Sex-Related Topics and Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Teitelman; Carol J. Loveland-Cherry

    2005-01-01

    This study explores girls' perspectives of family scripts to develop family-based interventions to reduce HIV\\/AIDS and STIs. In-depth qualitative interviews with 33 teen girls revealed four common scripts: (a) waiting-to begin dating or to initiate sexual intercourse, (b) danger and protection, (c) abuse, and (d) taking charge. Most low-income families acknowledged pregnancy and HIV\\/STI risks but some girls experienced conflict

  7. FBN1 contributing to familial congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tyler F; Campeau, Philippe M; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gambin, Tomasz; Li, Alexander H; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Jordan, Valerie K; Hernandez-Garcia, Andres; Wiszniewski, Wojciech K; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R; Lee, Brendan; Reardon, Willie; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-04-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively common, life--threatening birth defect. We present a family with recurrent CDH--paraesophageal and central--for whom exome sequencing (ES) revealed a frameshift mutation (c.4969_4970insA, p.Ile1657Asnfs*30) in the fibrillin 1 gene (FBN1) that causes Marfan syndrome. A diagnosis of Marfan syndrome had not been considered previously in this family. However, a review of the literature demonstrated that FBN1 mutations have an unusual pattern of CDH in which paraesophageal hernias are particularly common. Subsequent clinical evaluations revealed evidence for ectopia lentis in affected family members supporting a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. Since only two other cases of familial CDH have been described in association with FBN1 mutations, we investigated an oligogenic hypothesis by examining ES data for deleterious sequence changes in other CDH-related genes. This search revealed putatively deleterious sequence changes in four other genes that have been shown to cause diaphragm defects in humans and/or mice--FREM1, DES, PAX3 and MET. It is unclear whether these changes, alone or in aggregate, are contributing to the development of CDH in this family. However, their individual contribution is likely to be small compared to that of the frameshift mutation in FBN1. We conclude that ES can be used to identify both major and minor genetic factors that may contribute to CDH. These results also suggest that ES should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals and families with CDH, particularly when other diagnostic modalities have failed to reveal a molecular etiology. PMID:25736269

  8. Treatment Planning for Multiproblem Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina B. Trevvett

    1967-01-01

    Poor success in dealing with multiproblem families over the years has had little effect on agency methods of devising and executing reasonable treatment programs. Although intervention by many workers in the affairs of one troubled family is known to be ineffectual and sometimes harmful, we continue to split the family into many categorized problems and assign a different worker to

  9. Ethnocultural considerations in family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Lou Heater

    2003-01-01

    Concepts of culture occur in multiple aspects of American life, particularly in family relationships. Family therapists must view troubled families through a cultural lens to best assess, diagnose, and treat them. This includes understanding basic tenets of a culture, demonstrating respect, and developing an awareness of one’s own culture. The purpose of this paper is to examine ethnicity, acculturation, and

  10. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  11. Program Families in Scientific Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spencer Smith; John McCutchan; Fang Cao

    This paper motivates how the quality of scientific computing applications can be improved by developing them as a program family. In particular, arguments are presented that a program family strategy improves the qualities of reusability and usability. The proposed methodology consists of determining the scientific computing family of interest, then performing a Commonality Analysis (CA) to document the terminology, commonalities

  12. Job Families Booklet Human Resources

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    Job Families Booklet Human Resources University of Surrey #12;Job Families summarise the main features of roles which are similar in character and engaged in broadly similar work. There are four Job Families, which will cover the vast majority of jobs within the University. They are: · Operational

  13. [International research in family dynamics].

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the family dynamics of families expecting their first or second child. The aim is to describe how mothers and fathers differ in their views on family dynamics and what differences there are between families expecting their first or second child. The study forms part of an international comparison study which is currently under way in the United States, Estonia and in the Nordic Countries. In the theoretical part of the study family dynamics is examined using the framework developed by Barnhill (1979). The study was carried out in the Turku and Rauma regions where a total of 136 families were involved. The families were clients of maternity clinics and were expecting their first or second child. Family dynamics was studied during the third trimester of pregnancy. A family dynamics questionnaire and measure developed by the Family Research Group in the United States were used in the study. Both instruments were based on Barnhill's (1979) conceptual framework of the functioning of healthy families. As statistical methods frequencies, correlations and the T-test were used. Both mothers and fathers reported moderate individuation and flexibility, clear communication, mutuality and role reciprocity. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers who reported more isolation, rigidity and distorted communication than mothers. There were no significant differences between families expecting their first or second child in terms of individuation, flexibility, stability and communication. After childbirth the latter reported more isolation and role conflict. PMID:1797175

  14. Family Calendar Survey Hilary Hutchinson*

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    Family Calendar Survey Hilary Hutchinson* , Benjamin B. Bederson* , Catherine Plaisant* , Allison and family calendaring habits. By the end of September, we had over 400 responses, which are summarized below be representative of the users we are initially targeting in our research on family calendaring and coordination

  15. Mothers As Family Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Gregg F.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of a seven-week counseling program for mothers on the perceptions and behavior of family members was investigated. The experimental families reflected a significant increase in the number of positive responses and a significant decrease in the number of negative responses used by the three family members. (Author)

