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1

Comparative genomics of the family Vibrionaceae reveals the wide distribution of genes encoding virulence-associated proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all

Timothy G Lilburn; Jianying Gu; Hong Cai; Yufeng Wang

2010-01-01

2

Comparative genomics of the family Vibrionaceae reveals the wide distribution of genes encoding virulence-associated proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all these strains, known as the pangenome, are distributed. Information about the core, accessory and panproteome of this family can show how, for example, genes encoding virulence-associated proteins are distributed and help us understand how virulence emerges. Results We deduced the complete set of orthologs for eleven strains from this family. The core proteome consists of 1,882 orthologous groups, which is 28% of the 6,629 orthologous groups in this family. There were 4,411 accessory orthologous groups (i.e., proteins that occurred in from 2 to 10 proteomes) and 5,584 unique proteins (encoded once on only one of the eleven genomes). Proteins that have been associated with virulence in V. cholerae were widely distributed across the eleven genomes, but the majority was found only on the genomes of the two V. cholerae strains examined. Conclusions The proteomes are reflective of the differing evolutionary trajectories followed by different strains to similar phenotypes. The composition of the proteomes supports the notion that genetic exchange among species of the Vibrionaceae is widespread and that this exchange aids these species in adapting to their environments.

2010-01-01

3

A global gene evolution analysis on Vibrionaceae family using phylogenetic profile  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrionaceae represent a significant portion of the cultivable heterotrophic sea bacteria; they strongly affect nutrient cycling and some species are devastating pathogens. In this work we propose an improved phylogenetic profile analysis on 14 Vibrionaceae genomes, to study the evolution of this family on the basis of gene content. The phylogenetic profile is based on the observation that genes involved in the same process (e.g. metabolic pathway or structural complex) tend to be concurrently present or absent within different genomes. This allows the prediction of hypothetical functions on the basis of a shared phylogenetic profiles. Moreover this approach is useful to identify putative laterally transferred elements on the basis of their presence on distantly phylogenetically related bacteria. Results Vibrionaceae ORFs were aligned against all the available bacterial proteomes. Phylogenetic profile is defined as an array of distances, based on aminoacid substitution matrixes, from single genes to all their orthologues. Final phylogenetic profiles, derived from non-redundant list of all ORFs, was defined as the median of all the profiles belonging to the cluster. The resulting phylogenetic profiles matrix contains gene clusters on the rows and organisms on the columns. Cluster analysis identified groups of "core genes" with a widespread high similarity across all the organisms and several clusters that contain genes homologous only to a limited set of organisms. On each of these clusters, COG class enrichment has been calculated. The analysis reveals that clusters of core genes have the highest number of enriched classes, while the others are enriched just for few of them like DNA replication, recombination and repair. Conclusion We found that mobile elements have heterogeneous profiles not only across the entire set of organisms, but also within Vibrionaceae; this confirms their great influence on bacteria evolution even inside the same family. Furthermore, several hypothetical proteins highly correlate with mobile elements profiles suggesting a possible horizontal transfer mechanism for the evolution of these genes. Finally, we suggested the putative role of some ORFs having an unknown function on the basis of their phylogenetic profile similarity to well characterized genes.

Vitulo, Nicola; Vezzi, Alessandro; Romualdi, Chiara; Campanaro, Stefano; Valle, Giorgio

2007-01-01

4

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE AND RAPID FLUOROGENIC PROCEDURE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIONACEAE FAMILY MEMBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe a rapid, fluorogenic procedure to detect Vibrionaceae family members isolated from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay, referred to as the colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP), is based on a recently identified lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is asso...

5

Unique core genomes of the bacterial family vibrionaceae: insights into niche adaptation and speciation  

PubMed Central

Background The criteria for defining bacterial species and even the concept of bacterial species itself are under debate, and the discussion is apparently intensifying as more genome sequence data is becoming available. However, it is still unclear how the new advances in genomics should be used most efficiently to address this question. In this study we identify genes that are common to any group of genomes in our dataset, to determine whether genes specific to a particular taxon exist and to investigate their potential role in adaptation of bacteria to their specific niche. These genes were named unique core genes. Additionally, we investigate the existence and importance of unique core genes that are found in isolates of phylogenetically non-coherent groups. These groups of isolates, that share a genetic feature without sharing a closest common ancestor, are termed genophyletic groups. Results The bacterial family Vibrionaceae was used as the model, and we compiled and compared genome sequences of 64 different isolates. Using the software orthoMCL we determined clusters of homologous genes among the investigated genome sequences. We used multilocus sequence analysis to build a host phylogeny and mapped the numbers of unique core genes of all distinct groups of isolates onto the tree. The results show that unique core genes are more likely to be found in monophyletic groups of isolates. Genophyletic groups of isolates, in contrast, are less common especially for large groups of isolate. The subsequent annotation of unique core genes that are present in genophyletic groups indicate a high degree of horizontally transferred genes. Finally, the annotation of the unique core genes of Vibrio cholerae revealed genes involved in aerotaxis and biosynthesis of the iron-chelator vibriobactin. Conclusion The presented work indicates that genes specific for any taxon inside the bacterial family Vibrionaceae exist. These unique core genes encode conserved metabolic functions that can shed light on the adaptation of a species to its ecological niche. Additionally, our study suggests that unique core genes can be used to aid classification of bacteria and contribute to a bacterial species definition on a genomic level. Furthermore, these genes may be of importance in clinical diagnostics and drug development.

2012-01-01

6

Habitat Segregation and Biochemical Activities of Marine Members of the Family Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of marine members of the family Vibrionaceae with the technique of numerical taxonomy revealed habitat segregation as well as a cosmopolitan nature of species distribution among the vibrios in different marine environments. The bacterial strains analyzed were isolated from seawater, sediments, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish in the Indian Ocean, the South and East China Sea, and West Pacific Ocean, and coastal areas of Japan. A total of 155 morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests were carried out for each of 405 strains examined. The results showed that most of the large taxonomical clusters which emerged from the computation corresponded to ecological groups which have particular niches. For instance, each group of seawater vibrios inhabited a particular water layer of limited depth range, in spite of the fact that strains of the group were isolated from sampling locations spread over a wide area from the Indian Ocean to Japanese coast. Various vibrio groups showed remarkable differences in their physiological and biochemical activities, and the activities of each group seemed to correspond with its ecological niche. The strains which inhabited surface-water layers grew fast and actively utilized many high-molecular-weight organic compounds and carbohydrates that are derived from fresh, easily degradable organic matter present in the surface waters, whereas the middle- and deep-water vibrios did not decompose most of the high-molecular-weight organic compounds except chitin but, rather, utilized some carbohydrates and organic acids which seemed to be derived from refractory particulate organic matter present in the deeper waters.

Simidu, Usio; Tsukamoto, Kumiko

1985-01-01

7

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

PubMed Central

Background The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Results Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%–50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1–11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species. Conclusion Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges.

Gu, Jianying; Neary, Jennifer; Cai, Hong; Moshfeghian, Audrey; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Lilburn, Timothy G; Wang, Yufeng

2009-01-01

8

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their

Jianying Gu; Jennifer Neary; Hong Cai; Audrey Moshfeghian; Stephen A Rodriguez; Timothy G Lilburn; Yufeng Wang

2009-01-01

9

Evaluation of the L-pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis test for the differentiation of members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive spot test incorporating the substrate pyrrolidonyl naphthylamide was used to examine pyrrolidonyl peptidase activity among 800 bacterial strains belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The pyrrolidonyl naphthylamide test was found to be particularly useful in separating Citrobacter spp. (100% positive) from Salmonella spp. (0.4% positive) and Escherichia coli (0% positive). Furthermore, it would appear to offer a safer alternative to the traditional potassium cyanide test for differentiating citrobacters from salmonellae.

Chagla, A H; Borczyk, A A; Aldom, J E; Dalla Rosa, S; Cole, D D

1993-01-01

10

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Vibrionaceae in Coastal Waters of Hawaii, Australia, and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about large-scale spatial and temporal fluctuations in bacterioplankton, especially within the\\u000a bacterial families. In general, however, a number of abiotic factors (namely, nutrients and temperature) appear to influence\\u000a distribution. Community dynamics within the Vibrionaceae are of particular interest to biologists because this family contains\\u000a a number of important pathogenic, commensal, and mutualist species. Of special interest

B. W. Jones; A. Maruyama; C. C. Ouverney; M. K. Nishiguchi

2007-01-01

11

Ecology and Population Structure of Vibrionaceae in the Coastal Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive genetic diversity has been discovered in the microbial world, yet mechanisms that shape and maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. This thesis investigates to what extent populations of Vibrionaceae are ecologically specialized by inv...

S. P. Preheim

2010-01-01

12

Conservation of the Chitin Utilization Pathway in the Vibrionaceae? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrionaceae are regarded as important marine chitin degraders, and attachment to chitin regulates important biological functions; yet, the degree of chitin pathway conservation in Vibrionaceae is unknown. Here, a core chitin degradation pathway is proposed based on comparison of 19 Vibrio and Photobacterium genomes with a detailed metabolic map assembled for V. cholerae from published biochemical, genomic, and transcriptomic results. Further, to assess whether chitin degradation is a conserved property of Vibrionaceae, a set of 54 strains from 32 taxa were tested for the ability to grow on various forms of chitin. All strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer of chitin. The majority of isolates grew on ? (crab shell) and ? (squid pen) chitin and contained chitinase A (chiA) genes. chiA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis suggest that this gene is a good indicator of chitin metabolism but appears subject to horizontal gene transfer and duplication. Overall, chitin metabolism appears to be a core function of Vibrionaceae, but individual pathway components exhibit dynamic evolutionary histories.

Hunt, Dana E.; Gevers, Dirk; Vahora, Nisha M.; Polz, Martin F.

2008-01-01

13

Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier

2012-10-31

14

[Familial congenital hypomagnesemia revealed by neonatal convulsions].  

PubMed

Congenital hypomagnesemia is a rare disease, with an impact on cognitive and neurological development. We report on three familial cases of congenital hypomagnesemia, two boys and one girl who belong to the same consanguineous family. They all presented neonatal seizures and a psychomotor developmental delay. Cerebral computed tomography showed cerebral atrophy and calcifications in one case and magnetic resonance imaging found predominant cerebellar atrophy in the two other cases. All three patients also had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphoremia, and hypomagnesemia. The parathyroid hormone blood level was low in two cases and normal in the third. One 7-month old patient died. The others received a supplementation of calcium and magnesium, which normalized calcemia, phosphatemia but not magnesemia, which remained low despite high doses. They have both developed cognitive and behavioral impairments. PMID:24090669

Ndiaye, M; Dehanin, T; Sow, A-D; Sène, M-S; Basse, A-M; Fall, A-L; Seck, L-B; Touré, K; Diop, A-G; Sow, H-D; Ndiaye, M-M

2013-09-30

15

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Incidence of lux Gene Horizontal Transfer in Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 21 January 2008\\/Accepted 11 March 2008 Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of

Henryk Urbanczyk; Jennifer C. Ast; Allison J. Kaeding; James D. Oliver; Paul V. Dunlap

2008-01-01

16

Hydrolytic release, and identification by g.l.c.-m.s., of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid in the lipopolysaccharides isolated from bacteria of the Vibrionaceae.  

PubMed

The identification of the peracetylated methyl glycosides of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO) methyl esters was achieved by g.l.c.-m.s. These peracetylated methyl glycoside methyl esters were obtained from fully acetylated lipopolysaccharides and core oligosaccharides of representative strains of the Vibrionaceae family by the following sequence of mild reactions: acetolysis, methanolysis, and acetylation. KDO was shown to be present in all of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a result in direct contrast to the generally accepted view of the absence of this compound in LPS from this family of bacteria. PMID:6667475

Banoub, J H; Shaw, D H; Michon, F

1983-11-11

17

Family level phylogenies reveal modes of macroevolution in RNA viruses.  

PubMed

Despite advances in understanding the patterns and processes of microevolution in RNA viruses, little is known about the determinants of viral diversification at the macroevolutionary scale. In particular, the processes by which viral lineages assigned as different "species" are generated remain largely uncharacterized. To address this issue, we use a robust phylogenetic approach to analyze patterns of lineage diversification in five representative families of RNA viruses. We ask whether the process of lineage diversification primarily occurs when viruses infect new host species, either through cross-species transmission or codivergence, and which are defined here as analogous to allopatric speciation in animals, or by acquiring new niches within the same host species, analogous to sympatric speciation. By mapping probable primary host species onto family level viral phylogenies, we reveal a strong clustering among viral lineages that infect groups of closely related host species. Although this is consistent with lineage diversification within individual hosts, we argue that this pattern more likely represents strong biases in our knowledge of viral biodiversity, because we also find that better-sampled human viruses rarely cluster together. Hence, although closely related viruses tend to infect related host species, it is unlikely that they often infect the same host species, such that evolutionary constraints hinder lineage diversification within individual host species. We conclude that the colonization of new but related host species may represent the principle mode of macroevolution in RNA viruses. PMID:21173251

Kitchen, Andrew; Shackelton, Laura A; Holmes, Edward C

2010-12-20

18

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories.

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

19

Money Talks: Revealing and Concealing Financial Information in Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial knowledge is essential for becoming a productive member of society, yet little is known about how parents communicate with their children about finances. Using a communication privacy management framework (Petronio, 2002), this study examined, through face-to-face, semi-structured interviews of 23 parents, what financial issues parents shared with their children and why parents chose to reveal or conceal this information.

Lynsey Kluever Romo

2011-01-01

20

The acetylcholinesterase ichthyotoxin is a common component in the extracellular products of Vibrionaceae strains.  

PubMed

In previous work, it was reported that a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila (B32) produces the most potent lethal toxin with neurotoxic activity described so far for fish. In the present study, the presence and distribution of this acetylcholinesterase toxin lethal for fish were determined in extracellular products (ECP) of 42 Vibrionaceae strains using both immunological and colorimetric methods. This neurotoxin was shown to be present in the majority of the ECP from the Aeromonas and Vibrio strains tested and is responsible for the specific acetylcholinesterase activity. Also, although the Western blot and Ouchterlony techniques are valid as qualitative methods for the detection of this toxin, the Western blot procedure was 100-fold more sensitive than the Ouchterlony technique. PMID:15244056

Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, L A; Nieto, T P

1998-01-01

21

Synthesis of glycoconjugates derived from various lipopolysaccharides of the Vibrionaceae family.  

PubMed

Conjugation of simple ketoses (such as 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid) and of various O-specific polysaccharides (from Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida) to the bifunctional spacer 1,6-hexanediamine, was achieved by reductive amination. The saccharide--1-(6-amino)-hexane alkyamines obtained were converted into the corresponding isothiocyanate derivatives and coupled to the free epsilon-amino group of lysine residues of the protein carrier bovine serum albumin. In similar manner, the aldehyde group introduced by selective periodate oxidation into the partially O-deacylated lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio anguillarum was conjugated to 1,6-hexanediamine, converted into the corresponding isothiocyanate and covalently attached to bovine serum albumin. PMID:2920731

Banoub, J H; Shaw, D H; Nakhla, N A; Hodder, H J

1989-02-15

22

Phylogenetic analysis of the incidence of lux gene horizontal transfer in Vibrionaceae.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of the lux genes (luxCDABEG), which encode proteins involved in luminescence, a distinctive phenotype. Three hundred three luminous strains, most of which were recently isolated from nature and which represent 11 Aliivibrio, Photobacterium, and Vibrio species, were screened for incongruence of phylogenies based on a representative housekeeping gene (gyrB or pyrH) and a representative lux gene (luxA). Strains exhibiting incongruence were then subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis of horizontal transfer by using multiple housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, and pyrH) and multiple lux genes (luxCDABEG). In nearly all cases, housekeeping gene and lux gene phylogenies were congruent, and there was no instance in which the lux genes of one luminous species had replaced the lux genes of another luminous species. Therefore, the lux genes are predominantly vertically inherited in Vibrionaceae. The few exceptions to this pattern of congruence were as follows: (i) the lux genes of the only known luminous strain of Vibrio vulnificus, VVL1 (ATCC 43382), were evolutionarily closely related to the lux genes of Vibrio harveyi; (ii) the lux genes of two luminous strains of Vibrio chagasii, 21N-12 and SB-52, were closely related to those of V. harveyi and Vibrio splendidus, respectively; (iii) the lux genes of a luminous strain of Photobacterium damselae, BT-6, were closely related to the lux genes of the lux-rib(2) operon of Photobacterium leiognathi; and (iv) a strain of the luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was found to be merodiploid for the lux genes, and the second set of lux genes was closely related to the lux genes of the lux-rib(2) operon of P. leiognathi. In none of these cases of apparent HGT, however, did acquisition of the lux genes correlate with phylogenetic divergence of the recipient strain from other members of its species. The results indicate that horizontal transfer of the lux genes in nature is rare and that horizontal acquisition of the lux genes apparently has not contributed to speciation in recipient taxa. PMID:18359809

Urbanczyk, Henryk; Ast, Jennifer C; Kaeding, Allison J; Oliver, James D; Dunlap, Paul V

2008-03-21

23

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Incidence of lux Gene Horizontal Transfer in Vibrionaceae? †  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of the lux genes (luxCDABEG), which encode proteins involved in luminescence, a distinctive phenotype. Three hundred three luminous strains, most of which were recently isolated from nature and which represent 11 Aliivibrio, Photobacterium, and Vibrio species, were screened for incongruence of phylogenies based on a representative housekeeping gene (gyrB or pyrH) and a representative lux gene (luxA). Strains exhibiting incongruence were then subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis of horizontal transfer by using multiple housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, and pyrH) and multiple lux genes (luxCDABEG). In nearly all cases, housekeeping gene and lux gene phylogenies were congruent, and there was no instance in which the lux genes of one luminous species had replaced the lux genes of another luminous species. Therefore, the lux genes are predominantly vertically inherited in Vibrionaceae. The few exceptions to this pattern of congruence were as follows: (i) the lux genes of the only known luminous strain of Vibrio vulnificus, VVL1 (ATCC 43382), were evolutionarily closely related to the lux genes of Vibrio harveyi; (ii) the lux genes of two luminous strains of Vibrio chagasii, 21N-12 and SB-52, were closely related to those of V. harveyi and Vibrio splendidus, respectively; (iii) the lux genes of a luminous strain of Photobacterium damselae, BT-6, were closely related to the lux genes of the lux-rib2 operon of Photobacterium leiognathi; and (iv) a strain of the luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was found to be merodiploid for the lux genes, and the second set of lux genes was closely related to the lux genes of the lux-rib2 operon of P. leiognathi. In none of these cases of apparent HGT, however, did acquisition of the lux genes correlate with phylogenetic divergence of the recipient strain from other members of its species. The results indicate that horizontal transfer of the lux genes in nature is rare and that horizontal acquisition of the lux genes apparently has not contributed to speciation in recipient taxa.

Urbanczyk, Henryk; Ast, Jennifer C.; Kaeding, Allison J.; Oliver, James D.; Dunlap, Paul V.

2008-01-01

24

Genome-wide linkage analysis reveals evidence for four new susceptibility loci for familial euthyroid goiter.  

PubMed

Euthyroid goiter is characterized by diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency and cigarette smoking have been identified as important environmental factors. However, family and twin pair studies suggest a strong genetic predisposition. Therefore, we performed the first extended genome-wide scan to identify susceptibility loci that predispose for euthyroid goiter using 450 microsatellite markers in 18 extended Danish, German, and Slovakian families. Parametric and nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses were performed. The highest nonparametric LOD scores were obtained for chromosomes 2q and 3p with values of 2.54 at D2S1363 and 2.25 at D3S3038, respectively. Assuming heterogeneity and dominant inheritance, heterogeneity LOD scores (HLOD) of 2.71 and 1.94 were calculated for 2q and 3p, respectively. Furthermore, nonparametric LOD scores of 1.87 (HLOD 1.39) at D7S1808 on 7q and 1.79 (HLOD 1.80) at D8S264 on 8p were obtained. Haplotyping of families contributing to the linkage signals revealed four families compatible with a putative locus on 3p and one family each showing strict cosegregation with the loci on 2q, 7q, and 8p. The four novel candidate loci corroborate the assumed heterogeneity in the etiology of euthyroid familial goiter. For the first time, a more prevalent putative locus, present in 20% of the families investigated, was identified. PMID:15292347

Bayer, Yvonne; Neumann, Susanne; Meyer, Birgit; Rüschendorf, Franz; Reske, Andreas; Brix, Thomas; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Langer, Pavel; Nürnberg, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

2004-08-01

25

Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

26

Systematic analysis of GT factor family of rice reveals a novel subfamily involved in stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

GT factors constitute a plant-specific transcription factor family with a conserved trihelix DNA-binding domain. In this study,\\u000a comprehensive sequence analysis suggested that 26 putative GT factors exist in rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three\\u000a distinctive subfamilies (GT?, GT?, and GT?) of plant GT factors and each subfamily has a unique composition of predicted motifs.\\u000a We characterized the OsGT?-1 gene, a typical

Yujie FangKabin; Kabin Xie; Xin Hou; Honghong Hu; Lizhong Xiong

2010-01-01

27

BCL-2 family genetic profiling reveals microenvironment-specific determinants of chemotherapeutic response  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 family encompasses a diverse set of apoptotic regulators that are dynamically activated in response various cell intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. An extensive variety of cell culture experiments have identified effects of growth factors, cytokines and drugs on BCL-2 family functions, but in vivo studies have tended to focus on role of one or two particular members in development and organ homeostasis. Thus, the ability of physiologically relevant contexts to modulate canonical dependencies that are likely to be more complex has yet to be investigated systematically. In this study, we report findings derived from a pool-based shRNA assay that systematically and comprehensively interrogated the functional dependence of leukemia and lymphoma cells upon various BCL-2 family members across many diverse in vitro and in vivo settings. This approach permitted us to report the first in vivo loss of function screen for modifiers of the response to a frontline chemotherapeutic agent. Notably, our results reveal an unexpected role for the extrinsic death pathway as a tissue-specific modifier of therapeutic response. In particular, our findings demonstrate that particular tissue sites of tumor dissemination play critical roles in demarcating the nature and extent of cancer cell vulnerabilities and mechanisms of chemoresistance.

