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1

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

2

Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

2014-01-01

3

Presence of acyl-homoserine lactones in 57 members of the Vibrionaceae family  

PubMed Central

Aims?The aim of this study was to use a sensitive method to screen and quantify 57 Vibrionaceae strains for the production of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and map the resulting AHL profiles onto a host phylogeny. Methods and Results?We used a high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) protocol to measure AHLs in spent media after bacterial growth. First, the presence/absence of AHLs (qualitative analysis) was measured to choose internal standard for subsequent quantitative AHL measurements. We screened 57 strains from three genera (Aliivibrio,Photobacterium and Vibrio) of the same family (i.e. Vibrionaceae). Our results show that about half of the isolates produced multiple AHLs, typically at 25–5000?nmol?l?1. Conclusions?This work shows that production of AHL quorum sensing signals is found widespread among Vibrionaceae bacteria and that closely related strains typically produce similar AHL profiles. Significance and Impact of the Study?The AHL detection protocol presented in this study can be applied to a broad range of bacterial samples and may contribute to a wider mapping of AHL production in bacteria, for example, in clinically relevant strains. PMID:23725044

Purohit, AA; Johansen, J A; Hansen, H; Leiros, H-KS; Kashulin, A; Karlsen, C; Smalas, A; Haugen, P; Willassen, NP

2013-01-01

4

Physiological Responses to Stress in the Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The family Vibrionaceae (Domain Bacteria, Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria) is comprised mostly of motile\\u000a gram-negative chemoorganotrophs, possessing at least one polar flagellum (Farmer III and Janda, 2005; Thompson and Swings,\\u000a 2006). Vibrios are facultative anaerobes, having both respiratory and fermentative metabolisms, and the mol% G + C of the\\u000a DNA is 38–51% (Farmer III and Janda, 2005). Cells are usually

William Soto; C. Phoebe Lostroh; Michele K. Nishiguchi

5

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

E-print Network

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria ...

Chien, Diana M.

6

Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition.  

PubMed

On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains), V. neptunius (two strains), and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain) on the basis of housekeeping gene sequences. The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus) and holomycin (from P. halotolerans). Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery. PMID:21339958

Wietz, Matthias; Mansson, Maria; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Larsen, Thomas O; Gram, Lone

2010-01-01

7

Reproducibility of Vibrionaceae population structure in coastal bacterioplankton  

PubMed Central

How reproducibly microbial populations assemble in the wild remains poorly understood. Here, we assess evidence for ecological specialization and predictability of fine-scale population structure and habitat association in coastal ocean Vibrionaceae across years. We compare Vibrionaceae lifestyles in the bacterioplankton (combinations of free-living, particle, or zooplankton associations) measured using the same sampling scheme in 2006 and 2009 to assess whether the same groups show the same environmental association year after year. This reveals complex dynamics with populations falling primarily into two categories: (i) nearly equally represented in each of the two samplings and (ii) highly skewed, often to an extent that they appear exclusive to one or the other sampling times. Importantly, populations recovered at the same abundance in both samplings occupied highly similar habitats suggesting predictable and robust environmental association while skewed abundances of some populations may be triggered by shifts in ecological conditions. The latter is supported by difference in the composition of large eukaryotic plankton between years, with samples in 2006 being dominated by copepods, and those in 2009 by diatoms. Overall, the comparison supports highly predictable population-habitat linkage but highlights the fact that complex, and often unmeasured, environmental dynamics in habitat occurrence may have strong effects on population dynamics. PMID:23178668

Szabo, Gitta; Preheim, Sarah P; Kauffman, Kathryn M; David, Lawrence A; Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J; Polz, Martin F

2013-01-01

8

Small RNAs in the Vibrionaceae: an ocean still to be explored.  

PubMed

In bacteria, the discovery of noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) as modulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals has brought new insights into bacterial gene regulation, including control of pathogenicity. The Vibrionaceae constitute a family of marine bacteria of which many are responsible for infections affecting not only humans, such as Vibrio cholerae but also fish and marine invertebrates, representing the major cause of mortality in farmed marine species. They are able to colonize many habitats, existing as planktonic forms, in biofilms or associated with various hosts. This high adaptability is linked to their capacity to generate genetic diversity, in part through lateral gene transfer, but also by varying gene expression control. In the recent years, several major studies have illustrated the importance of small regulatory sRNAs in the Vibrionaceae for the control of pathogenicity and adaptation to environment and nutrient sources such as chitin, especially in V. cholerae and Vibrio harveyi. The existence of a complex regulatory network controlled by quorum sensing has been demonstrated in which sRNAs play central roles. This review covers major advances made in the discovery and elucidation of functions of Vibrionaceae sRNAs within the last 10?years. PMID:24458378

Nguyen, An Ngoc; Jacq, Annick

2014-01-01

9

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

10

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

11

Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation. PMID:22131950

Mansson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.

2011-01-01

12

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

13

Money Talks: Revealing and Concealing Financial Information in Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial knowledge is essential for becoming a productive member of society, yet little is known about how parents communicate with their children about finances. Using a communication privacy management framework (Petronio, 2002), this study examined, through face-to-face, semi-structured interviews of 23 parents, what financial issues parents shared with their children and why parents chose to reveal or conceal this information.

Lynsey Kluever Romo

2011-01-01

14

Fine Mapping Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Dominican Families  

PubMed Central

Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a subclinical measure for atherosclerosis. Previously, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CIMT to chromosomes 7p (MLOD=3.1) and to 14q (MLOD=2.3). We sought to identify the underlying genetic variants within those QTLs, Methods and Results Using the 100 extended Dominican Republican (DR) families (N=1312) used in the original linkage study, we fine mapped the QTLs with 2031 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Promising SNPs in the family dataset were examined in an independent population-based subcohort comprised of DR individuals (N=553) from the Northern Manhattan Study. Among the families, evidence for association (P<0.001) was found in multiple genes (ANLN, AOAH, FOXN3, CCDC88C, PRiMA1, and an intergenic SNP rs1667498), with the strongest association at PRiMA1 (P=0.00007, corrected P=0.047). Additional analyses revealed that the association at these loci, except PRiMA1, was highly significant (P= 0.00004~0.00092) in families with evidence for linkage but not in the rest of families (P=0.13~0.80) and the population-based cohort, suggesting the genetic effects at these SNPs are limited to a subgroup of families. In contrast, the association at PRiMA1 was significant in both families with and without evidence for linkage (P=0.002 and 0.019, respectively), and the population-based subcohort (P=0.047), supporting a robust association. Conclusions We identified several candidate genes for CIMT in DR families. Some of the genes manifest genetic effects within a specific subgroup and others were generalized to all groups. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the contribution of these genes to atherosclerosis. PMID:22423143

Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Zhuo, Degen; Dong, Chuanhui; Blanton, Susan H.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.

2012-01-01

15

Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.] PMID:12618374

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

16

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko

2014-01-01

17

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota.  

PubMed

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

2014-01-01

18

Studies in a consanguineous family reveal a novel locus for stuttering on chromosome 16q  

PubMed Central

Stuttering is a common neurologic disorder in children that can persist into adulthood. Although stuttering displays high heritability, Mendelian segregation typically does not occur, and linkage studies have produced limited success. A genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage scan in a consanguineous Pakistani family followed by targeting genotyping using microsatellite markers revealed linkage on chromosome 16q. The highest linkage scores were obtained under a modified recessive model of inheritance, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 4.42 at marker D16S3043. PMID:22205390

Raza, M. Hashim; Ali, Rana Amjad; Riazuddin, S.; Drayna, Dennis

2012-01-01

19

BCL-2 family genetic profiling reveals microenvironment-specific determinants of chemotherapeutic response  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 family encompasses a diverse set of apoptotic regulators that are dynamically activated in response various cell intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. An extensive variety of cell culture experiments have identified effects of growth factors, cytokines and drugs on BCL-2 family functions, but in vivo studies have tended to focus on role of one or two particular members in development and organ homeostasis. Thus, the ability of physiologically relevant contexts to modulate canonical dependencies that are likely to be more complex has yet to be investigated systematically. In this study, we report findings derived from a pool-based shRNA assay that systematically and comprehensively interrogated the functional dependence of leukemia and lymphoma cells upon various BCL-2 family members across many diverse in vitro and in vivo settings. This approach permitted us to report the first in vivo loss of function screen for modifiers of the response to a frontline chemotherapeutic agent. Notably, our results reveal an unexpected role for the extrinsic death pathway as a tissue-specific modifier of therapeutic response. In particular, our findings demonstrate that particular tissue sites of tumor dissemination play critical roles in demarcating the nature and extent of cancer cell vulnerabilities and mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:21784872

Pritchard, Justin R.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Meacham, Corbin E.; Ricks, Jennifer L.; Jiang, Hai; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Hemann, Michael T.

2011-01-01

20

The intergenerational correlation in weight: How genetic resemblance reveals the social role of families*  

PubMed Central

According to behavioral genetics research, the intergenerational correlation in weight derives solely from shared genetic predispositions, but complete genetic determinism contradicts the scientific consensus that social and behavioral change underlies the modern obesity epidemic. To address this conundrum, this article utilizes sibling data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and extends structural equation sibling models to incorporate siblings’ genetic relationships to explore the role of families’ social characteristics for adolescent weight. The article is the first to demonstrate that the association between parents’ obesity and adolescent weight is both social and genetic. Furthermore, by incorporating genetic information, the shared and social origins of the correlation between inactivity and weight are better revealed. PMID:19569401

Martin, Molly A.

2009-01-01

21

Analysis of Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals a large new gene family in plants.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis of the currently available Arabidopsis thaliana genomic sequence has revealed the presence of a large number of open reading frames with homology to the stigmatic self-incompatibility (S) genes of Papaver rhoeas. The products of these potential genes are all predicted to be relatively small, basic, secreted proteins with similar predicted secondary structures. We have named these potential genes SPH (S-protein homologues). Their presence appears to have been largely missed by the prediction methods currently used on the genomic sequence. Equivalent homologues could not be detected in the human, microbial, Drosophila or C. elegans genomic databases, suggesting a function specific to plants. Preliminary RT-PCR analysis indicates that at least two members of the family (SPH1, SPH8) are expressed, with expression being greatest in floral tissues. The gene family may total more than 100 members, and its discovery not only illustrates the importance of the genome sequencing efforts, but also indicates the extent of information which remains hidden after the initial trawl for potential genes. PMID:10344198

Ride, J P; Davies, E M; Franklin, F C; Marshall, D F

1999-03-01

22

RNA profiling reveals familial aggregation of molecular subtypes in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families  

PubMed Central

Background In more than 70% of families with a strong history of breast and ovarian cancers, pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 cannot be identified, even though hereditary factors are expected to be involved. It has been proposed that tumors with similar molecular phenotypes also share similar underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In the current study, the aim was to investigate if global RNA profiling can be used to identify functional subgroups within breast tumors from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations and how these subgroupings relate to different breast cancer patients within the same family. Methods In the current study we analyzed a collection of 70 frozen breast tumor biopsies from a total of 58 families by global RNA profiling and promoter methylation analysis. Results We show that distinct functional subgroupings, similar to the intrinsic molecular breast cancer subtypes, exist among non-BRCA1/2 breast cancers. The distribution of subtypes was markedly different from the distribution found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. From 11 breast cancer families, breast tumor biopsies from more than one affected family member were included in the study. Notably, in 8 of these families we found that patients from the same family shared the same tumor subtype, showing a tendency of familial aggregation of tumor subtypes (p-value?=?1.7e-3). Using our previously developed BRCA1/2-signatures, we identified 7 non-BRCA1/2 tumors with a BRCA1-like molecular phenotype and provide evidence for epigenetic inactivation of BRCA1 in three of the tumors. In addition, 7 BRCA2-like tumors were found. Conclusions Our finding indicates involvement of hereditary factors in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which family members may carry genetic susceptibility not just to breast cancer but to a particular subtype of breast cancer. This is the first study to provide a biological link between breast cancers from family members of high-risk non-BRCA1/2 families in a systematic manner, suggesting that future genetic analysis may benefit from subgrouping families into molecularly homogeneous subtypes in order to search for new high penetrance susceptibility genes. PMID:24479546

2014-01-01

23

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

PubMed

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO. PMID:22183874

Fay, Johnna P; Richards, Gary P; Ozbay, Gulnihal

2012-05-01

24

New insights on the sialidase protein family revealed by a phylogenetic analysis in metazoa.  

PubMed

Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis), early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals). We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in the evolution of specific properties of sialidases. PMID:22952925

Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Schauer, Roland; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

25

New Insights on the Sialidase Protein Family Revealed by a Phylogenetic Analysis in Metazoa  

PubMed Central

Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis), early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals). We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in the evolution of specific properties of sialidases. PMID:22952925

Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Schauer, Roland; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

26

Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family  

SciTech Connect

Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-05-01

27

A multi-faceted analysis of RutD reveals a novel family of ?/? hydrolases  

PubMed Central

The rut pathway of pyrimidine catabolism is a novel pathway that allows pyrimidine bases to serve as the sole nitrogen source in suboptimal temperatures. The rut operon in E. coli evaded detection until 2006, yet consists of seven proteins named RutA, RutB, etc. through RutG. The operon is comprised of a pyrimidine transporter and six enzymes that cleave and further process the uracil ring. Herein, we report the structure of RutD, a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily, which is proposed to enhance the rate of hydrolysis of aminoacrylate, a toxic side product of uracil degradation, to malonic semialdehyde. Although this reaction will occur spontaneously in water, the toxicity of aminoacrylate necessitates catalysis by RutD for efficient growth with uracil as a nitrogen source. RutD has a novel and conserved arrangement of residues corresponding to the ?/? hydrolase active site, where the nucleophile’s spatial position occupied by Ser, Cys or Asp of the canonical catalytic triad is replaced by histidine. We have used a combination of crystallographic structure determination, modeling and bioinformatics, to propose a novel mechanism for this enzyme. This approach also revealed that RutD represents a previously undescribed family within the ?/? hydrolases. We compare and contrast RutD with PcaD, which is the closest structural homolog to RutD. PcaD is a 3-oxoadipate-enol-lactonase-with a classic arrangement of residues in the active site. We have modeled a substrate in the PcaD active site and proposed a reaction mechanism. PMID:22641504

Knapik, Aleksandra A.; Petkowski, Janusz J.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Cymborowski, Marcin T.; Cooper, David R.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Krajewska, Wanda M.; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

28

Functional divergence of the glutathione S-transferase supergene family in Physcomitrella patens reveals complex patterns of large gene family evolution in land plants.  

PubMed

Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants. PMID:23188805

Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

2013-02-01

29

Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene  

PubMed Central

AIM To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology. METHODS A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP (XLRP) was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members. RESULTS Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members. CONCLUSION We have identified a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be an effective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

Hu, Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Yun; Liu, Lin-Lin; Luo, Yao-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Wang, Hui; Xie, Jing; Hu, Cheng-Quan; Gan, Lin; Huang, Liang

2014-01-01

30

BCL-2 family genetic profiling reveals microenvironment-specific determinants of chemotherapeutic response  

E-print Network

The Bcl-2 family encompasses a diverse set of apoptotic regulators that are dynamically activated in response to various cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic stimuli. An extensive variety of cell culture experiments have identified ...

Pritchard, Justin Robert

31

Correlated mutation analyses on super-family alignments reveal functionally important residues.  

PubMed

Correlated mutation analyses (CMA) on multiple sequence alignments are widely used for the prediction of the function of amino acids. The accuracy of CMA-based predictions is mainly determined by the number of sequences, by their evolutionary distances, and by the quality of the alignments. These criteria are best met in structure-based sequence alignments of large super-families. So far, CMA-techniques have mainly been employed to study the receptor interactions. The present work shows how a novel CMA tool, called Comulator, can be used to determine networks of functionally related residues in enzymes. These analyses provide leads for protein engineering studies that are directed towards modification of enzyme specificity or activity. As proof of concept, Comulator has been applied to four enzyme super-families: the isocitrate lyase/phoshoenol-pyruvate mutase super-family, the hexokinase super-family, the RmlC-like cupin super-family, and the FAD-linked oxidases super-family. In each of those cases networks of functionally related residue positions were discovered that upon mutation influenced enzyme specificity and/or activity as predicted. We conclude that CMA is a powerful tool for redesigning enzyme activity and selectivity. PMID:19274741

Kuipers, Remko K P; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Verwiel, Eugene; Paans, Sjoerd; Akerboom, Jasper; van der Oost, John; Leferink, Nicole G H; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vriend, Gert; Schaap, Peter J

2009-08-15

32

Multiple deletions reveal the essentiality of the DedA membrane protein family in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The DedA family is a highly conserved, ancient family of membrane proteins with representatives in most sequenced genomes. A characteristic of prokaryotic DedA family genes is extensive gene duplication, with most bacterial genomes carrying two or more homologues. The Escherichia coli genome carries eight DedA genes, each individually nonessential. We previously described an E. coli mutant (BC202; ?yghB : : kan(R), ?yqjA : : tet(R)) with in-frame deletions of two DedA genes encoding proteins with 61 % amino acid identity. BC202 fails to complete cell division or grow at elevated temperatures. Here, we report that restoration of normal growth and cell division of BC202 is possible by overexpression of a subset of the eight E. coli DedA genes (yabI, yohD, yqjA and yghB) but not others (dedA, ydjX, ydjZ and yqaA), suggesting the existence of two functional groups within the family. We have constructed individual E. coli strains in which all eight DedA genes are deleted in a nonpolar manner, and growth is supported by a single DedA family gene under control of an inducible promoter. Strain BAL801 (with growth supported by cloned dedA) and BAL802 (with growth supported by cloned yqjA) exhibit slow growth that is absolutely dependent upon the presence of the arabinose inducer. Growth in the presence of glucose results in cell death. These results indicate that while not individually essential, the E. coli DedA family proteins are collectively essential. These observations suggest important functions for the E. coli DedA protein family. PMID:22301910

Boughner, Lisa A; Doerrler, William T

2012-05-01

33

Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function  

PubMed Central

Background PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence, defence, and others. Despite the importance of the PHB gene family, no comprehensive gene family analysis has been carried to evaluate the relatedness of PHB genes across different species. In order to better guide the gene function analysis and understand the evolution of the PHB gene family, we therefore carried out the comparative genome analysis of the PHB genes across different kingdoms. Results The relatedness, motif distribution, and intron/exon distribution all indicated that PHB genes is a relatively conserved gene family. The PHB genes can be classified into 5 classes and each class have a very deep evolutionary origin. The PHB genes within the class maintained the same motif patterns during the evolution. With Arabidopsis as the model species, we found that PHB gene intron/exon structure and domains are also conserved during the evolution. Despite being a conserved gene family, various gene duplication events led to the expansion of the PHB genes. Both segmental and tandem gene duplication were involved in Arabidopsis PHB gene family expansion. However, segmental duplication is predominant in Arabidopsis. Moreover, most of the duplicated genes experienced neofunctionalization. The results highlighted that PHB genes might be involved in important functions so that the duplicated genes are under the evolutionary pressure to derive new function. Conclusion PHB gene family is a conserved gene family and accounts for diverse but important biological functions based on the similar molecular mechanisms. The highly diverse biological function indicated that more research needs to be carried out to dissect the PHB gene function. The conserved gene evolution indicated that the study in the model species can be translated to human and mammalian studies. PMID:20946606

2010-01-01

34

Exome sequencing reveals VCP mutations as a cause of familial ALS  

PubMed Central

Summary Using exome sequencing, we identified a p.R191Q amino acid change in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene in an Italian family with autosomal dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in VCP have previously been identified in families with Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget’s disease and Frontotemporal Dementia (IBMPFD). Screening of VCP in a cohort of 210 familial ALS cases and 78 autopsy-proven ALS cases identified four additional mutations including a p.R155H mutation in a pathologically-proven case of ALS. VCP protein is essential for maturation of ubiquitin-containing autophagosomes, and mutant VCP toxicity is partially mediated through its effect on TDP-43 protein, a major constituent of ubiquitin inclusions that neuropathologically characterize ALS. Our data broaden the phenotype of IBMPFD to include motor neuron degeneration, suggest that VCP mutations may account for ~1–2% of familial ALS, and represent the first evidence directly implicating defects in the ubiquitination/protein degradation pathway in motor neuron degeneration. PMID:21145000

Johnson, Janel O.; Mandrioli, Jessica; Benatar, Michael; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Gibbs, J Raphael; Brunetti, Maura; Gronka, Susan; Wuu, Joanne; Ding, Jinhui; McCluskey, Leo; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Falcone, Dana; Hernandez, Dena G.; Arepalli, Sampath; Chong, Sean; Schymick, Jennifer C.; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Landi, Francesco; Wang, Michael; Calvo, Andrea; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Battistini, Stefania; Salvi, Fabrizio; Spataro, Rossella; Sola, Patrizia; Borghero, Giuseppe; Galassi, Giuliana; Scholz, Sonja W.; Taylor, J. Paul; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J.

2010-01-01

35

Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence,

Chao Di; Wenying Xu; Zhen Su; Joshua S Yuan

2010-01-01

36

Brief Report: An Autistic Spectrum Subtype Revealed through Familial Psychopathology Coupled with Cognition in ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified a possible autistic spectrum subtype expressed through family psychopathology coupled with autistic probands' cognitive functioning (i.e., an endophenotypic profile). Participants included 24 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 49 children with Learning Disorder (LD). There were significantly higher rates of Mood…

Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Menard, Philip

2008-01-01

37

Exome sequencing of extended families with autism reveals genes shared across neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of neurodevelopmental conditions of varying severity, characterized by marked qualitative difficulties in social relatedness, communication, and behavior. Despite overwhelming evidence of high heritability, results from genetic studies to date show that ASD etiology is extremely heterogeneous and only a fraction of autism genes have been discovered. Methods To help unravel this genetic complexity, we performed whole exome sequencing on 100 ASD individuals from 40 families with multiple distantly related affected individuals. All families contained a minimum of one pair of ASD cousins. Each individual was captured with the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon kit, sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq 2000, and the resulting data processed and annotated with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), and SeattleSeq. Genotyping information on each family was utilized in order to determine genomic regions that were identical by descent (IBD). Variants identified by exome sequencing which occurred in IBD regions and present in all affected individuals within each family were then evaluated to determine which may potentially be disease related. Nucleotide alterations that were novel and rare (minor allele frequency, MAF, less than 0.05) and predicted to be detrimental, either by altering amino acids or splicing patterns, were prioritized. Results We identified numerous potentially damaging, ASD associated risk variants in genes previously unrelated to autism. A subset of these genes has been implicated in other neurobehavioral disorders including depression (SLIT3), epilepsy (CLCN2, PRICKLE1), intellectual disability (AP4M1), schizophrenia (WDR60), and Tourette syndrome (OFCC1). Additional alterations were found in previously reported autism candidate genes, including three genes with alterations in multiple families (CEP290, CSMD1, FAT1, and STXBP5). Compiling a list of ASD candidate genes from the literature, we determined that variants occurred in ASD candidate genes 1.65 times more frequently than in random genes captured by exome sequencing (P?=?8.55 × 10-5). Conclusions By studying these unique pedigrees, we have identified novel DNA variations related to ASD, demonstrated that exome sequencing in extended families is a powerful tool for ASD candidate gene discovery, and provided further evidence of an underlying genetic component to a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24410847

2014-01-01

38

Correlated mutation analyses on super-family alignments reveal functionally important residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated mutation analyses (CMA) on multiple sequence alignments are widely used for the prediction of the function of amino acids. The accuracy of CMA-based predictions is mainly determined by the number of sequences, by their evolutionary distances, and by the quality of the alignments. These criteria are best met in structure-based sequence alignments of large super-families. So far, CMA-techniques have

Remko K. P. Kuipers; Henk-Jan Joosten; Eugene Verwiel; J. Paans; Jasper Akerboom; John van der Oost; Nicole G. H. Leferink; Berkel van W. J. H; Gert Vriend; Peter J. Schaap

2009-01-01

39

Growth Kinetics of Extremely Halophilic Archaea (Family Halobacteriaceae) as Revealed by Arrhenius Plots  

PubMed Central

Members of the family Halobacteriaceae in the domain Archaea are obligate extreme halophiles. They occupy a variety of hypersaline environments, and their cellular biochemistry functions in a nearly saturated salty milieu. Despite extensive study, a detailed analysis of their growth kinetics is missing. To remedy this, Arrhenius plots for 14 type species of the family were generated. These organisms had maximum growth temperatures ranging from 49 to 58°C. Nine of the organisms exhibited a single temperature optimum, while five grew optimally at more than one temperature. Generation times at these optimal temperatures ranged from 1.5 h (Haloterrigena turkmenica) to 3.0 h (Haloarcula vallismortis and Halorubrum saccharovorum). All shared an inflection point at 31 ± 4°C, and the temperature characteristics for 12 of the 14 type species were nearly parallel. The other two species (Natronomonas pharaonis and Natronorubrum bangense) had significantly different temperature characteristics, suggesting that the physiology of these strains is different. In addition, these data show that the type species for the family Halobacteriaceae share similar growth kinetics and are capable of much faster growth at higher temperatures than those previously reported. PMID:15659670

Robinson, Jessie L.; Pyzyna, Brandy; Atrasz, Rachelle G.; Henderson, Christine A.; Morrill, Kira L.; Burd, Anna Mae; DeSoucy, Erik; Fogleman, Rex E.; Naylor, John B.; Steele, Sarah M.; Elliott, Dawn R.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Shand, Richard F.

2005-01-01

40

Homozygosity mapping in 64 Syrian consanguineous families with non-specific intellectual disability reveals 11 novel loci and high heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Non-specific intellectual disability of autosomal recessive inheritance (NS-ARID) represents an important fraction of severe cognitive dysfunction disorders. To date, only 10 genes have been identified, and further 24 linked-ARID loci have been reported, as well as others with suggestive linkage. To discover novel genes causing NS-ARID, we undertook genome-wide homozygosity mapping in 64 consanguineous multiplex families of Syrian descent. A total of 11 families revealed unique, significantly linked loci at 4q26-4q28 (MRT17), 6q12-q15 (MRT18), 18p11 (MRT19), 16p12-q12 (MRT20), 11p15 (MRT21), 11p13-q14 (MRT23), 6p12 (MRT24), 12q13-q15 (MRT25), 14q11-q12 (MRT26), 15q23-q26 (MRT27), and 6q26-q27 (MRT28), respectively. Loci ranged between 1.2 and 45.6?Mb in length. One family showed linkage to chromosome 8q24.3, and we identified a mutation in TRAPPC9. Our study further highlights the extreme heterogeneity of NS-ARID, and suggests that no major disease gene is to be expected, at least in this study group. Systematic analysis of large numbers of affected families, as presented here, will help discovering the genetic causes of ID. PMID:21629298

Abou Jamra, R; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Zweier, Markus; Uebe, Steffen; Priebe, Lutz; Ekici, Arif; Giesebrecht, Susanne; Abboud, Ahmad; Al Khateeb, Mohammed Ayman; Fakher, Mahmoud; Hamdan, Saber; Ismael, Amina; Muhammad, Safia; Nöthen, Markus M; Schumacher, Johannes; Reis, André

2011-01-01

41

Vitamin E analyses in seeds reveal a dominant presence of tocotrienols over tocopherols in the Arecaceae family.  

PubMed

Tocopherols are thought to prevent oxidative damage during seed quiescence and dormancy in all angiosperms. However, several monocot species accumulate tocotrienols in seeds and their role remains elusive. Here, we aimed to unravel the distribution of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seeds of the Arecaceae family, to examine possible trends of vitamin E accumulation within different clades of the same family. We examined the tocopherol and tocotrienol content in seeds of 84 species. Furthermore, we evaluated the vitamin E composition of the seed coat, endosperm and embryo of seeds from 6 species, to determine possible tissue-specific functions of particular vitamin E forms. While seeds of 98.8% (83 out of 84) of the species accumulated tocotrienols, only 58.3% (49 out of 84) accumulated tocopherols. The presence of tocopherols did not follow a clear evolutionary trend, and appeared randomly in some clades only. In addition, the tissue-specific location of vitamin E in seeds revealed that the embryo contains mostly ?-tocopherol (in seed tocopherol-accumulating species) or ?-tocotrienol (in seed tocopherol-deficient species). However, some species such as Socratea exorrhiza mostly accumulate ?-tocotrienol, and Parajubaea torallyi accumulates a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the embryo. This suggests that tocotrienols can play a similar protective role to that exerted by tocopherols in seeds, at least in some species of the Arecaceae family. We conclude that tocotrienol, rather than tocopherol, accumulation is a conserved trait in seeds of the Arecaceae family. PMID:23920227

Siles, Laura; Cela, Jana; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2013-11-01

42

A survey of Populus PIN-FORMED family genes reveals their diversified expression patterns.  

PubMed

The plant hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant development, and its uneven distribution maintained by polar intercellular auxin transport in plant tissues can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. Although the roles of PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins in intercellular auxin flow have been extensively characterized in Arabidopsis, their roles in woody plants remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive analysis of PIN proteins in Populus is presented. Fifteen PINs are encoded in the genome of Populus, including four PIN1s, one PIN2, two PIN3s, three PIN5s, three PIN6s, and two PIN8s. Similar to Arabidopsis AtPIN proteins, PtPINs share conserved topology and transmembrane domains, and are either plasma membrane- or endoplasmic reticulum-localized. The more diversified expansion of the PIN family in Populus, comparing to that in Arabidopsis, indicates that some auxin-regulated developmental processes, such as secondary growth, may exhibit unique features in trees. More importantly, different sets of PtoPINs have been found to be strongly expressed in the roots, leaves, and cambium in Populus; the dynamic expression patterns of selected PtoPINs were further examined during the regeneration of shoots and roots. This genome-wide analysis of the Populus PIN family provides important cues for their potential roles in tree growth and development. PMID:24663343

Liu, Bobin; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Lin; Li, Jianbo; Zheng, Huanquan; Chen, Jun; Lu, Mengzhu

2014-06-01

43

Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.  