  16. Understanding Families with Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence D.

    Changes in family relations that result from concurrent life-cycle changes of middle-aged parents and their adolescent offspring are discussed in this pamphlet. A perspective on the young adolescent's family is offered that conceptualizes the family as both systemic and developmental. Key changes in adolescence and mid-life are outlined and these…

  17. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Icelandic families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Rand Allingham; Margret Loftsdottir; María Soffía Gottfredsdottir; Erikur Thorgeirsson; Fridbert Jonasson; Thordur Sverisson; William G Hodge; Karim F Damji; Einar Stefánsson

    2001-01-01

    AIMTo examine the distribution and clinical ophthalmic characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (pseudoexfoliation) and glaucoma in Icelandic families.METHODSIcelandic families containing three or more members aged 70 or older with at least one member with pseudoexfoliation were indentified. All family members over age 45 were invited to participate. Visual acuity, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp examination before and after dilatation, and

  18. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  19. Teaching Family Reunification: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Robin; And Others

    Each year, many of the children in family foster care, group homes, or residential treatment centers are reunited with their families. This sourcebook is intended to aid the development of well-trained service providers who work with family reunification. The information here, presented in four parts, can be used for agency staff development…

  20. Family Textbooks Twelve Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these works…

  1. Rural Family Functioning. Bulletin 562.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen M.; Kuipers, Judith L.

    In a 1972 interview survey of 250 rural families in 2 East Tennessee counties, patterns of family functioning were shown to be directly related to economic level, husband's age, and husband's educational level. Within the sample population consisting of family households of 2 or more members, the mean age of husbands was 49, and of wives, 46. The…

  2. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result of some alleged "forfeiture" of parental rights, said to arise from a lack of adequate supervision, control, or even indifference. If is time for the law to consider the mess its "ad hoc" approach has created. The chaos is gargantuan in Australia. If the patient is capable of forming a sound judgment about the treatment to which he/she is consenting, and if a doctor concludes that the patient is an emancipated minor, then, in the present state of the law: a doctor commits no offense by prescribing OCS; having prescribed contraception to such a minor, it is professional misconduct to inform the patients that the minor is using contraception (Gillick); and in Queensland, unlawful carnal knowledge must be reported. PMID:6700486

  3. Comparing Service Use of Early Head Start Families of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Kisker, Ellen E.; Luze, Gayle J.; Summers, Jean Ann

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared patterns of service utilization reported by Early Head Start (EHS) families of children with and without disabilities by secondary analysis of data from the longitudinal investigation of the effectiveness of EHS. Findings reveal comparable positive trends for both groups of families for receipt of services corresponding…

  4. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  5. A Japanese family with early-onset ataxia with motor and sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke Kobayashi; Hiroshi Takuma; Shigeo Murayama; Masaki Sakurai; Ichiro Kanazawa

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a Japanese family with hereditary ataxia with peripheral neuropathy. Three affected siblings from this family exhibited very similar clinical features: teenage-onset, slowly progressive ataxia, followed by distal weakness, which developed after the age of 30 years. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed marked atrophy in the cerebellar hemisphere and vermis, and a sural nerve biopsy revealed a

  6. The Value of Coordinated Services with Court-Referred Clients and Their Families: An Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Morse, Renee; Moe, Amber

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of building partnerships with community resources and systems for court-referred clients and their families through a participant outcome evaluation. Specific variables studied included change in substance abuse patterns, family well-being, child safety, and recidivism. Results from pre-post testing revealed

  7. Comparison of Family Life Styles in Homes with Slow-learning and Severely Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; And Others

    Cluster analytic studies of the home environment of 115 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) and 218 educable. mentally retarded (EMR) and educationally handicapped (EH) children revealed two taxonomies. In homes with TMR children, there were five family clusters or life styles, while homes with EMR-EH children had seven family clusters. Criterion…

  8. Molecular analysis of type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family from Zingiber officinale Rosc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Soniya

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase family is considered to have significant role in biosynthesis of structurally diverse polyketide scaffolds in Zingiber officinale. Genome wide analysis of polyketide synthase gene family in Z. officinale identified partial sequences of six members. Comparative sequence analysis showed that four of them ZoPKS2, 3, 4 and 6 were novel forms as revealed by

  9. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  10. Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children's adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn K. Cecil; James McHale; Anne Strozier; Joel Pietsch

    2008-01-01

    Attendant to the exponential increase in rates of incarceration of mothers with young children in the United States, programming has been established to help mothers attend to parenting skills and other family concerns while incarcerated. Unfortunately, most programs overlook the important, ongoing relationship between incarcerated mothers and family members caring for their children—most often, the inmates' own mothers. Research reveals

  11. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  12. Construals of preillness relationship quality predict cardiovascular response in family caregivers of Alzheimer's disease victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert N. Uchino; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; John T. Cacioppo

    1994-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between family caregivers' construal of their preillness affection for and cohesiveness with an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and subsequent cardiovas- cular functioning. Scale validation demonstrated the psychometric properties. In a study conducted 2 years later, 31 family caregivers of AD victims performed stress-inducing tasks while cardiovascular activity was monitored. Path analyses revealed that caregivers relatively

  13. How to reveal disguised paternalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Lynöe; Niklas Juth; Gert Helgesson

    2010-01-01

    In a Swedish setting physicians are unlikely to give explicitly paternalistic reasons when asked about their attitudes towards\\u000a patients’ involvement in decision-making. There is considerable risk that they will disguise their paternalism by giving ‘socially\\u000a correct answers’. We suggest that disguised paternalism can be revealed with the help of indexes based on certain responses\\u000a in postal questionnaires. The indexes were

  14. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations.