Pritchard, Justin R.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Meacham, Corbin E.; Ricks, Jennifer L.; Jiang, Hai; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Hemann, Michael T.

2011-01-01

28

Combined transcriptome profiling reveals a novel family of arbuscular mycorrhizal-specific Medicago truncatula lectin genes.  

PubMed

The large majority of plants are capable of undergoing a tight symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. During this symbiosis, highly specialized new structures called arbuscules are formed within the host cells, indicating that, during interaction with AM fungi, plants express AM-specific genetic programs. Despite increasing efforts, the number of genes known to be induced in the AM symbiosis is still low. In order to identify novel AM-induced genes which have not been listed before, 5,646 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from two Medicago truncatula cDNA libraries: a random cDNA library (MtAmp) and a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library (MtGim), the latter being designed to enhance the cloning of mycorrhiza-upregulated genes. In silico expression analysis was applied to identify those tentative consensus sequences (TCs) of The Institute for Genomic Research M. truncatula gene index (MtGI) that are composed exclusively of ESTs deriving from the MtGim or MtAmp library, but not from any other cDNA library of the MtGI. This search revealed 115 MtAmp- or MTGim-specific TCs. For the majority of these TCs with sequence similarities to plant genes, the AM-specific expression was verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Annotation of the novel genes induced in mycorrhizal roots suggested their involvement in different transport as well as signaling processes and revealed a novel family of AM-specific lectin genes. The expression of reporter gene fusions in transgenic roots revealed an arbuscule-related expression of two members of the lectin gene family, indicating a role for AM-specific lectins during arbuscule formation or functioning. PMID:16134889

Frenzel, André; Manthey, Katja; Perlick, Andreas M; Meyer, Folker; Pühler, Alfred; Küster, Helge; Krajinski, Franziska

2005-08-01

29

Updating the str and srj (stl) Families of Chemoreceptors in Caenorhabditis Nematodes Reveals Frequent Gene Movement Within and Between Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven transmembrane receptor (str) and srj (renamed from stl) families of chemoreceptors have been updated and the genes formally named following completion of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequencing project. Analysis of gene locations revealed that 84% of the 320 genes and pseudogenes in these two families reside on the large chromosome V. Movements to other chromosomes, especially chromosome IV,

Hugh M. Robertson

2001-01-01

30

Evolutionary robust SNPs reveal the misclassification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains into sublineages.  

PubMed

Genotypic classification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has greatly contributed to the comprehension of phylogenetic and population genetic relationships. It is, therefore, necessary to verify the robustness of the genetic markers for phylogenetic classification. In this study, we report some examples of homoplasy for two molecular markers, the IS6110 insertion at the NTF region, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at locus 909166, through genotyping of 1054 Beijing family strains. Our data revealed that a small fraction of strains traditionally classified into modern sublineages by IS6110 insertion at NTF actually belong to an ancient sublineage. We also proved that the robustness of branches in the evolutionary tree established using the putative homoplasious SNP 909166 is relatively low. Our findings highlight the importance of validating genetic markers used to establish phylogeny, evolution, and phenotypic characteristics. PMID:23438651

Nakanishi, Noriko; Wada, Takayuki; Arikawa, Kentaro; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin; Iwamoto, Tomotada

2013-02-22

31

Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study  

PubMed Central

Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ? 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

2010-01-01

32

Phylogenomic analysis reveals dynamic evolutionary history of the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene family.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin is the gene-poor, satellite-rich eukaryotic genome compartment that supports many essential cellular processes. The functional diversity of proteins that bind and often epigenetically define heterochromatic DNA sequence reflects the diverse functions supported by this enigmatic genome compartment. Moreover, heterogeneous signatures of selection at chromosomal proteins often mirror the heterogeneity of evolutionary forces that act on heterochromatic DNA. To identify new such surrogates for dissecting heterochromatin function and evolution, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gene family across 40 million years of Drosophila evolution. Our study expands this gene family from 5 genes to at least 26 genes, including several uncharacterized genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The 21 newly defined HP1s introduce unprecedented structural diversity, lineage-restriction, and germline-biased expression patterns into the HP1 family. We find little evidence of positive selection at these HP1 genes in both population genetic and molecular evolution analyses. Instead, we find that dynamic evolution occurs via prolific gene gains and losses. Despite this dynamic gene turnover, the number of HP1 genes is relatively constant across species. We propose that karyotype evolution drives at least some HP1 gene turnover. For example, the loss of the male germline-restricted HP1E in the obscura group coincides with one episode of dramatic karyotypic evolution, including the gain of a neo-Y in this lineage. This expanded compendium of ovary- and testis-restricted HP1 genes revealed by our study, together with correlated gain/loss dynamics and chromosome fission/fusion events, will guide functional analyses of novel roles supported by germline chromatin. PMID:22737079

Levine, Mia T; McCoy, Connor; Vermaak, Danielle; Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Hiatt, Mary Alice; Matsen, Frederick A; Malik, Harmit S

2012-06-21

33

Application of sliding-window discretization and minimization of stochastic complexity for the analysis of fAFLP genotyping fingerprint patterns of Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimization of stochastic complexity (SC) was used as a method for classification of genotypic fingerprints. The method was applied to fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) fingerprint patterns of 507 Vibrionaceae representatives. As the current BinClass implementation of the optimization algorithm for classification only works on binary vectors, the original fingerprints were discretized in a preliminary step using the sliding-window

Peter Dawyndt; Fabiano L. Thompson; Brian Austin; Jean Swings; Timo Koski; Mats Gyllenberg

2005-01-01

34

The Caenorhabditis globin gene family reveals extensive nematode-specific radiation and diversification  

PubMed Central

Background Globin isoforms with variant properties and functions have been found in the pseudocoel, body wall and cuticle of various nematode species and even in the eyespots of the insect-parasite Mermis nigrescens. In fact, much higher levels of complexity exist, as shown by recent whole genome analysis studies. In silico analysis of the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an unexpectedly high number of globin genes featuring a remarkable diversity in gene structure, amino acid sequence and expression profiles. Results In the present study we have analyzed whole genomic data from C. briggsae, C. remanei, Pristionchus pacificus and Brugia malayi and EST data from several other nematode species to study the evolutionary history of the nematode globin gene family. We find a high level of conservation of the C. elegans globin complement, with even distantly related nematodes harboring orthologs to many Caenorhabditis globins. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis resolves all nematode globins into two distinct globin classes. Analysis of the globin intron-exon structures suggests extensive loss of ancestral introns and gain of new positions in deep nematode ancestors, and mainly loss in the Caenorhabditis lineage. We also show that the Caenorhabditis globin genes are expressed in distinct, mostly non-overlapping, sets of cells and that they are all under strong purifying selection. Conclusion Our results enable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the globin gene family in the nematode phylum. A duplication of an ancestral globin gene occurred before the divergence of the Platyhelminthes and the Nematoda and one of the duplicated genes radiated further in the nematode phylum before the split of the Spirurina and Rhabditina and was followed by further radiation in the lineage leading to Caenorhabditis. The resulting globin genes were subject to processes of subfunctionalization and diversification leading to cell-specific expression patterns. Strong purifying selection subsequently dampened further evolution and facilitated fixation of the duplicated genes in the genome.

2008-01-01

35

Phylogenetic analysis reveals a novel protein family closely related to adenosine deaminase.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a well-characterized enzyme involved in the depletion of adenosine levels. A group of proteins with similarity to ADA, the adenosine deaminase-related growth factors (ADGF; known as CECR1 in vertebrates), has been described recently in various organisms. We have determined the phylogenetic relationships of various gene products with significant amino acid similarity to ADA using parsimony and Bayesian methods, and discovered a novel paralogue, termed ADA-like (ADAL). The ADGF proteins share a novel amino acid motif, "MPKG," within which the proline and lysine residues are also conserved in the ADAL and ADA subfamilies. The significance of this new domain is unknown, but it is located just upstream of two ADA catalytic residues, of which all eight are conserved among the ADGF and ADAL proteins. This conservation suggests that ADGF and ADAL may share the same catalytic function as ADA, which has been proven for some ADGF members. These analyses also revealed that some genes previously thought to be classic ADAs are instead ADAL or ADGFs. We here define the ADGF, ADAL, ADA, adenine deaminase (ADE), and AMP deaminase (AMPD) groups as subfamilies of the adenyl-deaminase family. The availability of genomic data for the members of this family allowed us to reconstruct the intron evolution within the phylogeny and strengthen the introns-late hypothesis of the synthetic introns theory. This study shows that ADA activity is clearly more complex than once thought, perhaps involving a delicately balanced pattern of temporal and spatial expression of a number of paralogous proteins. PMID:16245011

Maier, Stephanie A; Galellis, Julia R; McDermid, Heather E

2005-10-20

36

New Insights on the Sialidase Protein Family Revealed by a Phylogenetic Analysis in Metazoa  

PubMed Central

Sialidases are glycohydrolytic enzymes present from virus to mammals that remove sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Four different sialidase forms are known in vertebrates: the lysosomal NEU1, the cytosolic NEU2 and the membrane-associated NEU3 and NEU4. These enzymes modulate the cell sialic acid content and are involved in several cellular processes and pathological conditions. Molecular defects in NEU1 are responsible for sialidosis, an inherited disease characterized by lysosomal storage disorder and neurodegeneration. The studies on the biology of sialic acids and sialyltransferases, the anabolic counterparts of sialidases, have revealed a complex picture with more than 50 sialic acid variants selectively present in the different branches of the tree of life. The gain/loss of specific sialoconjugates have been proposed as key events in the evolution of deuterostomes and Homo sapiens, as well as in the host-pathogen interactions. To date, less attention has been paid to the evolution of sialidases. Thus we have conducted a survey on the state of the sialidase family in metazoan. Using an in silico approach, we identified and characterized sialidase orthologs from 21 different organisms distributed among the evolutionary tree: Metazoa relative (Monosiga brevicollis), early Deuterostomia, precursor of Chordata and Vertebrata (teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, avians and early and recent mammals). We were able to reconstruct the evolution of the sialidase protein family from the ancestral sialidase NEU1 and identify a new form of the enzyme, NEU5, representing an intermediate step in the evolution leading to the modern NEU3, NEU4 and NEU2. Our study provides new insights on the mechanisms that shaped the substrate specificity and other peculiar properties of the modern mammalian sialidases. Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in the evolution of specific properties of sialidases.

Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Schauer, Roland; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

37

Structure of the Archaeal Pab87 Peptidase Reveals a Novel Self-Compartmentalizing Protease Family  

PubMed Central

Self-compartmentalizing proteases orchestrate protein turnover through an original architecture characterized by a central catalytic chamber. Here we report the first structure of an archaeal member of a new self-compartmentalizing protease family forming a cubic-shaped octamer with D4 symmetry and referred to as CubicO. We solved the structure of the Pyrococcus abyssi Pab87 protein at 2.2 Å resolution using the anomalous signal of the high-phasing-power lanthanide derivative Lu-HPDO3A. A 20 Å wide channel runs through this supramolecular assembly of 0.4 MDa, giving access to a 60 Å wide central chamber holding the eight active sites. Surprisingly, activity assays revealed that Pab87 degrades specifically d-amino acid containing peptides, which have never been observed in archaea. Genomic context of the Pab87 gene showed that it is surrounded by genes involved in the amino acid/peptide transport or metabolism. We propose that CubicO proteases are involved in the processing of d-peptides from environmental origins.

Delfosse, Vanessa; Girard, Eric; Birck, Catherine; Delmarcelle, Michael; Delarue, Marc; Poch, Olivier; Schultz, Patrick; Mayer, Claudine

2009-01-01

38

A multi-faceted analysis of RutD reveals a novel family of ?/? hydrolases  

PubMed Central

The rut pathway of pyrimidine catabolism is a novel pathway that allows pyrimidine bases to serve as the sole nitrogen source in suboptimal temperatures. The rut operon in E. coli evaded detection until 2006, yet consists of seven proteins named RutA, RutB, etc. through RutG. The operon is comprised of a pyrimidine transporter and six enzymes that cleave and further process the uracil ring. Herein, we report the structure of RutD, a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily, which is proposed to enhance the rate of hydrolysis of aminoacrylate, a toxic side product of uracil degradation, to malonic semialdehyde. Although this reaction will occur spontaneously in water, the toxicity of aminoacrylate necessitates catalysis by RutD for efficient growth with uracil as a nitrogen source. RutD has a novel and conserved arrangement of residues corresponding to the ?/? hydrolase active site, where the nucleophile’s spatial position occupied by Ser, Cys or Asp of the canonical catalytic triad is replaced by histidine. We have used a combination of crystallographic structure determination, modeling and bioinformatics, to propose a novel mechanism for this enzyme. This approach also revealed that RutD represents a previously undescribed family within the ?/? hydrolases. We compare and contrast RutD with PcaD, which is the closest structural homolog to RutD. PcaD is a 3-oxoadipate-enol-lactonase-with a classic arrangement of residues in the active site. We have modeled a substrate in the PcaD active site and proposed a reaction mechanism.

Knapik, Aleksandra A.; Petkowski, Janusz J.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Cymborowski, Marcin T.; Cooper, David R.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Krajewska, Wanda M.; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

39

Functional divergence of the glutathione S-transferase supergene family in Physcomitrella patens reveals complex patterns of large gene family evolution in land plants.  

PubMed

Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants. PMID:23188805

Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

2012-11-27

40

Growth Kinetics of Extremely Halophilic Archaea (Family Halobacteriaceae) as Revealed by Arrhenius Plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the family Halobacteriaceae in the domain Archaea are obligate extreme halophiles. They occupy a variety of hypersaline environments, and their cellular biochemistry functions in a nearly saturated salty milieu. Despite extensive study, a detailed analysis of their growth kinetics is missing. To remedy this, Arrhenius plots for 14 type species of the family were generated. These organisms had

Jessie L. Robinson; Brandy Pyzyna; Rachelle G. Atrasz; Christine A. Henderson; Kira L. Morrill; Anna Mae Burd; Erik Desoucy; Rex E. Fogleman III; John B. Naylor; Sarah M. Steele; Dawn R. Elliott; Kathryn J. Leyva; Richard F. Shand

2005-01-01

41

Correlated mutation analyses on super-family alignments reveal functionally important residues.  

PubMed

Correlated mutation analyses (CMA) on multiple sequence alignments are widely used for the prediction of the function of amino acids. The accuracy of CMA-based predictions is mainly determined by the number of sequences, by their evolutionary distances, and by the quality of the alignments. These criteria are best met in structure-based sequence alignments of large super-families. So far, CMA-techniques have mainly been employed to study the receptor interactions. The present work shows how a novel CMA tool, called Comulator, can be used to determine networks of functionally related residues in enzymes. These analyses provide leads for protein engineering studies that are directed towards modification of enzyme specificity or activity. As proof of concept, Comulator has been applied to four enzyme super-families: the isocitrate lyase/phoshoenol-pyruvate mutase super-family, the hexokinase super-family, the RmlC-like cupin super-family, and the FAD-linked oxidases super-family. In each of those cases networks of functionally related residue positions were discovered that upon mutation influenced enzyme specificity and/or activity as predicted. We conclude that CMA is a powerful tool for redesigning enzyme activity and selectivity. PMID:19274741

Kuipers, Remko K P; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Verwiel, Eugene; Paans, Sjoerd; Akerboom, Jasper; van der Oost, John; Leferink, Nicole G H; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vriend, Gert; Schaap, Peter J

2009-08-15

42

Active site profiling reveals coupling between domains in SRC-family kinases  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases, key regulators of intracellular signal transduction, have emerged as an important class of drug targets. Chemical proteomic tools that facilitate the functional interrogation of protein kinase active sites are powerful reagents for studying the regulation of this large enzyme family and for performing inhibitor selectivity screens. Here we describe a new crosslinking strategy that enables rapid and quantitative profiling of protein kinase active sites in lysates and live cells. Applying this methodology to the SRC-family kinases (SFKs) SRC and HCK led to the identification of a series of conformation-specific, ATP-competitive inhibitors that display a distinct preference for autoinhibited forms of these kinases. Furthermore, we show that ligands that demonstrate this selectivity are able to modulate the ability of the regulatory domains of SRC and HCK to engage in intermolecular binding interactions. These studies provide insight into the regulation of this important family of tyrosine kinases.

Krishnamurty, Ratika; Brigham, Jennifer L.; Leonard, Stephen E.; Ranjitkar, Pratistha; Larson, Eric T.; Dale, Edward J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Maly, Dustin J.

2012-01-01

43

Brief Report: An Autistic Spectrum Subtype Revealed through Familial Psychopathology Coupled with Cognition in ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identified a possible autistic spectrum subtype expressed through family psychopathology coupled with autistic probands' cognitive functioning (i.e., an endophenotypic profile). Participants included 24 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 49 children with Learning Disorder (LD). There were significantly higher rates of…

Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Menard, Philip

2008-01-01

44

Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were examined using gene-specific RNA interference (RNAi). One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype ...

45

Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis Reveals Evidence for Four New Susceptibility Loci for Familial Euthyroid Goiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthyroid goiter is characterized by diffuse or nodular en- largement of the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency and ciga- rette smoking have been identified as important environmen- tal factors. However, family and twin pair studies suggest a strong genetic predisposition. Therefore, we performed the first extended genome-wide scan to identify susceptibility loci that predispose for euthyroid goiter using 450 microsatellite markers

YVONNE BAYER; SUSANNE NEUMANN; BIRGIT MEYER; FRANZ RUSCHENDORF; ANDREAS RESKE; THOMAS BRIX; LASZLO HEGEDUS; PAVEL LANGER; PETER NURNBERG; RALF PASCHKE

46

Mutational Analysis of the Uukuniemi Virus (Bunyaviridae Family) Promoter Reveals Two Elements of Functional Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed an extensive mutational analysis of the proposed promoter region of the phlebovirus Uukuniemi (UUK), a member of the Bunyaviridae family. This was achieved by using a recently developed RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-driven reverse genetics system (R. Flick and R. F. Pettersson, J. Virol. 75:1643-1655, 2001). Chimeric cDNAs containing the coding region for the reporter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

Ramon Flick; Fredrik Elgh; R. F. Pettersson

2002-01-01

47

Systematic genome-wide annotation of spliceosomal proteins reveals differential gene family expansion.  

PubMed

Although more than 200 human spliceosomal and splicing-associated proteins are known, the evolution of the splicing machinery has not been studied extensively. The recent near-complete sequencing and annotation of distant vertebrate and chordate genomes provides the opportunity for an exhaustive comparative analysis of splicing factors across eukaryotes. We describe here our semiautomated computational pipeline to identify and annotate splicing factors in representative species of eukaryotes. We focused on protein families whose role in splicing is confirmed by experimental evidence. We visually inspected 1894 proteins and manually curated 224 of them. Our analysis shows a general conservation of the core spliceosomal proteins across the eukaryotic lineage, contrasting with selective expansions of protein families known to play a role in the regulation of splicing, most notably of SR proteins in metazoans and of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) in vertebrates. We also observed vertebrate-specific expansion of the CLK and SRPK kinases (which phosphorylate SR proteins), and the CUG-BP/CELF family of splicing regulators. Furthermore, we report several intronless genes amongst splicing proteins in mammals, suggesting that retrotransposition contributed to the complexity of the mammalian splicing apparatus. PMID:16344558

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Aparício, Samuel

2005-12-12

48

Nuclear factor I revealed as family of promoter binding transcription activators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Multiplex experimental assays coupled to computational predictions are being increasingly employed for the simultaneous analysis\\u000a of many specimens at the genome scale, which quickly generates very large amounts of data. However, inferring valuable biological\\u000a information from the comparisons of very large genomic datasets still represents an enormous challenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  As a study model, we chose the NFI\\/CTF family of mammalian transcription

Milos Pjanic; Petar Pjanic; Christoph Schmid; Giovanna Ambrosini; Armelle Gaussin; Genta Plasari; Christian Mazza; Philipp Bucher; Nicolas Mermod

2011-01-01

49

Vitamin E analyses in seeds reveal a dominant presence of tocotrienols over tocopherols in the Arecaceae family.  

PubMed

Tocopherols are thought to prevent oxidative damage during seed quiescence and dormancy in all angiosperms. However, several monocot species accumulate tocotrienols in seeds and their role remains elusive. Here, we aimed to unravel the distribution of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seeds of the Arecaceae family, to examine possible trends of vitamin E accumulation within different clades of the same family. We examined the tocopherol and tocotrienol content in seeds of 84 species. Furthermore, we evaluated the vitamin E composition of the seed coat, endosperm and embryo of seeds from 6 species, to determine possible tissue-specific functions of particular vitamin E forms. While seeds of 98.8% (83 out of 84) of the species accumulated tocotrienols, only 58.3% (49 out of 84) accumulated tocopherols. The presence of tocopherols did not follow a clear evolutionary trend, and appeared randomly in some clades only. In addition, the tissue-specific location of vitamin E in seeds revealed that the embryo contains mostly ?-tocopherol (in seed tocopherol-accumulating species) or ?-tocotrienol (in seed tocopherol-deficient species). However, some species such as Socratea exorrhiza mostly accumulate ?-tocotrienol, and Parajubaea torallyi accumulates a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the embryo. This suggests that tocotrienols can play a similar protective role to that exerted by tocopherols in seeds, at least in some species of the Arecaceae family. We conclude that tocotrienol, rather than tocopherol, accumulation is a conserved trait in seeds of the Arecaceae family. PMID:23920227

Siles, Laura; Cela, Jana; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2013-08-03

50

Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.  

PubMed

Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa. PMID:24065666

Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

2013-09-03

51

Comparative Genome Analysis of Filamentous Fungi Reveals Gene Family Expansions Associated with Fungal Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/). Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis.

Soanes, Darren M.; Alam, Intikhab; Cornell, Mike; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

52

RUNX3 interactome reveals novel centrosomal targeting of RUNX family of transcription factors.  