PubMed

Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa. PMID:24065666

Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

2013-01-01

44

Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol  

PubMed Central

The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights into biological regulation of HDL metabolism in healthy-longevous subjects. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan on HDL using a mixed model approach to account for family structure using kinship coefficients. A total of 4114 subjects of European descent (480 families) were genotyped at ~2.3 million SNPs and ~38 million SNPs were imputed using the 1000 Genome Cosmopolitan reference panel in MACH. We identified novel variants near-NLRP1 (17p13) associated with an increase of HDL levels at genome-wide significant level (p < 5.0E-08). Additionally, several CETP (16q21) and ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1 (11q23.3) variants associated with HDL were found, replicating those previously reported in the literature. A possible regulatory variant upstream of NLRP1 that is associated with HDL in these elderly Long Life Family Study (LLFS) subjects may also contribute to their longevity and health. Our NLRP1 intergenic SNPs show a potential regulatory function in Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE); however, it is not clear whether they regulate NLRP1 or other more remote gene. NLRP1 plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis, and its inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses. Nlrp1a (a mouse ortholog of human NLRP1) interacts with SREBP-1a (17p11) which has a fundamental role in lipid concentration and composition, and is involved in innate immune response in macrophages. The NLRP1 region is conserved in mammals, but also has evolved adaptively showing signals of positive selection in European populations that might confer an advantage. NLRP1 intergenic SNPs have also been associated with immunity/inflammasome disorders which highlights the biological importance of this chromosomal region. PMID:24917880

Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Straka, Robert; Kammerer, Candace M.; Lee, Joseph H.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Christensen, Kaare; Newman, Anne B.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

2014-01-01

45

Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1) in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP) family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH) subtype 1G (Ush1g), both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s) of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways. PMID:21261979

2011-01-01

46

Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members  

SciTech Connect

Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

2012-07-11

47

Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae  

PubMed Central

Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T (?=?CICC 33021?=?NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

2014-01-01

48

Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases  

SciTech Connect

Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso (NWU); (FSI)

2010-09-02

49

Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

2013-01-01

50

The Genomic Landscape of the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors Reveals Recurrent STAG2 Mutation  

PubMed Central

The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is a group of highly malignant small round blue cell tumors occurring in children and young adults. We report here the largest genomic survey to date of 101 EFT (65 tumors and 36 cell lines). Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing approaches, we discover that EFT has a very low mutational burden (0.15 mutations/Mb) but frequent deleterious mutations in the cohesin complex subunit STAG2 (21.5% tumors, 44.4% cell lines), homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (13.8% and 50%) and mutations of TP53 (6.2% and 71.9%). We additionally note an increased prevalence of the BRCA2 K3326X polymorphism in EFT patient samples (7.3%) compared to population data (OR 7.1, p?=?0.006). Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we find that 11% of tumors pathologically diagnosed as EFT lack a typical EWSR1 fusion oncogene and that these tumors do not have a characteristic Ewing sarcoma gene expression signature. We identify samples harboring novel fusion genes including FUS-NCATc2 and CIC-FOXO4 that may represent distinct small round blue cell tumor variants. In an independent EFT tissue microarray cohort, we show that STAG2 loss as detected by immunohistochemistry may be associated with more advanced disease (p?=?0.15) and a modest decrease in overall survival (p?=?0.10). These results significantly advance our understanding of the genomic and molecular underpinnings of Ewing sarcoma and provide a foundation towards further efforts to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and precision therapeutics testing. PMID:25010205

Brohl, Andrew S.; Solomon, David A.; Chang, Wendy; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Young; Sindiri, Sivasish; Patidar, Rajesh; Hurd, Laura; Chen, Li; Shern, Jack F.; Liao, Hongling; Wen, Xinyu; Gerard, Julia; Kim, Jung-Sik; Lopez Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Machado, Isidro; Wai, Daniel H.; Picci, Piero; Triche, Timothy; Horvai, Andrew E.; Miettinen, Markku; Wei, Jun S.; Catchpool, Daniel; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Waldman, Todd; Khan, Javed

2014-01-01

51

Revealing a brain network endophenotype in families with idiopathic generalised epilepsy.  

PubMed

Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) has a genetic basis. The mechanism of seizure expression is not fully known, but is assumed to involve large-scale brain networks. We hypothesised that abnormal brain network properties would be detected using EEG in patients with IGE, and would be manifest as a familial endophenotype in their unaffected first-degree relatives. We studied 117 participants: 35 patients with IGE, 42 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 40 normal controls, using scalp EEG. Graph theory was used to describe brain network topology in five frequency bands for each subject. Frequency bands were chosen based on a published Spectral Factor Analysis study which demonstrated these bands to be optimally robust and independent. Groups were compared, using Bonferroni correction to account for nonindependent measures and multiple groups. Degree distribution variance was greater in patients and relatives than controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p?=?0.0005, p?=?0.0009 respectively). Mean degree was greater in patients than healthy controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p?=?0.0064). Clustering coefficient was higher in patients and relatives than controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p?=?0.0025, p?=?0.0013). Characteristic path length did not differ between groups. No differences were found between patients and unaffected relatives. These findings suggest brain network topology differs between patients with IGE and normal controls, and that some of these network measures show similar deviations in patients and in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy. This suggests brain network topology may be an inherited endophenotype of IGE, present in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy, as well as in affected patients. We propose that abnormal brain network topology may be an endophenotype of IGE, though not in itself sufficient to cause epilepsy. PMID:25302690

Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Woldman, Wessel; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Elwes, Robert D C; Nashef, Lina; Terry, John R; Richardson, Mark P

2014-01-01

52

The genomic landscape of the Ewing Sarcoma family of tumors reveals recurrent STAG2 mutation.  

PubMed

The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is a group of highly malignant small round blue cell tumors occurring in children and young adults. We report here the largest genomic survey to date of 101 EFT (65 tumors and 36 cell lines). Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing approaches, we discover that EFT has a very low mutational burden (0.15 mutations/Mb) but frequent deleterious mutations in the cohesin complex subunit STAG2 (21.5% tumors, 44.4% cell lines), homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (13.8% and 50%) and mutations of TP53 (6.2% and 71.9%). We additionally note an increased prevalence of the BRCA2 K3326X polymorphism in EFT patient samples (7.3%) compared to population data (OR 7.1, p?=?0.006). Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we find that 11% of tumors pathologically diagnosed as EFT lack a typical EWSR1 fusion oncogene and that these tumors do not have a characteristic Ewing sarcoma gene expression signature. We identify samples harboring novel fusion genes including FUS-NCATc2 and CIC-FOXO4 that may represent distinct small round blue cell tumor variants. In an independent EFT tissue microarray cohort, we show that STAG2 loss as detected by immunohistochemistry may be associated with more advanced disease (p?=?0.15) and a modest decrease in overall survival (p?=?0.10). These results significantly advance our understanding of the genomic and molecular underpinnings of Ewing sarcoma and provide a foundation towards further efforts to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and precision therapeutics testing. PMID:25010205

Brohl, Andrew S; Solomon, David A; Chang, Wendy; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Young; Sindiri, Sivasish; Patidar, Rajesh; Hurd, Laura; Chen, Li; Shern, Jack F; Liao, Hongling; Wen, Xinyu; Gerard, Julia; Kim, Jung-Sik; Lopez Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Machado, Isidro; Wai, Daniel H; Picci, Piero; Triche, Timothy; Horvai, Andrew E; Miettinen, Markku; Wei, Jun S; Catchpool, Daniel; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Waldman, Todd; Khan, Javed

2014-07-01

53

Revealing a Brain Network Endophenotype in Families with Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) has a genetic basis. The mechanism of seizure expression is not fully known, but is assumed to involve large-scale brain networks. We hypothesised that abnormal brain network properties would be detected using EEG in patients with IGE, and would be manifest as a familial endophenotype in their unaffected first-degree relatives. We studied 117 participants: 35 patients with IGE, 42 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 40 normal controls, using scalp EEG. Graph theory was used to describe brain network topology in five frequency bands for each subject. Frequency bands were chosen based on a published Spectral Factor Analysis study which demonstrated these bands to be optimally robust and independent. Groups were compared, using Bonferroni correction to account for nonindependent measures and multiple groups. Degree distribution variance was greater in patients and relatives than controls in the 6–9 Hz band (p?=?0.0005, p?=?0.0009 respectively). Mean degree was greater in patients than healthy controls in the 6–9 Hz band (p?=?0.0064). Clustering coefficient was higher in patients and relatives than controls in the 6–9 Hz band (p?=?0.0025, p?=?0.0013). Characteristic path length did not differ between groups. No differences were found between patients and unaffected relatives. These findings suggest brain network topology differs between patients with IGE and normal controls, and that some of these network measures show similar deviations in patients and in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy. This suggests brain network topology may be an inherited endophenotype of IGE, present in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy, as well as in affected patients. We propose that abnormal brain network topology may be an endophenotype of IGE, though not in itself sufficient to cause epilepsy. PMID:25302690

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Elwes, Robert D. C.; Nashef, Lina; Terry, John R.; Richardson, Mark P.

2014-01-01

54

Screening of Predicted Secreted Antigens from Mycobacterium bovis Reveals the Immunodominance of the ESAT-6 Protein Family? †  

PubMed Central

Results of previous studies utilizing bioinformatic approaches in antigen-mining experiments revealed that secreted proteins are among the most frequently recognized antigens from Mycobacterium bovis. Thus, we hypothesized that the analysis of secreted proteins is likely to reveal additional immunogenic antigens that can be used to increase the specificity of diagnostic tests or be suitable vaccination candidates for mycobacterial infections. To test this hypothesis, 382 pools of overlapping peptides spanning 119 M. bovis secreted and potentially secreted proteins were screened for the ability to stimulate a gamma interferon response in vitro using whole blood from tuberculin-positive reactor (TB reactor) cattle. Of the 119 proteins screened, 70 (59%) induced positive responses in the TB reactor animals to various degrees. Strikingly, all but one of the 15 ESAT-6 proteins tested were recognized by at least 30% of the TB reactor animals, with 12 of the 22 most commonly recognized antigens belonging to this protein family. Further analysis of these data demonstrated that there was no significant difference in immunogenicity between the ESAT-6 proteins that were components of potentially intact ESX secretory systems and those corresponding to additional partial esx loci. Importantly for vaccine design, antigenic epitopes in some highly conserved regions shared by numerous ESAT-6 proteins were identified. However, despite this considerable homology, peptide-mapping experiments also revealed that immunodominant peptides were located in regions of amino acid variability. PMID:20086089

Jones, Gareth J.; Gordon, Stephen V.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin

2010-01-01

55

Extensive Expansion of A1 Family Aspartic Proteinases in Fungi Revealed by Evolutionary Analyses of 107 Complete Eukaryotic Proteomes  

PubMed Central

The A1 family of eukaryotic aspartic proteinases (APs) forms one of the 16 AP families. Although one of the best characterized families, the recent increase in genome sequence data has revealed many fungal AP homologs with novel sequence characteristics. This study was performed to explore the fungal AP sequence space and to obtain an in-depth understanding of fungal AP evolution. Using a comprehensive phylogeny of approximately 700 AP sequences from the complete proteomes of 87 fungi and 20 nonfungal eukaryotes, 11 major clades of APs were defined of which clade I largely corresponds to the A1A subfamily of pepsin-archetype APs. Clade II largely corresponds to the A1B subfamily of nepenthesin-archetype APs. Remarkably, the nine other clades contain only fungal APs, thus indicating that fungal APs have undergone a large sequence diversification. The topology of the tree indicates that fungal APs have been subject to both “birth and death” evolution and “functional redundancy and diversification.” This is substantiated by coclustering of certain functional sequence characteristics. A meta-analysis toward the identification of Cluster Determining Positions (CDPs) was performed in order to investigate the structural and biochemical basis for diversification. Seven CDPs contribute to the secondary structure of the enzyme. Three other CDPs are found in the vicinity of the substrate binding cleft. Tree topology, the large sequence variation among fungal APs, and the apparent functional diversification suggest that an amendment to update the current A1 AP classification based on a comprehensive phylogenetic clustering might contribute to refinement of the classification in the MEROPS peptidase database. PMID:24869856

Revuelta, María V.; van Kan, Jan A.L.; Kay, John; ten Have, Arjen

2014-01-01

56

Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family  

PubMed Central

Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution. PMID:23560078

Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant'Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Celia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flavia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patricia H.; de Mendonca-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antonio; Urmenyi, Turan P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2013-01-01

57

Functional and Transcriptome Analysis Reveals an Acclimatization Strategy for Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA Family Members  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric complex formed by NF-YA/NF-YB/NF-YC subunits that binds to the CCAAT-box in eukaryotic promoters. In contrast to other organisms, in which a single gene encodes each subunit, in plants gene families of over 10 members encode each of the subunits. Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms. Overexpression of NF-YA2, 7 and 10 resulted in dwarf late-senescent plants with enhanced tolerance to several types of abiotic stress. These phenotypes are related to alterations in sucrose/starch balance and cell elongation observed in NF-YA overexpressing plants. The use of transcriptomic analysis of transgenic plants that express miR169-resistant versions of NF-YA2, 3, 7, and 10 under an estradiol inducible system, as well as a dominant-repressor version of NF-YA2 revealed a set of genes, whose promoters are enriched in NF-Y binding sites (CCAAT-box) and that may be directly regulated by the NF-Y complex. This analysis also suggests that NF-YAs could participate in modulating gene regulation through positive and negative mechanisms. We propose a model in which the increase in NF-YA transcript levels in response to abiotic stress is part of an adaptive response to adverse environmental conditions in which a reduction in plant growth rate plays a key role. PMID:23118940

Leyva-Gonzalez, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramirez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-01-01

58

Independent HHsearch, Needleman--Wunsch-based, and motif analyses reveal the overall hierarchy for most of the G protein-coupled receptor families.  

PubMed

Several families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show no significant sequence similarities to each other, and it has been debated which of them share a common origin. We developed and performed integrated and independent HHsearch, Needleman--Wunsch-based and motif analyses on more than 6,600 unique GPCRs from 12 species. Moreover, we mined the evolutionary important Trichoplax adhaerens, Nematostella vectensis, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genomes, revealing remarkably rich vertebrate-like GPCR repertoires already in the early Metazoan species. We found strong evidence that the Adhesion and Frizzled families are children to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) family with HHsearch homology probabilities of 99.8% and 99.4%, respectively, also supported by the Needleman--Wunsch analysis and several motifs. We also found that the large Rhodopsin family is likely a child of the cAMP family with an HHsearch homology probability of 99.4% and conserved motifs. Therefore, we suggest that the Adhesion and Frizzled families originated from the cAMP family in an event close to that which gave rise to the Rhodopsin family. We also found convincing evidence that the Rhodopsin family is parent to the important sensory families; Taste 2 and Vomeronasal type 1 as well as the Nematode chemoreceptor families. The insect odorant, gustatory, and Trehalose receptors, frequently referred to as GPCRs, form a separate cluster without relationship to the other families, and we propose, based on these and others' results, that these families are ligand-gated ion channels rather than GPCRs. Overall, we suggest common descent of at least 97% of the GPCRs sequences found in humans. PMID:21402729

Nordström, Karl J V; Sällman Almén, Markus; Edstam, Monika M; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2011-09-01

59

Novel Family of Carbohydrate-Binding Modules Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6192 ? †  

PubMed Central

Spirochaeta thermophila is a thermophilic, free-living, and cellulolytic anaerobe. The genome sequence data for this organism have revealed a high density of genes encoding enzymes from more than 30 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families and a noncellulosomal enzyme system for (hemi)cellulose degradation. Functional screening of a fosmid library whose inserts were mapped on the S. thermophila genome sequence allowed the functional annotation of numerous GH open reading frames (ORFs). Seven different GH ORFs from the S. thermophila DSM 6192 genome, all putative ?-glycanase ORFs according to sequence similarity analysis, contained a highly conserved novel GH-associated module of unknown function at their C terminus. Four of these GH enzymes were experimentally verified as xylanase, ?-glucanase, ?-glucanase/carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), and CMCase. Binding experiments performed with the recombinantly expressed and purified GH-associated module showed that it represents a new carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds to microcrystalline cellulose and is highly specific for this substrate. In the course of this work, the new CBM type was only detected in Spirochaeta, but recently we found sequences with detectable similarity to the module in the draft genomes of Cytophaga fermentans and Mahella australiensis, both of which are phylogenetically very distant from S. thermophila and noncellulolytic, yet inhabit similar environments. This suggests a possibly broad distribution of the module in nature. PMID:21685171

Angelov, Angel; Loderer, Christoph; Pompei, Susanne; Liebl, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

60

Structural enzymology of Cellvibrio japonicus Agd31B protein reveals ?-transglucosylase activity in glycoside hydrolase family 31.  

PubMed

The metabolism of the storage polysaccharides glycogen and starch is of vital importance to organisms from all domains of life. In bacteria, utilization of these ?-glucans requires the concerted action of a variety of enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases, glycoside phosphorylases, and transglycosylases. In particular, transglycosylases from glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) and GH77 play well established roles in ?-glucan side chain (de)branching, regulation of oligo- and polysaccharide chain length, and formation of cyclic dextrans. Here, we present the biochemical and tertiary structural characterization of a new type of bacterial 1,4-?-glucan 4-?-glucosyltransferase from GH31. Distinct from 1,4-?-glucan 6-?-glucosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.24) and 4-?-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.25), this enzyme strictly transferred one glucosyl residue from ?(1?4)-glucans in disproportionation reactions. Substrate hydrolysis was undetectable for a series of malto-oligosaccharides except maltose for which transglycosylation nonetheless dominated across a range of substrate concentrations. Crystallographic analysis of the enzyme in free, acarbose-complexed, and trapped 5-fluoro-?-glucosyl-enzyme intermediate forms revealed extended substrate interactions across one negative and up to three positive subsites, thus providing structural rationalization for the unique, single monosaccharide transferase activity of the enzyme. PMID:23132856

Larsbrink, Johan; Izumi, Atsushi; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

2012-12-21

61

Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.  

PubMed

The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both usually placed in Melanocorypha]; Ammomanopsis grayi and Ammomanes cinctura/deserti [former traditionally placed in Ammomanes]; Chersophilus duponti and Certhilauda spp.; Eremopterix hova [usually placed in Mirafra] and several Mirafra spp.), as well as both highly conserved plumages (e.g. within Mirafra) and strongly divergent lineages (e.g. Eremopterix hova vs. other Eremopterix spp.; Calandrella cinerea complex vs. Eremophila spp.; Eremalauda dunni vs. Chersophilus duponti; Melanocorypha mongolica and male M. yeltoniensis vs. other Melanocorypha spp. and female M. yeltoniensis). Sexual plumage dimorphism has evolved multiple times. Few groups of birds show the same level of disagreement between taxonomy based on morphology and phylogenetic relationships as inferred from DNA sequences. PMID:23792153

Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

2013-12-01

62

SNP array-based homozygosity mapping reveals MCPH1 deletion in family with autosomal recessive mental retardation and mild microcephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the molecular basis of autosomal recessive MR (ARMR) because in developed countries, small family\\u000a sizes preclude mapping and identification of the relevant gene defects. We therefore chose to investigate genetic causes of\\u000a ARMR in large consanguineous Iranian families. This study reports on a family with six mentally retarded members. Array-based\\u000a homozygosity mapping and high-resolution microarray-based

Masoud Garshasbi; Mohammad Mahdi Motazacker; Kimia Kahrizi; Farkhondeh Behjati; Seyedeh Sedigheh Abedini; Sahar Esmaeeli Nieh; Saghar Ghasemi Firouzabadi; Christian Becker; Franz Rüschendorf; Peter Nürnberg; Andreas Tzschach; Reza Vazifehmand; Fikret Erdogan; Reinhard Ullmann; Steffen Lenzner; Andreas W. Kuss; H. Hilger Ropers; Hossein Najmabadi

2006-01-01

63

Comparisons between the structures of HCV and Rep helicases reveal structural similarities between SF1 and SF2 super-families of helicases.  

PubMed Central

Three helicase structures have been determined recently: that of the DNA helicase PcrA, that of the hepatitis C virus RNA helicase, and that of the Escherichia coli DNA helicase Rep. PcrA and Rep belong to the same super-family of helicases (SF1) and are structurally very similar. In contrast, the HCV helicase belongs to a different super-family of helicases, SF2, and shows little sequence homology with the PcrA/Rep helicases. Yet, the HCV helicase is structurally similar to Rep/PcrA, suggesting preservation of structural scaffolds and relationships between helicase motifs across these two super-families. The comparison study presented here also reveals the existence of a new helicase motif in the SF1 family of helicases. PMID:9541392

Korolev, S.; Yao, N.; Lohman, T. M.; Weber, P. C.; Waksman, G.

1998-01-01

64

An unanticipated copy number variant of chromosome 15 disrupting SMAD3 reveals a three-generation family at serious risk for aortic dissection.  

PubMed

Several genes involved in the familial appearance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (FTAAD) have been characterized recently, one of which is SMAD3. Mutations of SMAD3 cause a new syndromic form of aortic aneurysms and dissections associated with skeletal abnormalities. We discovered a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 15, leading to disruption of SMAD3, in a boy with mild mental retardation, behavioral problems and revealed features of the aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS). Several family members carried the same deletion and showed features including aortic aneurysms and a dissection. This finding demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of SMAD3 leads to development of both thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, and the skeletal abnormalities that form part of the aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome. Interestingly, the identification of this familial deletion is an example of an unanticipated result of a genomic microarray and led to the discovery of important but unrelated serious aortic disease in the proband and family members. PMID:22803640

Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y; Scholte, A J H A; Rijlaarsdam, M E B; van Haeringen, A; Kroft, L J; Reijnierse, M; Ruivenkamp, C A L; Versteegh, M I M; Pals, G; Breuning, M H

2013-04-01

65

A Comparative Genome Analysis of PME and PMEI Families Reveals the Evolution of Pectin Metabolism in Plant Cell Walls  

PubMed Central

Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Pectins are synthesized and secreted to cell walls as highly methyl-esterified polymers and then demethyl-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which are spatially regulated by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). Although PME and PMEI genes are pivotal in plant cell wall formation, few studies have focused on the evolutionary patterns of the PME and PMEI gene families. In this study, the gene origin, evolution, and expression diversity of these two families were systematically analyzed using 11 representative species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and flowering land plants. The results show that 1) for the two subfamilies (PME and proPME) of PME, the origin of the PME subfamily is consistent with the appearance of pectins in early charophyte cell walls, 2) Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of proPME and PMEI families in land plants, 3) Evidence of selection pressure shows that the proPME and PMEI families have rapidly evolved, particularly the PMEI family in vascular plants, and 4) Comparative expression profile analysis of the two families indicates that the eudicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice have different expression patterns. In addition, the gene structure and sequence analyses show that the origin of the PMEI domain may be derived from the neofunctionalization of the pro domain after WGD. This study will advance the evolutionary understanding of the PME and PMEI families and plant cell wall development. PMID:23951288

Wang, Maojun; Yuan, Daojun; Gao, Wenhui; Li, Yang; Tan, Jiafu; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-01-01

66

Protein Homology Network Families Reveal Step-Wise Diversification of Type III and Type IV Secretion Systems  

PubMed Central

From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN), where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS). We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS), a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS). Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments. PMID:17140285

Medini, Duccio; Covacci, Antonello; Donati, Claudio

2006-01-01

67

Bioinformatic analysis of CaBP/calneuron proteins reveals a family of highly conserved vertebrate Ca2+-binding proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Ca2+-binding proteins are important for the transduction of Ca2+ signals into physiological outcomes. As in calmodulin many of the Ca2+-binding proteins bind Ca2+ through EF-hand motifs. Amongst the large number of EF-hand containing Ca2+-binding proteins are a subfamily expressed in neurons and retinal photoreceptors known as the CaBPs and the related calneuron proteins. These were suggested to be vertebrate specific but exactly which family members are expressed outside of mammalian species had not been examined. Findings We have carried out a bioinformatic analysis to determine when members of this family arose and the conserved aspects of the protein family. Sequences of human members of the family obtained from GenBank were used in Blast searches to identify corresponding proteins encoded in other species using searches of non-redundant proteins, genome sequences and mRNA sequences. Sequences were aligned and compared using ClustalW. Some families of Ca2+-binding proteins are known to show a progressive expansion in gene number as organisms increase in complexity. In contrast, the results for CaBPs and calneurons showed that a full complement of CaBPs and calneurons are present in the teleost fish Danio rerio and possibly in cartilaginous fish. These findings suggest that the entire family of genes may have arisen at the same time during vertebrate evolution. Certain members of the family (for example the short form of CaBP1 and calneuron 1) are highly conserved suggesting essential functional roles. Conclusions The findings support the designation of the calneurons as a distinct sub-family. While the gene number for CaBPs/calneurons does not increase, a distinctive evolutionary change in these proteins in vertebrates has been an increase in the number of splice variants present in mammals. PMID:20426809

2010-01-01

68

Analysis of the NAC transcription factor gene family in citrus reveals a novel member involved in multiple abiotic stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAC (NAM, ATAF1, -2, and CUC2) gene family encodes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors that play diverse roles\\u000a in plant development and stress regulation. In this study, we performed a survey of citrus NAC transcription factors in the\\u000a HarvEST: Citrus database, in which 45 NAC domain-containing proteins were identified and phylogenetically classified into\\u000a 13 different subfamilies. The

Tahise M. de Oliveira; Luciana C. Cidade; Abelmon S. Gesteira; Maurício A. Coelho Filho; Walter S. Soares Filho; Marcio G. C. Costa

69

Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).  

PubMed

Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species. PMID:25185409

Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

2014-08-01

70

X-ray structure of papaya chitinase reveals the substrate binding mode of glycosyl hydrolase family 19 chitinases.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of a chitinase from Carica papaya has been solved by the molecular replacement method and is reported to a resolution of 1.5 A. This enzyme belongs to family 19 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Crystals have been obtained in the presence of N-acetyl- d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the crystallization solution and two well-defined GlcNAc molecules have been identified in the catalytic cleft of the enzyme, at subsites -2 and +1. These GlcNAc moieties bind to the protein via an extensive network of interactions which also involves many hydrogen bonds mediated by water molecules, underlying their role in the catalytic mechanism. A complex of the enzyme with a tetra-GlcNAc molecule has been elaborated, using the experimental interactions observed for the bound GlcNAc saccharides. This model allows to define four major substrate interacting regions in the enzyme, comprising residues located around the catalytic Glu67 (His66 and Thr69), the short segment E89-R90 containing the second catalytic residue Glu89, the region 120-124 (residues Ser120, Trp121, Tyr123, and Asn124), and the alpha-helical segment 198-202 (residues Ile198, Asn199, Gly201, and Leu202). Water molecules from the crystal structure were introduced during the modeling procedure, allowing to pinpoint several additional residues involved in ligand binding that were not previously reported in studies of poly-GlcNAc/family 19 chitinase complexes. This work underlines the role played by water-mediated hydrogen bonding in substrate binding as well as in the catalytic mechanism of the GH family 19 chitinases. Finally, a new sequence motif for family 19 chitinases has been identified between residues Tyr111 and Tyr125. PMID:18636748

Huet, Joëlle; Rucktooa, Prakash; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-08-12

71

ST1710DNA complex crystal structure reveals the DNA binding mechanism of the MarR family of regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

ST1710, a member of the multiple antibiotic resis- tance regulator (MarR) family of regulatory proteins in bacteria and archaea, plays important roles in development of antibiotic resistance, a global health problem. Here, we present the crystal struc- ture of ST1710 from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 complexed with salicylate, a well-known inhibitor of MarR proteins and the ST1710 complex with its

Thirumananseri Kumarevel; Tomoyuki Tanaka; Takashi Umehara; Shigeyuki Yokoyama

2009-01-01

72

TcaR-ssDNA complex crystal structure reveals new DNA binding mechanism of the MarR family proteins  

PubMed Central

The teicoplanin-associated locus regulator (TcaR) regulates gene expression of proteins on the intercellular adhesion (ica) locus involved in staphylococci poly-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. The absence of TcaR increases poly-N-acetylglucosamine production and promotes biofilm formation. Until recently, the mechanism of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator family protein members, such as TcaR, was restricted to binding double-stranded DNA. However, we recently found that TcaR strongly interacts with single-stranded DNA, which is a new role for this family of proteins. In this study, we report Staphylococcus epidermidis TcaR–single-stranded DNA complex structures. Our model suggests that TcaR and single-stranded DNA form a 61-symmetry polymer composed of TcaR dimers with single-stranded DNA that wraps outside the polymer and 12 nt per TcaR dimer. Single-stranded DNA binding to TcaR involves a large conformational change at the DNA binding lobe. Several point mutations involving the single-stranded DNA binding surface validate interactions between single-stranded DNA and TcaR. Our results extend the novel role of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator family proteins in staphylococci. PMID:24531929

Chang, Yu-Ming; Ho, Chun-Han; Chen, Cammy K.-M.; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Chang-Chien, Masatoshi Weiting; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

2014-01-01

73

Bayesian reconstruction of ancestral expression of the LEA gene families reveals propagule-derived desiccation tolerance in resurrection plants.  