    PubMed

    Grbi?, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbi?, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M; Djuranovi?, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L; Hudson, Stephen D; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R; Gregory, T Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2011-11-24

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant-herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  15. Defining crisis in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health–related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that crisis is characterized by factors influencing four major areas: demands, internal capabilities, external resources, and subjective appraisal. Understanding what crisis means to families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder can help inform effective preventative and crisis services. PMID:24254639

  16. Locum practice by recent family medicine graduates

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Douglas L.; Konkin, Jill; Woloschuk, Wayne; Szafran, Olga; Hansen, Chantal; Crutcher, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the demographic characteristics of recent Alberta family medicine residency graduates choosing locum practice, as well as their reasons for choosing and leaving locum practice and the frustrations and rewards of locum placements. DESIGN Web-based and mailed cross-sectional survey and interviews. SETTING The family medicine residency training programs at the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta. PARTICIPANTS A total of 152 graduates who had completed family medicine training between 2001 and 2005, inclusive, and who had either done locums in the past or were doing locums at the time of the survey. Interviews were conducted with a subsample of this group (n = 10). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Duration of locum practice, reasons for choosing and leaving locum practice, and frustrations and rewards of locum practice. RESULTS Of the 377 graduates surveyed, 242 (64.2%) responded. Among the respondents, 155 (64.0%) had in the past practised or were at the time practising as locum physicians (complete data were available for 152 respondents). Most (71.7%) had arranged locum placements independently. The average duration of a locum placement was 9.1 months. Female and younger family physicians were more likely to practise as locum tenentes. The most common reason for doing a locum placement was as a practice exploration to increase experience or competence (46.7%). The primary reason for leaving locum practice was to settle into permanent practice (52.1%); interview data revealed that this reflected a desire for stability, a desire for continuity with patients, personal life changes, financial considerations, and the end of a perceived need for exploration. Locum tenentes were frustrated with negotiating locum contracts, low patient volumes, lack of patient continuity, and working with difficult staff. Rewards of locum practice included flexibility and freedom in practice, gaining experience, and the rewards that come from seeing patients. In total, 44.6% of family medicine graduates joined practices in which they had done locum placements. CONCLUSION Locum practice is a common early career choice for Alberta family medicine graduates. The most common reason for doing a locum placement was to gain experience, not to delay commitment. Locum practice tends to appeal more to female and younger family physicians. Rewards of locum practice were also cited as reasons for participation. Locum tenentes tend to be frustrated with the business aspects of arranging placements and with the generally low patient volumes. Long-term recruitment efforts by community physicians should be initiated within the first week of locum engagement. PMID:20463259

  17. Genetic Linkage Analysis of 15 DFNB Loci in a Group of Iranian Families with Autosomal Recessive Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaiefar, MA; Alasti, F; Zohour, M Montazer; Shariati, L; Farrokhi, E; Farhud, DD; Camp, GV; Noori-Daloii, MR; Chaleshtori, M Hashemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hearing loss (HL) is the most frequent sensory birth defect in humans. Autosomal recessive non-syndromic HL (ARNSHL) is the most common type of hereditary HL. It is extremely heterogeneous and over 70 loci (known as DFNB) have been identified. This study was launched to determine the relative contribution of more frequent loci in a cohort of ARNSHL families. Methods: Thirty-seven Iranian families including 36 ARNSHL families and 1 family with Pendred syndrome each with ? 4 affected individuals, from seven provinces of Iran, were ascertained. DFNB1 contribution was initially studied by DNA sequencing of GJB2 and linkage analysis using the relative STR markers. The excluded families were then subjected to homozygosity mapping for fifteen ARNSHL loci. Results: Sixteen families were found to be linked to seven different known loci, including DFNB1 (6 families), DFNB4 (3 families +1 family with Pendred syndrome), DFNB63 (2 families), DFNB2 (1 family), DFNB7/11 (1 family), DFNB9 (1 family) and DFNB21 (1 family). DNA sequencing of the corresponding genes is in progress to identify the pathogenic mutations. Conclusion: The genetic causes were clarified in 43.2% of the studied families, giving an overview of the causes of ARNSHL in Iran. DFNB4 is ranked second after DFNB1 in the studied cohort. More genetic and epigenetic investigations will have to be done to reveal the causes in the remaining families. PMID:23113071

  18. The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…

  19. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  20. Family ConnectionFamily ConnectionFamily Connection Supporting Your Student

    E-print Network

    in information on weight management, nutrition, or stress management call the Health Promotion and PreventionFamily ConnectionFamily ConnectionFamily Connection Supporting Your Student Students have been and resources. Now is a great time to help your student solve problems. When students seek out campus resources