PubMed

RUNX family proteins are critical regulators of lineage differentiation during development. The high prevalence of RUNX mutation/epigenetic inactivation in human cancer indicates a causative role for dysfunctional RUNX in carcinogenesis. This is supported by well-documented evidence of functional interaction of RUNX with components of major oncogenic or tumor suppressive signaling pathways such as TGF? and Wnt. Here, we explore the binding partners of RUNX3 proteins to further define the scope of RUNX3 function. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach, we found that RUNX3 binds to centrosomal protein rootletin. This led us to uncover the presence of RUNX proteins at the centrosome. Our findings suggest a potential function for RUNX3 during mitosis. PMID:22544322

Chuang, Linda Shyue Huey; Lai, Soak Kuan; Murata-Hori, Maki; Yamada, Ayumi; Li, Hoi-Yeung; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Ito, Yoshiaki

2012-05-15

53

Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference.  

PubMed

The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tc), were examined by using gene-specific RNAi. One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype was observed when the transcript level of TcCHT5 was down-regulated by injection of TcCHT5-specific dsRNA into larvae. The larvae had metamorphosed into pupae and then to pharate adults but did not complete adult eclosion. Specific knockdown of transcripts for another chitinase, TcCHT10, which has multiple catalytic domains, prevented embryo hatch, larval molting, pupation, and adult metamorphosis, indicating a vital role for TcCHT10 during each of these processes. A third chitinase-like protein, TcCHT7, was required for abdominal contraction and wing/elytra extension immediately after pupation but was dispensable for larval-larval molting, pupation, and adult eclosion. The wing/elytra abnormalities found in TcCHT7-silenced pupae were also manifest in the ensuing adults. A fourth chitinase-like protein, TcIDGF4, exhibited no chitinolytic activity but contributed to adult eclosion. No phenotypic effects were observed after knockdown of transcripts for several other chitinase-like proteins, including imaginal disk growth factor IDGF2. These data indicate functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes, primarily during the molting process, and provide a biological rationale for the presence of a large assortment of chitinase-like proteins. PMID:18436642

Zhu, Qingsong; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Beeman, Richard W; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

2008-04-24

54

Thermodynamic Characterization of a Triheme Cytochrome Family from Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals Mechanistic and Functional Diversity  

PubMed Central

Abstract A family of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens, where they play a crucial role by driving electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular acceptors. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA using NMR and visible spectroscopies was previously achieved under experimental conditions identical to those used for the triheme cytochrome c7 from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Under such conditions, attempts to obtain NMR data were complicated by the relatively fast intermolecular electron exchange. This work reports the detailed thermodynamic characterization of PpcB, PpcD, and PpcE under optimal experimental conditions. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA was redone under these new conditions to allow a proper comparison of the redox properties with those of other members of this family. The heme reduction potentials of the four proteins are negative, differ from each other, and cover different functional ranges. These reduction potentials are strongly modulated by heme-heme interactions and by interactions with protonated groups (the redox-Bohr effect) establishing different cooperative networks for each protein, which indicates that they are designed to perform different functions in the cell. PpcA and PpcD appear to be optimized to interact with specific redox partners involving e?/H+ transfer via different mechanisms. Although no evidence of preferential electron transfer pathway or e?/H+ coupling was found for PpcB and PpcE, the difference in their working potential ranges suggests that they may also have different physiological redox partners. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to characterize homologous cytochromes from the same microorganism and provide evidence of their different mechanistic and functional properties. These findings provide an explanation for the coexistence of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes in G. sulfurreducens.

Morgado, Leonor; Bruix, Marta; Pessanha, Miguel; Londer, Yuri Y.; Salgueiro, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

55

Genetic analysis of 14 families with Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy reveals clues to UBIAD1 protein function.  

PubMed

Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy (SCCD) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive corneal opacification resulting from abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids. Recently, six different mutations on the UBIAD1 gene on chromosome 1p36 were found to result in SCCD. The purpose of this article is to further characterize the mutation spectrum of SCCD and identify structural and functional consequences for UBIAD1 protein activity. DNA sequencing was performed on samples from 36 individuals from 14 SCCD families. One affected individual was African American and SCCD has not been previously reported in this ethnic group. We identified UBIAD1 mutations in all 14 families which had 30 affected and 6 unaffected individuals. Eight different UBIAD1 mutations, 5 novel (L121F, D118G, and S171P in exon 1, G186R and D236E in exon 2) were identified. In four families with DNA samples from both affected and unaffected individuals, the D118G, G186R, T175I, and G177R mutations cosegregated with SCCD. In combination with our previous report, we have identified the genetic mutation in UBIAD1 in 20 unrelated families with 10 (including 5 reported here), having the N102S mutation. The results suggest that N102S may be a mutation hot spot because the affected families were unrelated including Caucasian and Asian individuals. There was no genotype phenotype correlation except for the T175I mutation which demonstrated prominent diffuse corneal haze, typically without corneal crystals. Protein analysis revealed structural and functional implications of SCCD mutations which may affect UBIAD1 function, ligand binding and interaction with binding partners, like apo E. PMID:18176953

Weiss, Jayne S; Kruth, Howard S; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Karkera, Jayaprakash; Mahurkar, Sunil; Lisch, Walter; Dupps, William J; White, Peter S; Winters, R Scott; Kim, Chaesik; Rapuano, Christopher J; Sutphin, John; Reidy, Jim; Hu, Fung-Rong; Lu, Da Wen; Ebenezer, Neil; Nickerson, Michael L

2008-02-01

56

Isolation of the Atlantic salmon tyrosinase gene family reveals heterogenous transcripts in a leukocyte cell line.  

PubMed

In ectothermic vertebrates, visceral organs harbor melanin-containing cells. Their ability as pigment producers is nevertheless disputed. To address expression of the key genes for melanogenesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a tyrosinase-positive leukocyte cell line (SHK-1) and skin were used to obtain full-length tyrosinase (Tyr), tyrosinase-like protein-1 (Tyrp1), and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) mRNA transcripts. In the SHK-1 cells, two different Tyrp1 transcripts were identified, one lacking exon 1. However, only the full-length version of Tyrp1 was identified in the skin. Sequencing of Tyrp1 genomic region revealed that the two Tyrp1 transcripts might originate from two different loci, possibly a result of pseudo-tetraploidity of the Atlantic salmon genome. Expression of Tyr, Tyrp1 and Dct was investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase cain reaction showing highest expression in the SHK-1 cell line and skin, intermediate in pronephros, and negligible or absent in liver and muscle. Histological approaches were used to demonstrate melanin and revealed presence of melanized cells in skin, kidney and liver, and absence of such cells in muscle. In addition to verify melanin synthesis abilities of visceral-located cells, our results indicate loci-specific transcription differences between populations of melanin-producing cells in Atlantic salmon. PMID:16827751

Thorsen, Jim; Høyheim, Bjørn; Koppang, Erling O

2006-08-01

57

Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.  

SciTech Connect

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

2003-05-01

58

Phylogenomics of the dog and fox family (Canidae, Carnivora) revealed by chromosome painting.  

PubMed

Canid species (dogs and foxes) have highly rearranged karyotypes and thus represent a challenge for conventional comparative cytogenetic studies. Among them, the domestic dog is one of the best-mapped species in mammals, constituting an ideal reference genome for comparative genomic study. Here we report the results of genome-wide comparative mapping of dog chromosome-specific probes onto chromosomes of the dhole, fennec fox, and gray fox, as well as the mapping of red fox chromosome-specific probes onto chromosomes of the corsac fox. We also present an integrated comparative chromosome map between the species studied here and all canids studied previously. The integrated map demonstrates an extensive conservation of whole chromosome arms across different canid species. In addition, we have generated a comprehensive genome phylogeny for the Canidae on the basis of the chromosome rearrangements revealed by comparative painting. This genome phylogeny has provided new insights into the karyotypic relationships among the canids. Our results, together with published data, allow the formulation of a likely Canidae ancestral karyotype (CAK, 2n = 82), and reveal that at least 6-24 chromosomal fission/fusion events are needed to convert the CAK karyotype to that of the modern canids. PMID:18293108

Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Perelman, Polina L; Sokolovskaya, Natalya V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Serdukova, Natalya A; Dobigny, Gauthier; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

2008-01-01

59

Structural characterization of H. pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members  

PubMed Central

Summary Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi and plants. As humans lack this pathway, dethiobiotin synthetase is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DBTS from H. pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologues revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, greatly differs among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases, however, ITC binding studies show that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed through X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS:ATP and hpDTBS:GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

60

Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases  

SciTech Connect

Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso (NWU); (FSI)

2010-09-02

61

Genome-wide analysis of the dof transcription factor gene family reveals soybean-specific duplicable and functional characteristics.  

PubMed

The Dof domain protein family is a classic plant-specific zinc-finger transcription factor family involved in a variety of biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of Dof genes in different plants. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof transcription factors in soybean (Glycine max). In the present study, 78 putative Dof genes were identified from the whole-genome sequence of soybean. The predicted GmDof genes were non-randomly distributed within and across 19 out of 20 chromosomes and 97.4% (38 pairs) were preferentially retained duplicate paralogous genes located in duplicated regions of the genome. Soybean-specific segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the soybean Dof gene family. These Dof proteins were phylogenetically clustered into nine distinct subgroups among which the gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins revealed four major groups, similar to those reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Most of the GmDofs showed specific expression patterns based on RNA-seq data analyses. The expression patterns of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the occurrence of sub-functionalization during subsequent evolution. Comprehensive expression profile analysis also provided insights into the soybean-specific functional divergence among members of the Dof gene family. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these GmDof genes suggested diverse functions associated with different processes. Taken together, our results provide useful information for the functional characterization of soybean Dof genes by combining phylogenetic analysis with global gene-expression profiling. PMID:24098807

Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

2013-09-30

62

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family Reveals Soybean-Specific Duplicable and Functional Characteristics  

PubMed Central

The Dof domain protein family is a classic plant-specific zinc-finger transcription factor family involved in a variety of biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of Dof genes in different plants. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof transcription factors in soybean (Glycine max). In the present study, 78 putative Dof genes were identified from the whole-genome sequence of soybean. The predicted GmDof genes were non-randomly distributed within and across 19 out of 20 chromosomes and 97.4% (38 pairs) were preferentially retained duplicate paralogous genes located in duplicated regions of the genome. Soybean-specific segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the soybean Dof gene family. These Dof proteins were phylogenetically clustered into nine distinct subgroups among which the gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins revealed four major groups, similar to those reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Most of the GmDofs showed specific expression patterns based on RNA-seq data analyses. The expression patterns of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the occurrence of sub-functionalization during subsequent evolution. Comprehensive expression profile analysis also provided insights into the soybean-specific functional divergence among members of the Dof gene family. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these GmDof genes suggested diverse functions associated with different processes. Taken together, our results provide useful information for the functional characterization of soybean Dof genes by combining phylogenetic analysis with global gene-expression profiling.

Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

2013-01-01

63

Characterization of a fibrillar collagen gene in sponges reveals the early evolutionary appearance of two collagen gene families.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized cDNA and genomic clones coding for a sponge collagen. The partial cDNA has an open reading frame encoding 547 amino acid residues. The conceptual translation product contains a probably incomplete triple-helical domain (307 amino acids) with one Gly-Xaa-Yaa-Zaa imperfection in the otherwise perfect Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats and a carboxyl propeptide (240 amino acids) that includes 7 cysteine residues. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicate that this sponge collagen is homologous to vertebrate and sea urchin fibrillar collagens. Partial characterization of the corresponding gene reveals an intron-exon organization clearly related to the fibrillar collagen gene family. The exons coding for the triple-helical domain are 54 base pairs (bp) or multiples thereof, except for a 57-bp exon containing the Gly-Xaa-Yaa-Zaa coding sequence and for two unusual exons of 126 and 18 bp, respectively. This latter 18-bp exon marks the end of the triple-helical domain, contrary to the other known fibrillar collagen genes that contain exons coding for the junction between the triple-helical domain and the carboxyl propeptide. Compared to other fibrillar collagen genes, the introns are remarkably small. Hybridization to blotted RNAs established that the gene transcript is 4.9 kilobases. Together with previous results that showed the existence of a nonfibrillar collagen in the same species, these data demonstrate that at least two collagen gene families are represented in the most primitive metazoa.

Exposito, J Y; Garrone, R

1990-01-01

64

Comprehensive Analysis of ETS Family Members in Melanoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Reveals Recurrent ETV1 Amplification.  

PubMed

E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are known to be involved in gene aberrations in various malignancies including prostate cancer; however, their role in melanoma oncogenesis has yet to be fully explored. We have completed a comprehensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based screen for all 27 members of the ETS transcription factor family on two melanoma tissue microarrays, representing 223 melanomas, 10 nevi, and 5 normal skin tissues. None of the melanoma cases demonstrated ETS fusions; however, 6 of 114 (5.3%) melanomas were amplified for ETV1 using a break-apart FISH probe. For the six positive cases, locus-controlled FISH probes revealed that two of six cases were amplified for the ETV1 region, whereas four cases showed copy gains of the entire chromosome 7. The remaining 26 ETS family members showed no chromosomal aberrations by FISH. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed an average 3.4-fold (P value = .00218) increased expression of ETV1 in melanomas, including the FISH ETV1-amplified cases, when compared to other malignancies (prostate, breast, and bladder carcinomas). These data suggest that a subset of melanomas overexpresses ETV1 and amplification of ETV1 may be one mechanism for achieving high gene expression. PMID:23908683

Mehra, Rohit; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Vats, Pankaj; Cao, Xuhong; Kim, Jung H; Kim, David Sl; Johnson, Timothy; Fullen, Douglas R; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

2013-08-01

65

Using human demographic history to infer natural selection reveals contrasting patterns on different families of immune genes  

PubMed Central

Detecting regions of the human genome that are, or have been, influenced by natural selection remains an important goal for geneticists. Many methods are used to infer selection, but there is a general reliance on an accurate understanding of how mutation and recombination events are distributed, and the well-known link between these processes and their evolutionary transience introduces uncertainty into inferences. Here, we present and apply two new, independent approaches; one based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that exploits geographical patterns in how humans lost variability as we colonized the world, the other based on the relationship between microsatellite repeat number and heterozygosity. We show that the two methods give concordant results. Of these, the SNP-based method is both widely applicable and detects selection over a well-defined time interval, the last 50 000 years. Analysis of all human genes by their Gene Ontology codes reveals how accelerated and decelerated loss of variability are both preferentially associated with immune genes. Applied to 168 immune genes used as the focus of a previous study, we show that members of the same gene family tend to yield similar indices of selection, even when located on different chromosomes. We hope our approach will provide a useful tool with which to infer where selection has acted to shape the human genome.

Amos, William; Bryant, Clare

2011-01-01

66

Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events  

PubMed Central

Knowing the geographical origin of economically important plants is important for genetic improvement and conservation, but has been slowed by uneven geographical sampling where relatives occur in remote areas of difficult access. Less biased species sampling can be achieved when herbarium collections are included as DNA sources. Here, we address the history of Cucurbitaceae, one of the most economically important families of plants, using a multigene phylogeny for 114 of the 115 genera and 25 per cent of the 960 species. Worldwide sampling was achieved by using specimens from 30 herbaria. Results reveal an Asian origin of Cucurbitaceae in the Late Cretaceous, followed by the repeated spread of lineages into the African, American and Australian continents via transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD). North American cucurbits stem from at least seven range expansions of Central and South American lineages; Madagascar was colonized 13 times, always from Africa; Australia was reached 12 times, apparently always from Southeast Asia. Overall, Cucurbitaceae underwent at least 43 successful LDD events over the past 60?Myr, which would translate into an average of seven LDDs every 10?Myr. These and similar findings from other angiosperms stress the need for an increased tapping of museum collections to achieve extensive geographical sampling in plant phylogenetics.

Schaefer, Hanno; Heibl, Christoph; Renner, Susanne S.

2008-01-01

67

Novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules revealed by the genome sequence of Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6192.  

PubMed

Spirochaeta thermophila is a thermophilic, free-living, and cellulolytic anaerobe. The genome sequence data for this organism have revealed a high density of genes encoding enzymes from more than 30 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families and a noncellulosomal enzyme system for (hemi)cellulose degradation. Functional screening of a fosmid library whose inserts were mapped on the S. thermophila genome sequence allowed the functional annotation of numerous GH open reading frames (ORFs). Seven different GH ORFs from the S. thermophila DSM 6192 genome, all putative ?-glycanase ORFs according to sequence similarity analysis, contained a highly conserved novel GH-associated module of unknown function at their C terminus. Four of these GH enzymes were experimentally verified as xylanase, ?-glucanase, ?-glucanase/carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), and CMCase. Binding experiments performed with the recombinantly expressed and purified GH-associated module showed that it represents a new carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds to microcrystalline cellulose and is highly specific for this substrate. In the course of this work, the new CBM type was only detected in Spirochaeta, but recently we found sequences with detectable similarity to the module in the draft genomes of Cytophaga fermentans and Mahella australiensis, both of which are phylogenetically very distant from S. thermophila and noncellulolytic, yet inhabit similar environments. This suggests a possibly broad distribution of the module in nature. PMID:21685171

Angelov, Angel; Loderer, Christoph; Pompei, Susanne; Liebl, Wolfgang

2011-06-17

68

Chlorophyll a might structure a community of potentially pathogenic culturable Vibrionaceae. Insights from a one-year study of water and mussels surveyed on the French Atlantic coast.  

PubMed

The present study focused on the isolation of culturable bacteria from mussels and sea water to identify Vibrionaceae potentially pathogenic for humans. Three sites located on the French Atlantic coast were monitored monthly (twice each month during summer) for 1 year. Environmental parameters were surveyed (water temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll a) and bacteria were detected by culture and identified by API 20E(®) systems (BioMérieux) and PCR. A total of seven species were detected (Grimontia hollisae, Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae, V. fluvialis, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus) and species diversity was higher at the end of summer. Surprisingly, V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was detected in spring. No site effect was detected. Using Sørensen similarity indices and statistical analyses, we showed that chlorophyll a had a significant influence on the bacterial community detected in mussels and assemblages were more similar to one another when chlorophyll a values were above 20?µg?l(-1) . No significant effect of any parameter was found on the community detected in water samples. Such surveys are essential for the understanding of sanitary crises and detection of emerging pathogens. PMID:23766015

Deter, J; Lozach, S; Derrien, A; Véron, A; Chollet, J; Hervio-Heath, D

2010-02-01

69

Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.  

PubMed

The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both usually placed in Melanocorypha]; Ammomanopsis grayi and Ammomanes cinctura/deserti [former traditionally placed in Ammomanes]; Chersophilus duponti and Certhilauda spp.; Eremopterix hova [usually placed in Mirafra] and several Mirafra spp.), as well as both highly conserved plumages (e.g. within Mirafra) and strongly divergent lineages (e.g. Eremopterix hova vs. other Eremopterix spp.; Calandrella cinerea complex vs. Eremophila spp.; Eremalauda dunni vs. Chersophilus duponti; Melanocorypha mongolica and male M. yeltoniensis vs. other Melanocorypha spp. and female M. yeltoniensis). Sexual plumage dimorphism has evolved multiple times. Few groups of birds show the same level of disagreement between taxonomy based on morphology and phylogenetic relationships as inferred from DNA sequences. PMID:23792153

Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

2013-06-21

70

Diverse retrotransposon families and an AT-rich satellite DNA revealed in giant genomes of Fritillaria lilies  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae) comprises species with extremely large genomes (1C = 30 000–127 000 Mb) and a bicontinental distribution. Most North American species (subgenus Liliorhiza) differ from Eurasian Fritillaria species by their distinct phylogenetic position and increased amounts of heterochromatin. This study examined the contribution of major repetitive elements to the genome obesity found in Fritillaria and identified repeats contributing to the heterochromatin arrays in Liliorhiza species. Methods Two Fritillaria species of similar genome size were selected for detailed analysis, one from each phylogeographical clade: F. affinis (1C = 45·6 pg, North America) and F. imperialis (1C = 43·0 pg, Eurasia). Fosmid libraries were constructed from their genomic DNAs and used for identification, sequence characterization, quantification and chromosome localization of clones containing highly repeated sequences. Key Results and Conclusions Repeats corresponding to 6·7 and 4·7 % of the F. affinis and F. imperialis genome, respectively, were identified. Chromoviruses and the Tat lineage of Ty3/gypsy group long terminal repeat retrotransposons were identified as the predominant components of the highly repeated fractions in the F. affinis and F. imperialis genomes, respectively. In addition, a heterogeneous, extremely AT-rich satellite repeat was isolated from F. affinis. The FriSAT1 repeat localized in heterochromatic bands makes up approx. 26 % of the F. affinis genome and substantial genomic fractions in several other Liliorhiza species. However, no evidence of a relationship between heterochromatin content and genome size variation was observed. Also, this study was unable to reveal any predominant repeats which tracked the increasing/decreasing trends of genome size evolution in Fritillaria. Instead, the giant Fritillaria genomes seem to be composed of many diversified families of transposable elements. We hypothesize that the genome obesity may be partly determined by the failure of removal mechanisms to counterbalance effectively the retrotransposon amplification.

Ambrozova, Katerina; Mandakova, Terezie; Bures, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Leitch, Ilia J.; Koblizkova, Andrea; Macas, Jiri; Lysak, Martin A.

2011-01-01

71

Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae  

PubMed Central

Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage.

2011-01-01

72

Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of the HES/HEY Gene Family Reveal Exon/Intron Loss and Teleost Specific Duplication Events  

PubMed Central

Background HES/HEY genes encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with both bHLH and Orange domain. HES/HEY proteins are direct targets of the Notch signaling pathway and play an essential role in developmental decisions, such as the developments of nervous system, somitogenesis, blood vessel and heart. Despite their important functions, the origin and evolution of this HES/HEY gene family has yet to be elucidated. Methods and Findings In this study, we identified genes of the HES/HEY family in representative species and performed evolutionary analysis to elucidate their origin and evolutionary process. Our results showed that the HES/HEY genes only existed in metazoans and may originate from the common ancestor of metazoans. We identified HES/HEY genes in more than 10 species representing the main lineages. Combining the bHLH and Orange domain sequences, we constructed the phylogenetic trees by different methods (Bayesian, ML, NJ and ME) and classified the HES/HEY gene family into four groups. Our results indicated that this gene family had undergone three expansions, which were along with the origins of Eumetazoa, vertebrate, and teleost. Gene structure analysis revealed that the HES/HEY genes were involved in exon and/or intron loss in different species lineages. Genes of this family were duplicated in bony fishes and doubled than other vertebrates. Furthermore, we studied the teleost-specific duplications in zebrafish and investigated the expression pattern of duplicated genes in different tissues by RT-PCR. Finally, we proposed a model to show the evolution of this gene family with processes of expansion, exon/intron loss, and motif loss. Conclusions Our study revealed the evolution of HES/HEY gene family, the expression and function divergence of duplicated genes, which also provide clues for the research of Notch function in development. This study shows a model of gene family analysis with gene structure evolution and duplication.