PubMed

Desiccation tolerance is a complex trait that is broadly but infrequently present throughout the evolutionary tree of life. Desiccation tolerance has played a significant role in land plant evolution, in both the vegetative and reproductive life history stages. In the land plants, the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene families are involved in both abiotic stress tolerance and the development of reproductive propagules. They are also a major component of vegetative desiccation tolerance. Phylogenies were estimated for four families of LEA genes from Arabidopsis, Physcomitrella, and the desiccation tolerant plants Tortula ruralis, Craterostigma plantagineum, and Xerophyta humilis. Microarray expression data from Arabidopsis and a subset of the Physcomitrella LEAs were used to estimate ancestral expression patterns in the LEA families and to evaluate alternative hypotheses for the origins of vegetative desiccation tolerance in the flowering plants. The results contradict the idea that vegetative desiccation tolerance in the resurrection angiosperms Craterostigma and Xerophyta arose through the co-option of genes exclusively related to stress tolerance, and support the propagule-derived origin of vegetative desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plants. PMID:21632376

Fisher, Kirsten M

2008-04-01

74

The Barley Genome Sequence Assembly Reveals Three Additional Members of the CslF (1,3;1,4)-?-Glucan Synthase Gene Family  

PubMed Central

An important component of barley cell walls, particularly in the endosperm, is (1,3;1,4)-?- glucan, a polymer that has proven health benefits in humans and that influences processability in the brewing industry. Genes of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F gene family have been shown to be involved in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan synthesis but many aspects of the biosynthesis are still unclear. Examination of the sequence assembly of the barley genome has revealed the presence of an additional three HvCslF genes (HvCslF11, HvCslF12 and HvCslF13) which may be involved in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan synthesis. Transcripts of HvCslF11 and HvCslF12 mRNA were found in roots and young leaves, respectively. Transient expression of these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in phenotypic changes in the infiltrated leaves, although no authentic (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan was detected. Comparisons of the CslF gene families in cereals revealed evidence of intergenic recombination, gene duplications and translocation events. This significant divergence within the gene family might be related to multiple functions of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucans in the Poaceae. Emerging genomic and global expression data for barley and other cereals is a powerful resource for characterising the evolution and dynamics of complete gene families. In the case of the CslF gene family, the results will contribute to a more thorough understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in grass cell walls. PMID:24595438

Schreiber, Miriam; Wright, Frank; MacKenzie, Katrin; Hedley, Pete E.; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Marshall, David; Waugh, Robbie; Halpin, Claire

2014-01-01

75

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions  

PubMed Central

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-01-01

76

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions.  

PubMed

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Scherer, Myriam; Klingl, Stefan; Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-11-01

77

Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defense proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialized gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control. PMID:25225496

Sperschneider, Jana; Ying, Hua; Dodds, Peter N.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Singh, Karam B.; Manners, John M.; Taylor, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

78

Proteomic analyses reveal an acidic prime side specificity for the astacin metalloprotease family reflected by physiological substrates.  

PubMed

Astacins are secreted and membrane-bound metalloproteases with clear associations to many important pathological and physiological processes. Yet with only a few substrates described their biological roles are enigmatic. Moreover, the lack of knowledge of astacin cleavage site specificities hampers assay and drug development. Using PICS (proteomic identification of protease cleavage site specificity) and TAILS (terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates) degradomics approaches >3000 cleavage sites were proteomically identified for five different astacins. Such broad coverage enables family-wide determination of specificities N- and C-terminal to the scissile peptide bond. Remarkably, meprin ?, meprin ?, and LAST_MAM proteases exhibit a strong preference for aspartate in the peptide (P)1' position because of a conserved positively charged residue in the active cleft subsite (S)1'. This unparalleled specificity has not been found for other families of extracellular proteases. Interestingly, cleavage specificity is also strongly influenced by proline in P2' or P3' leading to a rare example of subsite cooperativity. This specificity characterizes the astacins as unique contributors to extracellular proteolysis that is corroborated by known cleavage sites in procollagen I+III, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A, IL (interleukin)-1?, and pro-kallikrein 7. Indeed, cleavage sites in VEGF-A and pro-kallikrein 7 identified by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates matched those reported by Edman degradation. Moreover, the novel substrate FGF-19 was validated biochemically and shown to exhibit altered biological activity after meprin processing. PMID:21693781

Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Barré, Olivier; Schilling, Oliver; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Ohler, Anke; Broder, Claudia; Schütte, André; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Stöcker, Walter; Overall, Christopher M

2011-09-01

79

Proteomic Analyses Reveal an Acidic Prime Side Specificity for the Astacin Metalloprotease Family Reflected by Physiological Substrates*  

PubMed Central

Astacins are secreted and membrane-bound metalloproteases with clear associations to many important pathological and physiological processes. Yet with only a few substrates described their biological roles are enigmatic. Moreover, the lack of knowledge of astacin cleavage site specificities hampers assay and drug development. Using PICS (proteomic identification of protease cleavage site specificity) and TAILS (terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates) degradomics approaches >3000 cleavage sites were proteomically identified for five different astacins. Such broad coverage enables family-wide determination of specificities N- and C-terminal to the scissile peptide bond. Remarkably, meprin ?, meprin ?, and LAST_MAM proteases exhibit a strong preference for aspartate in the peptide (P)1? position because of a conserved positively charged residue in the active cleft subsite (S)1?. This unparalleled specificity has not been found for other families of extracellular proteases. Interestingly, cleavage specificity is also strongly influenced by proline in P2? or P3? leading to a rare example of subsite cooperativity. This specificity characterizes the astacins as unique contributors to extracellular proteolysis that is corroborated by known cleavage sites in procollagen I+III, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A, IL (interleukin)-1?, and pro-kallikrein 7. Indeed, cleavage sites in VEGF-A and pro-kallikrein 7 identified by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates matched those reported by Edman degradation. Moreover, the novel substrate FGF-19 was validated biochemically and shown to exhibit altered biological activity after meprin processing. PMID:21693781

Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Barre, Olivier; Schilling, Oliver; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Ohler, Anke; Broder, Claudia; Schutte, Andre; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Stocker, Walter; Overall, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

80

Cello-oligosaccharide oxidation reveals differences between two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (family GH61) from Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

81

Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

82

The formation heritage of Jupiter Family Comet 10P/Tempel 2 as revealed by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet 10P/Tempel 2 (hereafter 10P) was observed after its perihelion passage in 2010 using highdispersion infrared spectroscopy. We present production rates, abundances, and spatial information of eight major volatile species: H2O, HCN, C2H6, CH3OH, NH3, and (3?) upper limits for NH2, C2H2, and H2CO. In particular, our campaign was contemporaneous with a jet-like feature observed at optical and visual wavelengths in 2010 mid-July. Spatial profiles of primary volatiles display strong enhancements toward the jet direction and to a lesser extent in the anti-jet direction, which favors the idea of direct sublimation in response to local insolation. We discuss possible formation scenarios for this Jupiter Family Comet based on chemical composition and cosmogonic parameters retrieved by our observations.

Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Disanti, M. A.; Keane, J. V.; Gibb, E.; Meech, K. J.

2011-10-01

83

In silico analysis of glutathione S-transferase supergene family revealed hitherto unreported insect specific ?- and ?-GSTs and mammalian specific ?-GSTs in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The availability of whole genome sequence information of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), an important disease vector of veterinary and public health importance, has opened up new opportunities to explore the vector species at genomic level. Use of acaricides is the mainstay in controlling the disease vector, as effective vaccines are not available for most of the diseases that are transmitted by ticks. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are one of the important supergene families that are involved in protecting the organism from oxidative stress and xenobiotics including the acaricides. The analysis of GST supergene family from Ixodes identified all the three broad GST classes, viz. canonical, mitochondrial, and microsomal forms. In total, 35 GST genes belong to five different canonical GST classes, namely Delta (7 genes), Epsilon (5), Mu (14), Omega (3), and Zeta (3 genes) GST classes, and two mitochondrial Kappa class GST genes, and a single microsomal GST gene were found. Interestingly, Delta- and Epsilon-class members, which are thought to be specific to the class Insecta, were also identified in Ixodes. Further, vertebrate/mammalian specific Mu-GSTs (14 genes) were also identified in Ixodes. Analyses of the intron-exon organization revealed higher frequency of phase '0' and phase '2' introns. The comprehensive listing of the GST supergene family members from Ixodes may help in understanding molecular mechanisms of the acaricide resistance in mites and ticks. Cumulatively, these findings may provide an in-depth understanding of the complex evolution of GST supergene family, one of the oldest supergene families that exist in all the domains of life. PMID:21514893

Reddy, B P Niranjan; Prasad, G B K S; Raghavendra, K

2011-04-01

84

Cervical cancer in Indian women reveals contrasting association among common sub-family of HLA class I alleles.  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles and cervical cancer among Indian women. Seventy-five cervical cancer cases were compared with 175 noncancer controls. Cervical biopsy tissue specimen from cancer cases and cervical swab specimen from controls were collected for HPV detection and typing. Blood was taken for HLA typing by PCR-SSOP method. The impact of HLA class I alleles on cervical cancer risk was evaluated using StatCalc program (Epi Info version 6.0.4. CDC Atlanta, GA, USA), and confirmed with Bonferroni correction. Results revealed HLA-B*37, HLA-B*58 were associated significantly with increased risk while HLA-B*40 with decreased risk for cervical cancer. At high-resolution analysis after Bonferroni correction, HLA-B*37:01 allele was associated with increased risk, whereas HLA-B*40:06 was with decreased risk for cervical cancer. HLA-B*37:01 and HLA-B*40:06 belong to the same superfamily of HLA-B44. In silico analysis revealed different binding affinities of HLA-B*37:01 and HLA-B*40:06 for the epitopes predicted for E6 and L1 proteins of HPV16. The higher binding affinity of epitopes to B*40:06, as revealed by docking studies, supports the hypothesis that this allele is able to present the antigenic peptides more efficiently than B*37:01 and thereby can protect the carriers from the risk of cervical cancer. Thus, there is a clear indication that HLA plays an important role in the development of cervical cancer in HPV-infected women. Identification of these factors in high-risk HPV-infected women may help in reducing the cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25267060

Gokhale, Priyanka; Mania-Pramanik, Jayanti; Sonawani, Archana; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Kerkar, Shilpa; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Chaudhari, Hemangi; Warke, Himangi; Salvi, Vinita

2014-12-01

85

ST1710-DNA complex crystal structure reveals the DNA binding mechanism of the MarR family of regulators  

PubMed Central

ST1710, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of regulatory proteins in bacteria and archaea, plays important roles in development of antibiotic resistance, a global health problem. Here, we present the crystal structure of ST1710 from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 complexed with salicylate, a well-known inhibitor of MarR proteins and the ST1710 complex with its promoter DNA, refined to 1.8 and 2.10 Å resolutions, respectively. The ST1710–DNA complex shares the topology of apo-ST1710 and MarR proteins, with each subunit containing a winged helix-turn-helix (wHtH) DNA binding motif. Significantly large conformational changes occurred upon DNA binding and in each of the dimeric monomers in the asymmetric unit of the ST1710–DNA complex. Conserved wHtH loop residues interacting with the bound DNA and mutagenic analysis indicated that R89, R90 and K91 were important for DNA recognition. Significantly, the bound DNA exhibited a new binding mechanism. PMID:19509310

Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2009-01-01

86

Phylogeographic Analyses of Submesophotic Snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis “marshi” (Family Lutjanidae) Reveal Concordant Genetic Structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200–360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. “marshi” (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436–490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10–11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

Andrews, Kimberly R.; Moriwake, Virginia N.; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E. Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L.; Bowen, Brian W.

2014-01-01

87

A genome-wide survey of bHLH transcription factors in the Placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens reveals the ancient repertoire of this gene family in metazoan.  

PubMed

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. To address the evolutionary history of this gene family, comprehensive and detailed characterization in basal metazoans is essential. Here I report a genome-wide survey of bHLH genes in the Placozoan, Trichoplax adhaerens. The present survey revealed ancient origins of two orthologous families, 48-related-1/Fer1 and ASCb, which both belong to high-order Group A. Group A factors are mainly involved in neural and mesodermal differentiation. I also identified novel members of a Group E orthologous family previously thought to be unique to Homo sapiens. These were discovered in Trichoplax, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, Euperipatoides kanangrensis, and Crassostrea gigas, but apparently are not found in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, or Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, as reported previously, many unclassified Group A members were observed in Trichoplax. The present study provides important information to infer the ancestral state of bHLH components in the Metazoa. PMID:24631262

Gyoja, Fuki

2014-05-25

88

Mycobacterial Phylogenomics: An Enhanced Method for Gene Turnover Analysis Reveals Uneven Levels of Gene Gain and Loss among Species and Gene Families  

PubMed Central

Species of the genus Mycobacterium differ in several features, from geographic ranges, and degree of pathogenicity, to ecological and host preferences. The recent availability of several fully sequenced genomes for a number of these species enabled the comparative study of the genetic determinants of this wide lifestyle diversity. Here, we applied two complementary phylogenetic-based approaches using information from 19 Mycobacterium genomes to obtain a more comprehensive view of the evolution of this genus. First, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships using two new approaches, one based on a Mycobacterium-specific amino acid substitution matrix and the other on a gene content dissimilarity matrix. Then, we utilized our recently developed gain-and-death stochastic models to study gene turnover dynamics in this genus in a maximum-likelihood framework. We uncovered a scenario that differs markedly from traditional 16S rRNA data and improves upon recent phylogenomic approaches. We also found that the rates of gene gain and death are high and unevenly distributed both across species and across gene families, further supporting the utility of the new models of rate heterogeneity applied in a phylogenetic context. Finally, the functional annotation of the most expanded or contracted gene families revealed that the transposable elements and the fatty acid metabolism-related gene families are the most important drivers of gene content evolution in Mycobacterium. PMID:24904011

Librado, Pablo; Vieira, Filipe G.; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Rozas, Julio

2014-01-01

89

Structure of Natural Killer Receptor 2B4 Bound to CD48 Reveals Basis for Heterophilic Recognition in Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family  

SciTech Connect

Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family.

Velikovsky,C.; Deng, L.; Chlewicki, L.; Fernandez, M.; Kumar, V.; Mariuzza, R.

2007-01-01

90

Structure- and context-based analysis of the GxGYxYP family reveals a new putative class of Glycoside Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Background Gut microbiome metagenomics has revealed many protein families and domains found largely or exclusively in that environment. Proteins containing the GxGYxYP domain are over-represented in the gut microbiota, and are found in Polysaccharide Utilization Loci in the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, suggesting their involvement in polysaccharide metabolism, but little else is known of the function of this domain. Results Genomic context and domain architecture analyses support a role for the GxGYxYP domain in carbohydrate metabolism. Sparse occurrences in eukaryotes are the result of lateral gene transfer. The structure of the GxGYxYP domain-containing protein encoded by the BT2193 locus reveals two structural domains, the first composed of three divergent repeats with no recognisable homology to previously solved structures, the second a more familiar seven-stranded ?/? barrel. Structure-based analyses including conservation mapping localise a presumed functional site to a cleft between the two domains of BT2193. Matching to a catalytic site template from a GH9 cellulase and other analyses point to a putative catalytic triad composed of Glu272, Asp331 and Asp333. Conclusions We suggest that GxGYxYP-containing proteins constitute a novel glycoside hydrolase family of as yet unknown specificity. PMID:24938123

2014-01-01

91

Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-mannanases from Podospora anserina reveal differences upon manno-oligosaccharide catalysis.  

PubMed

The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the -4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the -4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

2013-05-17

92

Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.  

PubMed

Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-?-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-?-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and ?-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

2013-02-01

93

Genome-wide analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family reveals differential expression patterns, localization, and heat stress responses  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) class of proteins are evolutionarily conserved molecular chaperones. They are involved in protein folding, assembly, stabilization, activation, and degradation in many normal cellular processes and under stress conditions. Unlike many other well-characterized molecular chaperones, Hsp90s play key roles in signal transduction, cell-cycle control, genomic silencing, and protein trafficking. However, no systematic analysis of genome organization, gene structure, and expression compendium has been performed in the Populus model tree genus to date. Results We performed a comprehensive analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family and identified 10 Populus Hsp90 genes, which were phylogenetically clustered into two major groups. Gene structure and motif composition are relatively conserved in each group. In Populus trichocarpa, we identified three paralogous pairs, among which the PtHsp90-5a/PtHsp90-5b paralogous pair might be created by duplication of a genome segment. Subcellular localization analysis shows that PtHsp90 members are localized in different subcellular compartments. PtHsp90-3 is localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, PtHsp90-5a and PtHsp90-5b are in chloroplasts, and PtHsp90-7 is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, microarray and semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses show that a number of Populus Hsp90 genes are differentially expressed upon exposure to various stresses. Conclusions The gene structure and motif composition of PtHsp90s are highly conserved among group members, suggesting that members of the same group may also have conserved functions. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses show that most PtHsp90s were induced by various stresses, including heat stress. Collectively, these observations lay the foundation for future efforts to unravel the biological roles of PtHsp90 genes. PMID:23915275

2013-01-01

94

Sequence analyses of the distal-less homeobox gene family in East African cichlid fishes reveal signatures of positive selection  

PubMed Central

Background Gen(om)e duplication events are hypothesized as key mechanisms underlying the origin of phenotypic diversity and evolutionary innovation. The diverse and species-rich lineage of teleost fishes is a renowned example of this scenario, because of the fish-specific genome duplication. Gene families, generated by this and other gene duplication events, have been previously found to play a role in the evolution and development of innovations in cichlid fishes - a prime model system to study the genetic basis of rapid speciation, adaptation and evolutionary innovation. The distal-less homeobox genes are particularly interesting candidate genes for evolutionary novelties, such as the pharyngeal jaw apparatus and the anal fin egg-spots. Here we study the dlx repertoire in 23 East African cichlid fishes to determine the rate of evolution and the signatures of selection pressure. Results Four intact dlx clusters were retrieved from cichlid draft genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of these eight dlx loci in ten teleost species, followed by an in-depth analysis of 23 East African cichlid species, show that there is disparity in the rates of evolution of the dlx paralogs. Dlx3a and dlx4b are the fastest evolving dlx genes, while dlx1a and dlx6a evolved more slowly. Subsequent analyses of the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate ratios indicate that dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a evolved under purifying selection, while signs of positive selection were found for dlx1a, dlx2a, dlx3a and dlx4b. Conclusions Our results indicate that the dlx repertoire of teleost fishes and cichlid fishes in particular, is shaped by differential selection pressures and rates of evolution after gene duplication. Although the divergence of the dlx paralogs are putative signs of new or altered functions, comparisons with available expression patterns indicate that the three dlx loci under strong purifying selection, dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a, are transcribed at high levels in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw and anal fin. The dlx paralogs emerge as excellent candidate genes for the development of evolutionary innovations in cichlids, although further functional analyses are necessary to elucidate their respective contribution. PMID:23865956

2013-01-01

95

Homozygosity mapping reveals new nonsense mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Palestinian family  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Recently, the FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. Methods: We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a consanguineous Palestinian family with two three siblings affected with retinitis pigmentosa. DNA samples were collected from the index patient, his father, his affected sister, and two non-affected brothers. DNA sample from the index was subjected to high resolution genome-wide SNP array. Assuming identity-by-descent in this consanguineous family we applied homozygosity mapping to identify disease causing genes. Results: The index patient reported night blindness since the age of 20 years, followed by moderate disease progression with decrease of peripheral vision, the development of photophobia and later on reduced central vision. At the age of 40 his visual acuity was counting fingers (CF) for both eyes, color discrimination was not possible and his visual fields were severely constricted. Funduscopic examination revealed a typical appearance of advanced RP with optic disc pallor, narrowed retinal vessels, bone-spicule like pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery and atrophic changes in the macula. His younger affected brother (37 years) was reported with overall milder symptoms, while the youngest sister (21 years) reported problems only with night vision. Applying high-density SNP arrays we identified several homozygous genomic regions one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.1003C>T/p.R335X in the index patient and the affected sister. Conclusion: We identified an RP28-linked RP family in the Palestinian population caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FAM161A. RP in this family shows a typical disease onset with moderate to rapid progression into severe visual impairment including central vision in the index and overall milder symptoms in the younger brother and sister. PMID:24520187

Zobor, Ditta; Balousha, Ghassan; Baumann, Britta

2014-01-01

96

Driving south: a multi-gene phylogeny of the brown algal family Fucaceae reveals relationships and recent drivers of a marine radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the processes driving speciation in marine ecosystems remained a challenge until recently, due to the unclear nature of dispersal boundaries. However, recent evidence for marine adaptive radiations and ecological speciation, as well as previously undetected patterns of cryptic speciation is overturning this view. Here, we use multi-gene phylogenetics to infer the family-level evolutionary history of Fucaceae (intertidal brown algae of the northern Pacific and Atlantic) in order to investigate recent and unique patterns of radiative speciation in the genus Fucus in the Atlantic, in contrast with the mainly monospecific extant genera. Results We developed a set of markers from 13 protein coding genes based on polymorphic cDNA from EST libraries, which provided novel resolution allowing estimation of ancestral character states and a detailed reconstruction of the recent radiative history. Phylogenetic reconstructions yielded similar topologies and revealed four independent trans-Arctic colonization events by Fucaceae lineages, two of which also involved transitions from hermaphroditism to dioecy associated with Atlantic invasions. More recently, reversion of dioecious ancestral lineages towards hermaphroditism has occurred in the genus Fucus, particularly coinciding with colonization of more extreme habitats. Novel lineages in the genus Fucus were also revealed in association with southern habitats. These most recent speciation events occurred during the Pleistocene glaciations and coincided with a shift towards selfing mating systems, generally southward shifts in distribution, and invasion of novel habitats. Conclusions Diversification of the family occurred in the Late-Mid Miocene, with at least four independent trans-Artic lineage crossings coincident with two reproductive mode transitions. The genus Fucus arose in the Pliocene but radiated within a relatively short time frame about 2.5 million years ago. Current species distributions of Fucus suggest that climatic factors promoted differentiation between the two major clades, while the recent and rapid species radiation in the temperate clade during Pleistocene glacial cycles coincided with several potential speciation drivers. PMID:22188734

2011-01-01

97

Genome-Wide Linkage in a Highly Consanguineous Pedigree Reveals Two Novel Loci on Chromosome 7 for Non-Syndromic Familial Premature Ovarian Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10–15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a genome-wide linkage and homozygosity analysis in one large consanguineous Middle-Eastern POF-affected family presenting an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We identified two regions with a LODmax of 3.26 on chromosome 7p21.1-15.3 and 7q21.3-22.2, which are supported as candidate regions by homozygosity mapping. Sequencing of the coding exons and known regulatory sequences of three candidate genes (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1) included within the largest region did not reveal any causal mutations. Conclusions/Significance We detect two novel POF-associated loci on human chromosome 7, opening the way to the identification of new genes involved in the control of ovarian development and function. PMID:22428046

Caburet, Sandrine; Zavadakova, Petra; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Bouhali, Kamal; Dipietromaria, Aurélie; Charon, Céline; Besse, Céline; Laissue, Paul; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Vaiman, Daniel; Levi, Giovanni; Veitia, Reiner A.; Fellous, Marc

2012-01-01

98

Genomic organisation analysis of novel immunoglobulin-like transcripts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals a tightly clustered and multigene family  

PubMed Central

Background Several novel immunoglobulin-like transcripts (NILTs) which have previously been identified in the salmonid species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) contain either one or two extracellular Ig domains of the V-type. NILTs also possess either an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic region resulting in different signalling abilities. Here we report for the first time the genomic organisation and structure of the multigene family of NILTs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a BAC sequencing approach. Results We have identified six novel Atlantic salmon NILT genes (Ssa-NILT1-6), two pseudogenes (Ssa-NILTp1 and Ssa-NILTp2) and seven genes encoding putative transposable elements in one BAC covering more than 200 kbp. Ssa-NILT1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 contain one Ig domain, all having a CX3C motif, whereas Ssa-NILT3 contains two Ig domains, having a CX6C motif in Ig1 and a CX7C motif in Ig2. Atlantic salmon NILTs possess several ITIMs in the cytoplasmic region and the ITIM-bearing exons are in phase 0. A comparison of identity between the amino acid sequences of the CX3C Ig domains from NILTs varies from 77% to 96%. Ssa-NILT1, 2, 3 and 4 were all confirmed to be expressed either by their presence in EST databases (Ssa-NILT1) or RT-PCR (Ssa-NILT2, 3, and 4) using cDNA as template. A survey of the repertoire of putative NILT genes in a single individual revealed three novel genes (Ssa-NILT7-9) represented by the Ig domain, which together with Ig domains from Ssa-NILT1-6 could be divided into different groups based on specific motifs. Conclusions This report reveals a tightly clustered, multigene NILT family in Atlantic salmon. By screening a highly redundant Atlantic salmon BAC library we have identified and characterised the genomic organisation of six genes encoding NILT receptors. The genes show similar characteristics to NILTs previously identified in rainbow trout, having highly conserved cysteines in the Ig domain and several inhibitory signalling motifs in the cytoplasmic region. In a single individual three unique NILT Ig domain sequences were discovered at the genomic DNA level, which were divided into two different groups based on a four residue motif after the third cysteine. Our results from the BAC screening and analysis on the repertoire of NILT genes in a single individual indicates that many genes of this expanding Ig containing NILT family are still to be discovered in fish. PMID:21143889

2010-01-01

99

Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases expressed in brain  

SciTech Connect

A human brainstem cDNA library in bacteriophage {lambda}gt11 was screened under conditions of reduced bybridization stringency with a leukocyte common antigen (LCA) probe that spanned both conserved cytoplasmic domains. cDNA encoding a receptor-linked protein-tyrosinephosphatase (protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48), RPTPase {alpha}, has been cloned and sequenced. Human RPTPase {alpha} consists of 802 amino acids. The extracellular domain of 150 residues includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and eight potential N-glycosylation sites. This is followed by a transmembrane region and two tandemly repeated conserved domains characteristic of all RPTPases identified thus far. The gene for RPTPase {alpha} has been localized to human chromosome region 20pter-20q12 by analysis of its segregation pattern in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of two major transcripts of 4.3 and 6.3 kilobases. In addition to PRTPase {alpha}, two other RPTPases ({beta} and {gamma}), identified in the same screen, have been partially cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence comparisons among LCA, the LCA-related protein LAR, and RPTP-ases {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} reveals the existence of a multigene family encoding different RPTPases, each containing a distinct extracellular domain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane region, and two tandemly repeated conserved cytoplasmic domains.

Kaplan, R.; Morse, B.; Howk, R.; Ravera, M.; Ricca, G.; Jaye, M. (Rorer Biotechnology, Inc., King of Prussia, PA (USA)); Huebner, K.; Croce, C. (Temple Univ., Philadephia, PA (USA)); Schlessinger, J. (New York Univ., NY (USA))

1990-09-01

100

Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming.

W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

This picture was taken with Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is a four-color composite, in which light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns is blue; 4.5-micron light is green; 5.8-micron light is orange; and 8-micron light is red.

2008-01-01

101

Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds.

W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

2008-01-01

102

Extensive Morphological Convergence and Rapid Radiation in the Evolutionary History of the Family Geoemydidae (Old World Pond Turtles) Revealed by SINE Insertion Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Geoemydidae is one of three in the superfamily Testudinoidea and is the most diversified family of extant turtle species. The phylogenetic relationships in this family and among related families have been vigorously investigated from both morphological and molecular viewpoints. The evolutionary history of Geoemydidae, however, remains controversial. Therefore, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Geoemydidae and related species,

Takeshi Sasaki; Yuichirou Yasukawa; Kazuhiko Takahashi; Seiko Miura; ANDREW M. SHEDLOCK; Norihiro Okada

2006-01-01

103

Non-monophyly and intricate morphological evolution within the avian family Cettiidae revealed by multilocus analysis of a taxonomically densely sampled dataset  

PubMed Central

Background The avian family Cettiidae, including the genera Cettia, Urosphena, Tesia, Abroscopus and Tickellia and Orthotomus cucullatus, has recently been proposed based on analysis of a small number of loci and species. The close relationship of most of these taxa was unexpected, and called for a comprehensive study based on multiple loci and dense taxon sampling. In the present study, we infer the relationships of all except one of the species in this family using one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. We use traditional gene tree methods (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood bootstrapping, parsimony bootstrapping), as well as a recently developed Bayesian species tree approach (*BEAST) that accounts for lineage sorting processes that might produce discordance between gene trees. We also analyse mitochondrial DNA for a larger sample, comprising multiple individuals and a large number of subspecies of polytypic species. Results There are many topological incongruences among the single-locus trees, although none of these is strongly supported. The multi-locus tree inferred using concatenated sequences and the species tree agree well with each other, and are overall well resolved and well supported by the data. The main discrepancy between these trees concerns the most basal split. Both methods infer the genus Cettia to be highly non-monophyletic, as it is scattered across the entire family tree. Deep intraspecific divergences are revealed, and one or two species and one subspecies are inferred to be non-monophyletic (differences between methods). Conclusions The molecular phylogeny presented here is strongly inconsistent with the traditional, morphology-based classification. The remarkably high degree of non-monophyly in the genus Cettia is likely to be one of the most extraordinary examples of misconceived relationships in an avian genus. The phylogeny suggests instances of parallel evolution, as well as highly unequal rates of morphological divergence in different lineages. This complex morphological evolution apparently misled earlier taxonomists. These results underscore the well-known but still often neglected problem of basing classifications on overall morphological similarity. Based on the molecular data, a revised taxonomy is proposed. Although the traditional and species tree methods inferred much the same tree in the present study, the assumption by species tree methods that all species are monophyletic is a limitation in these methods, as some currently recognized species might have more complex histories. PMID:22142197

2011-01-01

104

Novel aspects of glutamine synthetase (GS) regulation revealed by a detailed expression analysis of the entire GS gene family of Medicago truncatula under different physiological conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Glutamine Synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) is a central enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, and a key component of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and plant yield and thus it is extremely important to understand how it is regulated in plants. Medicago truncatula provides an excellent model system to study GS, as it contain a very simple GS gene family comprising only four expressed genes, MtGS1a and MtGS1b encoding cytosolic polypeptides, and MtGS2a and MtGS2b encoding plastid-located enzymes. To identify new regulatory mechanisms controlling GS activity, we performed a detailed expression analysis of the entire GS gene family of M. truncatula in the major organs of the plant, over a time course of nodule or seed development and during a diurnal cycle. Results Individual GS transcripts were quantified by qRT-PCR, and GS polypeptides and holoenzymes were evaluated by western blot and in-gel activity under native electrophoresis. These studies revealed that all four GS genes are differentially regulated in each organ of the plant, in a developmental manner, and identified new regulatory controls, which appear to be specific to certain metabolic contexts. Studies of the protein profiles showed that the GS polypeptides assemble into organ-specific protein complexes and suffer organ-specific post-translational modifications under defined physiological conditions. Our studies also reveal that GS expression and activity are modulated during a diurnal cycle. The biochemical properties of the four isoenzymes were determined and are discussed in relation to their function in the plant. Conclusions This work provides a comprehensive overview of GS expression and regulation in the model legume M. truncatula, contributing to a better understanding of the specific function of individual isoenzymes and to the identification of novel organ-specific post-translational mechanisms of GS regulation. We demonstrate that the GS proteins are modified and/or integrated into protein-complexes that assemble into a specific composition in particular organs of the plant. Taken together, the results presented here open new avenues to explore the regulatory mechanisms controlling GS activity in plants, a subject of major importance due to the crucial importance of the enzyme for plant growth and productivity. PMID:24053168

2013-01-01

105

[Intraspecific divergence in wheats of the Timopheevi group as revealed by in situ hybridization with tandem repeats of the Spelt1 and Spelt52 families].  