  1. Parental Family Experiences, the Timing of First Sex, and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    By investigating the intergenerational consequences of multiple aspects of family experiences across the life course this paper advances what we know about the forces shaping children's initiation of sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Our aim is to advance the scientific understanding of early sexual experiences by explicitly considering contraceptive use and by differentiating between the consequences of parental family experiences during childhood and those during adolescence and young adulthood. Thanks to unique, highly detailed data measuring parental family experiences throughout the life course and sexual dynamics early in life it is possible to provide detailed empirical estimates of the relationship between parental family experiences and contraceptive use at first sex—a relationship about which we know relatively little. Findings reveal (1) significant simultaneous consequences of many different dimensions of parental family experiences for the timing of first sex and the likelihood of using contraception at first sex, but the specific dimensions of family important for the specific behavior vary across racial groups; and (2) that parental family experiences influence the timing of sex and contraceptive use differently. PMID:21079724

  2. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. METHODS: Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (? = ?0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= ?2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. PMID:24936002

  3. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed. PMID:25053382

  4. [Population and family planning].

    PubMed

    Romero, H

    1977-12-01

    This work consists of a speech read before the Adacemy of Medicine of the Institute of Chile and a brief debate by members of the audience. Misinformed opponents of birth control who argue among other things that family planning is a US plot ignore the fact that the desire to avoid pregnancy dates from the remote past, as attested by evidence from early Egyptian papyruses. Recent sharp declines in human mortality have led to unprecedented population growth. Around the beginning of the modern era the world contained about 250 million people, a population which did not double until the mid 1600s. Today world population doubles in 30 to 35 years, and by the end of the century it may reach 7 billion. The impact of such growth on the food supply, housing, the economy, education, and the environment have been the object of many studies, predominant among them those presented at the World Population Conferences in Rome, Belgrade, and Bucharest. The family planning program in Chile was initiated around 1962 although some activities had been carried out earlier. The Chilean Association for the Protection of the Family, a private organization, grew out of these early efforts and enjoyed considerable success from its earliest days. The natality rate declined from 38/1000 in 1962 to 23.5/1000 in 1977, and infant and maternal mortality also declined. The decline has been concentrated in births after age 30 and in high parity births. The young age structure means that the population will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. PMID:397567

  5. The ADAR protein family

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process by which adenosines are selectively converted to inosines in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. A highly conserved group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, mediates this reaction. All ADARs share a common domain architecture consisting of a variable number of amino-terminal dsRNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a carboxy-terminal catalytic deaminase domain. ADAR family members are highly expressed in the metazoan nervous system, where these enzymes predominantly localize to the neuronal nucleus. Once in the nucleus, ADARs participate in the modification of specific adenosines in pre-mRNAs of proteins involved in electrical and chemical neurotransmission, including pre-synaptic release machineries, and voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. Most RNA editing sites in these nervous system targets result in non-synonymous codon changes in functionally important, usually conserved, residues and RNA editing deficiencies in various model organisms bear out a crucial role for ADARs in nervous system function. Mutation or deletion of ADAR genes results in striking phenotypes, including seizure episodes, extreme uncoordination, and neurodegeneration. Not only does the process of RNA editing alter important nervous system peptides, but ADARs also regulate gene expression through modification of dsRNA substrates that enter the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and may then act at the chromatin level. Here, we present a review on the current knowledge regarding the ADAR protein family, including evolutionary history, key structural features, localization, function and mechanism. PMID:23273215

  6. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  7. The netrin protein family.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Sathyanath; Kennedy, Timothy E

    2009-01-01

    The name netrin is derived from the Sanskrit Netr, meaning 'guide'. Netrins are a family of extracellular proteins that direct cell and axon migration during embryogenesis. Three secreted netrins (netrins 1, 3 and 4), and two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins, netrins G1 and G2, have been identified in mammals. The secreted netrins are bifunctional, acting as attractants for some cell types and repellents for others. Receptors for the secreted netrins include the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) family, the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM), and the UNC-5 homolog family: Unc5A, B, C and D in mammals. Netrin Gs do not appear to interact with these receptors, but regulate synaptic interactions between neurons by binding to the transmembrane netrin G ligands NGL1 and 2. The chemotropic function of secreted netrins has been best characterized with regard to axon guidance during the development of the nervous system. Extending axons are tipped by a flattened, membranous structure called the growth cone. Multiple extracellular guidance cues direct axonal growth cones to their ultimate targets where synapses form. Such cues can be locally derived (short-range), or can be secreted diffusible cues that allow target cells to signal axons from a distance (long-range). The secreted netrins function as short-range and long-range guidance cues in different circumstances. In addition to directing cell migration, functional roles for netrins have been identified in the regulation of cell adhesion, the maturation of cell morphology, cell survival and tumorigenesis. PMID:19785719

  8. Artefacts and Family Resemblance.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein's idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new insight into the current debate on artefact categorisation. PMID:23956810

  9. Galileo - Ganymede Family Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, on June 26, 1996, the project scientists and engineers gather with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received and to celebrate the mission. This videotape presents that meeting. Representatives from the various instrument science teams discuss many of the instruments aboard Galileo and show videos and pictures of what they have seen so far. This video is continued on Videotape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036028.

  10. NASA's Astronant Family Support Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve

    2014-01-01

    During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for astronauts and their families and how they changed with the Program and family needs.