Ma, Zhaowu; Zhou, Yang; Abbood, Nibras Najm; Liu, Jianfeng; Su, Li; Jia, Haibo; Guo, An-Yuan

2012-01-01

73

The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR) expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR), trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not

Scot Libants; Kevin Carr; Hong Wu; John H Teeter; Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson; Ziping Zhang; Curt Wilkerson; Weiming Li

2009-01-01

74

SNP array-based homozygosity mapping reveals MCPH1 deletion in family with autosomal recessive mental retardation and mild microcephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the molecular basis of autosomal recessive MR (ARMR) because in developed countries, small family\\u000a sizes preclude mapping and identification of the relevant gene defects. We therefore chose to investigate genetic causes of\\u000a ARMR in large consanguineous Iranian families. This study reports on a family with six mentally retarded members. Array-based\\u000a homozygosity mapping and high-resolution microarray-based

Masoud Garshasbi; Mohammad Mahdi Motazacker; Kimia Kahrizi; Farkhondeh Behjati; Seyedeh Sedigheh Abedini; Sahar Esmaeeli Nieh; Saghar Ghasemi Firouzabadi; Christian Becker; Franz Rüschendorf; Peter Nürnberg; Andreas Tzschach; Reza Vazifehmand; Fikret Erdogan; Reinhard Ullmann; Steffen Lenzner; Andreas W. Kuss; H. Hilger Ropers; Hossein Najmabadi

2006-01-01

75

Expressional profiling study revealed unique expressional patterns and dramatic expressional divergence of maize ?-zein super gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-zein super gene family encodes the most predominant storage protein in maize (Zea mays) endosperm. In maize inbred line B73, it consists of four gene families with 41 member genes. In this study, we combined\\u000a quantitative real-time PCR and random clone sequencing to successfully profile the expression of ?-zein super gene family\\u000a during endosperm development. We found that only

Lingna Feng; Jia Zhu; Gang Wang; Yuanping Tang; Hanjun Chen; Weibo Jin; Fei Wang; Bing Mei; Zhengkai Xu; Rentao Song

2009-01-01

76

Mutational and Haplotype Analyses of Families with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (Dunnigan Variety) Reveal Recurrent Missense Mutations in the Globular C-Terminal Domain of Lamin A/C  

PubMed Central

Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), Dunnigan variety, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue from the extremities and trunk but by excess fat deposition in the head and neck. The disease is frequently associated with profound insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. We have localized a gene for FPLD to chromosome 1q21-q23, and it has recently been proposed that nuclear lamin A/C is altered in FPLD, on the basis of a novel missense mutation (R482Q) in five Canadian probands. This gene had previously been shown to be altered in autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD-AD) and in dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction-system disease. We examined 15 families with FPLD for mutations in lamin A/C. Five families harbored the R482Q alteration that segregated with the disease phenotype. Seven families harbored an R482W alteration, and one family harbored a G465D alteration. All these mutations lie within exon 8 of the lamin A/C gene—an exon that has also been shown to harbor different missense mutations that are responsible for EDMD-AD. Mutations could not be detected in lamin A/C in one FPLD family in which there was linkage to chromosome 1q21-q23. One family with atypical FPLD harbored an R582H alteration in exon 11 of lamin A. This exon does not comprise part of the lamin C coding region. All mutations in FPLD affect the globular C-terminal domain of the lamin A/C protein. In contrast, mutations responsible for dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction-system disease are observed in the rod domain of the protein. The FPLD mutations R482Q and R482W occurred on different haplotypes, indicating that they are likely to have arisen more than once.

Speckman, Rebecca A.; Garg, Abhimanyu; Du, Fenghe; Bennett, Lynda; Veile, Rose; Arioglu, Elif; Taylor, Simeon I.; Lovett, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.

2000-01-01

77

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of PDK family genes in Xenopus laevis reveal oocyte-specific PDK isoform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the multienzyme mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by the phosphorylation of three seryl residues in the pyruvate dehydrogenase moiety, and thus plays an important role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Genetically and biochemically distinct PDK family isozymes have been identified in mammalian species. In the present study, we demonstrate that the complete family of expressed

Yumiko Terazawa; Alexander A. Tokmakov; Mikako Shirouzu; Shigeyuki Yokoyama

2005-01-01

78

Genome Engineering-Based Analysis of Bearded Family Genes Reveals Both Functional Redundancy and a Nonessential Function in Lateral Inhibition in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Lateral inhibition mediated by Notch receptor signaling regulates the determination of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) in Drosophila. The selection of SOPs from proneural cluster cells appears to rely on a negative feedback loop linking activation of the Notch receptor to downregulation of its ligand Delta within each cell. The molecular basis of this regulatory feedback mechanism is not known. Here, we have tested the role of the Bearded (Brd) family genes in this process. The Drosophila genome encodes eight Brd family members that interact with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) and act as inhibitors of Neur-mediated Delta signaling. Genome engineering technologies were used to create specific deletions of all eight Brd family genes. We find that the Brd family genes m?, m4, and m6 encoded by the Enhancer of split Complex (E(spl)-C) are dispensable for Drosophila development and that deletion of the five Brd family genes encoded by the Brd Complex only reduces viability. However, deletion of all Brd family genes results in embryonic lethality. Additionally, the m?, m4, and m6 genes act redundantly with the other five Brd family genes to spatially restrict Notch activation in stage 5 embryos. These data reveal that the Brd family genes have an essential but redundant activity. While the activity of all eight Brd genes appears to be dispensable for SOP determination, clone border studies indicate that both the relative activity levels of Neur and Brd family members influence competition for the SOP fate during lateral inhibition. We propose that inhibition of Neur–Delta interaction by Brd family members is part of the feedback loop that underlies lateral inhibition in Drosophila.

Chanet, Soline; Vodovar, Nicolas; Mayau, Veronique; Schweisguth, Francois

2009-01-01

79

Protein Homology Network Families Reveal Step-Wise Diversification of Type III and Type IV Secretion Systems  

PubMed Central

From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN), where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS). We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS), a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS). Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

Medini, Duccio; Covacci, Antonello; Donati, Claudio

2006-01-01

80

A Comparative Genome Analysis of PME and PMEI Families Reveals the Evolution of Pectin Metabolism in Plant Cell Walls.  

PubMed

Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Pectins are synthesized and secreted to cell walls as highly methyl-esterified polymers and then demethyl-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which are spatially regulated by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). Although PME and PMEI genes are pivotal in plant cell wall formation, few studies have focused on the evolutionary patterns of the PME and PMEI gene families. In this study, the gene origin, evolution, and expression diversity of these two families were systematically analyzed using 11 representative species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and flowering land plants. The results show that 1) for the two subfamilies (PME and proPME) of PME, the origin of the PME subfamily is consistent with the appearance of pectins in early charophyte cell walls, 2) Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of proPME and PMEI families in land plants, 3) Evidence of selection pressure shows that the proPME and PMEI families have rapidly evolved, particularly the PMEI family in vascular plants, and 4) Comparative expression profile analysis of the two families indicates that the eudicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice have different expression patterns. In addition, the gene structure and sequence analyses show that the origin of the PMEI domain may be derived from the neofunctionalization of the pro domain after WGD. This study will advance the evolutionary understanding of the PME and PMEI families and plant cell wall development. PMID:23951288

Wang, Maojun; Yuan, Daojun; Gao, Wenhui; Li, Yang; Tan, Jiafu; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-08-12

81

A family exhibiting heteroplasmy in the human mitochondrial DNA control region reveals both somatic mosaicism and pronounced segregation of mitotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family exhibiting heteroplasmy at position 16?355 in hypervariable region I of the human mtDNA control region has been\\u000a identified. This family consists of a mother, daughter, and son. DNA samples extracted from blood stains, buccal swabs, and\\u000a hairs from these individuals were amplified by PCR and sequenced utilizing fluoresence-labeled dye terminator chemistry in\\u000a an automated DNA sequencer. In both

Mark R. Wilson; Deborah Polanskey; Jeri Replogle; Joseph A. DiZinno; Bruce Budowle

1997-01-01

82

The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage  

PubMed Central

Background In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR) expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR), trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not been examined systematically in agnathan genomes. Results Petromyzon is the only extant jawless vertebrate whose genome has been sequenced. Known to be exquisitely sensitive to several classes of odorants, lampreys detect fewer amino acids and steroids than teleosts. This reduced number of detectable odorants is indicative of reduced numbers of CR gene families or a reduced number of genes within CR families, or both, in the sea lamprey. In the lamprey genome we identified a repertoire of 59 intact single-exon CR genes, including 27 OR, 28 TAAR, and four V1R-like genes. These three CR families were expressed in the olfactory organ of both parasitic and adult life stages. Conclusion An extensive search in the lamprey genome failed to identify potential orthologs or pseudogenes of the multi-exon V2R family that is greatly expanded in teleost genomes, but did find intact calcium-sensing receptors (CASR) and intact metabotropic glutamate receptors (MGR). We conclude that OR and V1R arose in chordates after the cephalochordate-urochordate split, but before the diversification of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The advent and diversification of V2R genes from glutamate receptor-family G protein-coupled receptors, most likely the CASR, occurred after the agnathan-gnathostome divergence.

Libants, Scot; Carr, Kevin; Wu, Hong; Teeter, John H; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Ziping; Wilkerson, Curt; Li, Weiming

2009-01-01

83

The structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF06475 reveals a new fold with possible involvement in glycolipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of PA1994 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a member of the Pfam PF06475 family classified as a domain of unknown function (DUF1089), reveals a novel fold comprising a 15-stranded ?-sheet wrapped around a single ?-helix that assembles into a tight dimeric arrangement. The remote structural similarity to lipoprotein localization factors, in addition to the presence of an acidic pocket that is conserved in DUF1089 homologs, phospholipid-binding and sugar-binding proteins, indicate a role for PA1994 and the DUF1089 family in glycolipid metabolism. Genome-context analysis lends further support to the involvement of this family of proteins in glycolipid metabolism and indicates possible activation of DUF1089 homologs under conditions of bacterial cell-wall stress or host–pathogen interactions.

Bakolitsa, Constantina; Kumar, Abhinav; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Carlton, Dennis; Najmanovich, Rafael; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Trout, Christina V.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

84

Structural and mechanistic similarities of 6-phosphogluconate and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenases reveal a new enzyme family, the 3-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Rat 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase exhibits significant amino acid sequence homology with 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, D-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae, and a number of hypothetical proteins encoded by genes of microbial origin. Key residues previously proposed to have roles in substrate binding and catalysis in sheep 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are highly conserved in this entire family of enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis, chemical modification, and substrate specificity studies were used to compare possible mechanistic similarities of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase with 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. The data suggest that 3-hydroxyisobutyrate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases may comprise, in part, a previously unrecognized family of 3-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. PMID:8766712

Hawes, J W; Harper, E T; Crabb, D W; Harris, R A

1996-07-01

85

Mutational and Structural Analysis of l-N-Carbamoylase Reveals New Insights into a Peptidase M20/M25/M40 Family Member  

PubMed Central

N-Carbamoyl-l-amino acid amidohydrolases (l-carbamoylases) are important industrial enzymes used in kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures of N-carbamoyl-amino acids due to their strict enantiospecificity. In this work, we report the first l-carbamoylase structure belonging to Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 (BsLcar), at a resolution of 2.7 Å. Structural analysis of BsLcar and several members of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family confirmed the expected conserved residues at the active site in this family, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed their relevance to substrate binding. We also found an unexpectedly conserved arginine residue (Arg234 in BsLcar), proven to be critical for dimerization of the enzyme. The mutation of this sole residue resulted in a total loss of activity and prevented the formation of the dimer in BsLcar. Comparative studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family is a “small-molecule binding domain,” allowing further evolutionary considerations for this enzyme family.

Garcia-Pino, Abel; Las Heras-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Clemente-Jimenez, Josefa Maria; Rodriguez-Vico, Felipe; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Loris, Remy; Gavira, Jose Antonio

2012-01-01

86

Crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals a new protein family with an RNA recognition motif-like domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 at 1.9 Aresolution. This protein is a member of the Escherichia coli ygcH sequence family, which contains ;15 sequence homologs of bacterial origin. These homologs have a high isoelectric point. The crystal structure reveals that TTHB192 consists of two independently folded domains, and that each domain

Akio Ebihara; Min Yao; Ryoji Masui; Isao Tanaka; Shigeyuki Yokoyama; Seiki Kuramitsu

2006-01-01

87

The Crystal Structure of Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals a New Family of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein-Like Proteins in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is conserved within the order Actinomycetales but absent elsewhere. The crystal structure of Rv0813c reveals a new family of proteins that resemble the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) found in eukaryotes. Rv0813c adopts the 10-stranded -barrel fold typical of FABPs but lacks the double-helix insert that

William Shepard; Ahmed Haouz; Martin Grana; Alejandro Buschiazzo; Jean-Michel Betton; Stewart T. Cole; Pedro M. Alzari

2007-01-01

88

RNAi screening reveals requirement for host cell secretory pathway in infection by diverse families of negative-strand RNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses comprise many pathogens that cause serious diseases in humans and animals. Despite their clinical importance, little is known about the host factors required for their infection. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic NS RNA virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, we conducted a human genome-wide siRNA screen and identified 72 host genes required for viral infection. Many of these identified genes were also required for infection by two other NS RNA viruses, the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus of the Arenaviridae family and human parainfluenza virus type 3 of the Paramyxoviridae family. Genes affecting different stages of VSV infection, such as entry/uncoating, gene expression, and assembly/release, were identified. Depletion of the proteins of the coatomer complex I or its upstream effectors ARF1 or GBF1 led to detection of reduced levels of VSV RNA. Coatomer complex I was also required for infection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3. These results highlight the evolutionarily conserved requirements for gene expression of diverse families of NS RNA viruses and demonstrate the involvement of host cell secretory pathway in the process.

Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman; Dinh, Phat X.; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Nayak, Debasis; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Pearson, James L.; Thompson, Jesse; Kelly, David L.; Ladunga, Istvan; Pattnaik, Asit K.

2011-01-01

89

A genome scan for familial combined hyperlipidemia reveals evidence of linkage with a locus on chromosome 11.  

PubMed Central

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common familial lipid disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and/or triglycerides. It is present in 10%-20% of patients with premature coronary heart disease. The genetic etiology of the disease, including the number of genes involved and the magnitude of their effects, is unknown. Using a subset of 35 Dutch families ascertained for FCHL, we screened the genome, with a panel of 399 genetic markers, for chromosomal regions linked to genes contributing to FCHL. The results were analyzed by use of parametric-linkage methods in a two-stage study design. Four loci, on chromosomes 2p, 11p, 16q, and 19q, exhibited suggestive evidence for linkage with FCHL (LOD scores of 1.3-2.6). Markers within each of these regions were then examined in the original sample and in additional Dutch families with FCHL. The locus on chromosome 2 failed to show evidence for linkage, and the loci on chromosome 16q and 19q yielded only equivocal or suggestive evidence for linkage. However, one locus, near marker D11S1324 on the short arm of human chromosome 11, continued to show evidence for linkage with FCHL, in the second stage of this design. This region does not contain any strong candidate genes. These results provide evidence for a candidate chromosomal region for FCHL and support the concept that FCHL is complex and heterogeneous.

Aouizerat, B E; Allayee, H; Cantor, R M; Davis, R C; Lanning, C D; Wen, P Z; Dallinga-Thie, G M; de Bruin, T W; Rotter, J I; Lusis, A J

1999-01-01

90

Evolutionary relationship of the members of the sulphur-rich hordein family revealed by common antigenic determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five monoclonal antibodies raised against an enriched C hordein fraction have been characterized in detail and were found to be specific for the members of the sulphur-rich hordein family. Two antibodies specific for B hordein polypeptides were identified, one of which reacted predominantly with CNBr cleavage class III polypeptides. ?1 hordein was recognized by two antibodies, of which one also

K. B. Rechinger; O. V. Bougri; V. Cameron-Mills

1993-01-01

91

EphA family gene expression in the developing mouse neocortex: regional patterns reveal intrinsic programs and extrinsic influence.  

PubMed

Parcellation of the mammalian cerebral cortex into distinct areas is essential for proper cortical function; however, the developmental program that results in the genesis of distinct areas is not fully understood. We examined the expression of members of the EphA family-the EphA receptor tyrosine kinases and the ephrin-A ligands-within the developing mouse cerebral cortex, with the aim of characterizing this component of the molecular landscape during cortical parcellation. We found that specific embryonic zones, such as the ventricular, subventricular, intermediate, subplate, and marginal zones, as well as the cortical plate, were positive for particular EphA genes early in corticogenesis (E12-E15). Along with this zone-selective expression, several genes (EphA3, EphA4, EphA5) were evenly expressed along the axes of the developing cortex, whereas one family member (EphA7) was expressed in a distinct anteroposterior pattern. Later in corticogenesis (E16-E18), other EphA family members became selectively expressed, but only within the cortical plate: EphA6 was present posteriorly, and ephrin-A5 was expressed within a middle region. At birth, patterning of EphA gene expression was striking. Thus, we found that the expression of a single EphA gene or a combination of family members can define distinct embryonic zones and anteroposterior regions of the neocortex during development. To examine whether cellular context affects the patterning of EphA expression, we examined gene expression in embryonic cortical cells grown in vitro, such that all cellular contacts are lacking, and in Mash-1 mutant mice, in which thalamocortical connections do not form. We found that the expression patterns of most EphA family members remained stable in these scenarios, whereas the pattern of ephrin-A5 was altered. Taken together, this work provides a comprehensive picture of EphA family expression during mouse corticogenesis and demonstrates that most EphA expression profiles are cell intrinsically based, whereas ephrin-A5 is plastically regulated. PMID:12528186

Yun, Mihae E; Johnson, Randall R; Antic, Anica; Donoghue, Maria J

2003-02-10

92

Study of large inbred Friedreich ataxia families reveals a recombination between D9S15 and the disease locus  

SciTech Connect

Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. Precise linkage mapping of the Friedreich ataxia locus (FRDA) in 9q13-q21 should lead to the isolation of the defective gene by positional cloning. The two closest DNA markers, D9S5 and D9S15, show very tight linkage to FRDA, making difficult the ordering of the three loci. The authors present a linkage study of three large Friedreich ataxia families of Tunisian origin, with several multiallelic markers around D9S5 and D9S15. Haplotype data were used to investigate genetic homogeneity of the disease in these geographically related families. A meiotic recombination was found in a nonaffected individual, which excludes a 150-kb segment, including D9S15, as a possible location for the Freidreich ataxia gene and which should orient the search in the D9S5 region. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Belal, S.; Ben Hamida, C.; Hentati, F.; Ben Hamida, M. (Institut National de Neurologie, Tunis (Tunisia)); Panayides, K.; Ioannou, P.; MIddleton, L.T. (Cyprus Inst. of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia (Cyprus)); Sirugo, G.; Koenig, S.; Mandel, J.L (LGME-CNRS, Strasbourg (France)); Beckmann, J. (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

1992-12-01

93

An Association Study of 22 Candidate Genes in Psoriasis Families Reveals Shared Genetic Factors with Other Autoimmune and Skin Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. Recent studies have reported that common genetic factors may underlie both skin and immune-mediated disorders. We hypothesized that such genes may be involved in susceptibility to psoriasis, and undertook an association analysis of 22 candidate genes in a set of French high-risk psoriasis families. One hundred fifty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were

Tiphaine Oudot; Fabienne Lesueur; Mickaël Guedj; Rafael de Cid; Steven McGinn; Simon Heath; Mario Foglio; Bernard Prum; Mark Lathrop; Jean-François Prud'homme; Judith Fischer

2009-01-01

94

Next-Generation Sequencing of a 40 Mb Linkage Interval Reveals TSPAN12 Mutations in Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder characterized by abnormal vascularisation of the peripheral retina, often accompanied by retinal detachment. To date, mutations in three genes (FZD4, LRP5, and NDP) have been shown to be causative for FEVR. In two large Dutch pedigrees segregating autosomal-dominant FEVR, genome-wide SNP analysis identified an FEVR locus of approximately 40 Mb

Konstantinos Nikopoulos; Christian Gilissen; Alexander Hoischen; C. Erik van Nouhuys; F. Nienke Boonstra; Ellen A. W. Blokland; Peer Arts; Nienke Wieskamp; Tim M. Strom; Carmen Ayuso; Mauk A. D. Tilanus; Sanne Bouwhuis; Arijit Mukhopadhyay; Hans Scheffer; Lies H. Hoefsloot; Joris A. Veltman; Frans P. M. Cremers; Rob W. J. Collin

2010-01-01

95

X-ray structure of papaya chitinase reveals the substrate binding mode of glycosyl hydrolase family 19 chitinases.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of a chitinase from Carica papaya has been solved by the molecular replacement method and is reported to a resolution of 1.5 A. This enzyme belongs to family 19 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Crystals have been obtained in the presence of N-acetyl- d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the crystallization solution and two well-defined GlcNAc molecules have been identified in the catalytic cleft of the enzyme, at subsites -2 and +1. These GlcNAc moieties bind to the protein via an extensive network of interactions which also involves many hydrogen bonds mediated by water molecules, underlying their role in the catalytic mechanism. A complex of the enzyme with a tetra-GlcNAc molecule has been elaborated, using the experimental interactions observed for the bound GlcNAc saccharides. This model allows to define four major substrate interacting regions in the enzyme, comprising residues located around the catalytic Glu67 (His66 and Thr69), the short segment E89-R90 containing the second catalytic residue Glu89, the region 120-124 (residues Ser120, Trp121, Tyr123, and Asn124), and the alpha-helical segment 198-202 (residues Ile198, Asn199, Gly201, and Leu202). Water molecules from the crystal structure were introduced during the modeling procedure, allowing to pinpoint several additional residues involved in ligand binding that were not previously reported in studies of poly-GlcNAc/family 19 chitinase complexes. This work underlines the role played by water-mediated hydrogen bonding in substrate binding as well as in the catalytic mechanism of the GH family 19 chitinases. Finally, a new sequence motif for family 19 chitinases has been identified between residues Tyr111 and Tyr125. PMID:18636748

Huet, Joëlle; Rucktooa, Prakash; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

2008-07-18

96

Chromosomal mapping of the MADS-box multigene family in Zea mays reveals dispersed distribution of allelic genes as well as transposed copies.  