PubMed

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to study the distribution of the Spelt1 and Spelt52 repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes of ten accessions representing three polyploid wheat species of the Timopheevi group: Triticum araraticum (7), T. timopheevii (2), and T. kiharae (1). Sequences of both families were found mostly in the subtelomeric chromosome regions of the G genome. The total number of Spelt1 sites varied from 8 to 14 in the karyotypes of the species under study; their number, location, and size differed among the seven T. araraticum accessions and were the same in the two T. timopheevii accessions and T. kiharae, an amphidiploid T. timopheevii-Aegilops tauschii hybrid. The Spelt52 tandem repeat was detected in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 1-4; its sites did not coincide with the Spelt1 sites. The chromosome distribution and signal intensity of the Spelt52 repeats varied in T. araraticum and were the same in T. timopheevii and T. kiharae. The chromosome distributions of the Spelt1 and Spelt52 repeats were compared for the polyploid wheats of the Timopheevi group and diploid Ae. speltoides, a putative donor of the G genome. The comparison revealed a decrease in hybridization level: both the number of sites per genome and the size of sites were lower. The decrease was assumed to result from repeat elimination during polyploidization and subsequent evolution of wheat and from the founder effect, since the origin of Timopheevi wheats might involve the genotype of Ae. speltoides, which is highly polymorphic for the distribution of Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences and is similar in the chromosome location of the repeats to modern wheat. PMID:17853803

Zoshchuk, S A; Badaeva, E D; Zoshchuk, N V; Adonina, I G; Shcherban', A B; Salina, E A

2007-06-01

106

The Vanadium Iodoperoxidase from the Marine Flavobacteriaceae Species Zobellia galactanivorans Reveals Novel Molecular and Evolutionary Features of Halide Specificity in the Vanadium Haloperoxidase Enzyme Family.  

PubMed

Vanadium haloperoxidases (VHPO) are key enzymes that oxidize halides and are involved in the biosynthesis of organo-halogens. Until now, only chloroperoxidases (VCPO) and bromoperoxidases (VBPO) have been characterized structurally, mainly from eukaryotic species. Three putative VHPO genes were predicted in the genome of the flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, a marine bacterium associated with macroalgae. In a phylogenetic analysis, these putative bacterial VHPO were closely related to other VHPO from diverse bacterial phyla but clustered independently from eukaryotic algal VBPO and fungal VCPO. Two of these bacterial VHPO, heterogeneously produced in Escherichia coli, were found to be strictly specific for iodide oxidation. The crystal structure of one of these vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidases, Zg-VIPO1, was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at 1.8 Å, revealing a monomeric structure mainly folded into ?-helices. This three-dimensional structure is relatively similar to those of VCPO of the fungus Curvularia inaequalis and of Streptomyces sp. and is superimposable onto the dimeric structure of algal VBPO. Surprisingly, the vanadate binding site of Zg-VIPO1 is strictly conserved with the fungal VCPO active site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that specific amino acids and the associated hydrogen bonding network around the vanadate center are essential for the catalytic properties and also the iodide specificity of Zg-VIPO1. Altogether, phylogeny and structure-function data support the finding that iodoperoxidase activities evolved independently in bacterial and algal lineages, and this sheds light on the evolution of the VHPO enzyme family. PMID:25261522

Fournier, Jean-Baptiste; Rebuffet, Etienne; Delage, Ludovic; Grijol, Romain; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Rzonca, Justyna; Potin, Philippe; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Leblanc, Catherine

2014-12-15

107

Differential Expression and Interaction Specificity of the Heterotrimeric G-Protein Family in Brassica nigra Reveal their Developmental- and Condition-Specific Roles.  

PubMed

Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprised of ?, ? and ? subunits, are important signal transducers across phyla. The G-proteins are well characterized in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, and their inventories are possible from a few other plant species; however, information about the roles played by G-proteins in regulating various growth and developmental traits particularly from polyploid crops is still awaited. In this study, we have isolated one G? (BniB.G?1), three G? (BniB.G?1-BniB.G?3) and four G? (BniB.G?1-BniB.G?4) coding sequences from the paleopolyploid Brassica nigra, a major condiment crop of the Brassicaceae family. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that whole-genome triplication events in the Brassica lineage had proportionally increased the inventory of the G? subunit, but not of the G? and G? subunits in B. nigra. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that members of the G-protein subunit genes have distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns and were differentially altered in response to various stress and phytohormone treatments, thereby suggesting differential transcriptional regulation of G-protein genes in B. nigra. Interestingly, specific members of G-protein subunits were co-expressed across plant developmental stages, and in response to different elicitor treatments. Yeast-based interaction screens further predicted that the B. nigra G-protein subunits interacted in most of the possible combinations, although showing a high degree of interaction specificity between different G-protein subunits. Our data on physical interactions coupled with the co-expression pattern of the multiple G-protein subunit genes suggested that tissue- and condition-specific functional combinations of G??? heterotrimers may exist in paleopolyploid B. nigra, to control diverse growth and development processes. PMID:25231958

Kumar, Roshan; Arya, Gulab C; Bisht, Naveen C

2014-11-01

108

Clinical and molecular studies reveal a PSEN1 mutation (L153V) in a Peruvian family with early-onset Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene mutations are found in 30-70% of familial early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) cases (onset <60 years). Prevalence of these mutations is highly variable including ethnic differences worldwide. No Peruvian kindred with familial AD (FAD) have been described. Standardized clinical evaluation and cognitive assessment were completed in a Peruvian family with severe EOAD. Clinical course was characterized by very early onset (before age 35 years), progressive cognitive impairment with early memory loss, spatial disorientation and executive dysfunction. We sequenced all exons of PSEN1 in the proband and identified a c.475C>G DNA change resulting in a p.L153V missense mutation in the transmembrane domain 2 of the gene. This mutation is also present in the three additional affected siblings but not in a non-affected family member consistent with segregation of this mutation with the disease. This is the first report of a Peruvian family affected with EOAD associated with a PSEN1 mutation. This same mutation has been reported previously in English and French families, but a novel variants very close to the mutation and ancestry informative markers analysis suggests the mutation might be of Amerindian or African origin in this Peruvian family. PMID:24495933

Cornejo-Olivas, Mario R; Yu, Chang-En; Mazzetti, Pilar; Mata, Ignacio F; Meza, Maria; Lindo-Samanamud, Saul; Leverenz, James B; Bird, Thomas D

2014-03-20

109

Global Mapping of Cell Type-Specific Open Chromatin by FAIRE-seq Reveals the Regulatory Role of the NFI Family in Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Identification of regulatory elements within the genome is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern cell type–specific gene expression. We generated genome-wide maps of open chromatin sites in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (on day 0 and day 8 of differentiation) and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements coupled with high-throughput sequencing (FAIRE-seq). FAIRE peaks at the promoter were associated with active transcription and histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Non-promoter FAIRE peaks were characterized by H3K4me1+/me3-, the signature of enhancers, and were largely located in distal regions. The non-promoter FAIRE peaks showed dynamic change during differentiation, while the promoter FAIRE peaks were relatively constant. Functionally, the adipocyte- and preadipocyte-specific non-promoter FAIRE peaks were, respectively, associated with genes up-regulated and down-regulated by differentiation. Genes highly up-regulated during differentiation were associated with multiple clustered adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks. Among the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks, 45.3% and 11.7% overlapped binding sites for, respectively, PPAR? and C/EBP?, the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. Computational motif analyses of the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks revealed enrichment of a binding motif for nuclear family I (NFI) transcription factors. Indeed, ChIP assay showed that NFI occupy the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks and/or the PPAR? binding sites near PPAR?, C/EBP?, and aP2 genes. Overexpression of NFIA in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in robust induction of these genes and lipid droplet formation without differentiation stimulus. Overexpression of dominant-negative NFIA or siRNA–mediated knockdown of NFIA or NFIB significantly suppressed both induction of genes and lipid accumulation during differentiation, suggesting a physiological function of these factors in the adipogenic program. Together, our study demonstrates the utility of FAIRE-seq in providing a global view of cell type–specific regulatory elements in the genome and in identifying transcriptional regulators of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:22028663

Yu, Jing; Hirose-Yotsuya, Lisa; Take, Kazumi; Sun, Wei; Iwabu, Masato; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Fujita, Takanori; Aoyama, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Takashi

2011-01-01

110

Macro-array and bioinformatic analyses reveal mycobacterial 'core' genes, variation in the ESAT-6 gene family and new phylogenetic markers for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  

PubMed

To better understand the biology and the virulence determinants of the two major mycobacterial human pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, their genome sequences have been determined recently. In silico comparisons revealed that among the 1439 genes common to both M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, 219 genes code for proteins that show no similarity with proteins from other organisms. Therefore, the latter 'core' genes could be specific for mycobacteria or even for the intracellular mycobacterial pathogens. To obtain more information as to whether these genes really were mycobacteria-specific, they were included in a focused macro-array, which also contained genes from previously defined regions of difference (RD) known to be absent from Mycobacterium bovis BCG relative to M. tuberculosis. Hybridization of DNA from 40 strains of the M. tuberculosis complex and in silico comparison of these genes with the near-complete genome sequences from Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium smegmatis were undertaken to answer this question. The results showed that among the 219 conserved genes, very few were not present in all the strains tested. Some of these missing genes code for proteins of the ESAT-6 family, a group of highly immunogenic small proteins whose presence and number is variable among the genomically highly conserved members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Indeed, the results suggest that, with few exceptions, the 'core' genes conserved among M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. leprae are also highly conserved among other mycobacterial strains, which makes them interesting potential targets for developing new specific anti-mycobacterial drugs. In contrast, the genes from RD regions showed great variability among certain members of the M. tuberculosis complex, and some new specific deletions in Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium microti and seal isolates were identified and further characterized during this study. Together with the distribution of a particular 6 or 7 bp micro-deletion in the gene encoding the polyketide synthase pks15/1, these results confirm and further extend the revised phylogenetic model for the M. tuberculosis complex recently presented. PMID:14766927

Marmiesse, Magali; Brodin, Priscille; Buchrieser, Carmen; Gutierrez, Christina; Simoes, Nathalie; Vincent, Veronique; Glaser, Philippe; Cole, Stewart T; Brosch, Roland

2004-02-01

111

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

112

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

113

Indicators of Economic Status and Social Capital in South African TownshipsWhat Do They Reveal About the Material and Social Conditions in Families of Poor Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a set of non-monetary indicators of material and social resources characterizing the childrearing environments of families in South African black urban townships. The selected indicators include adequacy of food, quality of housing, financial assets, consumer goods and social resources. The study reported in the article was carried out between 1990 and 1996. Through factor analyses two dimensions

OSCAR A. BARBARIN; NGOKOANA KHOMO

1997-01-01

114

Nme Gene Family Evolutionary History Reveals Pre-Metazoan Origins and High Conservation between Humans and the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme

Thomas Desvignes; Pierre Pontarotti; Julien Bobe; Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis

2010-01-01

115

The Crystal Structure of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 19 Reveals Novel Features of the FGF Family and Offers a Structural Basis for Its Unusual Receptor Affinity † , ‡  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 22 members of the FGF family have been implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. They are required for both development and maintenance of vertebrates, demonstrating an exquisite pattern of affinities for both protein and proteoglycan receptors. FGF19, one of the most divergent human FGFs, is unique in binding solely to one receptor, FGFR4. We have used molecular

Nicholas J. Harmer; Luca Pellegrini; Dima Chirgadze; Juan Fernandez-Recio; Tom L. Blundell

2004-01-01

116

Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The high degree of sequence conservation between coding regions in fish and mammals can be exploited to identify genes in mammalian genomes by comparison with the sequence of similar genes in fish. Conversely, experimentally characterized mammalian genes may be used to annotate fish genomes. However, gene families that escape this principle include the rapidly diverging cytokines that regulate the

Georges Lutfalla; Hugues Roest Crollius; Nicole Stange-thomann; Olivier Jaillon; Knud Mogensen; Danièle Monneron

2003-01-01

117

Analysis of IL-6/gp130 family receptor expression reveals that in contrast to astroglia, microglia lack the oncostatin M receptor and functional responses to oncostatin M.  

PubMed

The interleukin (IL)-6/gp130 family of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M (OSM)) play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) during neuroinflammation and neurodevelopment. However, little is known regarding the responses by astroglia and microglia to this family of cytokines. Here the expression of the IL-6/gp130 cytokine receptors and subsequent signal pathway activation was examined in murine astrocytes and microglia in vitro. Astrocytes had high levels of OSMR mRNA while lower levels of IL-6R, LIFR and IL-11R mRNAs were also present. In comparison, in microglia there was no detectable OSMR mRNA, higher levels of IL-6R mRNA and lower levels of the LIFR and IL-11R mRNAs. The OSMR protein was present in astrocytes but was undetectable in microglia. Conversely, the IL-6R protein was present in microglia but not detectable in astrocytes. In astrocytes but not microglia, phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 occurred in response to OSM, whereas both microglia and astrocytes responded to hyper-IL-6 (IL-6 linked to the soluble IL-6 receptor). Finally, in both microglia and astrocytes, OSM failed to activate NF?B or induce iNOS and nitrite production. We conclude: (1) notable differences exist in the expression of receptors utilized by the IL-6/gp130 family of cytokines in astrocytes and microglia, and (2) the findings provide a molecular basis for the differential response to OSM by astrocytes versus microglia and demonstrate a fundamental means for achieving cellular specificity in the response of these glial cells to this cytokine. GLIA 2015;63:132-141. PMID:25103368

Hsu, Meng-Ping; Frausto, Ricardo; Rose-John, Stefan; Campbell, Iain L

2015-01-01

118

Crystal structure of a member of a novel family of dioxygenases (PF10014) reveals a conserved cupin fold and active site.  

PubMed

PF10014 is a novel family of 2-oxyglutarate-Fe(2+) -dependent dioxygenases that are involved in biosynthesis of antibiotics and regulation of biofilm formation, likely by catalyzing hydroxylation of free amino acids or other related ligands. The crystal structure of a PF10014 member from Methylibium petroleiphilum at 1.9 Å resolution shows strong structural similarity to cupin dioxygenases in overall fold and active site, despite very remote homology. However, one of the ?-strands of the cupin catalytic core is replaced by a loop that displays conformational isomerism that likely regulates the active site. PMID:23852666

Xu, Qingping; Grant, Joanna; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

2014-01-01

119

Genome-Wide Microarrray Analysis Reveals Roles for the REF-1 Family Member HLH-29 in Ferritin Synthesis and Peroxide Stress Response  

PubMed Central

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the six proteins that make up the REF-1 family have been identified as functional homologs of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (HES) proteins. These transcription factors act in both Notch dependent and Notch-independent pathways to regulate embryonic events during development; however, their post-embryonic functions are not well defined. As a first step toward understanding how the REF-1 family works together to coordinate post-embryonic events, we used gene expression microarray analysis to identify transcriptional targets of HLH-29 in L4/young adult stage animals. Here we show that HLH-29 targets are genes needed for the regulation of growth and lifespan, including genes required for oxidative stress response and fatty acid metabolism, and the ferritin genes, ftn-1 and ftn-2. We show that HLH-29 regulates ftn-1 expression via promoter sequences upstream of the iron-dependent element that is recognized by the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1. Additionally, hlh-29 mutants are more resistant to peroxide stress than wild-type animals and ftn-1(RNAi) animals, even in the presence of excess iron. Finally we show that HLH-29 acts parallel to DAF-16 but upstream of the microphthalmia transcription factor ortholog, HLH-30, to regulate ftn-1 expression under normal growth conditions. PMID:23533643

Quach, Thanh K.; Chou, Han Ting; Wang, Kun; Milledge, Gaolin Zheng; Johnson, Casonya M.

2013-01-01

120

The Structure of the Elicitor Cerato-platanin (CP), the First Member of the CP Fungal Protein Family, Reveals a Double ??-Barrel Fold and Carbohydrate Binding*  

PubMed Central

Cerato-platanin (CP) is a secretion protein produced by the fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani, the causal agent of the plane canker disease and the first member of the CP family. CP is considered a pathogen-associated molecular pattern because it induces various defense responses in the host, including production of phytoalexins and cell death. Although much is known about the properties of CP and related proteins as elicitors of plant defense mechanisms, its biochemical activity and host target(s) remain elusive. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of CP. The protein, which exhibits a remarkable pH and thermal stability, has a double ??-barrel fold quite similar to those found in expansins, endoglucanases, and the plant defense protein barwin. Interestingly, although CP lacks lytic activity against a variety of carbohydrates, it binds oligosaccharides. We identified the CP region responsible for binding as a shallow surface located at one side of the ?-barrel. Chemical shift perturbation of the protein amide protons, induced by oligo-N-acetylglucosamines of various size, showed that all the residues involved in oligosaccharide binding are conserved among the members of the CP family. Overall, the results suggest that CP might be involved in polysaccharide recognition and that the double ??-barrel fold is widespread in distantly related organisms, where it is often involved in host-microbe interactions. PMID:21454637

de Oliveira, Aline L.; Gallo, Mariana; Pazzagli, Luigia; Benedetti, Celso E.; Cappugi, Gianni; Scala, Aniello; Pantera, Barbara; Spisni, Alberto; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Cicero, Daniel O.

2011-01-01

121

Importance of Gene Duplication in the Evolution of Genomic Imprinting Revealed by Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of the Type I MADS-Box Gene Family in Arabidopsis Species  

PubMed Central

The pattern of molecular evolution of imprinted genes is controversial and the entire picture is still to be unveiled. Recently, a relationship between the formation of imprinted genes and gene duplication was reported in genome-wide survey of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because gene duplications influence the molecular evolution of the duplicated gene family, it is necessary to investigate both the pattern of molecular evolution and the possible relationship between gene duplication and genomic imprinting for a better understanding of evolutionary aspects of imprinted genes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary changes of type I MADS-box genes that include imprinted genes by using relative species of Arabidopsis thaliana (two subspecies of A. lyrata and three subspecies of A. halleri). A duplicated gene family enables us to compare DNA sequences between imprinted genes and its homologs. We found an increased number of gene duplications within species in clades containing the imprinted genes, further supporting the hypothesis that local gene duplication is one of the driving forces for the formation of imprinted genes. Moreover, data obtained by phylogenetic analysis suggested “rapid evolution” of not only imprinted genes but also its closely related orthologous genes, which implies the effect of gene duplication on molecular evolution of imprinted genes. PMID:24039992

Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

2013-01-01

122

Genetic Analysis of Loop Sequences in the Let-7 Gene Family Reveal a Relationship between Loop Evolution and Multiple IsomiRs  

PubMed Central

While mature miRNAs have been widely studied, the terminal loop sequences are rarely examined despite regulating both primary and mature miRNA functions. Herein, we attempted to understand the evolutionary pattern of loop sequences by analyzing loops in the let-7 gene family. Compared to the stable miRNA length distributions seen in most metazoans, higher metazoan species exhibit a longer length distribution. Examination of these loop sequence length distributions, in addition to phylogenetic tree construction, implicated loop sequences as the main evolutionary drivers in miRNA genes. Moreover, loops from relevant clustered miRNA gene families showed varying length distributions and higher levels of nucleotide divergence, even between homologous pre-miRNA loops. Furthermore, we found that specific nucleotides were dominantly distributed in the 5? and 3? terminal loop ends, which may contribute to the relatively precise cleavage that leads to a stable isomiR expression profile. Overall, this study provides further insight into miRNA processing and maturation and further enriches our understanding of miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25397967

Liang, Tingming; Yang, Chen; Li, Ping; Liu, Chang; Guo, Li

2014-01-01

123

Analysis of the complete genome of a virus associated with twisted leaf disease of cherry reveals evidence of a close relationship to unassigned viruses in the family Betaflexiviridae.  

PubMed

The genome of a virus associated with cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLaV, isolate ZH) was sequenced and consists of 8431 nucleotides, excluding a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. Genome analysis shows that CTLaV-ZH represents a new and distinct species and has a genome organization similar to those of unassigned viruses in the family Betaflexiviridae. The CTLaV-ZH genome has five open reading frames (ORFs), with putative ORFs within ORF2 and ORF5, identified as ORF2a and ORF5a, respectively. The AUG start codons of ORF2a and ORF5a are in contexts suitable for efficient translation, with appropriate stop codons in frame. PMID:24737006

James, Delano; Varga, Aniko; Lye, David

2014-09-01

124

Regulation of Human RNase-L by the miR-29 Family Reveals a Novel Oncogenic Role in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

The endoribonuclease RNase-L is the terminal component of an interferon-regulated RNA decay pathway known as the 2?-5?-oligoadenylate (2–5A) system, whose established functions include antimicrobial and tumor suppressive activities. RNase-L activity requires binding of the small molecule 2–5A, leading to RNase-L dimerization and cleavage of single-stranded RNA. RNase-L expression is controlled post-transcriptionally by its 3?-untranslated region (3? UTR), which exerts a strong negative effect on RNase-L levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that repress expression of target genes by binding to regions of complementarity often in the 3? UTR. The miR-29 family acts as a tumor suppressor in several cancers, including acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and has many oncogenic targets. We report that the miR-29 family represses RNase-L protein expression across several cell types. Using a luciferase reporter, we showed that miR-29 acts via 4 target sites within the RNASEL 3? UTR. Mutation of all sites is required for abrogation of miR-29 repression. In light of the reported tumor suppressive role of miR-29 in K562 CML cells and miR-29 repression of RNase-L in these cells, we generated K562 cells with stable RNase-L knockdown and demonstrated that loss of RNase-L inhibits proliferation in vitro as well as tumor growth in a xenograft model. Our findings identify a previously unknown miRNA regulator of RNase-L expression and support a novel oncogenic role for RNase-L in CML and potentially other hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:23113544

Lee, Teresa Y.; Ezelle, Heather J.; Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Lapidus, Rena G.; Scheibner, Kara A.

2013-01-01

125

Interaction of Auxin and ERECTA in Elaborating Arabidopsis Inflorescence Architecture Revealed by the Activation Tagging of a New Member of the YUCCA Family Putative Flavin Monooxygenases1  

PubMed Central

The aboveground body of higher plants has a modular structure of repeating units, or phytomers. As such, the position, size, and shape of the individual phytomer dictate the plant architecture. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ERECTA (ER) gene regulates the inflorescence architecture by affecting elongation of the internode and pedicels, as well as the shape of lateral organs. A large-scale activation-tagging genetic screen was conducted in Arabidopsis to identify novel genes and pathways that interact with the ER locus. A dominant mutant, super1-D, was isolated as a nearly complete suppressor of a partial loss-of-function allele er-103. We found that SUPER1 encodes YUCCA5, a novel member of the YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenases. The activation tagging of YUCCA5 conferred increased levels of free indole acetic acid, increased auxin response, and mild phenotypic characteristics of auxin overproducers, such as elongated hypocotyls, epinastic cotyledons, and narrow leaves. Both genetic and cellular analyses indicate that auxin and the ER pathway regulate cell division and cell expansion in a largely independent but overlapping manner during elaboration of inflorescence architecture. PMID:16126863

Woodward, Claire; Bemis, Shannon M.; Hill, Emi J.; Sawa, Shinichiro; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Torii, Keiko U.

2005-01-01

126

Genomewide Scan in Families with Schizophrenia from the Founder Population of Afrikaners Reveals Evidence for Linkage and Uniparental Disomy on Chromosome 1  

PubMed Central

We report on our initial genetic linkage studies of schizophrenia in the genetically isolated population of the Afrikaners from South Africa. A 10-cM genomewide scan was performed on 143 small families, 34 of which were informative for linkage. Using both nonparametric and parametric linkage analyses, we obtained evidence for a small number of disease loci on chromosomes 1, 9, and 13. These results suggest that few genes of substantial effect exist for schizophrenia in the Afrikaner population, consistent with our previous genealogical tracing studies. The locus on chromosome 1 reached genomewide significance levels (nonparametric LOD score of 3.30 at marker D1S1612, corresponding to an empirical P value of .012) and represents a novel susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. In addition to providing evidence for linkage for chromosome 1, we also identified a proband with a uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire chromosome 1. This is the first time a UPD has been described in a patient with schizophrenia, lending further support to involvement of chromosome 1 in schizophrenia susceptibility in the Afrikaners. PMID:14750073

Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Burt, Rachel A.; Hall, Diana; Bochum, Sylvia; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Lundy, S. Laura; Torrington, Marie; Roos, J. Louw; Gogos, Joseph A.; Karayiorgou, Maria

2004-01-01

127

Molecular characterization of WFS1 in an Iranian family with Wolfram syndrome reveals a novel frameshift mutation associated with early symptoms.  

PubMed

Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that represents a likely source of childhood diabetes especially among countries in the consanguinity belt. The main responsible gene is WFS1 for which over one hundred mutations have been reported from different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of WS and to perform a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian kindred. An Iranian family with two patients was clinically studied and WS was suspected. Genetic linkage analysis via 5 STR markers was carried out. For identification of mutations, DNA sequencing of WFS1 including all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter was performed. Linkage analysis indicated linkage to the WFS1 region. After DNA sequencing of WFS1, one novel pathogenic mutation, which causes frameshift alteration c.2177_2178insTCTTC (or c.2173_2177dupTCTTC) in exon eight, was found. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggests that the presence of the homozygous mutation may be associated with early onset of disease symptoms. This study stresses the necessity of considering the molecular analysis of WFS1 in childhood diabetes with some symptoms of WS. PMID:23845777

Sobhani, Maryam; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Rajab, Asadollah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

2013-10-10

128

PHD finger of the SUMO ligase Siz/PIAS family in rice reveals specific binding for methylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and arginine 2.  

PubMed

We determined the three-dimensional structure of the PHD finger of the rice Siz/PIAS-type SUMO ligase, OsSiz1, by NMR spectroscopy and investigated binding ability for a variety of methylated histone H3 tails, showing that OsSiz1-PHD primarily recognizes dimethylated Arg2 of the histone H3 and that methylations at Arg2 and Lys4 reveal synergy effect on binding to OsSiz1-PHD. The K4 cage of OsSiz1-PHD for trimethylated Lys4 of H3K4me3 was similar to that of the BPTF-PHD finger, while the R2 pocket for Arg2 was different. It is intriguing that the PHD module of Siz/PIAS plays an important role, with collaboration with the DNA binding domain SAP, in gene regulation through SUMOylation of a variety of effectors associated with the methylated arginine-riched chromatin domains. PMID:22626555

Shindo, Heisaburo; Suzuki, Rintaro; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Taichi, Misako; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

2012-06-21

129

Visualization of a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad of the Neisseria meningitidis peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase reveals mechanistic conservation in SGNH esterase family members  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan O-acetylesterase (Ape1), which is required for host survival in Neisseria sp., belongs to the diverse SGNH hydrolase superfamily, which includes important viral and bacterial virulence factors. Here, multi-domain crystal structures of Ape1 with an SGNH catalytic domain and a newly identified putative peptidoglycan-detection module are reported. Enzyme catalysis was performed in Ape1 crystals and key catalytic intermediates along the SGNH esterase hydrolysis reaction pathway were visualized, revealing a substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad, a mechanistic detail that has not previously been observed. This substrate-induced productive conformation of the catalytic triad shifts the established dogma on these enzymes, generating valuable insight into the structure-based design of drugs targeting the SGNH esterase superfamily. PMID:25286847

Williams, Allison H.; Veyrier, Frederic J.; Bonis, Mathilde; Michaud, Yann; Raynal, Bertrand; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; White, Stephen W.; Haouz, Ahmed; Boneca, Ivo G.