  11. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  12. The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deghorain, Marie; Van Melderen, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Due to their crucial role in pathogenesis and virulence, phages of Staphylococcus aureus have been extensively studied. Most of them encode and disseminate potent staphylococcal virulence factors. In addition, their movements contribute to the extraordinary versatility and adaptability of this prominent pathogen by improving genome plasticity. In addition to S. aureus, phages from coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining increasing interest. Some of these species, such as S. epidermidis, cause nosocomial infections and are therefore problematic for public health. This review provides an overview of the staphylococcal phages family extended to CoNS phages. At the morphological level, all these phages characterized so far belong to the Caudovirales order and are mainly temperate Siphoviridae. At the molecular level, comparative genomics revealed an extensive mosaicism, with genes organized into functional modules that are frequently exchanged between phages. Evolutionary relationships within this family, as well as with other families, have been highlighted. All these aspects are of crucial importance for our understanding of evolution and emergence of pathogens among bacterial species such as Staphylococci. PMID:23342361

  13. Conflict Resolution and Distress in Dementia Caregiver Families: Comparison of Cubans and White Non-Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Feaster, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of family conflict resolution as a mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and psychological distress in dementia caregivers. The sample was composed of the families of 182 caregivers who participated in REACH (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health). The sample consisted of 84 Cuban American and 98 non-Hispanic White American families. Mediation analyses revealed that both income and conflict resolution partially mediated the relationship between ethnicity and caregiver psychological distress. Specifically, Cuban American families were less likely than non-Hispanic White families to reach a resolution to their disagreements, which may have rendered the caregiver at greater risk for psychological distress. These results suggest that Cuban American caregivers may benefit from interventions that improve the family’s ability to resolve conflicts. PMID:20448830

  14. Therapists' ratings of fundamentalist and nonfundamentalist families in therapy: an empirical comparison.

    PubMed

    Denton, R T; Denton, M J

    1992-06-01

    Using the Family Health Scale, Part I of an instrument developed for this study, two randomly selected groups of certified family therapists rated either nonfundamentalist or fundamentalist families in therapy on eight recognized indicators of family health. Factor analysis yielded eight factors accounting for 66% of the variance between groups. Cannonical discriminant function analysis revealed that therapists rated fundamentalist families as significantly less healthy on three of the eight factors and more healthy on one factor. Part II of this instrument, the Religion Impact Scale assessed the effects of church community and church teachings upon families. For fundamentalists, the church and concomitant belief system had a significant impact upon family organization and functioning. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1397253

  15. Secrets of Plant Genomes Revealed!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation (National Science Foundation Undergraduate Education Science, Math, Engineering and Technology)

    2009-12-17

    A video that describes the important role plants play in our everyday lives. There is a description of DNA sequencing of a plants genome, as well as an introduction to the field of Bioinformatics. Secrets of Plant Genomes: Revealed! takes viewers on a lively, upbeat journey that explores how these plants got to be the way they are and investigates how we can make better use of them in the future. Plant scientists are hard at work--in the lab, in the field and at the computer--to increase our understanding of nature.

  16. Geographical distribution of Slovenian BRCA1/2 families according to family origin: implications for genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Krajc, M; Zadnik, V; Novakovi?, S; Stegel, V; Teugels, E; Beši?, N; Ho?evar, M; Vakselj, A; De Grève, J; Zgajnar, J

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographical distribution of highly recurrent mutations may be useful for efficient screening in cancer families. Since the cloning of the BRCA1/2 genes, it is known that the wide spectrum of deleterious mutations shows high ethnic and geographic heterogeneity. In this study, we have tested probands from 582 breast/ovarian cancer families and positioned all 156 BRCA1/2 families on the map according to the family origin. We observed that high-risk families with the same recurrent mutation present a typical geographical distribution and that different recurrent mutations may show different distribution patterns. We then evaluated the genetic screening implications of this heterogeneous prevalence of the most recurrent mutations found [300T>G(c.181T>G), 1806C>T(c.1687C>T), 969ins7(c.844_850dupTCATTAC), 5382insC(c.5266dupC), 235G>A(c.116G>A) in BRCA1 and IVS16-2A>G(c.7806-2A>G) in BRCA2]. On the basis of these results, specific testing procedures for new incident cases may be offered according to their family origins and, according to the information regarding clusters revealed in this study, the individuals (especially those at low risk), originating from regions with clusters, might be screened preferentially for cluster mutations and analysis may be simplified according to the family origin. PMID:23397983

  17. Familial resemblance for loneliness.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Derom, Catherine A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cacioppo, John T; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2010-07-01

    Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural transmission, genotype-environment (GE) correlation and interaction was modeled. GE interaction was considered for several demographic characteristics. Results showed non-random mating for loneliness. We confirmed that loneliness is moderately heritable, with a significant contribution of non-additive genetic variation. There were no effects of vertical cultural transmission. With respect to demographic characteristics, results indicated that marriage, having offspring, more years of education, and a higher number of siblings are associated with lower levels of loneliness. Interestingly, these effects tended to be stronger for men than women. There was little evidence of changes in genetic architecture as a function of these characteristics. We conclude that the genetic architecture of loneliness points to non-additive genetic influences, suggesting it may be a trait that was not neutral to selection in our evolutionary past. Sociodemographic factors that influence the prevalence of loneliness do not affect its genetic architecture. PMID:20145989