PubMed Central

A linker PCR procedure has been developed for preparing repetitive DNA-free probes from genomic clones, which is especially efficient for members of gene families. Using this procedure as well as standard methods to prepare hybridization probes, chromosomal map positions of MADS-box genes were determined in recombinant inbred lines of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). It appears that MADS-box genes are scattered throughout the maize genome. While there is evidence that this genomic distribution is representative for plant MADS-box genes in general, the following two other observations probably reflect Zea genome organization. First, at least one family of MADS-box-carrying elements contains line-specific versions, which are present in some maize lines at certain chromosomal positions, but are absent from these loci in other lines. The members of this family resemble transposable elements in some respects. Secondly, the finding of pairs of highly related MADS-box genes which are accompanied by other duplicated markers is a further indication of the ancestral polyploid genome constitution revealed with other markers. The importance of these findings for an understanding of the genomic organization of MADS-box genes and the evolution of the MADS-box gene family is discussed. Images

Fischer, A; Baum, N; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

1995-01-01

97

Cello-oligosaccharide oxidation reveals differences between two lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (family GH61) from Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23124232

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2012-11-02

98

Cello-Oligosaccharide Oxidation Reveals Differences between Two Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (Family GH61) from Podospora anserina  

PubMed Central

The genome of the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina encodes 33 different genes encoding copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In this study, two of these enzymes (P. anserina GH61A [PaGH61A] and PaGH61B), which both harbored a family 1 carbohydrate binding module, were successfully produced in Pichia pastoris. Synergistic cooperation between PaGH61A or PaGH61B with the cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on cellulose resulted in the formation of oxidized and nonoxidized cello-oligosaccharides. A striking difference between PaGH61A and PaGH61B was observed through the identification of the products, among which were doubly and triply oxidized cellodextrins, which were released only by the combination of PaGH61B with CDH. The mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of these oxidized products could be consistent with oxidation at the C-6 position with a geminal diol group. The different properties of PaGH61A and PaGH61B and their effect on the interaction with CDH are discussed in regard to the proposed in vivo function of the CDH/GH61 enzyme system in oxidative cellulose hydrolysis.

Bey, Mathieu; Zhou, Simeng; Poidevin, Laetitia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

99

Differential requirements for CD45 in NK-cell function reveal distinct roles for Syk-family kinases  

PubMed Central

The protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is an important regulator of Src-family kinase activity. We found that in the absence of CD45, natural killer (NK) cells are defective in protecting the host from mouse cytomegalovirus infection. We show that although CD45 is necessary for all immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif (ITAM)–specific NK-cell functions and processes such as degranulation, cytokine production, and expansion during viral infection, the impact of CD45 deficiency on ITAM signaling differs depending on the downstream function. CD45-deficient NK cells are normal in their response to inflammatory cytokines when administered ex vivo and in the context of viral infection. Syk and ? chain–associated protein kinase 70 (Zap70) are thought to play redundant roles in transmitting ITAM signals in NK cells. We show that Syk, but not Zap70, controls the remaining CD45-independent, ITAM-specific NK-cell functions, demonstrating a functional difference between these 2 Syk-kinase family members in primary NK cells.

Hesslein, David G. T.; Palacios, Emil H.; Sun, Joseph C.; Beilke, Joshua N.; Watson, Susan R.; Weiss, Arthur

2011-01-01

100

Proteomic analyses reveal an acidic prime side specificity for the astacin metalloprotease family reflected by physiological substrates.  

PubMed

Astacins are secreted and membrane-bound metalloproteases with clear associations to many important pathological and physiological processes. Yet with only a few substrates described their biological roles are enigmatic. Moreover, the lack of knowledge of astacin cleavage site specificities hampers assay and drug development. Using PICS (proteomic identification of protease cleavage site specificity) and TAILS (terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates) degradomics approaches >3000 cleavage sites were proteomically identified for five different astacins. Such broad coverage enables family-wide determination of specificities N- and C-terminal to the scissile peptide bond. Remarkably, meprin ?, meprin ?, and LAST_MAM proteases exhibit a strong preference for aspartate in the peptide (P)1' position because of a conserved positively charged residue in the active cleft subsite (S)1'. This unparalleled specificity has not been found for other families of extracellular proteases. Interestingly, cleavage specificity is also strongly influenced by proline in P2' or P3' leading to a rare example of subsite cooperativity. This specificity characterizes the astacins as unique contributors to extracellular proteolysis that is corroborated by known cleavage sites in procollagen I+III, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A, IL (interleukin)-1?, and pro-kallikrein 7. Indeed, cleavage sites in VEGF-A and pro-kallikrein 7 identified by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates matched those reported by Edman degradation. Moreover, the novel substrate FGF-19 was validated biochemically and shown to exhibit altered biological activity after meprin processing. PMID:21693781

Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Barré, Olivier; Schilling, Oliver; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Ohler, Anke; Broder, Claudia; Schütte, André; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Stöcker, Walter; Overall, Christopher M

2011-06-21

101

The structure of full-length human CTNNBL1 reveals a distinct member of the armadillo-repeat protein family.  

PubMed

Catenin-?-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) is a highly conserved protein with multiple functions, one of which is to act as an interaction partner of the antibody-diversification enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) for its nuclear import and subnuclear trafficking. Here, the crystal structure of full-length human CTNNBL1 is reported. The protein contains six armadillo (ARM) repeats that pack into a superhelical ARM domain. This ARM domain is unique within the ARM protein family owing to the presence of several unusual structural features. Moreover, CTNNBL1 contains significant and novel non-ARM structures flanking both ends of the central ARM domain. A strong continuous hydrophobic core runs through the whole structure, indicating that the ARM and non-ARM structures fold together to form an integral structure. This structure defines a highly restrictive and discriminatory protein-binding groove that is not observed in other ARM proteins. The presence of a cluster of histidine residues in the groove implies a pH-sensitive histidine-mediated mechanism that may regulate protein binding activity. The many unique structural features of CTNNBL1 establish it as a distinct member of the ARM protein family. The structure provides critical insights into the molecular interactions between CTNNBL1 and its protein partners, especially AID. PMID:23897482

Huang, Xiaolan; Wang, Guan; Wu, Yuhong; Du, Zhihua

2013-07-20

102

Crystal structures of Cg1458 reveal a catalytic lid domain and a common catalytic mechanism for the FAH family.  

PubMed

Cg1458 was recently characterized as a novel soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. However, sequence alignment identified that Cg1458 has no similarity with other oxaloacetate decarboxylases and instead belongs to the FAH (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase) family. Differences in the function of Cg1458 and other FAH proteins may suggest a different catalytic mechanism. To help elucidate the catalytic mechanism of Cg1458, crystal structures of Cg1458 in both the open and closed conformations have been determined for the first time up to a resolution of 1.9 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) and 2.0 Å respectively. Comparison of both structures and detailed biochemical studies confirmed the presence of a catalytic lid domain which is missing in the native enzyme structure. In this lid domain, a glutamic acid-histidine dyad was found to be critical in mediating enzymatic catalysis. On the basis of structural modelling and comparison, as well as large-scale sequence alignment studies, we further determined that the catalytic mechanism of Cg1458 is actually through a glutamic acid-histidine-water triad, and this catalytic triad is common among FAH family proteins that catalyse the cleavage of the C-C bond of the substrate. Two sequence motifs, HxxE and Hxx…xxE have been identified as the basis for this mechanism. PMID:23046410

Ran, Tingting; Gao, Yanyan; Marsh, May; Zhu, Wenjun; Wang, Meitian; Mao, Xiang; Xu, Langlai; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

2013-01-01

103

Expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family in multiple sclerosis reveals a potential immunomodulatory role during autoimmune mediated demyelination.  

PubMed

A failure of autoreactive T cells to undergo apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The role of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of anti-apoptotic proteins such as X-linked IAP (XIAP), human inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (HIAP-1), human inhibitor of apoptosis-2 (HIAP-2), neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and Survivin in relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, primary-progressive or benign forms of MS is unclear. We report here that expression of the IAP family of genes in peripheral blood samples and brain tissues from MS cases support a role for differential regulation of these potent anti-apoptotic proteins in the pathology of MS. XIAP mRNA and protein levels were elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with active disease relative to normal subjects. In patients with active MS, HIAP-1 and HIAP-2 mRNA levels were elevated in resting T cells while NAIP mRNA was increased in whole blood. In post-mortem MS brain tissue, XIAP and HIAP-1 in myelin lesions were co-localized with microglia and T cells, respectively. Only in primary-progressive patients was Survivin expression elevated suggestive of a distinct pathological basis for this subtype of MS. Taken together, these results suggest that patterns of inhibitor of apoptosis expression in immune cells may have value in distinguishing between MS subtypes and offer insight into the mechanisms responsible for their distinct clinical courses. PMID:18566024

Hebb, A L O; Moore, C S; Bhan, V; Campbell, T; Fisk, J D; Robertson, H A; Thorne, M; Lacasse, E; Holcik, M; Gillard, J; Crocker, S J; Robertson, G S

2008-06-01

104

The Drosophila gene Yippee reveals a novel family of putative zinc binding proteins highly conserved among eukaryotes.  

PubMed

An intracellular Drosophila protein, Yippee, was identified in a yeast interaction trap screen as physically interacting with Hyalophora cecropia Hemolin. The Yippee gene was isolated, structurally characterized, and mapped to the region 12A on the X-chromosome. Yippee contains a putative zinc-finger-like metal binding domain. It is the first characterized member of a conserved gene family of proteins present in diverse eukaryotic organisms, ranging from cellular slime mould to humans. A human cDNA clone was isolated and shown to be 76% identical to Drosophila Yippee. Yippee is ubiquitously expressed in different developmental stages of Drosophila and in different fetal tissues from human. Although the Hemolin-Yippee interaction remains to be further elucidated, the high degree of Yippee sequence conservation between a wide range of species suggests that this protein is of general importance in eukaryotes. PMID:11240639

Roxström-Lindquist, K; Faye, I

2001-02-01

105

Sequence Comparisons of Odorant Receptors among Tortricid Moths Reveal Different Rates of Molecular Evolution among Family Members  

PubMed Central

In insects, odorant receptors detect volatile cues involved in behaviours such as mate recognition, food location and oviposition. We have investigated the evolution of three odorant receptors from five species within the moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotrotrix, family Tortricidae, which fall into distinct clades within the odorant receptor multigene family. One receptor is the orthologue of the co-receptor Or83b, now known as Orco (OR2), and encodes the obligate ion channel subunit of the receptor complex. In comparison, the other two receptors, OR1 and OR3, are ligand-binding receptor subunits, activated by volatile compounds produced by plants - methyl salicylate and citral, respectively. Rates of sequence evolution at non-synonymous sites were significantly higher in OR1 compared with OR2 and OR3. Within the dataset OR1 contains 109 variable amino acid positions that are distributed evenly across the entire protein including transmembrane helices, loop regions and termini, while OR2 and OR3 contain 18 and 16 variable sites, respectively. OR2 shows a high level of amino acid conservation as expected due to its essential role in odour detection; however we found unexpected differences in the rate of evolution between two ligand-binding odorant receptors, OR1 and OR3. OR3 shows high sequence conservation suggestive of a conserved role in odour reception, whereas the higher rate of evolution observed in OR1, particularly at non-synonymous sites, may be suggestive of relaxed constraint, perhaps associated with the loss of an ancestral role in sex pheromone reception.

Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Steinwender, Bernd; Newcomb, Richard D.

2012-01-01

106

Sequence comparisons of odorant receptors among tortricid moths reveal different rates of molecular evolution among family members.  

PubMed

In insects, odorant receptors detect volatile cues involved in behaviours such as mate recognition, food location and oviposition. We have investigated the evolution of three odorant receptors from five species within the moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotrotrix, family Tortricidae, which fall into distinct clades within the odorant receptor multigene family. One receptor is the orthologue of the co-receptor Or83b, now known as Orco (OR2), and encodes the obligate ion channel subunit of the receptor complex. In comparison, the other two receptors, OR1 and OR3, are ligand-binding receptor subunits, activated by volatile compounds produced by plants--methyl salicylate and citral, respectively. Rates of sequence evolution at non-synonymous sites were significantly higher in OR1 compared with OR2 and OR3. Within the dataset OR1 contains 109 variable amino acid positions that are distributed evenly across the entire protein including transmembrane helices, loop regions and termini, while OR2 and OR3 contain 18 and 16 variable sites, respectively. OR2 shows a high level of amino acid conservation as expected due to its essential role in odour detection; however we found unexpected differences in the rate of evolution between two ligand-binding odorant receptors, OR1 and OR3. OR3 shows high sequence conservation suggestive of a conserved role in odour reception, whereas the higher rate of evolution observed in OR1, particularly at non-synonymous sites, may be suggestive of relaxed constraint, perhaps associated with the loss of an ancestral role in sex pheromone reception. PMID:22701634

Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Steinwender, Bernd; Newcomb, Richard D

2012-06-11

107

Analysis of DNA Methylation in a Three-Generation Family Reveals Widespread Genetic Influence on Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

The methylation of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides is essential for cellular differentiation and the progression of many cancers, and it plays an important role in gametic imprinting. To assess variation and inheritance of genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation simultaneously in humans, we applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to somatic DNA from six members of a three-generation family. We observed that 8.1% of heterozygous SNPs are associated with differential methylation in cis, which provides a robust signature for Mendelian transmission and relatedness. The vast majority of differential methylation between homologous chromosomes (>92%) occurs on a particular haplotype as opposed to being associated with the gender of the parent of origin, indicating that genotype affects DNA methylation of far more loci than does gametic imprinting. We found that 75% of genotype-dependent differential methylation events in the family are also seen in unrelated individuals and that overall genotype can explain 80% of the variation in DNA methylation. These events are under-represented in CpG islands, enriched in intergenic regions, and located in regions of low evolutionary conservation. Even though they are generally not in functionally constrained regions, 22% (twice as many as expected by chance) of genes harboring genotype-dependent DNA methylation exhibited allele-specific gene expression as measured by RNA-seq of a lymphoblastoid cell line, indicating that some of these events are associated with gene expression differences. Overall, our results demonstrate that the influence of genotype on patterns of DNA methylation is widespread in the genome and greatly exceeds the influence of imprinting on genome-wide methylation patterns.

Reddy, Timothy E.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Pauli, Florencia; Parker, Stephanie L.; Kucera, Katerina S.; Willard, Huntington F.; Myers, Richard M.

2011-01-01

108

A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins are ubiquitous, small, cysteine-rich proteins with the ability to bind heavy metals. In spite of their biochemical characterization, their in vivo function remains elusive. Here, we report the generation of a metallothionein gene family knockout in Drosophila melanogaster by targeted disruption of all four genes (MtnA to -D). These flies are viable if raised in standard laboratory food. During development, however, they are highly sensitive to copper, cadmium, and (to a lesser extent) zinc load. Metallothionein expression is particularly important for male viability; while copper load during development affects males and females equally, adult males lacking metallothioneins display a severely reduced life span, possibly due to copper-mediated oxidative stress. Using various reporter gene constructs, we find that different metallothioneins are expressed with virtually the same tissue specificity in larvae, notably in the intestinal tract at sites of metal accumulation, including the midgut's "copper cells." The same expression pattern is observed with a synthetic minipromoter consisting only of four tandem metal response elements. From these and other experiments, we conclude that tissue specificity of metallothionein expression is a consequence, rather than a cause, of metal distribution in the organism. The bright orange luminescence of copper accumulated in copper cells of the midgut is severely reduced in the metallothionein gene family knockout, as well as in mutants of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), the main regulator of metallothionein expression. This indicates that an in vivo metallothionein-copper complex forms the basis of this luminescence. Strikingly, metallothionein mutants show an increased, MTF-1-dependent induction of metallothionein promoters in response to copper, cadmium, silver, zinc, and mercury. We conclude that free metal, but not metallothionein-bound metal, triggers the activation of MTF-1 and that metallothioneins regulate their own expression by a negative feedback loop. PMID:16508004

Egli, Dieter; Yepiskoposyan, Hasmik; Selvaraj, Anand; Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Rajaram, Rama; Simons, Andreas; Multhaup, Gerd; Mettler, Simone; Vardanyan, Alla; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

2006-03-01

109

Structures of the first representatives of Pfam family PF06938 (DUF1285) reveal a new fold with repeated structural motifs and possible involvement in signal transduction  

PubMed Central

The crystal structures of SPO0140 and Sbal_2486 were determined using the semiautomated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The structures revealed a conserved core with domain duplication and a superficial similarity of the C-terminal domain to pleckstrin homology-like folds. The conservation of the domain interface indicates a potential binding site that is likely to involve a nucleotide-based ligand, with genome-context and gene-fusion analyses additionally supporting a role for this family in signal transduction, possibly during oxidative stress.

Han, Gye Won; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Miller, Mitchell D.; Kumar, Abhinav; Carlton, Dennis; Najmanovich, Rafael J.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

110

Dynamics of PLC? and Src Family Kinase 1 Interactions during Nuclear Envelope Formation Revealed by FRET-FLIM  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope (NE) breaks down and reforms during each mitotic cycle. A similar process happens to the sperm NE following fertilisation. The formation of the NE in both these circumstances involves endoplasmic reticulum membranes enveloping the chromatin, but PLC?-dependent membrane fusion events are also essential. Here we demonstrate the activation of PLC? by a Src family kinase (SFK1) during NE assembly. We show by time-resolved FRET for the first time the direct in vivo interaction and temporal regulation of PLC? and SFK1 in sea urchins. As a prerequisite for protein activation, there is a rapid phosphorylation of PLC? on its Y783 residue in response to GTP in vitro. This phosphorylation is dependent upon SFK activity; thus Y783 phosphorylation and NE assembly are susceptible to SFK inhibition. Y783 phosphorylation is also observed on the surface of the male pronucleus (MPN) in vivo during NE formation. Together the corroborative in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate the phosphorylation and activation of PLC? by SFK1 during NE assembly. We discuss the potential generality of such a mechanism.

Byrne, Richard D.; Applebee, Christopher; Poccia, Dominic L.; Larijani, Banafshe

2012-01-01

111

STOP-like protein 21 is a novel member of the STOP family, revealing a Golgi localization of STOP proteins.  

PubMed

Neuronal microtubules are stabilized by two calmodulin-regulated microtubule-associated proteins, E-STOP and N-STOP, which when suppressed in mice induce severe synaptic and behavioral deficits. Here we show that mature neurons also contain a 21-kDa STOP-like protein, SL21, which shares calmodulin-binding and microtubule-stabilizing homology domains with STOP proteins. Accordingly, in different biochemical or cellular assays, SL21 has calmodulin binding and microtubule stabilizing activity. However, in cultured hippocampal neurons, SL21 antibodies principally stain the somatic Golgi and punctate Golgi material in neurites. In cycling cells, transfected SL21 decorates microtubules when expressed at high levels but is otherwise principally visible at the Golgi. The Golgi targeting of SL21 depends on the presence of cysteine residues located within the SL21 N-terminal domain, suggesting that Golgi targeting may require SL21 palmitoylation. Accordingly we find that SL21 is palmitoylated in vivo. N-STOP and E-STOP, which contain the Golgi targeting sequences present in SL21, also display distinct Golgi staining when expressed at low level in cycling cells. Thus neuronal proteins of the STOP family have the capacity to associate with Golgi material, which could be important for STOP synaptic functions. PMID:16837464

Gory-Fauré, Sylvie; Windscheid, Vanessa; Bosc, Christophe; Peris, Leticia; Proietto, Dominique; Franck, Ronald; Denarier, Eric; Job, Didier; Andrieux, Annie

2006-07-12

112

Structural and biochemical analyses of glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-mannanases from Podospora anserina reveal differences upon manno-oligosaccharide catalysis.  

PubMed

The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the -4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the -4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

2013-04-04

113

Transposon mutagenesis reveals cooperation of ETS family transcription factors with signaling pathways in erythro-megakaryocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

To define genetic lesions driving leukemia, we targeted cre-dependent Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis to the blood-forming system using a hematopoietic-selective vav 1 oncogene (vav1) promoter. Leukemias of diverse lineages ensued, most commonly lymphoid leukemia and erythroleukemia. The inclusion of a transgenic allele of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)V617F resulted in acceleration of transposon-driven disease and strong selection for erythroleukemic pathology with transformation of bipotential erythro-megakaryocytic cells. The genes encoding the E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors Ets related gene (Erg) and Ets1 were the most common sites for transposon insertion in SB-induced JAK2V617F-positive erythroleukemias, present in 87.5% and 65%, respectively, of independent leukemias examined. The role of activated Erg was validated by reproducing erythroleukemic pathology in mice transplanted with fetal liver cells expressing translocated in liposarcoma (TLS)-ERG, an activated form of ERG found in human leukemia. Via application of SB mutagenesis to TLS-ERG–induced erythroid transformation, we identified multiple loci as likely collaborators with activation of Erg. Jak2 was identified as a common transposon insertion site in TLS-ERG–induced disease, strongly validating the cooperation between JAK2V617F and transposon insertion at the Erg locus in the JAK2V617F-positive leukemias. Moreover, loci expressing other regulators of signal transduction pathways were conspicuous among the common transposon insertion sites in TLS-ERG–driven leukemia, suggesting that a key mechanism in erythroleukemia may be the collaboration of lesions disturbing erythroid maturation, most notably in genes of the ETS family, with mutations that reduce dependence on exogenous signals.