2014-01-01

130

Amino acid sequence of the murine Mac-1 alpha chain reveals homology with the integrin family and an additional domain related to von Willebrand factor.  

PubMed Central

Clones encoding the Mac-1 alpha chain were selected from a mouse macrophage cDNA library by screening with oligonucleotide probes based on the sequence of a genomic clone encoding the N-terminus of the mature protein. The sequence of overlapping clones (4282 nt) was determined and translated into a protein of 1137 amino acids and a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. The Mac-1 sequence was found to be related to the alpha chain sequences of three other members of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors, i.e. the fibroblast receptors for fibronectin and vitronectin and the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. All four sequences share a number of structural features, like the position of 13 cysteine residues, a transmembrane domain near the C-terminus and the location of three putative binding sites for divalent cations. Furthermore, a conserved sequence motif is repeated seven times in the N-terminal half of the molecule and three of these repeats include putative Ca/Mg-binding sites of the general structure DXDXDGXXD. On the other hand, Mac-1 contains a unique domain of 220 amino acids inserted into the N-terminal part of the integrin structure. This additional domain is homologous to a repeated domain found in von Willebrand factor, cartilage matrix protein and in the complement factors B and C2. In two of these proteins, the homologous domain is likely to be involved in binding to collagen fibrils. Therefore, Mac-1 may also bind to collagen, which could play a role in the interaction of leukocytes with the subendothelial matrix. Images PMID:3044779

Pytela, R

1988-01-01

131

Metabolic engineering of raffinose-family oligosaccharides in the phloem reveals alterations in carbon partitioning and enhances resistance to green peach aphid  

PubMed Central

Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT) leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT plants. When added to an artificial diet, RFOs did not have a negative effect on aphid fecundity, suggesting that although aphid resistance in the transgenic plants is enhanced, it is not due to direct toxicity of RFO toward the insect. PMID:23882277

Cao, Te; Lahiri, Ipsita; Singh, Vijay; Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti; Ayre, Brian G.

2013-01-01

132

Structure analysis of the flavoredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F reveals key residues that discriminate the functions and properties of the flavin reductase family.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of flavoredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was determined at 1.05 A resolution and its ferric reductase activity was examined. The aim was to elucidate whether flavoredoxin has structural similarity to ferric reductase and ferric reductase activity, based on the sequence similarity to ferric reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. As expected, flavoredoxin shared a common overall structure with A. fulgidus ferric reductase and displayed weak ferric reductase and flavin reductase activities; however, flavoredoxin contains two FMN molecules per dimer, unlike A. fulgidus ferric reductase, which has only one FMN molecule per dimer. Compared with A. fulgidus ferric reductase, flavoredoxin forms three additional hydrogen bonds and has a significantly smaller solvent-accessible surface area. These observations explain the higher affinity of flavoredoxin for FMN. Unexpectedly, an electron-density map indicated the presence of a Mes molecule on the re-side of the isoalloxazine ring of FMN, and that two zinc ions are bound to the two cysteine residues, Cys39 and Cys40, adjacent to FMN. These two cysteine residues are close to one of the putative ferric ion binding sites of ferric reductase. Based on their structural similarities, we conclude that the corresponding site of ferric reductase is the most plausible site for ferric ion binding. Comparing the structures with related flavin proteins revealed key structural features regarding the discrimination of function (ferric ion or flavin reduction) and a unique electron transport system. PMID:19708087

Shibata, Naoki; Ueda, Yasufumi; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Haruyama, Yoshihiro; Kojima, Shuichi; Sato, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi; Kitamura, Masaya; Higuchi, Yoshiki

2009-09-01

133

A New Family of Membrane Electron Transporters and Its Substrates, Including a New Cell Envelope Peroxiredoxin, Reveal a Broadened Reductive Capacity of the Oxidative Bacterial Cell Envelope  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Escherichia coli membrane protein DsbD functions as an electron hub that dispatches electrons received from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system to periplasmic oxidoreductases involved in protein disulfide isomerization, cytochrome c biogenesis, and sulfenic acid reduction. Here, we describe a new class of DsbD proteins, named ScsB, whose members are found in proteobacteria and Chlamydia. ScsB has a domain organization similar to that of DsbD, but its amino-terminal domain differs significantly. In DsbD, this domain directly interacts with substrates to reduce them, which suggests that ScsB acts on a different array of substrates. Using Caulobacter crescentus as a model organism, we searched for the substrates of ScsB. We discovered that ScsB provides electrons to the first peroxide reduction pathway identified in the bacterial cell envelope. The reduction pathway comprises a thioredoxin-like protein, TlpA, and a peroxiredoxin, PprX. We show that PprX is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that efficiently reduces both hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Moreover, we identified two additional proteins that depend on ScsB for reduction, a peroxiredoxin-like protein, PrxL, and a novel protein disulfide isomerase, ScsC. Altogether, our results reveal that the array of proteins involved in reductive pathways in the oxidative cell envelope is significantly broader than was previously thought. Moreover, the identification of a new periplasmic peroxiredoxin indicates that in some bacteria, it is important to directly scavenge peroxides in the cell envelope even before they reach the cytoplasm. PMID:22493033

Cho, Seung-Hyun; Parsonage, Derek; Thurston, Casey; Dutton, Rachel J.; Poole, Leslie B.; Collet, Jean-Francois; Beckwith, Jon

2012-01-01

134

Familial pineocytoma.  

PubMed

We present the first report on familial pineocytoma. The propositus, a 31-year-old man, presented with incontinence due to a cystic and haemorrhagic tumour of the pineal region. His 34-year-old sister, who had suffered from tinnitus for several years, also had a pineal tumour. Histopathology following tumour resection revealed pineocytomas (WHO grade 1). Cerebral MRI examinations of the patient's brother and father did not reveal any pineal region abnormalities. Their mother had developed breast cancer at the age of 43. Although not impossible, it is rather unlikely that pineocytomas occurring in siblings are pure coincidence because of the rarity of this type of tumour. PMID:22699425

Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Oexle, Konrad; Delbridge, Claire; Förschler, Annette; Schlegel, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Schmidt-Graf, Friederike

2012-08-01

135

Georgia Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.

136

Homeless Families with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of homelessness have not adequately addressed the relationship between deteriorating living conditions of inner-city neighborhoods and family homelessness. Interviews with 50 families with children who were residents of homeless shelters in two large cities in New York reveal that substandard housing, unscrupulous landlords, and drug-related violence and crime in neighborhoods, as well as nonpayment of rent and domestic

Namkee G. Choi; Lidia J. Snyder

1999-01-01

137

Family Literacy: Exploring Family Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on family influence on children's acquisition of literacy. Discusses the ambivalence regarding family literacy theories and the lack of family literacy theoretical frameworks. Identifies types of family involvement and effective literacy strategies for families. Finds that most studies suggest that family literacy contributes to…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2002-01-01

138

Revealing Rembrandt  

PubMed Central

The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

Parker, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

139

Indicators of Familial Alcoholism in Children's Kinetic Family Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to delineate indicators in children's depictions of family that suggest the presence of parental alcoholism. Kinetic Family Drawings from two groups of children were collected. Statistical analysis revealed two of six items of the evaluation - depiction of isolation of self and isolation of other family members - were significantly higher…

Holt, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Donna H.

2001-01-01

140

Revealing Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size-frequency distribution suggest that smooth plains on Mercury's surface range in age from the end of the period of heavy impact bombardment to as young as perhaps 1 billion years; these ongoing measurements are helping to elucidate the volcanic history of the planet. Mercury's global tectonic history is also revealed by the MESSENGER image and laser altimeter data. Significant evidence for global contraction was seen in Mariner 10 images in the form of widespread lobate scarps. The MESSENGER images show that contractional features are the dominant tectonic landform globally, and the inferred average contractional strain is at least one third greater than previously inferred from Mariner 10 observations. Only three exceptions to the dominance of contractional deformation have been found to date: extensional troughs that include prominent basin-radial systems documented in two basins, the Pantheon Fossae within the 1500-km-diameter Caloris basin and a similar set of features within a newly-imaged 700-km-diameter basin, and a circumferential trough system within the smaller, younger Raditladi basin. That these extensional tectonic features are rare on Mercury, and that they are not seen within basins elsewhere in the Solar System, pose important constraints on the thermal and mechanical evolution of Mercury's interior.

Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

2009-04-01

141

Revealing Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Revealing Things is the Smithsonian Institution's first specifically web based exhibit; both the content and design of the site are fascinating. This work in progress is a prototype of a future, more fully-developed exhibit. It concentrates on "common, everyday objects to tell stories about people, their cultures, and the meanings they associate with their possessions." Items discussed include a 1937 chemistry set, a Vietnam memorial offering, a duckpin bowling ball, an early TV, and a celery vase, among many others. Organized according to theme, era, and object, the exhibit is presented in a new pop-up browser window. Within that window, navigation takes place via "maplets," a connected series of moving colored labels representing the three ways that the exhibit is organized. Users can move slider bars to effect the placement of the labels, and search on terms to create their own thematic or object-based exhibit. When the cursor is placed over an object label, scrolling text introduces it. Alternatively, the site can be navigated via a series of icons that run down the middle of the exhibition page. When an icon is clicked, the series of icons may rearrange. Each exhibit contains a photo of the object, along with written commentary on it. In addition, sound is sometimes available to play period music, or render out loud the exhibition text. The most fully-developed object at this time is "Patched Bellbottoms." Users are advised to read the help files on both the main page and the exhibit page for navigation tips. The exhibit is a fascinating precursor of what could be a new way to interactively view museum exhibits, allowing the user to cast off the restraints of a linear orientation. Note that the exhibit is extremely browser and bandwidth intensive.

1998-01-01

142

Attaining Familyhood through Family Conferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meeting together as a family group for discussion and/or activities is the best way of establishing and maintaining a system of free-flowing, snag-proof family communication. Once a family starts meeting together, a sense of purpose and direction is needed. Adherence to four concepts becomes important: dialogue democracy, reasoned revealing,…

Krop, Lois P.; Barry, James T.

143

Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.

2012-01-01

144

Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

Seita, John R.

2014-01-01

145

Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

2003-01-01

146

Family Life  

MedlinePLUS

... that different families have different communication and coping styles. Consider how your family reacts in a crisis ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

147

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Genomics All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics Family Health History Share Compartir Family History ...

148

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

149

Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

Liontos, Lynn Balster

1992-01-01

150

Italian families and family interventions.  

PubMed

In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24879572

Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

2014-06-01

151

Using Family Reconstruction Techniques with Families in Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the technique of Family Reconstruction employed by Satir and others attempting to establish an appreciation of the client's personhood through the understanding of their parents' personhood is presented. In addition, the feeling of continuity with the family and the facilitation of integration is explored to further reveal the…

Sheras, Peter L.

152

LONG LIFE IN THE FAMILY FIRM: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BUSINESS AND FAMILY SUCCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family firm faces the dual challenges of pursuing success in business and success in family life. In this paper, I examine this duality using a qualitative methodology, revealed causal mapping. Moreover, in order for the family firm to achieve long life, the leadership of the family business must provide vision and direction to produce a quality product in an

John James Cater

153

Crystal Structures of the Catalytic Domain of a Novel Glycohydrolase Family 23 Chitinase from Ralstonia sp. A-471 Reveals a Unique Arrangement of the Catalytic Residues for Inverting Chitin Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Chitinase C from Ralstonia sp. A-471 (Ra-ChiC) has a catalytic domain sequence similar to goose-type (G-type) lysozymes and, unlike other chitinases, belongs to glycohydrolase (GH) family 23. Using NMR spectroscopy, however, Ra-ChiC was found to interact only with the chitin dimer but not with the peptidoglycan fragment. Here we report the crystal structures of wild-type, E141Q, and E162Q of the catalytic domain of Ra-ChiC with or without chitin oligosaccharides. Ra-ChiC has a substrate-binding site including a tunnel-shaped cavity, which determines the substrate specificity. Mutation analyses based on this structural information indicated that a highly conserved Glu-141 acts as a catalytic acid, and that Asp-226 located at the roof of the tunnel activates a water molecule as a catalytic base. The unique arrangement of the catalytic residues makes a clear contrast to the other GH23 members and also to inverting GH19 chitinases. PMID:23658014

Arimori, Takao; Kawamoto, Noriko; Shinya, Shoko; Okazaki, Nobuo; Nakazawa, Masami; Miyatake, Kazutaka; Fukamizo, Tamo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Tamada, Taro

2013-01-01

154

Family Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... their marriage, other children, work, finances, and personal relationships and responsibilities. Parents now have to shift much of their resources ... needs of a child with ASD complicates familial relationships, especially with siblings. However, parents can help their family by informing their other ...

155

Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

156

Family Theory and Family Health Research  

PubMed Central

Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

Doherty, William J.

1991-01-01

157

Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships  

PubMed Central

Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537

Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

2009-01-01

158

Counseling Gay and Lesbian Families: Theoretical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are an estimated 2 to 10 million gay and lesbian parents raising from 6 to 14 million children in the United States. Research has revealed few measurable differences between gay and lesbian families and heterosexual families. However, as a result of living in a homophobic and heterosexist society, gay and lesbian families face unique…

Adams, Jennifer L.; Jaques, Jodi D.; May, Kathleen M.

2004-01-01

159

Family Meals  

MedlinePLUS

... less likely to smoke, drink alcohol, or use marijuana and other drugs, and are more likely to have healthier diets as adults, studies have shown. Beyond health and nutrition, family meals provide a valuable opportunity ...

160

Fact Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the relationship of addition to subtraction is explored with books and with connecting cubes. Students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number using a virtual or actual calculator to find differences. They also investigate fact families when one addend is 0 as well as when the addends are the same. Students will: find missing addends, review the additive identity, generate fact families given two addends or given one addend and the sum.

Illuminations

2012-03-31

161

Ecology and population structure of vibrionaceae in the coastal ocean  

E-print Network

Extensive genetic diversity has been discovered in the microbial world, yet mechanisms that shape and maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. This thesis investigates to what extent populations of the ...

Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

2010-01-01

162

Familial central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo report four cases of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in a French family.Patients and methodsOphthalmological examination and medical work-up of seven members of the family.ResultsThere were four cases of CRVO in two consecutive generations. Three of them had CRVO in both eyes. Arterial hypertension was present in two, associated to glaucoma in one. Medical work-up did not reveal additional

J-F Girmens; S Scheer; E Héron; J-A Sahel; E Tournier-Lasserve; M Paques

2008-01-01

163

Family Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

1985-01-01

164

Revealing a Child's Pathology: Physicians' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 12 physicians and 12 care-givers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. We explored physicians' experiences when they revealed a diagnosis. We also tried to understand which family members the physician was thinking of, with whom they identified themselves, and their first choice of the person to whom they prefer to…

Scelles, Regine; Aubert-Godard, Anne; Gargiulo, Marcela; Avant, Monique; Gortais, Jean

2010-01-01

165

The Families of Lesbian and Gay Men: A New Frontier in Family Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 8,000 articles in family research journals revealed that research on lesbian and gay families is limited and that studies that do exist have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. Challenges the neglect of this population in family studies, and discusses theoretical implications. (JPS)

Allen, Katherine R.; Demo, David H.

1995-01-01

166

Family Lessons and Funds of Knowledge: College-Going Paths in Mexican American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families are crucial in the development of a college-going culture in the home. This qualitative study illustrates that Mexican American families are no exception. Using a multiple case study design, this study explored the funds of knowledge present in Mexican American families. Findings from this study reveal how daily educational practices,…

Kiyama, Judy Marquez

2011-01-01

167

Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storybooks are cultural artifacts and part of children's normative socialization. Content analysis of the 100-book sample of picture storybooks about daily family life published between 1943 and 1993 revealed no significant differences among time periods in frequency of appearance of different family types nor of different ethnicities. The dominant family images portrayed across 50 years and in each time period

Nancy M. Rodman; Gladys J. Hildreth

2002-01-01

168

Family and business values of regional family firms: a qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand values of family firms, which have progressed to the second or third generation and to reveal similarities in basic values of the firms, which have continued to be successful. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was realized with family members taking place at top management level in ten family firms applying a

Ferda Erdem; Gözde Gül Ba?er

2010-01-01

169

Adolescent Sexuality: Disentangling the Effects of Family Structure and Family Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing up in single parent, step parent, cohabiting, or lesbian families has been suggested to have negative effects on adolescent sexual behavior. However, analysis reveals that family structure does not significantly influence adolescents' sexual initiation. Rather, family context-more specifically the mother-child relationship-is associated…

Davis, Erin Calhoun; Friel, Lisa V.

2001-01-01

170

Wives' Off-Farm Employment, Farm Family Economic Status, and Family Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined farm families with and without employed wife on economic and relationship status. Data from 1,067 farm spouses revealed that, compared to families with nonemployed wives, families with employed wives had higher debt loads, wives who worked longer hours in all production, wives who were less satisfied with marital relationship, and…

Godwin, Deborah D.; And Others

1991-01-01

171

The CIA's Family Jewels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive at George Washington University has been bringing important documents to the general public's attention for years, and they recently finally received a copy of the CIA's "family jewels" report from the 1970s. They had originally filed a request for the document in 1992, and on June 26th, 2007 CIA officers finally brought the document to their headquarters. James Schlesinger, director of the CIA at the time, started the actual "family jewels" operation in 1973. Noted journalist Seymour Hersh reported on the story of this illegal domestic operation in 1974, and his investigation also revealed that the CIA had been involved in wiretapping and various break-ins since the 1950s. The document can be viewed in its entirety here, and interested parties can also search the entire document by keywords.

172

Evaluations of Family by Youth: Do They Vary as a Function of Family Structure, Gender, and Birth Order?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youths (N=334) evaluated their families on Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Results revealed no significant main effects for birth order or gender. Males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families evaluated their respective families significantly more negatively than did counterparts from other…

Parish, Thomas S.

1990-01-01

173

Students: Consumers of Family and Consumer Sciences Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 1,508 secondary students revealed their perceptions of family-and-consumer-sciences education. Many did not think it should be required, but thought the content was interesting and would help them in family life. (SK)

Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Jones, Karen H.; Cory, Jo Ann; Ethridge, Tracy L.

1998-01-01

174

Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae: a minireview  

PubMed Central

Examination of the original descriptions of genera placed within the family Opisthorchiidae has revealed that only 33 of the original 43 genera are valid members of this family. Further study of these descriptions should also reveal that many of the subfamilies are also invalid. With reference to the original descriptions of these genera, and subsequent literature, a brief survey of the family has been compiled. Information on the spectrum of definitive hosts that these helminths parasitize is provided, as well as information on the life cycles, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic impacts of the family. More in-depth information is given on those species that are of particular medical importance; namely, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus. The final aims of this review are to provide information on the entire genera of the family Opisthorchiidae, which will aid understanding of the phylogenetic relationships not only within the family, but also within the Class Trematoda. PMID:11590910

King, Sandie

2001-01-01

175

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns\\u000a emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers,\\u000a and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed\\u000a three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian

Jaime L. Marks; Chun Bun Lam; Susan M. McHale

2009-01-01

176

DEPLOYMENT & THE MILITARY FAMILY  

E-print Network

1 DEPLOYMENT & THE MILITARY FAMILY NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY FAMILY MEMBERS).............................................................................................. 3 III. HEALTH & MENTAL HEALTH RESOURCES FOR IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBERS OF ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY RESOURCES, INFORMATION & REFERRAL SOURCES FOR IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBERS OF ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY PERSONNEL

177

Military Families Considering Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... Military Families Considering Adoption: A Factsheet for Families Military Families Considering Adoption Email Order (Free) Print (PDF ... Published: 2010 Adoption is a realistic option for military personnel who want to expand their families, and ...

178

Elder Care among Mexican American Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study describes caregiving experiences of elderly family members as perceived by eight Mexican American women caregivers and characterizes the ideas that some Mexican Americans have about elder care. A qualitative approach, using open-ended questions, revealed a cultural picture that reflected a very rich cultural heritage. This picture includes the importance of the family's responsibility to care for its

Michele Clark; Kathleen Huttlinger

1998-01-01

179

The Family Dynamics of Intellectual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Birth order effects on intellectual performance show both positive and negative results. Considers the intellectual aspects of siblings' changing environments, explaining that birth order and family size effects depend crucially on the age at which children are tested. Within-family data conceal patterns of aggregate effects that are revealed by…

Zajonc, R. B.

2001-01-01

180

REVEAL intermediate report  

Microsoft Academic Search

REVEAL, (Reconstruction and Exploratory Visualization: Engineering meets Art \\/ ArchaeoLogy) is a four year NSF-funded project promoting paradigm shifts in archaeology, currently at the 1.5 year point This is a project to create an environment for acquiring and presenting archaeological data in a way that streamlines the excavation process and supports and enhances the expert's understanding of the data. REVEAL

Eben Gay; David Cooper; Benjamin Kimia; Gabriel Taubin; Daniel Cabrini; Suman Karumuri; Will Doutre; Shubao Liu; Katarina Galor; Donald Sanders; Andrew Willis

2010-01-01

181

Familial FSGS.  

PubMed

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and nephrotic syndrome can be caused by rare highly penetrant mutations in number of genes. FSGS can follow both recessive and dominant inheritance patterns. In general, recessive forms present early, whereas the autosomal dominant forms present in adolescence or adulthood. Many of the genes found to be mutated in FSGS and nephrotic syndrome patients encode proteins essential for normal podocyte structure and/or function. An exception appears to be APOL1, which harbors common variants responsible for the high rate of FSGS and other nephropathies in people of recent African ancestry. Familial FSGS should be regarded as part of a spectrum of inherited glomerulopathies where the precise histologic presentation may depend on the age of onset, function of the responsible gene and gene products, and other factors. PMID:25168831

Pollak, Martin R

2014-09-01

182

Positive Family Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The persistence of the nuclear family as the primary social unit in the United States and most all other societies, especially complex ones, is a fact. Values shape the definition of family, especially the "good family," and the "great debate" of this period on family failure, family corruption and the family's near demise originates in…

Sussman, Marvin B.

183

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

184

Final Evaluation Report: Family to Family Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation report of the Family to Family Program assesses parental attitudes towards their Family to Family experience and the functioning of their emotionally impaired children. It reviews issues of goal achievement; the impact on the targeted problem; service population demographics; and sustainability. Related topics include…

Ramey, Luellen; Meyer, David P.

185

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia  

PubMed Central

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), defined as the heritable occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholesterol deposits in tendons and premature heart disease, is caused by at least four genes in sterol and lipoprotein pathways and displays varying gene-dose effects. The genes are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH) adaptor protein. All of these disorders have in common defective clearance of LDL within a complex system of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Normal cellular cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed before describing the disorders, their metabolic derangements and their clinical effects. FH is classified as two simplified phenotypes of disease according to the severity of the metabolic derangement. The dominantly inherited heterozygous phenotype comprises defects in the LDL receptor, apoB100, and neural apoptosis regulatory cleavage protein. The homozygous phenotype is co-dominant in defects of the LDL receptor, and occurs also as the ARH of adapter protein mutations. Defective binding of apoB100 does not result in a significant gene dose effect, but enhances the severity of heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. The genetic diagnosis of FH has provided greater accuracy in definition and detection of disease and exposes information about migration of populations. All of these disorders pose a high risk of atherosclerosis, especially in the homozygous phenotype. Studies of influences on the phenotype and responses to treatment are also discussed in the context of the metabolic derangements. PMID:18516203

Marais, A David

2004-01-01

186

The Impact of Family Life Events and Changes on the Health of a Chronically Ill Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between family stress and changes in health of a child with cystic fibrosis. Data from parents (N=100) and clinic records revealed that a decline in pulmonary functioning was associated with family life changes, especially in family development and relationships, family management and decisions, and family finances.…

Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

1983-01-01

187

The Association between Language Maintenance and Family Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relevance of emotional and familial factors to language maintenance in immigrant families. Information on the family relations of 40 children from Chinese-speaking immigrant families in Sydney, Australia. Analysis revealed that children likely to use their parents' mother tongue were those who perceived their family to be more…

Tannenbaum, Michal; Howie, Pauline

2002-01-01

188

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

189

Boston University Family Medicine  

E-print Network

Boston University Family Medicine Global Health CollaborativeFamily Medicine As part of the Department of Family Medicine at Boston University, the Collaborative is committed to introducing and improving Family Medicine programs around the world. Family Medicine is a holistic specialty that attends

Spence, Harlan Ernest

190

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

191

Strengthening Our Military Families  

MedlinePLUS

... Commitment STRENGTHENING OUR MILITARY FAMILIES 1 ? ? Strengthening Our Military Families: Meeting America’s Commitment “This government-wide review ... Behav Pediatr. 2009;30:271-278 Strengthening Our MilitAry FAMilieS 2 ? ? • civilian family members can live fulfilling ...

192

Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family

Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

2011-01-01

193

Family Support and Conflict: Prospective Relations to Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between family support, family conflict, and adolescent depressive symptomatology were examined longitudinally in a sample of 231 female and 189 male adolescents and their mothers. Structural equation models revealed that less supportive and more con-flictual family environments were associated with greater depressive symptomatology both concurrently and prospectively over a 1-year period. Conversely, adolescent depressive symptomatology did not predict

Lisa Sheeber; Hyraan Hops; Anthony Alpert; Betsy Davis; Judy Andrews

1997-01-01

194

The Invisible Mirror: In-Home Family Therapy and Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses home-based family therapy intervention programs, designed as a preventive strategy for multiproblem, at-risk families in mental health agencies. Maintains that a review of the literature reveals little information on clinical supervision, which is a major component of home-based family intervention. Focuses on providing an alternative…

Zarski, John J.; And Others

1991-01-01

195

Violent Death: A Qualitative Study of Israeli and Palestinian Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to report on how the unexpected and violent death of a civilian family member in Israel and Palestine affected family functioning 3–5 years after the incident. The narrative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the Israeli and Palestinian families on how the death was perceived, on coping strategies, an on how it influenced

Douglas A. Abbott

2009-01-01

196

The Arabidopsis Rab GTPase family: another enigma variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals that gene families such as the Rab GTPase family, which encodes key determinants of vesicle-targeting specificity, are considerably more diverse in plants and mammals than in yeast. In mammals, this diversity appears to reflect the complexity of membrane trafficking. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, despite its large size, the Arabidopsis Rab family lacks most of the

Stephen Rutherford; Ian Moore

2002-01-01

197

Intergenerational Value Orientation and Psychopathology in Greek-American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effect of culture change on the mental health of Greek-American families. A sample of families with second generation schizophrenic members and a sample of families without a history of manifest psychopathology are compared. Analysis reveals intergenerational value differences in those two groups as they confront acculturation…

Papajohn, John

1979-01-01

198

The role of culture and family in mental illness.  

PubMed

A case is presented of a 25-year-old Oriental man who shocked his family by revealing his homosexuality, choosing atheism over his family's traditional Christian religion, and attempting suicide. The discussant examines the cultural implications of the family's reactions to the patient's clinical picture. PMID:2920247

Jaschke, V; Doi, T

1989-03-01

199

The Family in Family Medicine Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the family physician is to focus on the family as a unit of diagnosis and treatment, new knowledge with practical applications for the health care provided is required. Producing this knowledge is the responsibility of the family medicine researcher who will need to use new tools, strategies, and innovative research design. (JMD)

Froom, Jack; Rosen, Melville G.

1980-01-01

200

Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

2001-01-01

201

Anticipation in familial leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to worsening severity or earlier age at onset with each generation for an inherited disease and primarily has been described for neurodegenerative illnesses resulting from expansion of trinucleotide repeats. We have tested for evidence of anticipation in familial leukemia. Of 49 affected individuals in nine families transmitting autosomal dominant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the mean age at onset is 57 years in the grandparental generation, 32 years in the parental generation, and 13 years in the youngest generation (P < .001). Of 21 parent-child pairs with AML, 19 show younger ages at onset in the child and demonstrate a mean decline in age at onset of 28 years (P < .001). Of 18 affected individuals from seven pedigrees with autosomal dominant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the mean age at onset in the parental generation is 66 years versus 51 years in the youngest generation (P = .008). Of nine parent-child pairs with CLL, eight show younger ages at onset in the child and reveal a mean decline in age at onset of 21 years (P = .001). Inspection of rare pedigrees transmitting acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple types of leukemia, and lymphoma is also compatible with anticipation. Sampling bias is unlikely to explain these findings. This suggests that dynamic mutation of unstable DNA sequence repeats could be a common mechanism of inherited hematopoietic malignancy with implications for the role of somatic mutation in the more frequent sporadic cases. We speculate on three possible candidate genes for familial leukemia with anticipation: a locus on 21q22.1-22.2, CBL2 on 11q23.3, and CBFB or a nearby gene on 16q22. 55 refs., 4 figs.

Horwitz, M.; Jarvik, G.P.; Goode, E.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-11-01

202

Family Decision Making  

MedlinePLUS

... National Center Homepage Hearing Loss Share Compartir Family Decision Making How can I start communicating with my baby ... Coded English Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading Family Decision Making Family Adjustment Gathering Information Making Decisions Opinions of ...

203

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059

Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.