  18. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Silva, S; Soutar, A K

    2008-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised clinically by an increased level of circulating LDL cholesterol that leads to lipid accumulation in tendons and arteries, premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although Portugal should have about 20,000 cases, this disease is severely under-diagnosed in our country, this being the first presentation of Portuguese data on FH. A total of 602 blood samples were collected from 184 index patients and 418 relatives from several centres throughout Portugal. Fifty-three different mutations were found in 83 index patients, 79 heterozygous and 4 with two defective LDLR alleles. Additionally, 4 putative alterations were found in 8 patients but were not considered mutations causing disease, mainly because they did not co-segregate with hypercholesterolaemia in the families. Three unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for the APOB(3500) mutation and two unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for a novel mutation in PCSK9, predicted to cause a single amino acid substitution, D374H. Cascade screening increased the number of FH patients identified genetically to 204. The newly identified FH patients are now receiving counselling and treatment based on the genetic diagnosis. The early identification of FH patients can increase their life expectancy and quality of life by preventing the development of premature CHD if patients receive appropriate pharmacological treatment. PMID:17765246

  19. FamilySearch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Although still in beta phase, this impressive new genealogical resource from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons) has immediately received the attention and praise of genealogical researchers. The providers have not publicly stated whether the site will offer access to the entirety of their 2 billion name genealogical record repository, but it already contains over 300 million names in two indexes, searchable by ancestor name. Users may also search a host of other genealogy Websites and the site's own SourceGuide of research outlines by keyword. In addition, the site offers a large collection of browseable and searchable categories of genealogical research sites, such as Census and Lists, Land and Property, Migration, Military, Vital Records, and others. Registered users can collaborate with others working on similar projects, add Websites, and have their research preserved in The Pedigree Resource File. While the Internet already holds a multitude of family research sites, when it is complete, FamilySearch will almost certainly be regarded as the first and most comprehensive place to begin a search for one's ancestors.

  20. Paucity of family planning.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C

    1988-04-01

    A wall chart compiled by the Population Crisis Committee of Washington D.C. called "World Access to Birth Control" is described. The chart compares developing countries and developed countries with respect to need of effective contraception, using data from the World Fertility Surveys. Up to 250 million women need contraception; a substantial percentage want no more children, over half in several large countries. The chart ranks the United Kingdom as 1st in providing family planning services, information, education and advertising. All of the developed countries were considered good except Russia and Romania, although some had deficiencies, such as Japan for lacking sterilization services. The U.S. ranked 7th, failing to provide women the full range of contraceptive methods, to provide adequate sex education and services to adolescents, and to publish information and adequate advertising about birth control. The USSR was placed 14th on the list of 15 because of poor quality and erratic supplies. Among the developing countries, Libya, Kampuchea and Laos were cited as having no services whatsoever. In contrast, several Asian national family planning programs, notably China, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, had such excellent programs that fertility had declined over 30% in 15 years. In China, fertility has fallen 50% in that time. PMID:12179876

  1. Family life education.

    PubMed

    Maniar, N

    1968-01-01

    Family life education is not just instruction of sex and reproduction, but an attitude of love and values that starts from infancy. A child who comes into the world wanted is already loved. Later on, he himself will give love because his 1st contact in the world was a happy one. Most children will go through thumb sucking and masturbation, which is normal and innocent behavior. Toilet training is another important factor in sex education. According to our attitude the child will learn that this part of his body is good or bad. By the age of 3 or 6, children learn to discover the difference in sex from our attitude to each other, and when parents practice double standards, the child is confused and worried. Children's curiousity for knowledge is insatiable. If parents find they are embarressed by their children's questions about sex, it is better to put off answering than to convey the impression that something is not quite nice. 11-year old females should be prepared for menarche with knowledge, and fathers should explain to their sons about voice changes, night emissions and fantasy dreams. Masturbation is normal during adolescence, and the only harm comes from wrong anxiety about it. If 2 young people wish to have premarital intercourse, we must have the courage to tell them that chastity remains a value whether they accept it or not. Education for family life means taking account of the child's attitudes and sex values as a future marriage partner and parent. PMID:12338669

  2. Familial Resemblance for Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Derom, Catherine A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cacioppo, John T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural transmission, genotype–environment (GE) correlation and interaction was modeled. GE interaction was considered for several demographic characteristics. Results showed non-random mating for loneliness. We confirmed that loneliness is moderately heritable, with a significant contribution of non-additive genetic variation. There were no effects of vertical cultural transmission. With respect to demographic characteristics, results indicated that marriage, having offspring, more years of education, and a higher number of siblings are associated with lower levels of loneliness. Interestingly, these effects tended to be stronger for men than women. There was little evidence of changes in genetic architecture as a function of these characteristics. We conclude that the genetic architecture of loneliness points to non-additive genetic influences, suggesting it may be a trait that was not neutral to selection in our evolutionary past. Sociodemographic factors that influence the prevalence of loneliness do not affect its genetic architecture. PMID:20145989