Tang, Jian Zhong; Carmichael, Catherine L.; Shi, Wei; Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P.; Hyland, Craig D.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Howell, Viive M.; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Smyth, Gordon K.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Alexander, Warren S.

2013-01-01

114

Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species' cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Shewanella can thrive in different environments and demonstrate significant variability in their metabolic and ecophysiological capabilities including cold and salt tolerance. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are largely unknown. In this study, we address the problem by a comparison of the physiological, metabolic, and genomic characteristics of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. We have employed two novel approaches based on association of a phenotypic trait with the number of the trait-specific protein families (Pfam domains) and on the conservation of synteny (order in the genome) of the trait-related genes. Our first approach is top-down and involves experimental evaluation and quantification of the species' cold tolerance followed by identification of the correlated Pfam domains and genes with a conserved synteny. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts novel phenotypes of the species by calculating profiles of each Pfam domain among their genomes and following pair-wise correlation of the profiles and their network clustering. Using the first approach, we find a link between cold and salt tolerance of the species and the presence in the genome of a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene cluster. Other cold-tolerance-related genes include peptidases, chemotaxis sensory transducer proteins, a cysteine exporter, and helicases. Using the bottom-up approach, we found several novel phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species, including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway in Shewanella woodyi, degradation of ethanolamine by Shewanella benthica, and propanediol degradation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 and Shewanella sp. W3-18-1. PMID:19802638

Karpinets, Tatiana V; Obraztsova, Anna Y; Wang, Yanbing; Schmoyer, Denise D; Kora, Guruprasad H; Park, Byung H; Serres, Margrethe H; Romine, Margaret F; Land, Miriam L; Kothe, Terence B; Fredrickson, Jim K; Nealson, Kenneth H; Uberbacher, Edward C

2009-10-03

115

Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria of the genus Shewanella can thrive in different environments and demonstrate significant variability in their metabolic and ecophysiological capabilities including cold and salt tolerance. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are largely unknown. In this study we address the problem by a comparison of the physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. We have employed two novel approaches based on association of a phenotypic trait with the number of the trait-specific protein families (Pfam domains) and on the conservation of synteny (order in the genome) of the trait-related genes. Our first approach is top-down and involves experimental evaluation and quantification of the species’ cold tolerance followed by identification of the correlated Pfam domains and genes with a conserved synteny. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts novel phenotypes of the species by calculating profiles of each Pfam domain among their genomes and following pair-wise correlation of the profiles and their network clustering. Using the first approach we find a link between cold and salt tolerance of the species and the presence in the genome of a Na+/H+ antiporter gene cluster. Other cold tolerance related genes includes peptidases, chemotaxis sensory transducer proteins, a cysteine exporter, and helicases. Using the bottom-up approach we found several novel phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species, including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway in S. woodyi, degradation of ethanolamine by S. benthica, and propanediol degradation by S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. sp. W3-18-1.

Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Obraztsova, Anna; Wang, Yanbing; Schmoyer, Denise D.; Kora, Guruprasad; Park, Byung H.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Romine, Margaret F.; Land, Miriam L.; Kothe, Terence B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Uberbacher, Edward

2010-03-01

116

Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage  

PubMed Central

Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes.

2012-01-01

117

Specific roles of G(i) protein family members revealed by dissecting SST5 coupling in human pituitary cells.  

PubMed

Despite intensive investigation over the past 20 years, the specific role played by individual G(i) protein family members in mediating complex cellular effects is still largely unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of specific G(i) proteins in mediating somatostatin (SS) effects in somatotroph cells. Because our previous data showed that SS receptor type 5 (SST5) carrying a spontaneous R240W mutation in the third intracellular loop had a similar ability to inhibit intracellular cAMP levels to the wild-type protein but failed to mediate inhibition of growth hormone (GH) release and cell proliferation, we used this model to check specific receptor-G-protein coupling by a bioluminescent resonance energy transfer analysis. In HEK293 cells, wild-type SST5 stimulated the activation of G?(i1-3) and G?(oA), B, whereas R240W SST5 maintained the ability to activate G?(i1-3) and G?(oB), but failed to activate the splicing variant G?(oA). To investigate the role of the selective deficit in G?(oA) coupling, we co-transfected human adenomatous somatotrophs with SST5 and a pertussis toxin (PTX)-resistant G?(oA) (G?(oA(PTX-r))) protein. In PTX-treated cells, G?(oA(PTX-r)) rescued the ability of the selective SST5 analog BIM23206 to inhibit extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, GH secretion and intracellular cAMP levels. Moreover, we demonstrated that silencing of G?(oA) completely abolished SST5-mediated inhibitory effects on GH secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not on cAMP levels. In conclusion, by analysing the coupling specificity of human SST5 to individual G?(i) and G?(o) subunits, we identified a crucial role for G?(oA) signalling in human pituitary cells. PMID:23178946

Peverelli, Erika; Busnelli, Marta; Vitali, Eleonora; Giardino, Elena; Galés, Celine; Lania, Andrea G; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Chini, Bice; Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna

2012-11-23

118

Toxoplasma H2A Variants Reveal Novel Insights into Nucleosome Composition and Functions for this Histone Family  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite. Toxoplasmosis is incurable because of its ability to differentiate from the rapidly replicating tachyzoite stage into a latent cyst form (bradyzoite stage). Gene regulation pertinent to Toxoplasma differentiation involves histone modification, but very little is known about the histone proteins in this early branching eukaryote. Here we report the characterization of three H2A histones, a canonical H2A1 and variants H2AX and H2AZ. H2AZ is the minor parasite H2A member. H2A1 and H2AX both have an SQ motif, but only H2AX has a complete SQ(E/D)? (? denotes a hydrophobic residue) known to be phosphorylated in response to DNA damage. We also show that a novel H2B variant interacts with H2AZ and H2A1 but not with H2AX. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that H2AZ and H2Bv are enriched at active genes while H2AX is enriched at repressed genes as well as the silent TgIRE repeat element. During DNA damage, we detected an increase in H2AX phosphorylation as well as increases in h2a1 and h2ax transcription. We also found that h2ax expression, but not h2a1 and h2az, increases in bradyzoites generated in vitro. Similar analysis performed on mature bradyzoites generated in vivo, which are arrested in G0, showed that h2az and h2ax are actively expressed and h2a1 is not, consistent with the idea that h2a1 is the canonical histone orthologue in the parasite. The increase of H2AX, which localizes to silenced areas during bradyzoite differentiation, is consistent with the quiescent nature of this life cycle stage. Our results indicate that the early-branching eukaryotic parasite Toxoplasma contains nucleosomes of novel composition, which is likely to impact multiple facets of parasite biology, including the clinically important process of bradyzoite differentiation.

Dalmasso, Maria C.; Onyango, David O.; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Sullivan, William J.; Angel, Sergio O.

2009-01-01

119

Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts  

PubMed Central

Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy.

2009-01-01

120

Expression studies of two paralogous ppa genes encoding distinct Family I pyrophosphatases in marine unicellular cyanobacteria reveal inactivation of the typical cyanobacterial gene.  

PubMed

Genome sequence analyses revealed the occurrence of two paralogous ppa genes potentially encoding distinct Family I inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases, EC3.6.1.1) in the marine unicellular cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT9313 and Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ppa gene proper of cyanobacteria (ppa1) encodes a presumably inactive mutant enzyme whereas the second gene (ppa2) might encode an active sPPase closely related to those of some proteobacteria. Heterologous expression of the two cloned P. marinus MED4 ppa genes in Escherichia coli confirmed this proposal, only the inactive ppa1 product being immunodetected by anti-cyanobacterial sPPase antibodies. A possible scenario of ppa gene inactivation and replacement in the context of the postulated rapid diversification of marine unicellular cyanobacteria, the most abundant photosynthetic prokaryotes in the oceans, is discussed. PMID:12127978

Gómez-García, María R; Serrano, Aurelio

2002-07-26

121

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type X1 in an Argentinean family reveals independent GJB1/Cx32 mutations at the identical nucleotide position.  

PubMed

X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT Type X1, OMIM: 302800) represents a frequent cause of hereditary peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies and is associated with mutations in GJB1 encoding the gap junction beta 1 protein connexin 32 (Cx32). Studying an Argentinean family of Italian origin with seven affected males in three generations exhibiting clinical signs of CMT, eight obligate female carriers were identified genealogically. DNA sequencing of exon 2 and adjacent regions of the GJB1 gene in two symptomatic males whose respective maternal grandfathers, both affected, were brothers, revealed mutations in GJB1/Cx32. Surprisingly, each of the two affected patients had a different mutation in hemizygous state at the same nucleotide position: c.383C>T (p.S128L) and c.383C>A (p.S128X). In both cases, the identified mutation was present in heterozygous state in the corresponding maternal genomic DNA. Furthermore, X-chromosomal microsatellite analysis showed identical marker alleles in both patients. Together with the genealogical information, these molecular data imply that a primarily mutated allele mutated for a second time. In conclusion, two different mutations at the same nucleotide position in this Argentinean family represent a finding with a very low probability of occurrence. PMID:23384994

Gerding, Wanda Maria; Koetting, Judith; Rey, Lucía Paola; Bibas Bonet, Hilda; Abdala, Mirta Esther; Mazzeo, Anna; Mostacciuolo, Maria Luisa; Arning, Larissa; Carrero-Valenzuela, Roque

2013-02-04

122

Genome-Wide Linkage in a Highly Consanguineous Pedigree Reveals Two Novel Loci on Chromosome 7 for Non-Syndromic Familial Premature Ovarian Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10–15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a genome-wide linkage and homozygosity analysis in one large consanguineous Middle-Eastern POF-affected family presenting an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We identified two regions with a LODmax of 3.26 on chromosome 7p21.1-15.3 and 7q21.3-22.2, which are supported as candidate regions by homozygosity mapping. Sequencing of the coding exons and known regulatory sequences of three candidate genes (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1) included within the largest region did not reveal any causal mutations. Conclusions/Significance We detect two novel POF-associated loci on human chromosome 7, opening the way to the identification of new genes involved in the control of ovarian development and function.

Caburet, Sandrine; Zavadakova, Petra; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Bouhali, Kamal; Dipietromaria, Aurelie; Charon, Celine; Besse, Celine; Laissue, Paul; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Vaiman, Daniel; Levi, Giovanni; Veitia, Reiner A.; Fellous, Marc

2012-01-01

123

Dual-site interactions of p53 protein transactivation domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reveal a highly convergent mechanism of divergent p53 pathways.  

PubMed

Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins play an important role in the transcription-independent apoptosis of p53. The p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) contains two conserved ?XX?? motifs (? indicates a bulky hydrophobic residue and X is any other residue) referred to as p53TAD1 (residues 15-29) and p53TAD2 (residues 39-57). We previously showed that p53TAD1 can act as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In this study, we have identified p53TAD2 as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by using NMR spectroscopy, and we calculated the structures of Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2 in complex with the p53TAD2 peptide. NMR chemical shift perturbation data showed that p53TAD2 peptide binds to diverse members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family independently of p53TAD1, and the binding between p53TAD2 and p53TAD1 to Bcl-X(L) is competitive. Refined structural models of the Bcl-X(L)·p53TAD2 and Bcl-2·p53TAD2 complexes showed that the binding sites occupied by p53TAD2 in Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 overlap well with those occupied by pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides. Taken together with the mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data, our structural comparisons provided the structural basis of p53TAD2-mediated interaction with the anti-apoptotic proteins, revealing that Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2, MDM2, and cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein/p300 share highly similar modes of binding to the dual p53TAD motifs, p53TAD1 and p53TAD2. In conclusion, our results suggest that the dual-site interaction of p53TAD is a highly conserved mechanism underlying target protein binding in the transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptotic pathways of p53. PMID:23316052

Ha, Ji-Hyang; Shin, Jae-Sun; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Min-Sung; He, Fahu; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Lee, Chong-Kil; Park, Sung Goo; Muto, Yutaka; Chi, Seung-Wook

2013-01-11

124

Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases expressed in brain  

SciTech Connect

A human brainstem cDNA library in bacteriophage {lambda}gt11 was screened under conditions of reduced bybridization stringency with a leukocyte common antigen (LCA) probe that spanned both conserved cytoplasmic domains. cDNA encoding a receptor-linked protein-tyrosinephosphatase (protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48), RPTPase {alpha}, has been cloned and sequenced. Human RPTPase {alpha} consists of 802 amino acids. The extracellular domain of 150 residues includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and eight potential N-glycosylation sites. This is followed by a transmembrane region and two tandemly repeated conserved domains characteristic of all RPTPases identified thus far. The gene for RPTPase {alpha} has been localized to human chromosome region 20pter-20q12 by analysis of its segregation pattern in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of two major transcripts of 4.3 and 6.3 kilobases. In addition to PRTPase {alpha}, two other RPTPases ({beta} and {gamma}), identified in the same screen, have been partially cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence comparisons among LCA, the LCA-related protein LAR, and RPTP-ases {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} reveals the existence of a multigene family encoding different RPTPases, each containing a distinct extracellular domain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane region, and two tandemly repeated conserved cytoplasmic domains.

Kaplan, R.; Morse, B.; Howk, R.; Ravera, M.; Ricca, G.; Jaye, M. (Rorer Biotechnology, Inc., King of Prussia, PA (USA)); Huebner, K.; Croce, C. (Temple Univ., Philadephia, PA (USA)); Schlessinger, J. (New York Univ., NY (USA))

1990-09-01

125

Identification and characterization of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes in Arabidopsis reveal a gene family with diverse responses to abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

Fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a key enzyme in plants, which is involved not only in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the cytoplasm, but also in the Calvin cycle in plastids. Research on FBAs in various organisms has been reported, but there is none on FBAs in Arabidopsis at the molecular level. In the current study, eight FBA family genes (AtFBA1-8) were identified and analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. These genes have a highly conserved aldolase-type TIM barrel domain and a C-terminal peptide, but variable N-terminal peptides. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of FBA protein sequences from Arabidopsis and other plant species, AtFBA family was classified into two subfamilies, including three members (AtFBA1-3) with high similarities to FBAs occurring at plastid, and five (AtFBA4-8) with high similarities to FBAs localized in the cytoplasm. By confocal microscopy analysis with GFP fusion protein, AtFBA3 and AtFBA4 as well as AtFBA6 were observed to be localized in the plastid and cytoplasm, respectively. At least two duplicated gene pairs of AtFBA1 and AtFBA2, as well as AtFBA4 and AtFBA8 were found. Transcript level analysis of AtFBA genes in various tissues revealed the unique and overlapping expression patterns of plastid and cytosol AtFBA genes, suggesting that these genes may function at different stages of plant growth and development. Interestingly, AtFBA1, AtFBA2, AtFBA5 and AtFBA7 showed undetectable expression in roots. The expression patterns of AtFBA genes under different stress conditions suggested that all the members showed different expression patterns in response to stresses, including ABA, NaCl, Cd, abnormal temperature and drought, and, except for AtFBA3, most of the AtFBA genes were significantly responsive to drought stress in roots. Moreover, AtFBA1, AtFBA2, AtFBA5, AtFBA7 and AtFBA8 were induced by at least one of three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) after 24h of treatment. Further functional analyses indicated important clues of AtFBA2, AtFBA6 and AtFBA8 in plant growth, stress responses and development, respectively. Thus these results provide additional knowledge on AtFBA families and their roles. PMID:22561114

Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiaoli; Huo, Yanqing; Xu, Rui; Qi, Shengdong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao; Wu, Chang-ai

2012-04-25

126

Non-monophyly and intricate morphological evolution within the avian family Cettiidae revealed by multilocus analysis of a taxonomically densely sampled dataset  

PubMed Central

Background The avian family Cettiidae, including the genera Cettia, Urosphena, Tesia, Abroscopus and Tickellia and Orthotomus cucullatus, has recently been proposed based on analysis of a small number of loci and species. The close relationship of most of these taxa was unexpected, and called for a comprehensive study based on multiple loci and dense taxon sampling. In the present study, we infer the relationships of all except one of the species in this family using one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. We use traditional gene tree methods (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood bootstrapping, parsimony bootstrapping), as well as a recently developed Bayesian species tree approach (*BEAST) that accounts for lineage sorting processes that might produce discordance between gene trees. We also analyse mitochondrial DNA for a larger sample, comprising multiple individuals and a large number of subspecies of polytypic species. Results There are many topological incongruences among the single-locus trees, although none of these is strongly supported. The multi-locus tree inferred using concatenated sequences and the species tree agree well with each other, and are overall well resolved and well supported by the data. The main discrepancy between these trees concerns the most basal split. Both methods infer the genus Cettia to be highly non-monophyletic, as it is scattered across the entire family tree. Deep intraspecific divergences are revealed, and one or two species and one subspecies are inferred to be non-monophyletic (differences between methods). Conclusions The molecular phylogeny presented here is strongly inconsistent with the traditional, morphology-based classification. The remarkably high degree of non-monophyly in the genus Cettia is likely to be one of the most extraordinary examples of misconceived relationships in an avian genus. The phylogeny suggests instances of parallel evolution, as well as highly unequal rates of morphological divergence in different lineages. This complex morphological evolution apparently misled earlier taxonomists. These results underscore the well-known but still often neglected problem of basing classifications on overall morphological similarity. Based on the molecular data, a revised taxonomy is proposed. Although the traditional and species tree methods inferred much the same tree in the present study, the assumption by species tree methods that all species are monophyletic is a limitation in these methods, as some currently recognized species might have more complex histories.

2011-01-01

127

Sequencing of Pax6 Loci from the Elephant Shark Reveals a Family of Pax6 Genes in Vertebrate Genomes, Forged by Ancient Duplications and Divergences  

PubMed Central

Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/P? internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a “small eye” phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent family of Pax6 genes, forged by ancient duplication events and by independent, lineage-specific gene losses.

Gautier, Philippe; Loosli, Felix; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Murdoch, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro; van Heyningen, Veronica; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

2013-01-01

128

Sequencing of Pax6 loci from the elephant shark reveals a family of Pax6 genes in vertebrate genomes, forged by ancient duplications and divergences.  

PubMed

Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/P? internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a "small eye" phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent family of Pax6 genes, forged by ancient duplication events and by independent, lineage-specific gene losses. PMID:23359656

Ravi, Vydianathan; Bhatia, Shipra; Gautier, Philippe; Loosli, Felix; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Murdoch, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro; van Heyningen, Veronica; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A

2013-01-24

129

Cloning of a new familial t(3;8) translocation associated with conventional renal cell carcinoma reveals a 5 kb microdeletion and no gene involved in the rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the molecular cloning of a familial translocation, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.2), that segregates with the conventional renal cell carcinoma (conventional RCC). We had previously reported the family history and, through loss of heterozigosity and comparative genomic hybridization, detected the loss of the 3p chromosome arm and somatic mutation in the retained von Hippel-Lindau gene in some members of the family.

Sandra Rodriguez-Perales; Susan M. Gribble; Laura Valle; Nigel P. Carter; Lucia Conde; Miguel Urioste; Javier Benitez; Juan C. Cigudosa

2004-01-01

130

Inactivation of LRG-47 and IRG47 Reveals a Family of Interferon ? -inducible Genes with Essential, Pathogen-specific Roles in Resistance to Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine interferon (IFN)- ? regulates immune clearance of parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recently, a family of IFN- ? -induced genes has been identified that encode 48-kD GTP-binding proteins that lo- calize to the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. The prototype of this family, IGTP , has been shown to be required for

Carmen M. Collazo; George S. Yap; Gregory D. Sempowski; Kimberly C. Lusby; Lino Tessarollo; George F. Vande Woude; Alan Sher; Gregory A. Taylor

131

Molecular phylogeny based on increased number of species and genes revealed more robust family-level systematics of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea).  

PubMed

Previous molecular analysis of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), has identified three monophyletic families, the Euryalidae, Asteronychidae and Gorgonocephalidae. However, family-level relationships have remained unresolved due to inadequate taxon sampling and insufficient molecular markers. Here, we present a family-level revision of the Euryalida based on sequences from mitochondrial genes (16S rRNA and COI) and a nuclear gene (18S rRNA) from 83 euryalid ophiuroids. The monophyly of the three families, Euryalidae, Asteronychidae and Gorgonocephalidae is confirmed. The Euryalidae and Asteronychidae+Gorgonocephalidae are assigned to superfamilies, the Euryalidea and the Gorgonocephalidea, respectively. Three subclades within the family Gorgonocephalidae are identified and assigned to three subfamilies; Astrotominae includes Astrocrius, Astrohamma and Astrotoma, Astrothamninae (subfamily nov.) includes Astrothamnus and Astrothrombus with Gorgonocephalinae including the remaining genera. Morphological characters are consistent with the newly recognised superfamilies and subfamilies. PMID:23906601

Okanishi, Masanori; Fujita, Toshihiko

2013-07-30

132

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

133

Dissection of Genomewide-Scan Data in Extended Families Reveals a Major Locus and Oligogenic Susceptibility for Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

To examine the genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a degenerative disease of the retinal pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina, we conducted a genomewide scan in 34 extended families (297 individuals, 349 sib pairs) ascertained through index cases with neovascular disease or geographic atrophy. Family and medical history was obtained from index cases and family members. Fundus photographs were taken of all participating family members, and these were graded for severity by use of a quantitative scale. Model-free linkage analysis was performed, and tests of heterogeneity and epistasis were conducted. We have evidence of a major locus on chromosome 15q (GATA50C03 multipoint P=1.98×10-7; empirical P?1.0×10-5; single-point P=3.6×10-7). This locus was present as a weak linkage signal in our previous genome scan for ARMD, in the Beaver Dam Eye Study sample (D15S659, multipoint P=.047), but is otherwise novel. In this genome scan, we observed a total of 13 regions on 11 chromosomes (1q31, 2p21, 4p16, 5q34, 9p24, 9q31, 10q26, 12q13, 12q23, 15q21, 16p12, 18p11, and 20q13), with a nominal multipoint significance level of P?.01 or LOD ?1.18. Family-by-family analysis of the data, performed using model-free linkage methods, suggests that there is evidence of heterogeneity in these families. For example, a single family (family 460) individually shows linkage evidence at 8 loci, at the level of P<.0001. We conducted tests for heterogeneity, which suggest that ARMD susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9p24, 10q26, and 15q21 are not present in all families. We tested for mutations in linked families and examined SNPs in two candidate genes, hemicentin-1 and EFEMP1, in subsamples (145 and 189 sib pairs, respectively) of the data. Mutations were not observed in any of the 11 exons of EFEMP1 nor in exon 104 of hemicentin-1. The SNP analysis for hemicentin-1 on 1q31 suggests that variants within or in very close proximity to this gene cause ARMD pathogenesis. In summary, we have evidence for a major ARMD locus on 15q21, which, coupled with numerous other loci segregating in these families, suggests complex oligogenic patterns of inheritance for ARMD.