2012-01-01

204

The Argonaute protein family  

PubMed Central

Argonaute proteins were first discovered genetically, and extensive research in the past few years has revealed that members of the Argonaute protein family are key players in gene-silencing pathways guided by small RNAs. Small RNAs such as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) or Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are anchored into specific binding pockets and guide Argonaute proteins to target mRNA molecules for silencing or destruction. Various classes of small RNAs and Argonaute proteins are found in all higher eukaryotes and have important functions in processes as diverse as embryonic development, cell differentiation and transposon silencing. Argonaute proteins are evolutionarily conserved and can be phylogenetically subdivided into the Ago subfamily and the Piwi subfamily. Ago proteins are ubiquitously expressed and bind to siRNAs or miRNAs to guide post-transcriptional gene silencing either by destabilization of the mRNA or by translational repression. The expression of Piwi proteins is mostly restricted to the germ line and Piwi proteins associate with piRNAs to facilitate silencing of mobile genetic elements. Although various aspects of Argonaute function have been identified, many Argonaute proteins are still poorly characterized. Therefore, it is very likely that as yet unknown functions of the Argonaute protein family will be elucidated in the future. PMID:18304383

Hock, Julia; Meister, Gunter

2008-01-01

205

Singing about family planning.  

PubMed

The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

Emah, E

1993-01-01

206

Darwin's illness revealed.  

PubMed

After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed--the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution. PMID:15811889

Campbell, Anthony K; Matthews, Stephanie B

2005-04-01

207

Familial Paroxysmal Dystonic Choreoathetosis: Clinical Findings in a Large Japanese Family and Genetic Linkage to 2q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and Methods: We studied a large Japanese family in which at least 17 members in 6 generations have been affected by PDC. We interviewed and examined 26 family members, 8 of whom revealed choreoathetosis- like and dystonialike involuntary movement and 1 of whom revealed no involuntary movement but only muscle stiffness such as the aura of paroxysmal dystonic cho-

Hirotaka Matsuo; Keiko Kamakura; Masaaki Saito; Masamichi Okano; Terumasa Nagase; Yutaka Tadano; Ken-ichi Kaida; Akira Hirata; Norikazu Miyamoto; Toshihiro Masaki; Ryohji Nakamura; Kazuo Motoyoshi; Hajime Tanaka; Shoji Tsuji

1999-01-01

208

Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families  

PubMed Central

The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

2010-01-01

209

Systematic review of family functioning in families of children and adolescents with chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Disturbances in family functioning have been identified in youth with chronic pain and are associated with worse child physical and psychological functioning. Assessment measures of family functioning used in research and clinical settings vary. This systematic review summarizes studies investigating relationships among family functioning, pain and pain-related disability in youth with chronic pain. Sixteen articles were reviewed. All studies were cross-sectional, seven utilized between-group comparisons (chronic pain versus healthy/control) and twelve examined within-group associations among family functioning, pain and/or pain-related disability. Studies represented youth with various pain conditions (e.g., headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia) aged 6 – 20 years. Findings revealed group differences in family functioning between children with chronic pain and healthy controls in five of seven studies. Significant associations emerged among family variables and pain-related disability in six of nine studies with worse family functioning associated with greater child disability; relationships between family functioning and children’s pain were less consistent. Different patterns of results emerged depending on family functioning measure used. Overall, findings showed that families of children with chronic pain generally have poorer family functioning than healthy populations, and that pain-related disability is more consistently related to family functioning than pain intensity. PMID:21055709

Lewandowski, Amy S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Stinson, Jennifer; Handley, Susannah; Chambers, Christine T.

2010-01-01

210

A missense (Asp*5O-+Asn) mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene in two unrelated families with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified the molecular basis for familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in two unrelated families with the syndrome of familial hyperchylomicronemia. All 10 exons of the LPL gene were amplified from the two probands' genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction. In family 1 of French descent, direct sequencing of the amplification products revealed that the patient was heterozygous for

Kazumi Ishimura-Oka; Clay F. Semenkovich; Fabrizia Faustinella; Ira J. Goldberg; Neil Shachter; Louis C. Smith; Trey Coleman; Winston A. Hide; W. Virgil Brown; Kazuhiro Oka; Lawrence Chan

211

Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.  

PubMed

According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom (sterilized) versus a world of abundance and strength enjoyed by a nonsterilized man. The results of the projective drawings are only a small part of the total market research effort in El Salvador, yet they seem to indicate that the development of a CSM project communications strategy is critically important to product sales and continued product use. New advertising messages will need to be carefully tested and much communication expertise will be required to develop a message that will contribute to resolving consumer ambivalences toward product use. PMID:12279792

1983-01-01

212

FAMILIES FIRST: Keys to Successful Family Functioning Family Roles  

E-print Network

, par- ents are expected to teach, discipline, and provide for their children. And children are expected foR effecTive family funcTioning There are many roles within a family; however, researchers have identified day at school, or fam- ily members supporting one another after the death of a loved one. · Life ski

Liskiewicz, Maciej

213

A Continent Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Continent Revealed presents the findings of the European Geotraverse (EGT)--a unique study of the tectonic evolution of the continent of Europe and the first comprehensive cross section of the continental lithosphere. The project produced maps and geologic profiles, along a 250 kilometer wide swath stretching 4600 kilometers from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, which form a three dimensional picture of the structure, properties, and composition of the continental lithosphere of Europe in an atlas format. Many of the data that comprise the maps are also presented on an compact disc (ROM). The discussion volume, the maps, and a booklet containing gravity, electric, and magnetic field data constitute the complete boxed set. The paperback discussion volume is also available separately.

Blundell, D. J.; Freeman, R.; Mueller, Stephan

1992-11-01

214

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of  

E-print Network

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of Family medicine is the medical specialty which provides continuing the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity. (1986) (2003) Quality Healthcare In Family Medicine Quality

Finley Jr., Russell L.

215

[Teaching about Family Law].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1992-01-01

216

Families in Transition .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

1984-01-01

217

Family Participation in Policymaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

1998-01-01

218

Black Families. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

219

The Climate Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, William

1999-10-01

220

Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM  

E-print Network

Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM] FLICKR, MARCO CASTELLANI The Nutshell Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed Researchers identify new mutations in schizophrenia patients without a family history of the disease. By Jef

221

The family romance fantasies of adopted children.  

PubMed

Despite the absence of psychoanalytic studies to support the position, family romance fantasies have been assumed to be similar in form and function in both the adopted child and the blood kin child. My studies, documented herein from the analyses of three adoptees, reveal that knowing one is adopted results in modifications of the fantasy and that certain types of adoptees seem incapable of effectively creating the paradigmatic family romance fantasy. PMID:859949

Wieder, H

1977-01-01

222

Stress on the Job: How Family Literacy Program Directors Perceive Occupational Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has examined stress among family literacy administrators, although studies in other contexts reveal occupational stress can lead to illness, distress, and organizational problems. This article presents findings from a recent study of stress among family literacy program directors in Texas. Findings reveal family literacy program…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Chen, Chia-Yin

2007-01-01

223

Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.

2006-01-01

224

Revealing plant defense signaling  

PubMed Central

The regulation mechanisms of any plant-pathogen interaction are complex and dynamic. A proteomic approach is necessary in understanding regulatory networks because it identifies new proteins in relation to their function and ultimately aims to clarify how their expression, accumulation and modification is controlled. One of the major control mechanisms for protein activity in plant-pathogen interactions is protein phosphorylation, and an understanding of the significance of protein phosphorylation in plant-pathogen interaction can be overwhelming. Due to the high number of protein kinases and phosphatases in any single plant genome and specific limitations of any technologies, it is extremely challenging for us to fully delineate the phosphorylation machinery. Current proteomic approaches and technology advances have demonstrated their great potential in identifying new components. Recent studies in well-developed plantpathogen systems have revealed novel phosphorylation pathways, and some of them are off the core phosphorylation cascades. Additional phosphoproteomic studies are needed to increase our comprehension of the different mechanisms and their fine tuning involved in the host resistance response to pathogen attacks. PMID:21897123

2011-01-01

225

AIDS and the family: families take care.  

PubMed

In 1994, the International Year of the Family, the WHO's Global Program on AIDS (GPA) is marking World AIDS Day under the banner AIDS and the Family. Traditional and non-traditional families have a crucial role to play in addressing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In the run-up to World AIDS Day--and on 1 December itself--GPA urges the world to focus on how families of all kinds are affected by AIDS, on how they can be more effective in prevention and care, and on how they can contribute to global efforts against the disease. For GPA, any group of people linked by feelings of trust, mutual support and a common destiny may be seen as a family. The concept need not be limited to ties of blood, marriage, sexual partnership or adoption. In this light, religious congregations, workers' associations, support groups of people with HIV/AIDS, gangs of street children, circles of drug injectors, collectives of sex workers and networks of governmental, nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations may all be regarded as families within the over-arching family of humankind. Every kind of family should take care to protect its members from HIV. And all families should take care of those among them who fall ill with AIDS. Families take care. "Families whose bonds are based on love, trust, nurturing and openness are best placed to protect their members from infection and give compassionate care and support to those affected by HIV or AIDS," says Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, Director-General of the WHO [World Health Organization]. PMID:12287963

1994-01-01

226

Family Health History and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Health History and Diabetes Family Health History and Diabetes En español Family health history is an important ... Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history ...

227

Family therapy and the Igbo family system.  

PubMed

Theories and treatment modalities may differ in the degree to which they are applicable to different groups. This paper examines the applicability of Bowen's family therapy concepts to a culturally different family system, the Igbo of Southeastern Nigeria. The analyses point to the importance of understanding client value orientations in planning appropriate care. PMID:8081698

Nkongho, N O

1994-01-01

228

Family Network Intervention: Healing Families in Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a therapeutic approach for helping families relieve a crisis by calling on their extended family of relatives, friends, and neighbors to meet and initiate a healing process leading towards a productive and constructive resolution of their crisis. (Author/RK)

Rueveni, Uri

1976-01-01

229

FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month" in order to be eligible for up to 15 days of unpaid leave per deployment) · Women who take leave due FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Leave Restrictions · Runs

Borenstein, Elhanan

230

Conceptualising Family Life and Family Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations International Year of the Family 1994 will give policymakers the opportunity to bring together threads of social life that have previously been treated separately. The danger in talking about the concept of "the family" lies both in its abstractness and in its emotional, religious, and political overtones. To avoid this…

Edgar, Don

231

Implicit Orientation Toward Family and School Among Bilingual Latino College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the associations that underlie the orientations of bilingual Latino college students toward family and school. Participants completed, in English or Spanish, 3 implicit association tests assessing their attitude toward family vs. school, identifications with these concepts, and self-esteem. Results revealed a more positive attitude toward, and stronger identification with, family than school. Identification with family was stronger

Thierry Devos; Karla Blanco; Cynthia Muñoz; Roger Dunn; Emilio C. Ulloa

2008-01-01

232

Comparing Service Use of Early Head Start Families of Children With and Without Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compared patterns of service utilization reported by Early Head Start (EHS) families of children with and without disabilities by secondary analysis of data from the longitudinal investigation of the effectiveness of EHS. Findings reveal comparable positive trends for both groups of families for receipt of services corresponding to EHS performance standards promoting child and family development, family

Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber; Shavaun M. Wall; Ellen E. Kisker; Gayle J. Luze; Jean Ann Summers

2011-01-01

233

Parental characteristics and interactional dysfunction in families with child behavior problems: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six families with a preteenage behavior problem child were assessed on measures of marital discord, parental psychopathology, and three parental cognitive factors: knowledge of behavioral principles, tolerance for child deviancy, and expectations regarding their child's behavior. Nine nonproblem families with demographic characteristics similar to the problem families were also assessed. Correlational analyses across all families revealed a strong association between

Andrew Christensen; Susan Phillips; Russell E. Glasgow; Steven M. Johnson

1983-01-01

234

Work and Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Career Success, and Psychological Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 111 entrepreneurs revealed that work characteristics/pressures influence work more than family commitment; parental demands and partner support influence family more than work commitment. Women devote more time to family and men to work. Autonomy enables entrepreneurs to minimize the intrusion of family on work. (SK)

Parasuraman, Saroj; And Others

1996-01-01

235

Familial Achalasia, a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Although achalasia is a relatively rare disease in pediatric age group, it must be considered for differential diagnosis of esophageal disorders in children with positive family history even in the absence of typical clinical manifestations. Case Presentation A 5-month old boy was hospitalized for cough and mild respiratory distress. Because of positive history of achalasia in his mother, achalasia was detected in esophgagography. Pneumatic dilation through endoscopy was successful. A 12-month follow-up revealed no problem. Conclusion Achalasia must be considered for differential diagnosis in children with positive family history of achalasia even in the absence of typical clinical manifestations. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is probable. We suggest further researches and genetic studies to establish the pattern of inheritance. PMID:23056711

Motamed, Farzaneh; Modaresi, Vajiheh; Eftekhari, Kambiz

2010-01-01

236

Assessing postpartum family functioning.  

PubMed

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

1988-09-01

237

Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning  

PubMed Central

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

1988-01-01

238

The Changing American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent statistics which demonstrate how different modern families are from the stereotyped model American nuclear family. Provides suggestions for elementary social studies teachers and includes an annotated bibliography of instructional resources. (JDH)

Joseph, Pamela B.

1986-01-01

239

Families and Fragile Syndrome  

E-print Network

Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency, the NICHD family includes not only scientists, researchers, and health care providers, but also children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Social and emotional

Rau, Don C.

240

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family

Toronto, University of

241

Efficient haplotyping for families  

E-print Network

Hapi is a novel dynamic programming algorithm for haplotyping nuclear families that outperforms contemporary family-based haplotyping algorithms. Haplotypes are useful for mapping and identifying genes which cause and ...

Williams, Amy Lynne, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

242

Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice  

E-print Network

Government Performance and Results Act (1993) APR Program goal: Enhance the development of infants and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and support their families in meeting their special needs 1 Family Indicator: The percentage of families participating... Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...

Zuna, Nina

2005-05-05

243

Immigrant Families in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has a larger and more diverse immigrant population than most Western societies. Australia's immigration history is linked to the story of family migration as Australia sought immigrants for permanent settlement. However, it is important to aviod over-generalisation when studying immigrant families in Australia today. The main hypothesis is that in order to understand the immigrant family in Australia today

Jock Collins

1992-01-01

244

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

245

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

246

Treatment of violent families.  

PubMed Central

Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

1991-01-01

247

Families in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

1987-01-01

248

The Resiliency of Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to researchers, the family may be changing but it is still one of the central institutions in society. Studies report a shift in more than 20 attitudes and values, most of which relate to the context of family life. Specifically, these include attitudes toward marriage, divorce, childbearing, childrearing, working women, family violence,…

Morrison, T. R.

249

Families and Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to assisted living is relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL, and outcomes for these family members. Design and Methods We reviewed current literature utilizing the MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify AL studies that examined issues pertaining to families or informal care. Following the screening of abstracts, 180 reports were retrieved for further review, and 62 studies were selected for inclusion. Results Families visit residents frequently and provide a wide range of instrumental assistance but provide only minimal personal care. Studies of family outcomes indicated relatively high satisfaction, but potential care burden as well. Implications How family care and involvement occurs in AL in relation to formal care provision and whether various types of formal-informal care integration influence family outcomes remains unclear. We suggest a research agenda that attempts to tease out causal relationships for family involvement, differentiate family roles, and implement longitudinal analyses for a range of family outcomes. PMID:18162571

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2008-01-01

250

Marriage and Family Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of marriage and family counseling, including the growth of interest in this specialty within the American Counseling Association (ACA). Discusses the evolution of marriage and family counseling within ACA, standards for training, credentialing, and unique ethical considerations when counseling couples and families. (Author)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1995-01-01

251

Discovering “Family” Creatively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is a powerful force within the family therapy field, central not only to the therapeutic process but also to counselor education. Time-honored tools, such as the genogram along with its many adaptations, remain useful in learning about family. However, as our rapidly changing culture continually redefines and stretches the concept of family, we must learn new methods to discover

Colleen M. Connolly

2006-01-01

252

Year of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

California Agriculture, 1994

1994-01-01

253

Doing Better for Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All OECD governments want to give parents more choice in their work and family decisions. This book looks at the different ways in which governments support families. It seeks to provide answers to questions like: Is spending on family benefits going up, and how does it vary by the age of the child? Has the crisis affected public support for…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

2011-01-01

254

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

255

Families for All Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin reflects the commitment of Syracuse University's Center on Human Policy to the idea that children belong with families. The bulletin contains a policy statement which recommends; that all children, regardless of disability, belong with families and need enduring relationships with adults; that families with severely disabled children…

Shoultz, Bonnie, Ed.; Kalyanpur, Maya, Ed.

256

Learning from Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a researcher in parent engagement in school and former parent activist, the author shares three lessons for sparking more authentic partnerships between schools and immigrant families. First, schools need to move away from deficit thinking and validate families' cultures. In the case of Latino immigrant families, this entails understanding…

Auerbach, Susan

2011-01-01

257

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

258

Single Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes are taking place in American and Cana- dian families exerting dramatic influences on family life and the pro- fessional of nursing. This was a recently completed project involving a multidisciplinary team of scholars from across North America that brought together the latest information available on a wide variety of single parent families. The purpose of this chapter is

Shirley M. H. Hanson; Marsha L. Heims; Doris J. Julian; Marvin B. Sussman

1994-01-01

259

Family Support Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Resource Coalition of America (FRCA) and the National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice convened a meeting of evaluators, policymakers, and program practitioners to discuss the issue of evaluation in the field of family support. The goal was to bring together those who were implementing programs, evaluating programs, and…

Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

1998-01-01

260

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

261

Family Issues for the Nineties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation reviews the characteristics of the Canadian family at present. Discussion focuses on divorce, family structure, reproductive technology, fertility, family size, family mobility, family support, government role, women's participation in the labor force, daily family routines, television viewing, work and the family, the need for…

Mirabelli, Alan

262

Free-Choice Family Learning Experiences at Telescope Observing Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines family experiences at nighttime telescope observing events. The goal was to observe family visitors and understand how they negotiate meaning and incorporate these experiences into their family culture. In this case study of one family's telescope observing experience, the participants' motivations and agenda are described as well as ways in which they negotiated identity and family-community membership at the same time as they were involved in the construction of meaning. The analysis revealed evidence of both meaning making and identity negotiation during, and related to, the educational leisure activity of attending a nighttime telescope observing event.

Wenger, M. C.; Carter, K.; Harris, C. J.

2011-09-01

263

Titan Casts Revealing Shadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

2004-05-01

264

Social Structure of Pilot Whales Revealed by Analytical DNA Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-finned pilot whales swim in large, extremely cohesive social groups known as pods. Molecular typing revealed that pod members form a single extended family. Mature males neither disperse from nor mate within their natal pods, a situation unusual for mammals. Such behavior could be explained in terms of inclusive fitness benefits gained by adult males helping the large number of

Bill Amos; Christian Schlotterer; Diethard Tautz

1993-01-01

265

The inward rectifier potassium channel family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cloning of a family of genes encoding inwardly rectifying K+ channels has provided the opportunity to explain some venerable problems in membrane biology. An expanding number of novel inwardly rectifying K+ channel clones has revealed multiple channel subfamilies that have specialized roles in cell function. The molecular determinants of inward rectification have been largely elucidated with the discovery of

Craig A Doupnik; Norman Davidson; Henry A Lester

1995-01-01

266

Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journalist Isabel Valle lived and traveled for 1 year with the family of Raul and Maria Elena Martinez, migrant farmworkers who make their permanent home in south Texas. Her reports appeared every Sunday in the Walla Walla Union-Bulletin's award-winning series "Fields of Toil." This book compiles those weekly reports, which reveal the issues that…

Valle, Isabel

267

Precursors of Young Women's Family Formation Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed

Amato, Paul R.; Landale, Nancy S.; Havasevich-Brooks, Tara C.; Booth, Alan; Eggebeen, David J.; Schoen, Robert; McHale, Susan M.

2008-01-01

268

Families and schools in rural appalachia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review revealed conceptual elements and approaches that have been productive in the study of(a) rural education and (b) rural families and children as they interface with schools. The Appalachian region is considered relative to these same issues. For nearly two decades the Appalachia Educational Laboratory has pursued systematic research and development aimed at improving the effectiveness of rural

Edward E. Gotts; Richard F. Purnell

1986-01-01

269

Multigene families in African swine fever virus: family 110.  

PubMed Central

The genome of African swine fever virus was screened for the existence of repetitive sequences by hybridization between different cloned restriction fragments covering the viral DNA. Several sets of repeated sequences were detected in fragments located close to the DNA ends. One of these groups of repetitions involved fragments located at both ends of the genome. The remaining groups involved fragments that were located exclusively at the left end. The sequence of a 3.2-kilobase segment spanning from 7.5 to 11 kilobases from the left DNA end, which showed a complex pattern of cross-hybridizations, was determined. Two short and three long blocks of direct repeated sequences were found in this DNA region, which accounted for the hybridization results. The repeated sequences formed a family of five homologous genes with an average length of 116 codons (multigene family 110), one of which had a dimeric structure. Transcripts of the five members of the family were detected both in RNA synthesized in vitro by purified African swine fever virions and in RNA isolated at early times after infection. Comparison of the predicted protein sequences revealed a striking conservation of a cysteine-rich domain in the central part of the proteins. In addition, a highly hydrophobic NH2-terminal sequence present in all the proteins suggests that these proteins are processed through the endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:2325202

Almendral, J M; Almazan, F; Blasco, R; Vinuela, E

1990-01-01

270

Postdivorce Relationships in Families and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divorced mothers and their school-aged children in 50 single-mother families and 37 stepfather families reported on mothers' ex-partner relationships, children's relationships with both parents, and children's well-being. A 2 (family structure) × 2 (gender) multivariate analysis of variance revealed a main effect of gender: Mothers with sons report higher levels of ex-partner relationship satisfaction. An interaction effect was also found:

Esther M. Hakvoort; Henny M. W. Bos; Frank Van Balen; Jo M. A. Hermanns

2011-01-01

271

The Family Systems Assessment Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe the properties of the Family Systems Assessment Tool (FSAT), a self-report instrument designed to assess aspects of relationships and intergenerational family dynamics within a subject’s current family and family of origin.

W. Perry Dickinson; Frank V. deGRUY; L. Miriam Dickinson; H. S. Mullins; Scott Acker; Vince Gilmer

1996-01-01

272

Children's Use of Retreats in Family Child Care Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of retreat spaces by 65 children in 9 family child care homes was assessed in this study. Family child care providers used daily diaries to collect information about children's retreat frequency and associated behavior. The findings revealed that nearly half of the children used informal, readily available retreats during the research…

Weinberger, Nanci

2006-01-01

273

Family Environment and Social Development in Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involving more than 1,500 academically gifted students and their parents, this study examined relationships between family environment and social competence of gifted students. Results from an online survey revealed that our gifted students rated their families as cohesive and flexible with high levels of satisfaction and communication among…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young; Thomson, Dana

2014-01-01

274

Teaching Family Therapists about Sexual Attraction in Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on sexual attraction in relation to the practice of marriage and family therapy and investigates how family-therapists-in-training regard this phenomenon. Results reveal that new therapists dealing with attraction in therapy encounter a myriad of emotional responses. Proposes that it is the clinical supervisor's…

Harris, Steven M.

2001-01-01

275

Patterns of Behavior in Family Conflict: A Systems View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations of conflictual family interaction have revealed that several distinctive behavior patterns tend to occur during the course of a family dispute. Patterns such as negative reciprocity, positive reciprocity, and coercion have been described and utilized as predictors of marital satisfaction and parent-child relations. This study examined…

Brennan, Patricia A.; And Others

276

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE Department of Family Medicine #12;2 Family Medicine the dimensions of the role of the family physician and the problem-solving approach of family medicine, community Normally six students rotate monthly in the Department of family medicine. Students receive didactic

Shihadeh, Alan

277

The Growth of a Family  

PubMed Central

Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

1991-01-01

278

Why families matter.  

PubMed

Serious illness puts pressure not only on individual family members but also on the family itself. The care of an acutely ill child requires the family to channel many of its resources toward a single member--an arrangement that can usually be sustained for a while but that cannot continue indefinitely while the other members do without. Illness disrupts ordinary familial functions and, if it is serious enough, threatens to break the family altogether. In this article, I argue that there are situations in which the threat to family integrity is so real and serious that the interests of parents or siblings or sometimes grandparents may override the interests of the pediatric patient. PMID:25274881

Lindemann, Hilde

2014-10-01

279

A family history and direct interview study of the familial aggregation of substance abuse: the adolescent substance abuse study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adolescent substance abuse (ASA) study collected information concerning drug use and psychopathology on male adolescent probands in treatment for substance abuse and also on matched control adolescents, as well as all available family members of both groups. Information was obtained through direct interview and the family history method of assessment. Both methods revealed greater alcohol and drug use, conduct

Donna R Miles; Michael C Stallings; Susan E Young; John K Hewitt; Thomas J Crowley; David W Fulker

1998-01-01

280

Handy Family Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this bilingual (English/Spanish) activity, learners create family trees by tracing the hands of their family members. Learners list inherited traits like eye color, freckles, and chin shape on the fingers of the left hands and list learned traits like favorite foods, games, and pets on the fingers of the right hands. Learners assemble the hands to form trees. Use this family activity to help learners distinguish between inherited and learned traits.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

281

Neighborhoods and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neighborhoods have a profound impact on children and their families, including health and safety, educational attainment,\\u000a child maltreatment risk, and many others. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms through which neighborhood\\u000a physical and social characteristics features influence child and family outcomes. This chapter looks at current definitions\\u000a for community and family and reviews research for community effects

James R. McDonell

282

Supporting Family Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported

Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer

2007-01-01

283

The family lecture.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This paper describes a lecture about my extended family, in which I discuss a variety of configurations consisting of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and our children. It raises an array of issues, including alternative insemination, biological and nonbiological parentage, donors and birthmothers, adoption, co-parenting and blended families, significant others, and gay marriage and domestic partnership. It helps many students obtain both a more expansive sense of family and adeeper understanding of homophobia. PMID:24804601

Rose, Nancy E

2002-10-01

284

Managing a Family Budget  

E-print Network

is the foundation of a sound financial management plan. When used in conjunction with records of actual spending, a family budget allows you to pinpoint unnecessary spending and areas where actual costs may be higher or lower than you previously thought. Given... the tight profit margins in agriculture, adhering to a finely tuned family budget can give a much needed boost to your financial future. Not having a family budget means you are not managing your family finances. This most often leads to spending more...

McCorkle, Dean; Klinefelter, Danny A.

2008-09-16

285

Family leisure, family photography and zoos: exploring the emotional geographies of families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the significance of the zoo as a place for family leisure and the emotional work of sustaining a positive family life. Zoos are understood as culturally laden places, widely identified as locations for family-friendly leisure and as stages for practicing family and then capturing and memorializing this behavior in and through family photographs. Zoo family

Bonnie C. Hallman; S. Mary P. Benbow; P. Benbow

2007-01-01

286

Family Fitness = Family Fun! Presented by  

E-print Network

of the distraction) · According to the A.C. Nielsen Co., the average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each are you exercising now? Six out of ten American adults don't exercise regularly despite the proven TV · At least 40 percent of families watch TV while eating dinner! (And tend to eat more as a result

287

Fractured families: parental perspectives of the effects of adolescent drug abuse on family life.  

PubMed

Drug use in young people has serious ramifications for health and well-being of young people and their families and continues to be an area of major concern for health workers. Though the task of dealing with drug-related problems falls on families, particularly parents, very little literature has explored parental experiences of managing drug use within the context of family life. Eighteen parents of drug-abusing young people were recruited into this qualitative study that aimed to develop understandings into the effects of adolescent drug use on family life. Findings revealed that the experience of having a drug-abusing adolescent family member had a profound effect on other members of the immediate family. Family relationships were fractured and split as a result of the on-going destructive and damaging behaviour of the drug-abusing young person. Five themes were identified that captured the concept of fractured families. These are: betrayal and loss of trust: 'You had to have the doors locked'; abuse, threats and violence: 'there were holes in the wall'; sibling anger and resentment: 'Better off now with him gone'; isolated, disgraced and humiliated: 'You are on your own with it'; and, feeling blamed: 'You are not a good parent'. Implications for practice and further research are drawn from the findings of this paper. PMID:17343535

Jackson, Debra; Usher, Kim; O'Brien, Louise

288

Lineage-Specific Expansion of IFIT Gene Family: An Insight into Coevolution with IFN Gene Family  

PubMed Central

In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

2013-01-01

289

Salmonella pathogenesis reveals that BMP signaling regulates blood cell homeostasis and immune  

E-print Network

Salmonella pathogenesis reveals that BMP signaling regulates blood cell homeostasis and immune that Decapentaplegic (Dpp; a Drosophila BMP family mem- ber) plays a role in blood cell homeostasis and immune and adult homeostasis in many species. In this family Drosophila Dpp shows greatest amino acid similarity

Newfeld, Stuart J.

290

[Individual and common coping in families with parents suffering from schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Using a triangulation design the individual and family coping strategies in families with parents suffering from schizophrenia are ascertained and contrasted utilising qualitative and quantitative data. For children (n = 25) three coping strategies are identified: "Aggressive coping", "controlling coping", and "moderate coping" i. e. inconspicuous coping. Parents seem to model coping for their children. Qualitative analysis of data for 35 families revealed five patterns of shared familial coping-processes. A clear picture emerges showing that the children's contribution to family functioning consists essentially of taking on responsibility and family tasks. The results emphasize the need for family-oriented interventions. PMID:21488324

Lenz, Albert; Kuhn, Juliane; Walther, Susann; Jungbauer, Johannes

2011-01-01

291

The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

2013-11-01

292

Family History Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

Bookmark, 1991

1991-01-01

293

[Inclusive Recreation and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies…

Heyne, Linda A., Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

294

Golden Matrix Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

2011-01-01

295

Uninsured Rural Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

2008-01-01

296

Family Bonding with Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university. Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families. We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate…

Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

297

Family Reunification Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utah's Department of Human Services' Family Reunification Project was initiated to demonstrate that intensive, time-limited, home-based services would enable children in foster care to return to their natural families more rapidly than regular foster care management permits. The following steps were taken in project development: (1) sites were…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

298

Marinating the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

Hensel, Karen A.