  3. Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  4. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Half, Elizabeth; Bercovich, Dani; Rozen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops. Generally, cancers start to develop a decade after the appearance of the polyps. Nonspecific symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, palpable abdominal masses and weight loss. FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system). A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk. Some lesions (skull and mandible osteomas, dental abnormalities, and fibromas on the scalp, shoulders, arms and back) are indicative of the Gardner variant of FAP. Classic FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and results from a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis (APC) gene. Most patients (~70%) have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer. In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history, clinical findings, and large bowel endoscopy or full colonoscopy. Whenever possible, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by genetic testing. When the APC mutation in the family has been identified, genetic testing of all first-degree relatives should be performed. Presymptomatic and prenatal (amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling), and even preimplantation genetic testing is possible. Referral to a geneticist or genetic counselor is mandatory. Differential diagnoses include other disorders causing multiple polyps (such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial juvenile polyps or hyperplastic polyposis, hereditary mixed polyposis syndromes, and Lynch syndrome). Cancer prevention and maintaining a good quality of life are the main goals of management and regular and systematic follow-up and supportive care should be offered to all patients. By the late teens or early twenties, colorectal cancer prophylactic surgery is advocated. The recommended alternatives are total proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch or ileorectal anastomosis for AFAP. Duodenal cancer and desmoids are the two main causes of mortality after total colectomy, they need to be identified early and treated. Upper endoscopy is necessary for surveillance to reduce the risk of ampullary and duodenal cancer. Patients with progressive tumors and unresectable disease may respond or stabilize with a combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and surgery (when possible to perform). Adjunctive therapy with celecoxib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in patients with FAP. Individuals with FAP carry a 100% risk of CRC; however, this risk is reduced significantly when patients enter a screening-treatment program. PMID:19822006

  5. [Nutrition behavior of poor families].

    PubMed

    Uramowska-Zyto, Barbara; Koz?owska-Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was analysis of nutrition behaviour of families with low income living in village and town. The interviews concerning socio-economical conditions, actual nutrition behaviour and selected health indicator of respondents were carried in 13 rural and 14 Warsaw families. Respondents were for the most part women 34-44 years old with elementary education. Rural families were mainly numerous families, half of Warsaw families consists of mother lonely bringing children up. The main sources of living were allowances from social welfare and rents. One can observe in both kinds of families pro-healthy nutrition behavior: daily drinking milk by children, frequent consumption of poultry, using margarine and vegetables oil, and in rural families eating breakfast and several meals everyday. Negative aspects of nutrition were: small consumption of vegetables and fruits, fishes, and in town also dairy products and insufficient number of daily meals. Half of respondents both in village and town has proper BMI index. One can observe in rural families more tendency toward healthy nutrition behavior than in Warsaw families. Modeling healthy nutrition behavior in poor families (especially in town) can be realised by centers of social welfare. PMID:14531088

  6. Community Family Therapy with Military Families Experiencing Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Glenn Hollingsworth

    The length and frequency of deployments in the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are associated with increased vulnerability\\u000a for both part- and full-time military families who stand to benefit from systems-oriented practice by marriage and family\\u000a therapists. Community Family Therapy (CFT) is a modality designed to promote resilience both within and beyond the four walls\\u000a of the therapy room,

  7. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL; Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94,000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae-wide, angiosperm-specific, monocot-specific, dicot-specific, and those that were species-specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both low-copy-number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g., photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  8. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL; Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94 000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae wide, angiosperm specific, monocot specific, dicot specific, and those that were species specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both lowcopy- number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g. photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  9. Multidimensional Family Functioning: Predicting Personal Growth Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee E. Whittaker; Christine Robitschek

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional family functioning and personal growth initiative (PGI). Three higher order family-functioning clusters (i.e., Family Processes, Family Organization, and Personal Growth) were assessed as predictors of PGI. Participants were college students: 165 men and 171 women. In hierarchical regression for men, Family Processes and Family Organization accounted for significant unique portions of the variance

  10. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  11. The Black Extended Family: An Analytical Consideration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin N. Wilson

    1986-01-01

    This analytical review considers the black extended family within the framework of the family life model. Particularly, it presents: (a) the life stages of the black extended family; (b) research on the antecedents and consequences of extended family life; and (c) social policy, clinical intervention, and family research implications of the black extended family from the context of a broad

  12. The Parent Services Project. Families Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lisa; Seiderman, Ethel

    The Families Matter series of papers from the Harvard Family Research Project advances the concept of family-centered child care, advocating an approach to early childhood education that addresses the development of the child and family together. Grounded in family support principles, which build on family strengths and work from a community's…

  13. Bulimia Nervosa: A Review of Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, DeeAnne Karyl

    The purpose of this literature review was to demonstrate that a family systems conceptualization of family dysfunction could be applied to bulimic families. In general, self-report and observational family characteristics studies support the hypothesis that bulimic families, like anorectic families, have significant systemic dysfunction in…

  14. Dimensions of Family Coping with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions underlying family coping with head injury. Data from 150 families with a member with a head injury identified 3 dimensions of coping: individual-to-family versus family-to-community coping; family-respite versus head-injury-focused coping; and cognitive versus behavioral coping. Findings have implications for family stress and…

  15. Posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories in children living in families reported for family violence.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Nicole R; Saunders, Benjamin E; Williams, Linda M; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel W; Fitzgerald, Monica M