Iyengar, Sudha K.; Song, Danhong; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Schick, James H.; Humphrey, Jennifer; Millard, Christopher; Liptak, Rachel; Russo, Karlie; Jun, Gyungah; Lee, Kristine E.; Fijal, Bonnie; Elston, Robert C.

2004-01-01

134

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-­terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

135

Genomewide Screening Reveals High Levels of Insertional Polymorphism in the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Family HERV-K(HML2): Implications for Present-Day Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

104 per haploid genome per generation. Furthermore, we find that the number of polymorphic elements is not significantly different from that predicted by a standard population genetic model that assumes constant activity of the family until the present. This suggests to us that the HERV-K(HML2) family may be active in present-day humans. Active (replication-competent) elements are likely to have inserted

Robert Belshaw; Anna L. A. Dawson; John Woolven-Allen; Joanna Redding; Austin Burt; Michael Tristem

2005-01-01

136

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment.

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

137

Structural and Functional Insights into the DNA Replication Factor Cdc45 Reveal an Evolutionary Relationship to the DHH Family of Phosphoesterases*  

PubMed Central

Cdc45 is an essential protein conserved in all eukaryotes and is involved both in the initiation of DNA replication and the progression of the replication fork. With GINS, Cdc45 is an essential cofactor of the Mcm2–7 replicative helicase complex. Despite its importance, no detailed information is available on either the structure or the biochemistry of the protein. Intriguingly, whereas homologues of both GINS and Mcm proteins have been described in Archaea, no counterpart for Cdc45 is known. Herein we report a bioinformatic analysis that shows a weak but significant relationship among eukaryotic Cdc45 proteins and a large family of phosphoesterases that has been described as the DHH family, including inorganic pyrophosphatases and RecJ ssDNA exonucleases. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds via a mechanism involving two Mn2+ ions. Only a subset of the amino acids that coordinates Mn2+ is conserved in Cdc45. We report biochemical and structural data on the recombinant human Cdc45 protein, consistent with the proposed DHH family affiliation. Like the RecJ exonucleases, the human Cdc45 protein is able to bind single-stranded, but not double-stranded DNA. Small angle x-ray scattering data are consistent with a model compatible with the crystallographic structure of the RecJ/DHH family members.

Krastanova, Ivet; Sannino, Vincenzo; Amenitsch, Heinz; Gileadi, Opher; Pisani, Francesca M.; Onesti, Silvia

2012-01-01

138

Nme Gene Family Evolutionary History Reveals Pre-Metazoan Origins and High Conservation between Humans and the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme

Thomas Desvignes; Pierre Pontarotti; Julien Bobe; Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis

2010-01-01

139

Analysis of LDLR mRNA in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia revealed a novel mutation in intron 14, which activates a cryptic splice site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by a defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and >1000 mutations in LDLR have been identified. However, in some patients with clinically defined FH, no mutation can be detected within the exons and adjacent intronic segments of the LDLR. We have analyzed RNA extracted from blood samples of patients with clinically defined FH and identified an

Mari Ann Kulseth; Knut Erik Berge; Martin Prøven Bogsrud; Trond P Leren

2010-01-01

140

Functional Analysis of the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor Family in Poplar Reveals Biochemical Diversity and Multiplicity in Defense against Herbivores1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

We investigated the functional and biochemical variability of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) genes of Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides. Phylogenetic analysis, expressed sequence tag databases, and western-blot analysis confirmed that these genes belong to a large and diverse gene family with complex expression patterns. Five wound- and herbivore-induced genes representing the diversity of the KTI gene family were selected for functional analysis and shown to produce active KTI proteins in Escherichia coli. These recombinant KTI proteins were all biochemically distinct and showed clear differences in efficacy against trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and elastase-type proteases, suggesting functional specialization of different members of this gene family. The in vitro stability of the KTIs in the presence of reducing agents and elevated temperature also varied widely, emphasizing the biochemical differences of these proteins. Significantly, the properties of the recombinant KTI proteins were not predictable from primary amino acid sequence data. Proteases in midgut extracts of Malacosoma disstria, a lepidopteran pest of Populus, were strongly inhibited by at least two of the KTI gene products. This study suggests that the large diversity in the poplar (Populus spp.) KTI family is important for biochemical and functional specialization, which may be important in the maintenance of pest resistance in long-lived plants such as poplar.

Major, Ian T.; Constabel, C. Peter

2008-01-01

141

Families with the risk allele of DISC1 reveal a link between schizophrenia and another component of the same molecular pathway, NDE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported a robust association between an allelic haplotype of 'Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1' (DISC1) and schizophrenia in a nationwide collection of Finnish schizophrenia families. This specific DISC1 allele was later identified to associate with visual working memory, selectively in males. DISC1 association to schizophrenia has since been replicated in multiple independent study samples from different populations. In

William Hennah; Liisa Tomppo; Tero Hiekkalinna; Outi M. Palo; Helena Kilpinen; Jesper Ekelund; Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson; Kaisa Silander; Timo Partonen; Tiina Paunio; Joseph D. Terwilliger; Jouko Lonnqvist; Leena Peltonen

2007-01-01

142

Characterization of TrcMADS1 gene of Trillium camtschatcense (Trilliaceae) reveals functional evolution of the SOC1 \\/ TM3 -like gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for a number of developmental processes, such as the establishment of floral organ identity, flowering time, and fruit development. It appears that the MADS-box gene family has undergone considerable gene duplication and divergence within various angiosperm lineages. SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1)\\/Tomato MADS-box gene 3 (TM3)-like genes are members

Toru NakamuraIn-Ja; In-Ja Song; Tatsuya Fukuda; Jun Yokoyama; Masayuki Maki; Toshinori Ochiai; Toshiaki Kameya; Akira Kanno

2005-01-01

143

Proteomic Plasma Membrane Profiling Reveals an Essential Role for gp96 in the Cell Surface Expression of LDLR Family Members, Including the LDL Receptor and LRP6  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is required for the cell surface expression of a narrow range of proteins, including toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To identify a more comprehensive repertoire of proteins whose cell surface expression is dependent on gp96, we developed plasma membrane profiling (PMP), a technique that combines SILAC labeling with selective cell surface aminooxy-biotinylation. This approach allowed us to compare the relative abundance of plasma membrane (PM) proteins on gp96-deficient versus gp96-reconstituted murine pre-B cells. Analysis of unfractionated tryptic peptides initially identified 113 PM proteins, which extended to 706 PM proteins using peptide prefractionation. We confirmed a requirement for gp96 in the cell surface expression of certain TLRs and integrins and found a marked decrease in cell surface expression of four members of the extended LDL receptor family (LDLR, LRP6, Sorl1 and LRP8) in the absence of gp96. Other novel gp96 client proteins included CD180/Ly86, important in the B-cell response to lipopolysaccharide. We highlight common structural motifs in these client proteins that may be recognized by gp96, including the beta-propeller and leucine-rich repeat. This study therefore identifies the extended LDL receptor family as an important new family of proteins whose cell surface expression is regulated by gp96.

2012-01-01

144

UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveals Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelihood for RNA-Binding Function  

SciTech Connect

We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

Rao, K.N.; Swaminathan, S.; Burley, S. K.

2008-12-11

145

Comparative Evolutionary Histories of the Fungal Chitinase Gene Family Reveal Non-Random Size Expansions and Contractions due to Adaptive Natural Selection  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae), and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe) potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.

Karlsson, Magnus; Stenlid, Jan

2008-01-01

146

Targeted Deletion Reveals Essential and Overlapping Functions of the miR17?92 Family of miRNA Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

miR-17?92, miR-106b?25, and miR-106a?363 belong to a family of highly conserved miRNA clusters. Amplification and overexpression of miR-17?92 is observed in human cancers, and its oncogenic properties have been confirmed in a mouse model of B cell lymphoma. Here we show that mice deficient for miR-17?92 die shortly after birth with lung hypoplasia and a ventricular septal defect. The miR-17?92

Andrea Ventura; Amanda G. Young; Monte M. Winslow; Laura Lintault; Alex Meissner; Stefan J. Erkeland; Jamie Newman; Roderick T. Bronson; Denise Crowley; James R. Stone; Rudolf Jaenisch; Phillip A. Sharp; Tyler Jacks

2008-01-01

147

Structural analysis of HopPmaL reveals the presence of a second adaptor domain common to the HopAB family of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors  

PubMed Central

HopPmaL is a member of the HopAB family of type 3 effectors present in the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Using both X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, we demonstrate that HopPmaL contains two structurally homologous yet functionally distinct domains. The N-terminal domain corresponds to the previously-described Pto-binding domain, while the previously uncharacterised C-terminal domain spans residues 308 to 385. While structurally similar these domains do not share significant sequence similarity and most importantly demonstrate significant differences in key residues involved in host protein recognition suggesting that each of them targets a different host protein.

Singer, Alex U.; Wu, Bin; Yee, Adelinda; Houliston, Scott; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Skarina, Tatiana; Garcia, Maite; Semesi, Anthony; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Savchenko, Alexei

2012-01-01

148

Structural analysis of HopPmaL reveals the presence of a second adaptor domain common to the HopAB family of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors.  

PubMed

HopPmaL is a member of the HopAB family of type III effectors present in the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Using both X-ray crystallography and solution nuclear magnetic resonance, we demonstrate that HopPmaL contains two structurally homologous yet functionally distinct domains. The N-terminal domain corresponds to the previously described Pto-binding domain, while the previously uncharacterised C-terminal domain spans residues 308-385. While structurally similar, these domains do not share significant sequence similarity and most importantly demonstrate significant differences in key residues involved in host protein recognition, suggesting that each of them targets a different host protein. PMID:22191472

Singer, Alex U; Wu, Bin; Yee, Adelinda; Houliston, Scott; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Skarina, Tatiana; Garcia, Maite; Semesi, Anthony; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Savchenko, Alexei

2011-12-28

149

Characterization of multigene families in the micronuclear genome of Paramecium tetraurelia reveals a germline specific sequence in an intron of a centrin gene.  

PubMed Central

In Paramecium, as in other ciliates, the transcriptionally active macronucleus is derived from the germline micronucleus by programmed DNA rearrangements, which include the precise excision of thousands of germline-specific sequences (internal eliminated sequences, IESs). We report the characterization of micronuclear versions of genes encoding Paramecium secretory granule proteins (trichocyst matrix proteins, TMPs) and Paramecium centrins. TMP and centrin multigene families, previously studied in the macronuclear genome, consist of genes that are co-expressed to provide mixtures of related polypeptides that co-assemble to form respectively the crystalline trichocyst matrix and the infraciliary lattice, a contractile cytoskeletal network. We present evidence that TMP and centrin genes identified in the macronucleus are also present in the micronucleus, ruling out the possibility that these novel multigene families are generated by somatic rearrangements during macronuclear development. No IESs were found in TMP genes, however, four IESs in or near germline centrin genes were characterized. The only intragenic IES is 75 bp in size, interrupts a 29 bp intron and is absent from at least one other closely related centrin gene. This is the first report of an IES in an intron in Paramecium.

Vayssie, L; Sperling, L; Madeddu, L

1997-01-01

150

Analysis of LDLR mRNA in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia revealed a novel mutation in intron 14, which activates a cryptic splice site.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by a defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and >1000 mutations in LDLR have been identified. However, in some patients with clinically defined FH, no mutation can be detected within the exons and adjacent intronic segments of the LDLR. We have analyzed RNA extracted from blood samples of patients with clinically defined FH and identified an aberrantly spliced mRNA containing an 81-bp insert from intron 14. The aberrant splicing was caused by a novel intronic mutation, c.2140+86C>G, which activated a cryptic splice site. Although the cryptic splice site does not completely surpass the normal splice site, the mutation was found to cosegregate with high cholesterol levels in a family, which supports the notion that c.2140+86C>G causes FH. The insertion of 81? bp in LDLR mRNA encodes an in-frame insertion of 27 amino acids in the LDLR. However, the insertion was found to hamper LDLR activity by preventing the receptor from leaving the endoplasmic reticulum, probably because of misfolding of the protein. In patients with clinically defined hypercholesterolemia, despite normal results from sequencing of exonic regions of the LDLR gene, characterization of the LDLR mRNA might identify the underlying genetic defect. PMID:20703241

Kulseth, Mari Ann; Berge, Knut Erik; Bogsrud, Martin Prøven; Leren, Trond P

2010-08-12

151

Topogenic properties of transmembrane segments of Arabidopsis thaliana NHX1 reveal a common topology model of the Na+/H+ exchanger family.  

PubMed

The membrane topology of the Arabidopsis thaliana Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (AtNHX1) was investigated by examining the topogenic function of transmembrane (TM) segments using a cell-free system. Even though the signal peptide found in the human Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) family is missing, the N-terminal hydrophobic segment was efficiently inserted into the membrane and had an N-terminus lumen topology depending on the next TM segment. The two N-terminal TM segments had the same topology as those of TM2 and TM3 of human NHE1. In contrast, TM2 and TM3 of human NHE1 did not acquire the correct topology when the signal peptide (denoted as TM1) was deleted. Furthermore, there were three hydrophobic segments with the same topogenic properties as the TM9-H10-TM10 segments of human NHE1, which has one lumenal loop (H10) and two flanking TM segments (TM9 and TM10). These data indicate that the plant NHX isoforms can form the common membrane topology proposed for the human NHE family, even though it does not have a signal peptide. PMID:16272136

Sato, Yoko; Sakaguchi, Masao

2005-10-01

152

Genetic diversity among Frankia strains nodulating members of the family Casuarinaceae in Australia revealed by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with crushed root nodules.  

PubMed Central

DNA extracted directly from nodules was used to assess the genetic diversity of Frankia strains symbiotically associated with two species of the genus Casuarina and two of the genus Allocasuarina naturally occurring in northeastern Australia. DNA from field-collected nodules or extracted from reference cultures of Casuarina-infective Frankia strains was used as the template in PCRs with primers targeting two DNA regions, one in the ribosomal operon and the other in the nif operon. PCR products were then analyzed by using a set of restriction endonucleases. Five distinct genetic groups were recognized on the basis of these restriction patterns. These groups were consistently associated with the host species from which the nodules originated. All isolated reference strains had similar patterns and were assigned to group 1 along with six of the eight unisolated Frankia strains from Casuarina equisetifolia in Australia. Group 2 consisted of two unisolated Frankia strains from C. equisetifolia, whereas groups 3 to 5 comprised all unisolated strains from Casuarina cunninghamiana, Allocasuarina torulosa, and Allocasuarina littoralis, respectively. These results demonstrate that, contrary to the results of previous molecular studies of isolated strains, there is genetic diversity among Frankia strains that infect members of the family Casuarinacaeae. The apparent high homogeneity of Frankia strains in these previous studies probably relates to the single host species from which the strains were obtained and the origin of these strains from areas outside the natural geographic range of members of the family Casuarinaceae, where genetic diversity could be lower than in Australia.

Rouvier, C; Prin, Y; Reddell, P; Normand, P; Simonet, P

1996-01-01

153

Mutation analysis of the gene encoding Bruton`s tyrosine kinase in a family with a sporadic case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia reveals three female carriers  

SciTech Connect

Bruton`s tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been identified as the protein responsible for the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We and others have cloned the gene for Btk and recently reported the genomic organization. Nineteen exons were positioned within the 37 kb gene. With the sequence data derived from our genomic map, we have designed a PCR based assay to directly identify mutations of the Btk gene in germline DNA of patients with XLA. In this report, the assay was used to analyze a family with a sporadic case of XLA to determine if other female relatives carry the disease. A four base-pair deletion was found in the DNA of the affected boy and was further traced through three generations. With the direct identification of the mutations responsible for XLA, we can now diagnose conclusively the disease and identify the immunologically normal female carriers. This same technique can easily be applied to prenatal diagnosis in families where the mutation can be identified. 34 refs., 3 figs.

Hagemann, T.L.; Kwan, Sau-Ping [Rush Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Assa`ad, A.H. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06

154

Similarity to peroxisomal-membrane protein family reveals that Sinorhizobium and Brucella BacA affect lipid-A fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti, a legume symbiont, and Brucella abortus, a phylogenetically related mammalian pathogen, both require the bacterial-encoded BacA protein to establish chronic intracellular infections in their respective hosts. We found that the bacterial BacA proteins share sequence similarity with a family of eukaryotic peroxisomal-membrane proteins, including the human adrenoleukodystrophy protein, required for the efficient transport of very-long-chain fatty acids out of the cytoplasm. This insight, along with the increased sensitivity of BacA-deficient mutants to detergents and cell envelope-disrupting agents, led us to discover that BacA affects the very-long-chain fatty acid (27-OHC28:0 and 29-OHC30:0) content of both Sinorhizobium and Brucella lipid A. We discuss models for how BacA function affects the lipid-A fatty-acid content and why this activity could be important for the establishment of chronic intracellular infections.

Ferguson, Gail P.; Datta, Anup; Baumgartner, John; Roop, R. Martin; Carlson, Russ W.; Walker, Graham C.

2004-01-01

155

Structural Analysis and Detection of Biological Inositol Pyrophosphates Reveal That the Family of VIP/Diphosphoinositol Pentakisphosphate Kinases Are 1/3-Kinases*S?  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the positional specificity of the mammalian and yeast VIP/diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase (PPIP5K) family of inositol phosphate kinases. We deployed a microscale metal dye detection protocol coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography system that was calibrated with synthetic and biologically synthesized standards of inositol pyrophosphates. In addition, we have directly analyzed the structures of biological inositol pyrophosphates using two-dimensional 1H-1H and 1H-31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using these tools, we have determined that the mammalian and yeast VIP/PPIP5K family phosphorylates the 1/3-position of the inositol ring in vitro and in vivo. For example, the VIP/PPIP5K enzymes convert inositol hexakisphosphate to 1/3-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate. The latter compound has not previously been identified in any organism. We have also unequivocally determined that 1/3,5-(PP)2-IP4 is the isomeric structure of the bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate that is synthesized by yeasts and mammals, through a collaboration between the inositol hexakisphosphate kinase and VIP/PPIP5K enzymes. These data uncover phylogenetic variability within the crown taxa in the structures of inositol pyrophosphates. For example, in the Dictyostelids, the major bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate is 5,6-(PP)2-IP4 (Laussmann, T., Eujen, R., Weisshuhn, C. M., Thiel, U., Falck, J. R., and Vogel, G. (1996) Biochem. J. 315,715 -7258645148). Our study brings us closer to the goal of understanding the structure/function relationships that control specificity in the synthesis and biological actions of inositol pyrophosphates. PMID:8645148

Lin, Hongying; Fridy, Peter C.; Ribeiro, Anthony A.; Choi, Jae H.; Barma, Deb K.; Vogel, Gunter; Falck, J. R.; Shears, Stephen B.; York, John D.; Mayr, Georg W.

2009-01-01

156

Crystal structure of the Ly49I natural killer cell receptor reveals variability in dimerization mode within the Ly49 family.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the detection and destruction of virally infected and tumor cells during innate immune responses. The cytolytic activity of NK cells is regulated through a balance of inhibitory and stimulatory signals delivered by NK receptors that recognize classical major histocompatabilty complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, or MHC-I homologs such as MICA, on target cells. The Ly49 family of NK receptors (Ly49A through W), which includes both inhibitory and activating receptors, are homodimeric type II transmembrane glycoproteins, with each subunit composed of a C-type lectin-like domain tethered to the membrane by a stalk region. We have determined the crystal structure, at 3.0 A resolution, of the murine inhibitory NK receptor Ly49I. The Ly49I monomer adopts a fold similar to that of other C-type lectin-like NK receptors, including Ly49A, NKG2D and CD69. However, the Ly49I monomers associate in a manner distinct from that of these other NK receptors, forming a more open dimer. As a result, the putative MHC-binding surfaces of the Ly49I dimer are spatially more distant than the corresponding surfaces of Ly49A or NKG2D. These structural differences probably reflect the fundamentally different ways in which Ly49 and NKG2D receptors recognize their respective ligands: whereas the single MICA binding site of NKG2D is formed by the precise juxtaposition of two monomers, each Ly49 monomer contains an independent binding site for MHC-I. Hence, the structural constraints on dimerization geometry may be relatively relaxed within the Ly49 family. Such variability may enable certain Ly49 receptors, like Ly49I, to bind MHC-I molecules bivalently, thereby stabilizing receptor-ligand interactions and enhancing signal transmission to the NK cell. PMID:12096910

Dimasi, Nazzareno; Sawicki, Mark W; Reineck, Lora A; Li, Yili; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H; Mariuzza, Roy A

2002-07-12

157

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF04016 (DUF364) reveals enolase and Rossmann-like folds that combine to form a unique active site with a possible role in heavy-metal chelation  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of Dhaf4260 from Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) to a resolution of 2.01?Å using the semi-automated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). This protein structure is the first representative of the PF04016 (DUF364) Pfam family and reveals a novel combination of two well known domains (an enolase N-terminal-like fold followed by a Rossmann-like domain). Structural and bioinformatic analyses reveal partial similarities to Rossmann-like methyltransferases, with residues from the enolase-like fold combining to form a unique active site that is likely to be involved in the condensation or hydrolysis of molecules implicated in the synthesis of flavins, pterins or other siderophores. The genome context of Dhaf4260 and homologs additionally supports a role in heavy-metal chelation.