1982-01-01

299

Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

300

Families Orientation Tudor Fieldhouse  

E-print Network

with us today, and others have a half dozen more at home. Some of you are dropping off the third generation of Rice students in your family, and some of you are dropping off the first person in your family said "setting a good example for children takes all the fun out of middle age." If the child you

Alvarez, Pedro J.

301

Employers, Families and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

302

Family Perspectives on Prematurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

Zero to Three (J), 2003

2003-01-01

303

Military Family Counselling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of family counselling with families of active duty senior non-commissioned officers. It was an application of elements of the Bo-Between Process (Zuk, 1972, 1975) which was based on the finding tha...

J. J. Garrigan

1983-01-01

304

Families living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were

M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester

2005-01-01

305

Engaging Families with Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How to involve families in the formal education of their children is a question researchers and educators have been trying to answer since the first bricks were laid for the nation's public education system. A solution must be found, for family involvement has been proven to be associated with a myriad of stellar outcomes, including greater…

T.H.E. Journal, 2003

2003-01-01

306

THE JAPANESE ADVERTISING FAMILY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the representation of the family in Japanese TV commercials. Based on empirical research conducted in 2004 and 2005, it argues that Japanese commercials tend to depict the family and its members in highly stereotypical ways. Mothers are almost always shown doing some kind of house- work, at times supported by their daughters, preparing for their future

Michael Prieler

307

Reaching Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

1995-01-01

308

Experimental family services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a survey of 127 special services for families. Although varying in their methods, all concentrate on the needs of the family as a unit, rather than as individuals. The projects are all innovative. Many use self help methods, involve peer group leadership, or involve users in the organisation of the work. The projects are shown to have

Miriam Richardson; Barry Knight

1981-01-01

309

Patent Family Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

Simmons, Edlyn S.

1985-01-01

310

Brief Strategic Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homework tasks are an essential com ponent of BSFT. Therapists strategically implement tasks to achieve improvements in family interactions that are directly related to the prevention or reduction of adolescent behavior problems. The use of tasks in BSFT is consistent with the model?s emphasis on having family members ?do? rather than simply ?talk about.? Tasks are assigned based on the

Michael S. Robbins; Jose’ Szapocznik; Gonzalo Pe’rez

311

Firearms and family violence.  

PubMed

Firearms contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in family violence. This article discusses the debate on gun use for protection and guns in the home. Weapons-related risks in the setting of intimate partner violence are closely reviewed. Recommendations for physicians are discussed in the context of firearms and family violence. PMID:10516848

Kellermann, A; Heron, S

1999-08-01

312

Prosocial family therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual for Prosocial Family Therapy (PFT) describes a practical method of multisystemic care for juvenile offenders based on our theories about risk and protection factors and therapy process. The PFT team integrates specific parent training techniques and nonspecific family therapy strategies in meetings scheduled with decreasing frequency over a 3-month intervention and 2-year follow-up period. The PFT manual blends

Elaine A Blechman; Kevin D Vryan

2000-01-01

313

Stress in Latino families following an adolescent's childbearing: effects on family relationships and siblings.  

PubMed

This study examined how increased stress in Latino families following an adolescent's childbearing impacts family relationships and the adolescent's siblings. Participants were 243 Mexican American youth (mean age: 13.7 years; 62% girls), or 121 youth who had a pregnant adolescent sister and 122 youth who had an adolescent sister who had never been pregnant. Youth and their mothers were studied at 4 time points across 15 months: The families of pregnant adolescents were studied when the adolescent sister was in her third trimester of pregnancy, and at 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum; the families of never-pregnant adolescents were studied at like intervals. Individual fixed-effects structural equation models were computed, which control for earlier measures of study constructs and thereby reduce omitted variable bias from preexisting family group differences. Results showed that an adolescent's childbearing was related to increases in family stress, which were related to increases in mothers' harsh parenting and mother-sibling conflict, which, in turn, were related to subsequent increases in siblings' problem behavior. Multiple group analyses revealed that the pathways through which a teenager's childbearing influences siblings operate similarly for girls and boys. Tests of an alternate ordering of model variables indicated a poor fit with the data. Findings provide evidence that the accumulation of stressful family changes following an adolescent's childbearing can negatively impact siblings. Findings also elucidate how family-level stress and disruption experienced across a family transition trickle down to affect family relationships and, in turn, child family members. PMID:23458699

East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C

2013-04-01

314

Familial malignant melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

1986-10-10

315

[Strengthening family planning management].  

PubMed

Prior to 1984, enforcement of family planning policies in an undisclosed PLA military settlement in China's Jinan Military Region was totally inadequate. After notification from the central government, this military settlement immediately began enforcing family planning policies, resulting in sudden and full compliance with the central government's family planning policies. The system of scientific management of promoting and enforcing family planning, established by local administrators, is described. Management by objectives, clearly defined individual tasks and responsibilities, an full cooperation and support on the part of the authorities are some of the factors responsible for the effectiveness and success of the family planning efforts in this military settlement. A number of potential problem areas are identified scientific management techniques in dealing with uncooperative parties are emphasized. PMID:12159410

Hong, C; Shi, Z

1985-09-29

316

Families First: Keys to Successful Family Functioning An Introduction  

E-print Network

unit. Unlike any other social group, families are able to provide the close emotional support needed to produce self-confident and well-adjusted children and adults. Likewise, families that function age children; the family with teenagers; the family/ launching center; the family/middle years

Liskiewicz, Maciej

317

Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family

Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

2014-01-01

318

Family intervention for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

2014-01-01

319

Familial Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Families with multiple individuals affected with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other related B-cell tumors have been described in the literature and strong familial aggregation has been seen in population studies. However, predisposing germ line mutations have not been identified. We will discuss the spectrum of conditions associated with CLL in families and the advances in identifying the underlying susceptibility genes. Recent Findings Familial CLL does not appear to differ substantially from sporadic CLL in terms of prognostic markers and clinical outcome, although it may be associated with more indolent disease. The precursor condition, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) also aggregates in CLL families. Linkage studies have been conducted in high-risk CLL families to screen the whole genome for susceptibility loci but no gene mutations have yet been identified by this method. Association studies of candidate genes have implicated several genes as being important in CLL but more studies are needed. Results from whole genome association studies are promising. Summary The ability to conduct large scale genomic studies in unrelated CLL cases and in high risk CLL families will play an important role in detecting susceptibility genes for CLL over the next few years and thereby help to delineate etiologic pathways. PMID:20389242

Goldin, Lynn R.; Slager, Susan L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

2010-01-01

320

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

321

Families Get Involved! Learning Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that families who are involved in their children's education make a difference in their child's performance, this two-page information sheet encourages families to get involved by listing the benefits of family involvement on one side and the ways adult family members can help in the school on the other. As a result of family participation:…

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Media and Information Services.

322

Canadian Families (Les Familles Canadiennes).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural changes that have taken place in Canadian families in recent decades are described in this booklet. Topical sections are as follows: (1) What Counts in Canadian Families (importance of (importance of family); (2) The Family--Variations on a Theme origins, family structure, seniors aged 60 and over, how lives are spent, religion); (3)…

Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

323

THE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE  

E-print Network

- ment, clothing and textiles, early childhood education, family and consumer science education, familyTHE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 FAMILY CONNECTIONS CO-PLAY: THE LATEST VIDEO economics education, clothing and textiles, interior design, or family and consumer sciences (FACS

Martinez, Tony R.

324

Family Day Care Training Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family

Nakatsu, Gail

325

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

, psychology, medicine, family law, counseling, health care, child and family studies and education. GRADUATE, mental health, health and juvenile justice agencies, youth programs, schools and parent and family and advanced degrees in counseling psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, sociology

Raina, Ramesh

326

Effects of family routines and family stress on child competencies  

E-print Network

Assessment...........................................................................................23 Parental Monitoring and Family Structure...............................................................24 Ego Control... and Family Structure Rotated Component Matrix...................27 4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for the Ego Control Scale ............................29 5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for the Family Status Scale...

Hill, Crystal Renee

2006-10-30

327

Family History Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colon, breast and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. Design A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Setting/participants Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Main outcome measures Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Results Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, p<0.005); stroke (11% vs 8%, p<0.05); diabetes (18% vs 11%, p<0.05); and colon cancer (17% vs 10%, p=0.05); but not breast or ovarian cancers. The majority of underestimators did not shift in their disease risk perceptions. Conclusions Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. Trial registration This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00164658. PMID:22992357

Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T.; Nease, Donald E.; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.

2012-01-01

328

Family Functioning and the Development of Trust and Intimacy among Adolescents in Residential Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between family cohesion and adaptability (as measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales-III) and the formation of trust and intimacy (assessed with the Measure of Psychosocial Development) among adolescents in residential treatment. Bivariate correlation revealed a significant association between family

Coll, Kenneth M.; Powell, Stephanie; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin

2010-01-01

329

Peer-Group and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents from Intact and Separated Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of family structure (intact vs. separated) on adolescents' friendship and romantic relationship were assessed, using an Italian representative sample of 300 adolescents. Findings reveal some significant differences related to family structure. Compared to adolescents from intact homes, adolescents from separated families display a higher level of distrust of others, are less likely to foresee marriage as a certain

Cristina Giuliani; Raffaella Iafrate; Rosa Rosnati

1998-01-01

330

The Effects of Attitudes toward Family Life and Gender Roles on Marital Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between gender role and family attitudes of husbands and wives and five indicators of marital satisfaction. Data from 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households revealed that spouses who held nontraditional attitudes toward family life were less satisfied with their marriages, as were men and women whose attitudes…

Lye, Diane N.; Biblarz, Timothy J.

1993-01-01

331

CHANGING FAMILY LIFE: CASE OF MEN'S ALCOHOLISM IN RURAL SRI LANKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholism is neither accepted nor encouraged by women or by society. Yet, men's alcoholism is increasing, while the family disputes and violence against women associated with it are also observable. However, the negative impacts on family and society are underestimated and unrecognized due to considering alcoholism as an issue in a family domain. Findings of this study, reveal that the

ANOJA WICKRAMASINGHE

1993-01-01

332

Voting Power, Bankruptcy Risk and Radical Debt Financing Behavior of Family Firms: Empirical Evidences from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of A-share firms during 2001 to 2004, we investigates whether leverage of family controlled firms differs from that of nonfamily controlled firms based on isolating the disturbance of institutional factors. The empirical test reveals that family controlled firms appear to have higher levels of leverage than non family counterparts. Under the weak investor protection and the absence

Xia Xin-ping; Zou Zhen-song; Yu Ming-gui

2006-01-01

333

Some stable characteristics of family therapists' interventions in real and simulated therapy sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded the interventions of 19 family therapy trainees with a videotaped simulated family and with families they were treating, and compared them at 3 points in time. The coding categories were drive, interpretation, average length of speech, number of speeches, and average silence. Spearman rhos revealed stability over time for all categories except drive and interpretation, within real and simulated

J. J Sigal

1977-01-01

334

Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

2010-01-01

335

Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

Kock, Jo Anne

2003-01-01

336

When Academics Become Parents: An Overview of Family Leave Policies at Canadian Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews family leave policies in Canadian universities through March 2002. Analysis of pregnancy, adoption, and partner (paternity) leave policies reveal that most Canadian university policies produce income loss and disruption and are characterized by gender regulation and familialism. The paper proposes that improving faculty family leave…

Prentice, Susan; Pankratz, Curtis J.

2003-01-01

337

Family in transition: parents, children and grandparents in lesbian families give meaning to 'doing family'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian parents, their children and grandparents 'do family' in rich and diverse ways. This article draws on innovative grounded theory research using qualitative, multi-generational family interviews with twenty les- bian-parented families living in Victoria, Australia. The intersection between the public and the private in lesbian family life has been seriously neglected by family researchers, and in particular the perspectives of

Amaryll Perlesz; Rhonda Brown; Jo Lindsay; Ruth McNair; David de Vaus; Marian Pitts

2006-01-01

338

Family Therapy, Family Practice, and Child and Family Poverty: Historical Perspectives and Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the engagement of family therapy and family practice with families with children, who are living in poverty. It analyzes four promising models from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to critiques, which have been made of the practice of family therapy with families living in poverty; and the second relates to the…

Frankel, Harvy; Frankel, Sid

2006-01-01

339

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

2007-01-01

340

Helping Friends and Family  

MedlinePLUS

... your local chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimerâ??s ... grandchildren can learn more about Alzheimer's. Helping your friends back to top Friends, co-workers and neighbors ...

341

Understanding Fragile Families  

MedlinePLUS

... study is supported through the NICHD Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch and offers a snapshot of life for ... one of the links below: NICHD’s Demographic and Behavioral Sciences (DBS) Branch DBS Branch: Families, Children, and Intergenerational ...

342

Family Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family Issues Obesity in Children Parenting Weight Control Transcript Overweight parents wanting to ... weight control program among 96 overweight or obese children between the ages of 2 and 5. For ...

343

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

344

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... of relationships with each of them. Individualize your relationship with each of your children, reinforcing their strengths and talents and avoiding making unflattering comparisons with their siblings or friends. Does your family have regular routines? ...

345

NASA's SEMAA Family Café  

NASA Video Gallery

The Family Cafe provides parents and caregivers with an informal, relaxed setting in which they can gain valuable information regarding how they can best support their child's journey into the scie...

346

Family Violence and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary research has indicated that the experience of family violence is a risk factor for childrens’ delinquency\\u000a specifically and antisocial behavior more generally. Violence in the family is a national public health concern in view of\\u000a its common occurrence, its immediate health and safety concerns for victims, and its broad effects on youth development (Daro,\\u000a Edleson, & Pinderhughes, 2004; Straus

Carolyn A. Smith; Timothy O. Ireland

347

Culture and family therapy.  

PubMed

Children and families constitute an ever-increasing culturally diverse group in this country. Together with incentives in multicultural education and the evidence of the impact of different cultural values in the media, these groups have become more visible, more complex, and harder to study. Culture is defined as dynamic and expressive of shared values and behaviors. Cultural patterns may be situation specific and change according to contextual demands (rural versus urban youth) or may be population specific (the culture of gay youth versus heterosexual youth). Some people also ascribe to cultural beliefs, but these do not necessarily translate to behaviors. Families and their children vary in their level of acculturation and developmentally vary in their level of ethnic identification. Child-rearing patterns and parenting approaches are constantly in flux, as are gender roles and, increasingly, religious affiliations. Clinicians are challenged to treat these families and often find the cultural dissonance with their own native culture and theoretical approaches as obstacles for the appropriate assessment and treatment interventions. As the field of family therapy has developed, so have culturally sensitive and competent approaches in the field of mental health. These approaches must be integrated into the multiplicity of other factors that define normality and psychopathology and be studied further in the context of their relevance and efficacy for special groups of children and families who suffer with specific disorders. In the meantime, cultural awareness and competence will continue to help clinicians understand better the impact of values and patterns in family cycles, family organization, child-rearing practices, and the expression of symptoms in family systems. PMID:11449814

Canino, I A; Inclan, J E

2001-07-01

348

ADHD and family functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of what is known about attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family functioning has been derived from studies\\u000a that used children with ADHD as the starting point for their investigations. Such research has consistently reported that\\u000a parent- child interactions are often characterized by a high degree of negativity and conflict. Also commonly found in such\\u000a families are the use of less

Arthur D. Anastopoulos; Jennifer L. Sommer; Nicole K. Schatz

2009-01-01

349

Communicative Responses to Hurtful Messages in Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Bradbury and Fincham's (1988, 1990) contextual model of relational interac- tion as a conceptual framework, this project investigated whether interaction-specific variables (i.e., the proximal context) affected reactions to hurtful communication in families beyond that of more general, relationship-level variables (i.e., the distal con- text). Results revealed some noteworthy patterns. Relational satisfaction (distal con- text) was a contributing factor in

Stacy L. Young; Tara L. Kubicka; Caralyn E. Tucker; Desi Chavez-Appel; Jamie S. Rex

2005-01-01

350

Mandolin Family Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

351

Family planning and vocations.  

PubMed

In many Western countries the number of vocations has fallen to as low as 1/10 what it was a generation ago. The author blames several factors for this occurrence. An identity crisis among the members of the faith that is a result of broken homes is seen as a factor. The growth of materialism and the consumer mentality is seen as another factor leading people away from the life of sacrifices for God. But the author feels that the strongest force behind this fact is the use of family planning without a serious reason. Catholics are only allowed to use family planning if they have a serious health or financial reason for doing so, and then it can only be a natural method. Large families reinforce the ideals and attitudes necessary to create a person that is willing to seek a vocation. People from broken homes are not usually accepted because the matter of perseverance becomes a problem. When a child grows up in a large family it learns to make sacrifices. It also sees its parents making sacrifices for the children. It is the author's opinion what without this atmosphere of sacrifice at home, one is not prepared for the sacrifices that go with a vocation. It is also the author's opinion that families in the 3rd World tend to be larger, poorer yet still happier then Western families. Further, vocations in the 3rd World are abundant. PMID:12179689

Burke, C

1989-01-01

352

Dynamic prions revealed by magic.  

PubMed

Prion proteins can be propagated as amyloid fibrils with several different conformational variants. By providing structural information at atomic level for two such variants of a yeast prion, Frederick and colleagues, in this issue of Chemistry & Biology, reveal how conformational flexibility can generate phenotypic diversity. PMID:24560165

Tuite, Mick F; Howard, Mark J; Xue, Wei-Feng

2014-02-20

353

Redefining family planning programs.  

PubMed

The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

1995-01-01

354

We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

2006-01-01

355

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

(MSW) and the Master of Arts in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) in three years. The dual degreeMarriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 Peck Hall-443-3024 The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage

Raina, Ramesh

356

Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family

Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

2011-01-01

357

Family Support and Resources in Families Having Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study designed to assess two measures of family functioning for families with children with disabilities: the Family Support Scale (FSS) and the Family Resource Scale (FRS). The FSS is an 18-item questionnaire that measures the amount of perceived support given to the parents of young children with…

Taylor, Matthew J.

358

Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

2011-01-01

359

Family therapists and family business: A view of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family business is a unique entity that has recently come to the attention of business consultants and family therapists. The unique processes of family business are amendable to the applications of family systems theory, organizational development theory, and various theories that focus on individual growth and development. In this paper we review some of the basic concepts relative to

Ruth McClendon; Leslie B. Kadis

1991-01-01

360

Child Care for Families Leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program in 1996, the welfare rolls have decreased by more than 40 percent. While unemployment and poverty rates have declined, families who leave welfare generally earn low wages and remain below the poverty level. Because families leaving welfare are mostly single mothers with young children,

Rebecca L. Scharf; Sujatha Jagadeesh Branch; Cynthia Godsoe; Sherry Leiwant; Roslyn Powell; Cary LaCheen

2001-01-01

361

Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function  

SciTech Connect

The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

2007-01-01

362

Hereditary family signature of facial expression  

PubMed Central

Although facial expressions of emotion are universal, individual differences create a facial expression “signature” for each person; but, is there a unique family facial expression signature? Only a few family studies on the heredity of facial expressions have been performed, none of which compared the gestalt of movements in various emotional states; they compared only a few movements in one or two emotional states. No studies, to our knowledge, have compared movements of congenitally blind subjects with their relatives to our knowledge. Using two types of analyses, we show a correlation between movements of congenitally blind subjects with those of their relatives in think-concentrate, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, and surprise and provide evidence for a unique family facial expression signature. In the analysis “in-out family test,” a particular movement was compared each time across subjects. Results show that the frequency of occurrence of a movement of a congenitally blind subject in his family is significantly higher than that outside of his family in think-concentrate, sadness, and anger. In the analysis “the classification test,” in which congenitally blind subjects were classified to their families according to the gestalt of movements, results show 80% correct classification over the entire interview and 75% in anger. Analysis of the movements' frequencies in anger revealed a correlation between the movements' frequencies of congenitally blind individuals and those of their relatives. This study anticipates discovering genes that influence facial expressions, understanding their evolutionary significance, and elucidating repair mechanisms for syndromes lacking facial expression, such as autism. PMID:17043232

Peleg, Gili; Katzir, Gadi; Peleg, Ofer; Kamara, Michal; Brodsky, Leonid; Hel-Or, Hagit; Keren, Daniel; Nevo, Eviatar

2006-01-01

363

Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.  

PubMed

The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members. PMID:25084708

Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

2014-01-01

364

Family planning concept.  

PubMed

Family planning is defined as the voluntary, responsible decision made by individuals and couples as to the desired family size and timing of births. Therefore on the microlevel it means children are born because they are wanted and provided for and on the macrolevel it contributes to the betterment of human life. This paper deals with the health consequences of uncontrolled fertility. Health risks are related to birth order, social class, maternal age, birth intervals, and family size are described, including: 1) fetal, infant, and childhood morbidity and mortality, 2) poor physical and intellectual development of the unwanted child, 3) pregnancy wastage, 4) maternal risk of illness and death, 5) father's risk of hypertension and gastric ulcers, 6) marital risk, 7) poor nutrition, 8) environmental hazards such as overcrowding, poor water supply, atmospheric contamination, 9) increased incidence of genetic diseases, and 10) mental health problems of parents as well as children due to strains caused by large families. Even though the responsibility of family planning lies mainly with married couples it is the duty of health workers to inform the people of the problems that arise in a situation of uncontrolled reproduction. PMID:6920653

Dumindin, J B

1981-01-01

365

Family Leadership Styles and Family Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformational leadership has been associated with optimal outcomes in various organizational settings, in comparison to transactional and laissez-faire leadership. In accordance with research findings from organizational contexts, an exploratory study was conducted with 231 two-parent families to assess the relationship between family leadership styles and family well-being. Family leadership styles were assessed using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and family well-being

Kevin A. Galbraith; Jay D. Schvaneveldt

2005-01-01

366

All in the Family? Family Environment Factors in Sibling Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sibling violence is presumed to be the most common form of family violence and the least studied. Based on data from “Physical\\u000a Violence in American Families, 1976,” this paper assesses the family environment factors associated with sibling physical\\u000a violence. Of a range of potential family influences, measures of family disorganization were the most significant predictors\\u000a of sibling violence, overriding the

Shelley Eriksen; Vickie Jensen

2006-01-01

367

Multilocus sequence analysis of the family Halomonadaceae.  

PubMed

Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) protocols have been developed for species circumscription for many taxa. However, at present, no studies based on MLSA have been performed within any moderately halophilic bacterial group. To test the usefulness of MLSA with these kinds of micro-organisms, the family Halomonadaceae, which includes mainly halophilic bacteria, was chosen as a model. This family comprises ten genera with validly published names and 85 species of environmental, biotechnological and clinical interest. In some cases, the phylogenetic relationships between members of this family, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, are not clear and a deep phylogenetic analysis using several housekeeping genes seemed appropriate. Here, MLSA was applied using the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, atpA, gyrB, rpoD and secA genes for species of the family Halomonadaceae. Phylogenetic trees based on the individual and concatenated gene sequences revealed that the family Halomonadaceae formed a monophyletic group of micro-organisms within the order Oceanospirillales. With the exception of the genera Halomonas and Modicisalibacter, all other genera within this family were phylogenetically coherent. Five of the six studied genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD and secA) showed a consistent evolutionary history. However, the results obtained with the atpA gene were different; thus, this gene may not be considered useful as an individual gene phylogenetic marker within this family. The phylogenetic methods produced variable results, with those generated from the maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining algorithms being more similar than those obtained by maximum-parsimony methods. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important evolutionary role in the family Halomonadaceae; however, the impact of recombination events in the phylogenetic analysis was minimized by concatenating the six loci, which agreed with the current taxonomic scheme for this family. Finally, the findings of this study also indicated that the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes were the most suitable genes for future taxonomic studies using MLSA within the family Halomonadaceae. PMID:21478390

de la Haba, Rafael R; Márquez, M Carmen; Papke, R Thane; Ventosa, Antonio

2012-03-01

368

Familial Mediterranean Fever  

PubMed Central

The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

1977-01-01

369

Characterizing gene family evolution  

PubMed Central

Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements. PMID:19461954

Liberles, David A.

2008-01-01

370

Barriers in family planning.  

PubMed

Because of cultural factors, many people in India are opposed to family planning. They are not able to understand that the real problem facing India is overpopulation. In the past, people were exhorted to have many children, and to look upon numerous offspring as a blessing, and this concept has not changed, although the times and environment have. The majority of marriages in rural areas take place when the girl is hardly 16 or 17, which contributes to high fertility. Also illiteracy breeds ignorance about improved methods of cultivation and about methods of planned parenthood. Starved, poor couples have larger numbers of children than do well-to-do families, and thus poverty becomes a vicious circle. Doctors should come forward and offer their help to family planning programs, and social workers should be less concerned with official routines than results. Educating illiterate, adamant people is no easy task, and requires the zeal of a missionary. PMID:12338670

Pendharkar, L P

1968-01-01

371

Family therapy for suicidal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family therapy has long been neglected as a form of intervention for suicidal people, despite the importance of family interaction patterns to the development and course of suicide death and suicide. behavior We describe a cognitive behvioral approach to family therapy for suicidal people. The relationship between family interactions and suicide is briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the

Peter McLean; Steven Taylor

1994-01-01

372

DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY MEDICINE ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT 2010/2011 & 2011/2012 #12;DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY of Family Medicine Accountability Report 11/19/2012 1 List of Tables Table 1 Resident Continuity Translation and Faculty Development..................... 6 Table 5 Undergraduate Family Medicine Exposure

MacMillan, Andrew

373

ABC Foundation Adler Family Foundation  

E-print Network

Family Trust The Colonna Family Foundation Community Foundation of Greater Greenville, Inc. Community Foundation Inc. Edward and Helene Hills Foundation Hilltop Foundation, Inc. Michael F. and Joan G. Hoben. and Wilma T. Horner Foundation The G. and B. Horowitz Family Foundation, Inc. The Hoxie Family Trust Howard

Napier, Terrence

374

The family in our lives.  

PubMed

Introduces the present issue of Families, Systems, & Health. This issue brings family to the fore. Teaching about family interactions will continue to remain central to clinician education across the biopsychosocial spectrum. Reflecting on our understanding of families and systems in our personal and professional lives can continue to inform our work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25197747

Fogarty, Colleen T; Mauksch, Larry B

2014-09-01

375

About Colon Cancer Family Registries  

Cancer.gov

The Colon CFR includes lifestyle, medical history, and family history data collected from more than 41,000 men and women from 14,500 families with and without colorectal cancer. The Colon CFR began recruiting families in 1997, and all participants are followed up every 5 years to update personal and family histories and expand recruitment if new cases have occurred since baseline.

376

Educational Attainment and Family Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of aspects of family background, such as family income and parental education, on the educational attainment of persons born from 1967 to 1972. Family income is measured at different periods of a child's life to separate long-term versus short-term effects of family income on educational choices. We find that permanent income matters to a certain

Arild Aakvik; Kjell Gunnar Salvanes; Kjell Vaage

2005-01-01

377

Later-Life Family Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the important role that family members often play in the lives of older adults, formal assessment methods tailored to later-life families remain rare. In this article, we first provide a rationale for family assessment at this stage of life. We then describe a range of issues for researchers and clinicians to consider when assessing older families. Finally, we briefly

Elizabeth A. Mulligan; Brian D. Carpenter

2010-01-01

378

Family Research Project Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview and progress report on the Family Research Project, started in 1974 to (1) study the relationship between family process and individual development of family members, especially children, (2) conceptualize and measure system level variables describing family structure and process, (3) develop microanalytic…

Bell, David C.; Bell, Linda G.

379

The Power of Family Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the early findings from the analysis of a family literacy demonstration project under the direction of the National Center for Family Literacy. The data in this report are based upon the experiences of over 300 families who participated in the Toyota Families for Learning Program during the 1992-1993 school year. The first…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

380

Creating a Multicultural Family Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests a way in which family therapists can begin to develop a multicultural family practice. The authors view review literature regarding recommendations for working with diverse families, examine the therapist's adoption of Multicultural Competencies, and provide a model for components of a family practice that encourages diverse…

Jencius, Marty; Duba, Jill D.

2002-01-01

381

Effectiveness of Family Preservation Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent studies of family preservation and related family-strengthening programs. Estimates the effect sizes of outcomes in studies with control or comparison conditions. Also identifies a set of core services that characterize innovative family preservation programs in child welfare, multisystemic family treatment in juvenile justice, and…

Fraser, Mark W.; Nelson, Kristine E.; Rivard, Jeanne C.

1997-01-01

382

Do Family Interventions Improve Health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central aim of this article is to examine the evidence that family interventions improve health in persons with chronic illness and their family members, across the life span. The review focuses on recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of family intervention research. In adults, evidence supports the salutary effects of family interventions versus usual medical care for patient health

Catherine A. Chesla

2010-01-01

383

Integrative Family Therapy: Theoretical Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrative family therapy is an integration of personality theory and counseling theory actualized in the counseling process. Personality theory contributes five interrelated concepts to a model of family therapy, including communication/perception, individual roles, family subunits, family themes, and individual personality dynamics; these…

Walsh, William M.