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined latent class trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associations between demographics, prior trauma, and reason for referral on class membership. Children ages 7-18 (n=201) were recruited for participation in the Navy Family Study following reports to the U.S. Navy's Family Advocacy Program (FAP). Initial interviews were conducted 2-6 weeks following FAP referral, with follow-ups conducted at 9-12, 18-24, and 36-40 months. Growth mixture modeling revealed two latent class trajectories: a resilient class and a persistent symptom class. Relative to youth in the resilient class, participants in the persistent symptom class were more likely to be older and to report exposure to a greater number of trauma experiences at Time 1. PMID:19718758

  16. The glutamine synthetase gene family in Populus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming) is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation of GS expression in various tissues and at various times during the poplar perennial growth. Results The GS gene family consists of 8 different genes exhibiting all structural and regulatory elements consistent with their roles as functional genes. Our results indicate that the family members are organized in 4 groups of duplicated genes, 3 of which code for cytosolic GS isoforms (GS1) and 1 which codes for the choroplastic GS isoform (GS2). Our analysis shows that Populus trichocarpa is the first plant species in which it was observed the complete GS family duplicated. Detailed expression analyses have revealed specific spatial and seasonal patterns of GS expression in poplar. These data provide insights into the metabolic function of GS isoforms in poplar and pave the way for future functional studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that GS duplicates could have been retained in order to increase the amount of enzyme in a particular cell type. This possibility could contribute to the homeostasis of nitrogen metabolism in functions associated to changes in glutamine-derived metabolic products. The presence of duplicated GS genes in poplar could also contribute to diversification of the enzymatic properties for a particular GS isoform through the assembly of GS polypeptides into homo oligomeric and/or hetero oligomeric holoenzymes in specific cell types. PMID:21867507

  17. Indonesia family planning aims for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    Placing great emphasis on self-reliance, Indonesia's family planning program has been extremely successful in reducing the country's birth rate. since 1970, the once-threatening fertility rate has declined by more than 35%. And from 1980-90, the fertility rate declined from 4.6 to 3.0. The reason behind the dramatic change in fertility has been the increase in contraceptive use. Over 1/2 of all women of reproductive age use contraceptives, and nearly 95% of currently married women recognize at least one modern contraceptive method. A 1987 survey revealed that 62% of married women of reproductive age had used contraceptives, a figure that is expected to increase. The rise in contraceptive use is the direct result of carefully orchestrated initiatives under the leadership of Indonesia's National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), which has enjoyed the consistent support of President Suarto, who has headed the country for over a 1/4 century. BKKBN has implemented a highly successful self-reliance ("KB Mandiri") program called the Blue Circle campaign. Made possible by the participation of the private sector, the program has marketed government-subsidized contraceptives under the Blue Circle name. A pay-as-you-can program, the Blue Circle campaign charges middle and upper class couples full price, and only a partial fee or no fee at all for less wealthy clients. Observers also attribute the family planning program's success to the country's culture and to the strong support from the nation's Muslim population. In the coming years, the number of privately supplied contraceptives are expected to soar, and Indonesia's family planning program may soon become fully self-supported. PMID:12284516

  18. Use of Augmentative and Assistive Communication Strategies by Family Members in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Lauren M.; Tate, Judith A.; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about patient-family communication during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) tools and strategies during patient-family communication. Objectives The study objectives were to identify (1) which AAC tools families use with nonspeaking ICU patients and how they are used, and (2) what families and nurses say about patient-family communication with nonspeaking patients in the ICU. Methods A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted of existing data from a clinical trial testing interventions to improve nurse-patient communication in the ICU. Narrative study data (field notes, intervention logs, nurse interviews) from 127 critically ill adults were reviewed for evidence of family involvement with AAC tools. Qualitative content analysis was applied for thematic description of family and nurse accounts of patient-family communication. Results Family involvement with AAC tools was evident in 44% (n= 41/93) of the patients completing the parent study protocol. Spouses/significant others communicated with patients most often. Writing was the most frequently used tool. Main themes describing patient-family communication included: (1) Families as unprepared and unaware; (2) Family perceptions of communication effectiveness; (3) Nurses deferring to or guiding patient-family communication; (4) Patient communication characteristics; and (5) Family experience and interest with AAC tools. Conclusions Families are typically unprepared for the communication challenges of critical illness, and often “on their own” in confronting them. Assessment by skilled bedside clinicians can reveal patient communication potential and facilitate useful AAC tools and strategies for patients and families. PMID:22381993

  19. Tests reveal perforating charge performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, M. Jr.; McCready, K.E.; Ott, R.E.; White, C.W. (Mobil Exploration and Production U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (US))

    1992-01-06

    A series of independent tests, conducted by Mobil Exploration and Production U.S. Inc., has revealed that quality control by manufacturers of perforating gun charges can be relied upon during this interim period when API testing standards are undergoing changes. This paper reports that the performance of the charges is difficult to compare among manufacturers because of the lack of standardized testing procedures. API currently provides neither standards nor guidelines in the QC area. To alleviate this problem for the Mobil Midland division, an extensive perforating charge evaluation program was initiated. The 4-in. guns/charges most commonly used in our completions were randomly selected from the field magazines. These were tested in a common, controlled Berea target as well as in the manufacturer's QC target.

  20. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.