384

Mothers as family change agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the impact of a counseling program for mothers on the perceptions and behavior of family members. The mother, father, and 1 8-12 yr old problem child of 13 experimental and 11 control families were evaluated before and after 7 weekly counseling sessions. Pre- and postexperimental measures included the Family Concept Q Sort, a family decision-making task, and a behavioral

Gregg F. Reiter; Peter R. Kilmann

1975-01-01

385

Familial Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar

2010-06-01

386

The Collagen Family  

PubMed Central

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in mammals. The collagen family comprises 28 members that contain at least one triple-helical domain. Collagens are deposited in the extracellular matrix where most of them form supramolecular assemblies. Four collagens are type II membrane proteins that also exist in a soluble form released from the cell surface by shedding. Collagens play structural roles and contribute to mechanical properties, organization, and shape of tissues. They interact with cells via several receptor families and regulate their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Some collagens have a restricted tissue distribution and hence specific biological functions. PMID:21421911

Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

2011-01-01

387

One family's air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The author's family pollutes directly or indirectly in five major ways: wastewater discharge; automobile exhaust; home heating oil furnace exhaust; trash disposal; and electricity usage (and the use of other consumer goods whose manufacture and transport caused some level of pollution). He decided to try to quantify how much his family contributed to pollution in one year, 1988. Four sources of air pollution were considered and are quantified: car exhausts, home heating oil exhausts, electricity, and trash disposal (through a waste-to-energy plant).

Getz, N.P.

1990-02-01

388

Incarceration in fragile families.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little schooling. Imprisonment diminishes the earnings of adult men, compromises their health, reduces familial resources, and contributes to family breakup. It also adds to the deficits of poor children, thus ensuring that the effects of imprisonment on inequality are transferred intergenerationally. Perversely, incarceration has its most corrosive effects on families whose fathers were involved in neither domestic violence nor violent crime before being imprisoned. Because having a parent go to prison is now so common for poor, minority children and so negatively affects them, the authors argue that mass imprisonment may increase future racial and class inequality--and may even lead to more crime in the long-term, thereby undoing any benefits of the prison boom. U.S. crime policy has thus, in the name of public safety, produced more vulnerable families and reduced the life chances of their children. Wildeman and Western advocate several policy reforms, such as limiting prison time for drug offenders and for parolees who violate the technical conditions of their parole, reconsidering sentence enhancements for repeat offenders, and expanding supports for prisoners and ex-prisoners. But Wildeman and Western argue that criminal justice reform alone will not solve the problems of school failure, joblessness, untreated addiction, and mental illness that pave the way to prison. In fact, focusing solely on criminal justice reforms would repeat the mistakes the nation made during the prison boom: trying to solve deep social problems with criminal justice policies. Addressing those broad problems, they say, requires a greater social commitment to education, public health, and the employment opportunities of low-skilled men and women. The primary sources of order and stability--public safety in its wide sense--are the informal social controls of family and work. Thus, broad social policies hold the promise not only of improving the wellbeing of fragile families, but also, by strengthening families and providing jobs, of contributing to public safety. PMID:20964136

Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

2010-01-01

389

Preventive Medicine and the Family  

PubMed Central

Studies have demonstrated the links between the family system and illness, emphasizing the importance of prevention on a family level for physical as well as psychological illness. Brief preventive counselling on routine visits is possible if the physician knows the family well and understands the principles of the family as a system. Periods of high risk when illness and family dysfunction increase in incidence are the normal “crises” of the family life cycle, medical crises of illness, hospitalization and death, and non-medical crises. High-risk families should be identified; secondary prevention is an important role for the family physician who sees family problems at a much earlier stage than the psychiatrist or marital or family therapist. PMID:21289689

Christie-Seely, Janet

1981-01-01

390

Evolution of a multigene family of chorion proteins in silkmoths.  

PubMed

The evolution of the A family of chorion genes was examined by comparing new protein and DNA sequences from the silkmoths Antheraea pernyi and Bombyx mori with previously known sequences from Antheraea polyphemus. The comparisons indicated that the A family and its major subfamilies are ancient and revealed how parts of the genes corresponding to distinct regions of the protein structure have evolved, both by base substitutions and by segmental reduplications and deletions. PMID:7110139

Rodakis, G C; Moschonas, N K; Kafatos, F C

1982-05-01

391

Family Support Builds Stronger Families: The Roots of Family-Supportive Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent Services Project (PSP) is one model of family support that emerged from the heightened awareness of families' needs. Founded in 1980 to integrate family support into four San Francisco Bay Area early childhood programs, PSP since has spread to more than 800 organizations serving 30,000 families in Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida,…

Seiderman, Ethel

2009-01-01

392

The Smithville Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create the number sequences of Pascal's triangle, and discover a relationship that this triangle has to theoretical probability.Then they will determine the total number of possible girl/boy combinations in a five-child family.

2010-01-01

393

Non-familial Cherubism.  

PubMed

Cherubism is a rare, self-limiting disease that usually affects jaws of pediatric population and is characterized by diffuse, bilateral and multilocular bony enlargement of jaws with a typical radiographic and histopathological appearance. Here, we describe a case of an 8-year-old child without any family history of this genetic disorder. PMID:23853461

Prajapati, Virendra Kumar

2013-01-01

394

Non-familial Cherubism  

PubMed Central

Cherubism is a rare, self-limiting disease that usually affects jaws of pediatric population and is characterized by diffuse, bilateral and multilocular bony enlargement of jaws with a typical radiographic and histopathological appearance. Here, we describe a case of an 8-year-old child without any family history of this genetic disorder. PMID:23853461

Prajapati, Virendra Kumar

2013-01-01

395

Men's Family Learning Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Men's Family Learning Project was conducted in Bristol to induce men, many of whom were unemployed, to take advantage of learning opportunities and to volunteer to interact with children in the Hareclive Primary School. Following a survey of educational needs in the community, a project director (a male with experience as a volunteer and ties to…

Bryant, Duane; Robinson, George; Taylor, Jane

396

All in the Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as a little girl, Dr. Nitasha Sharma aspired to become a college professor like her parents, whose careers let the family spend entire summers or longer in either her mother's native Brooklyn, New York, or her father's native India. She dreamed of long vacations as a grown-up and going home for lunch on weekdays. But during a stay in India…

Lum, Lydia

2010-01-01

397

UNH Veterans & Family weekend  

E-print Network

1st annual UNH Veterans & Family weekend Golf Tournament Friday, October 24, 2014 We're proud to announce the 1st annual UNH Veterans Golf Tournament. The University of New Hampshire Student Armed Forces Association (SAFA) is pleased to announce their first annual Veteran Charity Golf Tournament! New Hampshire

New Hampshire, University of

398

Order: Tylenchida Family: Heteroderidae  

E-print Network

in the soil in search of a suitable host plant (Figs. 2a, 2b). Root-knot nematode second-stage juvenilesOrder: Tylenchida Family: Heteroderidae Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla

Liskiewicz, Maciej

399

Trends in Family Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a historical overview of the recent past, the contemporaneous present, and anticipated future trends in the field of family psychology is presented in an attempt to indicate where the field is, and is likely to go. It is based on the author's personal observations about this evolution, gleaned from her involvement in this process (currently as third

Florence W. Kaslow

1987-01-01

400

Investing in Family Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most discussions about narrowing the achievement gap focus on ways to provide disadvantaged children with schooling comparable to that received by middle-class kids. Addressing deficiencies in children's social environment, health, housing, and family income would be more effective and would probably reduce special-education spending. (MLH)

Rothstein, Richard

2001-01-01

401

A Family of Adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary carry-propagating addition can be efficiently expressed as a prefix computation. Several examples of adders based on such a formulation have been published and efficient implementations are numerous. Chief among the known constructions are those of Kogge and Stone (1973) and Ladner and Fischer (1980). In this work we show that these are end cases of a large family of

Simon Knowles

2001-01-01

402

The Family of Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

Pavao, Joyce Maguire

403

WORK FAMILY LIFE !"#"$%&$'()*!("$+(,-./*$"#(.-/,*$/&!&#&0&-/  

E-print Network

family. This pressure, along with widespread and negative myths and stereotypes about only children, can including Italy, Por- tugal, Spain, South Korea and Japan. They're shrinking in India as well and, of course, China adopted its strict one-child policy in 1979. 5=F%B9%;=B9%=>GG8EBEH%Ewomen

Ginzel, Matthew

404

Employee and Family Assistance  

E-print Network

and financial advisory services Sexual harassment or abuse Bereavement call 24 hours a day · 7 days a week and work- health solutions--is contracted to provide and coordinate all services. If counselling to interfere with our effectiveness, happiness or safety--both at work and at home. Our Employee and Family

Seldin, Jonathan P.

405

A Family Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 debate over civil marriage for same-gender couples highlights issues faced by mixed-orientation couples after one of the spouses comes out as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. The disclosure becomes a family matter as their spouses and children cope with the new information and antigay attitudes. The majority of couples divorce. A minority stays married for three years or more

Amity P. Buxton

2005-01-01

406

Centering of quadrupole family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed.

Pinayev, Igor

2007-01-01

407

Alcohol and Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

Covington, Stephanie S.

408

Family Money Troubles  

MedlinePLUS

... care. Perhaps it's time to hold a yard sale to get rid of the old toys and baby gear in the ... friends or family. But why stop there? Think of this as a time to challenge your imagination: Record some music. If you have a computer and microphone, all you need is your talent. ...

409

Family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

The population growth rates and population policies and programs in African countries are summarized. Individual attention is given to Algeria, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Gabon, Zaire, Botswana and the Republic of South Africa. In addition, cultural and educational obstacles to family planning programs in Africa are briefly examined. PMID:12333999

1975-01-01

410

The Rab GTPase family  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The Rab family is part of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. There are at least 60 Rab genes in the human genome, and a number of Rab GTPases are conserved from yeast to humans. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane

Harald Stenmark; Vesa M Olkkonen

2001-01-01

411

Perspectives on Family Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

412

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant colorectal cancer syndrome, caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, on chromosome 5q21. It is characterized by hundreds of adenomatous colorectal polyps, with an almost inevitable progression to colorectal cancer at an average age of 35 to 40 yr. Associated features include upper gastrointestinal tract polyps, congenital hypertrophy

Polymnia Galiatsatos; William D. Foulkes

2006-01-01

413

Familial adenomatous polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1\\/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been

Elizabeth Half; Dani Bercovich; Paul Rozen

2009-01-01

414

Linking Families, Building Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A year-round magnet elementary school in Salem, Massachusetts, has increased its family involvement by borrowing elements from many models. The school has mixed-age groupings, integrated social services, and community outreach strategies such as a parent center, business-sponsored Friday clubs, and celebrations of learning. (MLH)

Fowler, R. Clarke; Corley, Kathy Klebs

1996-01-01

415

Communication within the family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication in the contemporary American family has not broken down; it exists, but not always for beneficial purposes. Communication and cooperation are also indispensable for hostile interaction. Wherever two people have anything to do with each other, they communicate and cooperate fully, although it may be in their agreement to fight each other. Non?verbal communication is far more extensive and

Rudolf Dreikurs

1959-01-01

416

Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Horsenettle  

E-print Network

Solanaceae (Nightshade family) Horsenettle Solanum carolinense L. Life cycle Spreading to erect with sharp, prominent prickles on the leaf veins, midveins and peti- oles. Star-shaped hairs are present in height. Stems have sharp, prominent prickles and star-shaped hairs. Horsenettle plant. Back

417

Profiling Canada's Families II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

418

It's a Family Affair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author features Computers for Youth (CFY), a nonprofit organization that provides computers, software, and training to sixth-grade students and their families at low-income schools. Founded in 1999, Computers for Youth works with low-income schools to put computers in the homes of sixth-grade students and bring parents into…

Demski, Jennifer

2011-01-01

419

Family Policy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive sense of crisis in Japan over the falling birth rate and aging society issues is generating an active public debate about gender, the fam- ily, the organization of the workplace and the policy approaches best able to cope with these problems. This article considers explanations for demographic change, then turns to current Japanese family policy, focus- ing on

PATRICIA BOLING

1998-01-01

420

Supporting Family Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic/rehabilitative, and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message…

Murray, Mary M.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Umbarger, Gardner T.; Rade, Karin C.; Aldridge, Kathryn; Niemeyer, Judith A.

2007-01-01

421

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

1998-01-01

422

The Families Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the parents and students associated with the Center for Inquiry are well aware of the impact this teaching philosophy has on children, their learning, and their lives. Compiles brief accounts written by parents and students concerning how inquiry and a nurturing environment have meant in terms of achievement, self-esteem, and family

Damin, Carol, Comp.

2002-01-01

423

Schizophrenia and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the problems faced by families with a schizophrenic member, based on a survey of the literature from a variety of sources including: (1) the Alden Library of Ohio University; (2) the ERIC database; (3) the American Association of Counseling and Development (AACD); and (4) the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI).…

Cook, Barbara J.

424

Family First Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical superintendent these days is male (though the percentage of female superintendents is steadily rising, now accounting for one in four, according to AASA's 2010 decennial study of the superintendency), in his 40s and almost always married with children. When educators become superintendents, the issues of family dynamics and related…

LaFee, Scott

2012-01-01

425

Not Your Family Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

2007-01-01

426

Constructing Asylum Seeking Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I show how families of asylum seekers are constructed by members of the public. A discourse analysis is conducted on a UK internet message board where members of the public were asked to comment on councils' decisions not to implement Section nine of the 2004 Asylum and Immigration Act. This is a ruling which allows children to

Simon Goodman

427

Family Science Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

2014-01-01

428

Schools, Families, and Math.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces "Schools and Families: Creating a Math Partnership," a book designed to help parents see the math in their children's work and establish effective home-school partnerships. Includes an except from the book that discusses how homework can help parents see how their children are learning and doing mathematics in class. (KHR)

Murray, Megan

2003-01-01

429

Family Patterns Associated with Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used family systems perspective to explore familial transactional patterns related to anorexia nervosa among 22 families with an anorexic child and 22 matched control families. Identified 7 family groups with unique family dynamics differentiating one from another. With no single family pattern characterizing families of anorexics, results…

Grigg, Darryl N.; And Others

1989-01-01

430

Adolescents with Diabetes from Single-Parent, Blended, and Intact Families: Health-Related and Family Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined family composition as it related to health status, health behaviors, and psychosocial functioning of 119 adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Findings revealed that adolescents with DM1 from intact (INT), single-parent (SP), and blended (BLND) families did not differ on measures of adjustment to diabetes and adherence to treatment. Adolescents and their parent(s) from INT, SP, and

Michael A. Harris; Caroline Elder-Danda; Neil H. White; Peggy Greco; Tim Wysocki

1999-01-01

431

Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.  

PubMed

To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice. PMID:9769679

Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

1998-09-01

432

Evolution of the rice Xa21 disease resistance gene family.  

PubMed Central

The rice disease resistance gene Xa21, encoding a receptor-like kinase, is a member of a multigene family. Sequence analysis of seven family members revealed two distinct classes of genes. One member from each class encodes a receptor kinase-like open reading frame. The other five members encode truncated open reading frames of the predicted receptor kinase. A highly conserved 233-bp sequence (HC) was also identified among the seven family members. Recombination at the HC region between family members apparently resulted in the precise swapping of promoter regions. Large sequence duplications were generated by a presumed unequal crossover event in intergenic regions. Insertions of transposon-like sequences truncated two of the predicted open reading frames. A model for amplification and diversification of the Xa21 gene family is presented. PMID:9286106

Song, W Y; Pi, L Y; Wang, G L; Gardner, J; Holsten, T; Ronald, P C

1997-01-01

433

Lethal familial protracted diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

24 children with severe protracted diarrhoea from 10 families, in which at least one sibling was affected, are reported. In two families the siblings were from 1st-cousin marriages, in one family both parents had unaffected children from previous marriages, and in another family the mother had a normal daughter from an earlier marriage. The onset of the diarrhoea was on the first day of life in 12 infants, some time during the first 17 days in 10, and at 13 weeks and 1 year 6 days in the remaining two. In each case the diarrhoea was `cholera-like'. Investigations failed to show any of the established causes of protracted diarrhoea and 21 (87·5%) infants died after an illness that had lasted between 12 days and 6 years 38 weeks, despite periods of prolonged intravenous feeding and the administration of a wide variety of pharmacological agents. The 2 patients who recovered appeared to do so spontaneously. 14 (58%) had associated extra-gastrointestinal or gastrointestinal-related anomalies. Steady-state perfusion studies were performed in the proximal jejunum of 2 patients, and in the colon of one. In both cases the jejunum was in a net secretory state with respect to water, glucose absorption was markedly reduced, and the transmural potential difference was also depressed; in one of these patients fructose absorption was also reduced, and in the other colonic function appeared to be normal. These studies suggest that the diarrhoea resulted from small intestinal secretion overwhelming the reabsorptive capacity of a normally-functioning colon. Although this series of lethal protracted diarrhoea does not represent a single disease entity, the familial pattern suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for at least one of the conditions. ImagesFigure PMID:7469448

Candy, D C A; Larcher, V F; Cameron, D J S; Norman, A P; Tripp, J H; Milla, P J; Pincott, J R; Harries, J T

1981-01-01

434

Family Interactions Among African American Prostate Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer affects African Americans at a higher rate than any other ethnic group in the United States. Prostate cancer does not only affect the man with the disease but also affects those individuals who are closest to him, such as his family and friends. Open communication is valuable in coping with stressors that are affiliated with chronic illnesses. This article focuses on family and friend social support of men with prostate cancer. Data analysis revealed that support from family members and friends plays an important role in how men cope with their treatment and recovery from prostate cancer. PMID:18552602

Jones, Randy A.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Steeves, Richard; Fraser, Gertrude; Lippert, Marguerite; Theodorescu, Dan; Mathews, Holly; Kilbridge, Kerry Laing

2009-01-01

435

Functional Promiscuity of the COG0720 Family  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of GTP derived metabolites such as tetrahydrofolate (THF), biopterin (BH4), and the modified tRNA nucleosides queuosine (Q) and archaeosine (G+) relies on several enzymes of the Tunnel-fold superfamily. A subset of these proteins include the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin (PTPS-II), PTPS-III, and PTPS-I homologs, all members of the COG0720 family, that have been previously shown to transform 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H2NTP) into different products. PTPS-II catalyzes the formation of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin in the BH4 pathway. PTPS-III catalyzes the formation of 6-hydroxylmethyl-7,8-dihydropterin in the THF pathway. PTPS-I catalyzes the formation of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in the Q pathway. Genes of these three enzyme families are often misannotated as they are difficult to differentiate by sequence similarity alone. Using a combination of physical clustering, signature motif, and phylogenetic co-distribution analyses, in vivo complementation studies, and in vitro enzymatic assays, a complete reannotation of the COG0720 family was performed in prokaryotes. Notably, this work identified and experimentally validated dual function PTPS-I/III enzymes involved in both THF and Q biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses showed that the PTPS-I family could tolerate a translation of the active site cysteine and was inherently promiscuous, catalyzing different reactions on the same substrate, or the same reaction on different substrates. Finally, the analysis and experimental validation of several archaeal COG0720 members confirmed the role of PTPS-I in archaeosine biosynthesis, and resulted in the identification PTPS-III enzymes with variant signature sequences in Sulfolobus species. This study reveals an expanded versatility of the COG0720 family members and illustrates that for certain protein families, extensive comparative genomic analysis beyond homology is required to correctly predict function. PMID:21999246

Phillips, Gabriela; Grochowski, Laura L.; Bonnett, Shilah; Xu, Huimin; Bailly, Marc; Haas-Blaby, Crysten; El Yacoubi, Basma; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; White, Robert H.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

2011-01-01

436

Functional promiscuity of the COG0720 family.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of GTP derived metabolites such as tetrahydrofolate (THF), biopterin (BH(4)), and the modified tRNA nucleosides queuosine (Q) and archaeosine (G(+)) relies on several enzymes of the Tunnel-fold superfamily. A subset of these proteins includes the 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin (PTPS-II), PTPS-III, and PTPS-I homologues, all members of the COG0720 family that have been previously shown to transform 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H(2)NTP) into different products. PTPS-II catalyzes the formation of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin in the BH(4) pathway, PTPS-III catalyzes the formation of 6-hydroxylmethyl-7,8-dihydropterin in the THF pathway, and PTPS-I catalyzes the formation of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in the Q pathway. Genes of these three enzyme families are often misannotated as they are difficult to differentiate by sequence similarity alone. Using a combination of physical clustering, signature motif, phylogenetic codistribution analyses, in vivo complementation studies, and in vitro enzymatic assays, a complete reannotation of the COG0720 family was performed in prokaryotes. Notably, this work identified and experimentally validated dual function PTPS-I/III enzymes involved in both THF and Q biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses showed that the PTPS-I family could tolerate a translation of the active site cysteine and was inherently promiscuous, catalyzing different reactions on the same substrate or the same reaction on different substrates. Finally, the analysis and experimental validation of several archaeal COG0720 members confirmed the role of PTPS-I in archaeosine biosynthesis and resulted in the identification of PTPS-III enzymes with variant signature sequences in Sulfolobus species. This study reveals an expanded versatility of the COG0720 family members and illustrates that for certain protein families extensive comparative genomic analysis beyond homology is required to correctly predict function. PMID:21999246

Phillips, Gabriela; Grochowski, Laura L; Bonnett, Shilah; Xu, Huimin; Bailly, Marc; Blaby-Haas, Crysten; El Yacoubi, Basma; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; White, Robert H; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

2012-01-20

437

Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness  

SciTech Connect

Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This gives rise to the suspicion that sex chromosome aneuploidy may somehow be related to the development of psychosis. But since the data set is small, especially with respect to schizophrenia, further studies are needed to elucidate this observation. In one family, cosegregation of the disease locus with a marker on chromosome 21 was seen. Therefore, further research should determine if chromosome 21 contains a gene for manic depressive illness. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Friedrich, U.; Mors, O.; Ewald, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

1996-02-16

438

Spectroscopy of family gauge bosons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy of family gauge bosons is investigated based on a U(3) family gauge boson model proposed by Sumino. In his model, the family gauge bosons are in mass eigenstates in a diagonal basis of the charged lepton mass matrix. Therefore, the family numbers are defined by (e1,e2,e3)=(e,?,?), while the assignment for quark sector are free. For possible family-number assignments (q1,q2,q3), under a constraint from K0-K mixing, we investigate possibilities of new physics, e.g. production of the lightest family gauge boson at the LHC, ?-N?e-N, rare K and B decays, and so on.

Koide, Yoshio

2014-09-01

439

Gaspra and Ida in families  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo flyby candidates 951 Gaspra and 243 Ida are both in families. The former is in a complex of families associated with 8 Flora and the latter is in the Koronis family. The Flora and the Koronis families are described. The Galileo spacecraft will have the opportunity to sample fragments from two types of impacts; one impact totally destroyed the parent body and the other left a large body behind. The types of Ss are also different, the colors of Gaspra and the other Ss in the complex of families near 8 Flora are much redder in U-V than Ida and the Ss of the Koronis family.

Williams, James G.

1992-01-01

440

Preschoolers' characterizations of multiple family relationships during family doll play.  

PubMed

Investigated 4-year-olds' depictions of family relationships during a semistructured doll play task. Examined developmental and family correlates of these depictions, and their relative stability over a 1-month period. Forty-nine children related stories about happy, sad, mad, and worried families using dolls reflecting their own family configuration. For each story, coders recorded (a) proportion of total story time devoted to each family dyad and (b) number of conflictive, aggressive, and affectionate acts per dyad. Children divided their focus during stories evenly between father-child, mother-child, and father-mother relationships with child-sibling interactions occurring regularly among participants with siblings. Depictions of affection and aggression among family figures were relatively commonplace, related to mothers' reports of family climate, and stable across a 1-month period. Results substantiated preschoolers' awareness and discrimination of intrafamily relationship dynamics and provided some guidelines and cautions to practitioners who employ doll family assessments in their clinical work. PMID:10353084

McHale, J P; Neugebauer, A; Asch, A R; Schwartz, A

1999-06-01

441

Enhancing family resilience through family narrative co-construction.  

PubMed

We draw upon family resilience and narrative theory to describe an evidence-based method for intervening with military families who are impacted by multiple wartime deployments and psychological, stress-related, or physical parental injuries. Conceptual models of familial resilience provide a guide for understanding the mechanics of how families respond and recover from exposure to extreme events, and underscore the role of specific family processes and interaction patterns in promoting resilient capabilities. Leading family theorists propose that the family's ability to make meaning of stressful and traumatic events and nurture protective beliefs are critical aspects of resilient adaptation. We first review general theoretical and empirical research contributions to understanding family resilience, giving special attention to the circumstances, challenges, needs, and strengths of American military families. Therapeutic narrative studies illustrate the processes through which family members acquire meaning-making capacities, and point to the essential role of parents' in facilitating discussions of stressful experiences and co-constructing coherent and meaningful narratives. This helps children to make sense of these experiences and develop capacities for emotion regulation and coping. Family-based narrative approaches provide a structured opportunity to elicit parents' and children's individual narratives, assemble divergent storylines into a shared family narrative, and thereby enhance members' capacity to make meaning of stressful experiences and adopt beliefs that support adaptation and growth. We discuss how family narratives can help to bridge intra-familial estrangements and re-engage communication and support processes that have been undermined by stress, trauma, or loss. We conclude by describing a family-based narrative intervention currently in use with thousands of military children and families across the USA. PMID:23797387

Saltzman, William R; Pynoos, Robert S; Lester, Patricia; Layne, Christopher M; Beardslee, William R

2013-09-01

442

Effect of stroke on family carers and family relationships.  

PubMed

The effects of stroke on families are considerable. Family members may struggle to adapt to a care-giving role, and relationships between stroke survivors and those closest to them are often altered by the illness. This article provides an overview of the effects of stroke on family dynamics and identifies interventions to support stroke survivors and their families during this difficult time. PMID:21977761

Gillespie, David; Campbell, Fiona

443

Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent  

SciTech Connect

Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

Madison, Alison L.

2011-05-15

444

Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

Bergmann, Uwe

2004-02-24

445

[Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation. PMID:19446700

Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

2009-02-01

446

Erosion and what it Reveals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 20 November 2003

This image is located near the boundary between Syrtis Major and Isidis Planitia. The top of the image shows rough material that has eroded away from the lower portion of the image, revealing an underlying surface that has many small craters. It also reveals an ancient flow lobe that is barely discernable, crossing the southern part of the image (this flow lobe is much easier to see as a smooth region in the context image).

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.4, Longitude 77.9 East (282.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

447

The Smithville Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will create number sequences of Pascal's Triangle and discover a relationship that this triangle has to theoretical probability. During this lesson, they will complete the first eight rows of Pascal's Triangle, determine the total number of possible girl/boy combinations in a five child family, find patterns to help them generate the numbers in subsequent rows of Pascal's Triangle, and work collaboratively to address and analyze questions regarding the theoretical probability of other multiple child families using Pascal's Triangle. Site includes the objective, overview of the lesson, list of needed materials, extensions and connections, resources, and ideas for discussion. The lesson can be downloaded including the worksheets (in PDF). A video of the lesson and the correlated state standards can also be found by clicking on More Lessons: 6-8.

Pbs; Math, Pbs T.

2007-12-12

448

Prevention, family, and community  

PubMed Central

The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction,” and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on “Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery.” Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania.

Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis

2014-01-01

449

The MORC family  

PubMed Central

Microrchidia (MORC) is a highly conserved nuclear protein superfamily with widespread domain architectures that intimately link MORCs with signaling-dependent chromatin remodeling and epigenetic regulation. Accumulating structural and biochemical evidence has shed new light on the mechanistic action and emerging role of MORCs as epigenetic regulators in diverse nuclear processes. In this Point of View, we focus on discussing recent advances in our understanding of the unique domain architectures of MORC family of chromatin remodelers and their potential contribution to epigenetic control of DNA template-dependent processes such as transcription and DNA damage response. Given that the deregulation of MORCs has been linked with human cancer and other diseases, further efforts to uncover the structure and function of MORCs may ultimately lead to the development of new approaches to intersect with the functionality of MORC family of chromatin remodeling proteins to correct associated pathogenesis. PMID:23804034

Li, Da-Qiang; Nair, Sujit S.; Kumar, Rakesh

2013-01-01

450

Family-centered rounds.  

PubMed

Family-centered rounds (FCRs) are multidisciplinary rounds that involve medical teams partnering with patients and families in daily medical decision-making. Multiple FCR benefits have been identified including improving patient satisfaction, communication, discharge planning, medical education, and patient safety. Main barriers to FCRs are variability in attending rounding, duration of rounds, physical constrains of large teams and small rooms, specific and sensitive patient conditions, and lack of training of residents, students, and faculty on how to conduct effective and effecient FCRs. In the last decade, many programs have incorporated FCRs into daily practice due to their multiple perceived benefits. Future FCRs should focus on better operationalizing of FCRs and reporting on objective outcomes measures such as improved communication, coordination, and patient satisfaction that are crucial for healthcare. PMID:25084715

Mittal, Vineeta

2014-08-01

451

Parental Ethnotheories and Family Language Policy in Transnational Adoptive Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…

Fogle, Lyn Wright

2013-01-01

452

Multiple Perspectives Within the Family: Family Relationship Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the larger network of family relationships (parent-adolescent, marital, and sibling relations) affect adolescent adjustment. The second aim was to identify distinct patterns of family relationships and to examine whether these different family relationship patterns are…

Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten

2005-01-01

453

[Family Research Council: 1993 Family Issues Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a variety of information sheets developed from a survey completed on behalf of the Family Research Council to explore the family attitudes of American adults (N=1,100). The top 10 findings from the 1993 Family Issues Survey are enumerated on a summary sheet. Following this summary, each of the top 10 findings is discussed…

Family Research Council of America, Inc., Washington, DC.