Miller, Mitchell D.; Aravind, L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

158

Temporal and spatial expression of polygalacturonase gene family members reveals divergent regulation during fleshy fruit ripening and abscission in the monocot species oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Cell separation that occurs during fleshy fruit abscission and dry fruit dehiscence facilitates seed dispersal, the final stage of plant reproductive development. While our understanding of the evolutionary context of cell separation is limited mainly to the eudicot model systems tomato and Arabidopsis, less is known about the mechanisms underlying fruit abscission in crop species, monocots in particular. The polygalacturonase (PG) multigene family encodes enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of pectin homogalacturonan within the primary cell wall and middle lamella. PG activity is commonly found in the separation layers during organ abscission and dehiscence, however, little is known about how this gene family has diverged since the separation of monocot and eudicots and the consequence of this divergence on the abscission process. Results The objective of the current study was to identify PGs responsible for the high activity previously observed in the abscission zone (AZ) during fruit shedding of the tropical monocot oil palm, and to analyze PG gene expression during oil palm fruit ripening and abscission. We identified 14 transcripts that encode PGs, all of which are expressed in the base of the oil palm fruit. The accumulation of five PG transcripts increase, four decrease and five do not change during ethylene treatments that induce cell separation. One PG transcript (EgPG4) is the most highly induced in the fruit base, with a 700–5000 fold increase during the ethylene treatment. In situ hybridization experiments indicate that the EgPG4 transcript increases preferentially in the AZ cell layers in the base of the fruit in response to ethylene prior to cell separation. Conclusions The expression pattern of EgPG4 is consistent with the temporal and spatial requirements for cell separation to occur during oil palm fruit shedding. The sequence diversity of PGs and the complexity of their expression in the oil palm fruit tissues contrast with data from tomato, suggesting functional divergence underlying the ripening and abscission processes has occurred between these two fruit species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of EgPG4 with PGs from other species suggests some conservation, but also diversification has occurred between monocots and eudicots, in particular between dry and fleshy fruit species.

2012-01-01

159

Molecular characterization of WFS1 in an Iranian family with Wolfram syndrome reveals a novel frameshift mutation associated with early symptoms.  

PubMed

Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that represents a likely source of childhood diabetes especially among countries in the consanguinity belt. The main responsible gene is WFS1 for which over one hundred mutations have been reported from different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of WS and to perform a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian kindred. An Iranian family with two patients was clinically studied and WS was suspected. Genetic linkage analysis via 5 STR markers was carried out. For identification of mutations, DNA sequencing of WFS1 including all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter was performed. Linkage analysis indicated linkage to the WFS1 region. After DNA sequencing of WFS1, one novel pathogenic mutation, which causes frameshift alteration c.2177_2178insTCTTC (or c.2173_2177dupTCTTC) in exon eight, was found. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggests that the presence of the homozygous mutation may be associated with early onset of disease symptoms. This study stresses the necessity of considering the molecular analysis of WFS1 in childhood diabetes with some symptoms of WS. PMID:23845777

Sobhani, Maryam; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Rajab, Asadollah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

2013-07-08

160

Molecular analysis of pDL10 from Acidianus ambivalens reveals a family of related plasmids from extremely thermophilic and acidophilic archaea.  

PubMed

The 7598-bp plasmid pDL10 from the extremely thermophilic, acidophilic, and chemolithoautotrophic Archaeon Acidianus ambivalens was sequenced. It contains 10 open reading frames (ORFs) organized in five putative operons. The deduced amino acid sequence of the largest ORF (909 aa) showed similarity to bacterial Rep proteins known from phages and plasmids with rolling-circle (RC) replication. From the comparison of the amino acid sequences, a novel family of RC Rep proteins was defined. The pDL10 Rep protein shared 45-80% identical residues with homologous protein genes encoded by the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmids pRN1 and pRN2. Two DNA regions capable of forming extended stem-loop structures were also conserved in the three plasmids (48-69% sequence identity). In addition, a putative plasmid regulatory protein gene (plrA) was found, which was conserved among the three plasmids and the conjugative Sulfolobus plasmid pNOB8. A homolog of this gene was also found in the chromosome of S. solfataricus. Single-stranded DNA of both pDL10 strands was detected with a mung bean nuclease protection assay using PCR detection of protected fragments, giving additional evidence for an RC mechanism of replication. PMID:10430561

Kletzin, A; Lieke, A; Urich, T; Charlebois, R L; Sensen, C W

1999-08-01

161

Investigation of chromosome 1q reveals differential expression of members of the S100 family in clinical subgroups of intracranial paediatric ependymoma  

PubMed Central

Gain of 1q is one of the most common alterations in cancer and has been associated with adverse clinical behaviour in ependymoma. The aim of this study was to investigate this region to gain insight into the role of 1q genes in intracranial paediatric ependymoma. To address this issue we generated profiles of eleven ependymoma, including two relapse pairs and seven primary tumours, using comparative genome hybridisation and serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 656 SAGE tags mapping to 1q identified CHI3L1 and S100A10 as the most upregulated genes in the relapse pair with de novo 1q gain upon recurrence. Moreover, three more members of the S100 family had distinct gene expression profiles in ependymoma. Candidates (CHI3L1, S100A10, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A2) were validated using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 74 paediatric ependymoma. In necrotic cases, CHI3L1 demonstrated a distinct staining pattern in tumour cells adjacent to the areas of necrosis. S100A6 significantly correlated with supratentorial tumours (P<0.001) and S100A4 with patients under the age of 3 years at diagnosis (P=0.038). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that S100A6 and S100A4 are differentially expressed in clinically relevant subgroups, and also demonstrates a link between CHI3L1 protein expression and necrosis in intracranial paediatric ependymoma.

Rand, V; Prebble, E; Ridley, L; Howard, M; Wei, W; Brundler, M-A; Fee, B E; Riggins, G J; Coyle, B; Grundy, R G

2008-01-01

162

Screening for potential targets for therapy in mesenchymal, clear cell, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma reveals Bcl-2 family members and TGF? as potential targets.  

PubMed

The mesenchymal, clear cell, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma subtypes are extremely rare, together constituting 10% to 15% of all chondrosarcomas. Their poor prognosis and lack of efficacious treatment emphasizes the need to elucidate the pathways playing a pivotal role in these tumors. We constructed tissue microarrays containing 42 dedifferentiated, 23 clear cell, and 23 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas and performed immunohistochemistry to study the expression of growth plate-signaling molecules and molecules shown to be involved in conventional chondrosarcoma. We observed high expression of SOX-9 and FGFR-3, as well as aberrant cellular localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, in all subtypes. TGF? signaling through p-SMAD2 and PAI-1 was highly active in all chondrosarcoma subtypes, which suggests that TGF? inhibitors as a possible therapeutic strategy in rare chondrosarcoma subtypes. As in conventional chondrosarcoma, antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, and/or Bcl-xl) were highly expressed in all subtypes. Inhibition with the BH-3 mimetic ABT-737 rendered dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell lines sensitive to doxorubicin or cisplatin. Our data indicate that antiapoptotic proteins may play an important role in chemoresistance, suggesting a promising role for targeting Bcl-2 family members in chondrosarcoma treatment, irrespective of the subtype. PMID:23415961

van Oosterwijk, Jolieke G; Meijer, Danielle; van Ruler, Maayke A J H; van den Akker, Brendy E W M; Oosting, Jan; Krenács, Tibor; Picci, Piero; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Leithner, Andreas; Athanasou, Nick; Daugaard, Søren; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Bovée, Judith V M G

2013-02-15

163

Phylogenetic analysis of the SAP30 family of transcriptional regulators reveals functional divergence in the domain that binds the nuclear matrix  

PubMed Central

Background Deacetylation of histones plays a fundamental role in gene silencing, and this is mediated by a corepressor complex containing Sin3 as an essential scaffold protein. In this report we examine the evolution of two proteins in this complex, the Sin3-associated proteins SAP30L and SAP30, by using an archive of protein sequences from 62 species. Results Our analysis indicates that in tetrapods SAP30L is more similar than SAP30 to the ancestral protein, and the two copies in this group originated by gene duplication which occurred after the divergence of Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii about 450 million years ago (Mya). The phylogenetic analysis and biochemical experiments suggest that SAP30 has diverged functionally from the ancestral SAP30L by accumulating mutations that have caused attenuation of one of the original functions, association with the nuclear matrix. This function is mediated by a nuclear matrix association sequence, which consists of a conserved motif in the C-terminus and the adjacent nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). Conclusion These results add further insight into the evolution and function of proteins of the SAP30 family, which share many characteristic with nuclear scaffolding proteins that are intimately involved in regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, SAP30L seems essential to eukaryotic biology, as it is found in animals, plants, fungi, as well as some taxa of unicellular eukaryotes.

Viiri, Keijo M; Heinonen, Taisto YK; Maki, Markku; Lohi, Olli

2009-01-01

164

Genomewide Scan in Families with Schizophrenia from the Founder Population of Afrikaners Reveals Evidence for Linkage and Uniparental Disomy on Chromosome 1  

PubMed Central

We report on our initial genetic linkage studies of schizophrenia in the genetically isolated population of the Afrikaners from South Africa. A 10-cM genomewide scan was performed on 143 small families, 34 of which were informative for linkage. Using both nonparametric and parametric linkage analyses, we obtained evidence for a small number of disease loci on chromosomes 1, 9, and 13. These results suggest that few genes of substantial effect exist for schizophrenia in the Afrikaner population, consistent with our previous genealogical tracing studies. The locus on chromosome 1 reached genomewide significance levels (nonparametric LOD score of 3.30 at marker D1S1612, corresponding to an empirical P value of .012) and represents a novel susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. In addition to providing evidence for linkage for chromosome 1, we also identified a proband with a uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire chromosome 1. This is the first time a UPD has been described in a patient with schizophrenia, lending further support to involvement of chromosome 1 in schizophrenia susceptibility in the Afrikaners.

Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Burt, Rachel A.; Hall, Diana; Bochum, Sylvia; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Lundy, S. Laura; Torrington, Marie; Roos, J. Louw; Gogos, Joseph A.; Karayiorgou, Maria

2004-01-01

165

Cold Adaptation of Zinc Metalloproteases in the Thermolysin Family from Deep Sea and Arctic Sea Ice Bacteria Revealed by Catalytic and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Increased conformational flexibility is the prevailing explanation for the high catalytic efficiency of cold-adapted enzymes at low temperatures. However, less is known about the structural determinants of flexibility. We reported two novel cold-adapted zinc metalloproteases in the thermolysin family, vibriolysin MCP-02 from a deep sea bacterium and vibriolysin E495 from an Arctic sea ice bacterium, and compared them with their mesophilic homolog, pseudolysin from a terrestrial bacterium. Their catalytic efficiencies, kcat/Km (10–40 °C), followed the order pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495 with a ratio of ?1:2:4. MCP-02 and E495 have the same optimal temperature (Topt, 57 °C, 5 °C lower than pseudolysin) and apparent melting temperature (Tm = 64 °C, ?10 °C lower than pseudolysin). Structural analysis showed that the slightly lower stabilities resulted from a decrease in the number of salt bridges. Fluorescence quenching experiments and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the flexibilities of the proteins were pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495, suggesting that optimization of flexibility is a strategy for cold adaptation. Molecular dynamics results showed that the ordinal increase in flexibility from pseudolysin to MCP-02 and E495, especially the increase from MCP-02 to E495, mainly resulted from the decrease of hydrogen-bond stability in the dynamic structure, which was due to the increase in asparagine, serine, and threonine residues. Finally, a model for the cold adaptation of MCP-02 and E495 was proposed. This is the first report of the optimization of hydrogen-bonding dynamics as a strategy for cold adaptation and provides new insights into the structural basis underlying conformational flexibility.

Xie, Bin-Bin; Bian, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Guo, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2009-01-01

166

Structural Analysis of a Periplasmic Binding Protein in the Tripartite ATP-independent Transporter Family Reveals a Tetrameric Assembly That May Have a Role in Ligand Transport*  

PubMed Central

Several bacterial solute transport mechanisms involve members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily that bind and deliver ligand to integral membrane transport proteins in the ATP-binding cassette, tripartite tricarboxylate transporter, or tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) families. PBPs involved in ATP-binding cassette transport systems have been well characterized, but only a few PBPs involved in TRAP transport have been studied. We have measured the thermal stability, determined the oligomerization state by small angle x-ray scattering, and solved the x-ray crystal structure to 1.9 Å resolution of a TRAP-PBP (open reading frame tm0322) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TM0322). The overall fold of TM0322 is similar to other TRAP transport related PBPs, although the structural similarity of backbone atoms (2.5-3.1 Å root mean square deviation) is unusually low for PBPs within the same group. Individual monomers within the tetrameric asymmetric unit of TM0322 exhibit high root mean square deviation (0.9 Å) to each other as a consequence of conformational heterogeneity in their binding pockets. The gel filtration elution profile and the small angle x-ray scattering analysis indicate that TM0322 assembles as dimers in solution that in turn assemble into a dimer of dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Tetramerization has been previously observed in another TRAP-PBP (the Rhodobacter sphaeroides ?-keto acid-binding protein) where quaternary structure formation is postulated to be an important requisite for the transmembrane transport process.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Changela, Anita; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Beese, Lorena S.; Krueger, Joanna K.; Hellinga, Homme W.

2008-01-01

167

Analysis of four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori reveals new viewpoints of the evolution and functions of this gene family  

PubMed Central

Background achaete-scute complexe (AS-C) has been widely studied at genetic, developmental and evolutional levels. Genes of this family encode proteins containing a highly conserved bHLH domain, which take part in the regulation of the development of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Many AS-C homologs have been isolated from various vertebrates and invertebrates. Also, AS-C genes are duplicated during the evolution of Diptera. Functions besides neural development controlling have also been found in Drosophila AS-C genes. Results We cloned four achaete-scute homologs (ASH) from the lepidopteran model organism Bombyx mori, including three proneural genes and one neural precursor gene. Proteins encoded by them contained the characteristic bHLH domain and the three proneural ones were also found to have the C-terminal conserved motif. These genes regulated promoter activity through the Class A E-boxes in vitro. Though both Bm-ASH and Drosophila AS-C have four members, they are not in one by one corresponding relationships. Results of RT-PCR and real-time PCR showed that Bm-ASH genes were expressed in different larval tissues, and had well-regulated expressional profiles during the development of embryo and wing/wing disc. Conclusion There are four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori, the second insect having four AS-C genes so far, and these genes have multiple functions in silkworm life cycle. AS-C gene duplication in insects occurs after or parallel to, but not before the taxonomic order formation during evolution.

Zhou, Qingxiang; Zhang, Tianyi; Xu, Weihua; Yu, Linlin; Yi, Yongzhu; Zhang, Zhifang

2008-01-01

168

The CesA Gene Family of Barley. Quantitative Analysis of Transcripts Reveals Two Groups of Co-Expressed Genes1  

PubMed Central

Sequence data from cDNA and genomic clones, coupled with analyses of expressed sequence tag databases, indicate that the CesA (cellulose synthase) gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare) has at least eight members, which are distributed across the genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction has been used to determine the relative abundance of mRNA transcripts for individual HvCesA genes in vegetative and floral tissues, at different stages of development. To ensure accurate expression profiling, geometric averaging of multiple internal control gene transcripts has been applied for the normalization of transcript abundance. Total HvCesA mRNA levels are highest in coleoptiles, roots, and stems and much lower in floral tissues, early developing grain, and in the elongation zone of leaves. In most tissues, HvCesA1, HvCesA2, and HvCesA6 predominate, and their relative abundance is very similar; these genes appear to be coordinately transcribed. A second group, comprising HvCesA4, HvCesA7, and HvCesA8, also appears to be coordinately transcribed, most obviously in maturing stem and root tissues. The HvCesA3 expression pattern does not fall into either of these two groups, and HvCesA5 transcript levels are extremely low in all tissues. Thus, the HvCesA genes fall into two general groups of three genes with respect to mRNA abundance, and the co-expression of the groups identifies their products as candidates for the rosettes that are involved in cellulose biosynthesis at the plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis allows the two groups of genes to be linked with orthologous Arabidopsis CesA genes that have been implicated in primary and secondary wall synthesis.

Burton, Rachel A.; Shirley, Neil J.; King, Brendon J.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

2004-01-01

169

Metabolic engineering of raffinose-family oligosaccharides in the phloem reveals alterations in carbon partitioning and enhances resistance to green peach aphid  

PubMed Central

Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT) leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT plants. When added to an artificial diet, RFOs did not have a negative effect on aphid fecundity, suggesting that although aphid resistance in the transgenic plants is enhanced, it is not due to direct toxicity of RFO toward the insect.

Cao, Te; Lahiri, Ipsita; Singh, Vijay; Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti; Ayre, Brian G.

2013-01-01

170

Domain analyses reveal that Chlamydia trachomatis CT694 protein belongs to the membrane-localized family of type III effector proteins.  

PubMed

The Chlamydia trachomatis type three-secreted effector protein CT694 is expressed during late-cycle development yet is secreted by infectious particles during the invasion process. We have previously described the presence of at least two functional domains within CT694. CT694 was found to interact with the human protein Ahnak through a C-terminal domain and affect formation of host-cell actin stress fibers. Immunolocalization analyses of ectopically expressed pEGFP-CT694 also revealed plasma membrane localization for CT694 that was independent of Ahnak binding. Here we provide evidence that CT694 contains multiple functional domains. Plasma membrane localization and CT694-induced alterations in host cell morphology are dependent on an N-terminal domain. We demonstrate that membrane association of CT694 is dependent on a domain resembling a membrane localization domain (MLD) found in anti-host proteins from Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella spp. This domain is necessary and sufficient for localization and morphology changes but is not required for Ahnak binding. Further, the CT694 MLD is able to complement ExoS ?MLD when ectopically expressed. Taken together, our data indicate that CT694 is a multidomain protein with the potential to modulate multiple host cell processes. PMID:22711538

Bullock, Holly D; Hower, Suzanne; Fields, Kenneth A

2012-06-18

171

Characterization of the Rice PHO1 Gene Family Reveals a Key Role for OsPHO1;2 in Phosphate Homeostasis and the Evolution of a Distinct Clade in Dicotyledons1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Phosphate homeostasis was studied in a monocotyledonous model plant through the characterization of the PHO1 gene family in rice (Oryza sativa). Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome has three PHO1 homologs, which cluster with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPHO1 and AtPHO1;H1, the only two genes known to be involved in root-to-shoot transfer of phosphate. In contrast to the Arabidopsis PHO1 gene family, all three rice PHO1 genes have a cis-natural antisense transcript located at the 5 ? end of the genes. Strand-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed distinct patterns of expression for sense and antisense transcripts for all three genes, both at the level of tissue expression and in response to nutrient stress. The most abundantly expressed gene was OsPHO1;2 in the roots, for both sense and antisense transcripts. However, while the OsPHO1;2 sense transcript was relatively stable under various nutrient deficiencies, the antisense transcript was highly induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency. Characterization of Ospho1;1 and Ospho1;2 insertion mutants revealed that only Ospho1;2 mutants had defects in Pi homeostasis, namely strong reduction in Pi transfer from root to shoot, which was accompanied by low-shoot and high-root Pi. Our data identify OsPHO1;2 as playing a key role in the transfer of Pi from roots to shoots in rice, and indicate that this gene could be regulated by its cis-natural antisense transcripts. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of PHO1 homologs in monocotyledons and dicotyledons revealed the emergence of a distinct clade of PHO1 genes in dicotyledons, which include members having roles other than long-distance Pi transport.

Secco, David; Baumann, Arnaud; Poirier, Yves

2010-01-01

172

Analyses of the PRF1 gene in individuals with hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis reveal the common haplotype R54C/A91V in Colombian unrelated families associated with late onset disease.  

PubMed

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an impairment of cytotoxic cells and uncontrolled activation of macrophages. This study presents the first description of four patients with FHL type 2 in Latin America. Patient 1 fulfilled the disease diagnostic criteria since 2 months of age, whereas patients 2, 3 and 4 exhibited the typical manifestations of the disease only later in their childhood. The PRF1 genetic analysis in these patients revealed two previously reported mutations: L17fsx50 and R54C. Interestingly, seven out of the 8 alleles evaluated here in patients carried the haplotype R54C/A91V, suggesting that this is a highly frequent FHL type 2 allele in Colombia. This haplotype confers residual cytotoxic function leading to late onset disease. Therefore, this report highlights the remarkable complexity of FHL diagnostic, emphasizing the importance of the genetic characterization of the disease. PMID:22437823

Sánchez, Isaura P; Leal-Esteban, Lucía C; Álvarez-Álvarez, Jesús A; Pérez-Romero, Camilo A; Orrego, Julio C; Serna, Malyive L; Coll, Yadira; Caicedo, Yolanda; Pardo-Díaz, Edwin; Zimmer, Jacques; Bleesing, Jack J; Franco, José L; Trujillo-Vargas, Claudia M

2012-03-22

173

Structures of the first representatives of Pfam family PF06684 (DUF1185) reveal a novel variant of the Bacillus chorismate mutase fold and suggest a role in amino-acid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The crystal structures of BB2672 and SPO0826 were determined to resolutions of 1.7 and 2.1?Å by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion, respectively, using the semi-automated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). These proteins are the first structural representatives of the PF06684 (DUF1185) Pfam family. Structural analysis revealed that both structures adopt a variant of the Bacillus chorismate mutase fold (BCM). The biological unit of both proteins is a hexamer and analysis of homologs indicates that the oligomer interface residues are highly conserved. The conformation of the critical regions for oligomerization appears to be dependent on pH or salt concentration, suggesting that this protein might be subject to environmental regulation. Structural similarities to BCM and genome-context analysis suggest a function in amino-acid synthesis.

Bakolitsa, Constantina; Kumar, Abhinav; Jin, Kevin K.; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Burra, Prasad; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Trout, Christina V.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

174

Family Diversity and School Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the mismatch between the diversity of American families and the structure of the schools. An examination of the history of the family reveals that the family of the past was very different from the idealized versions popularized in the media. Data concerning divorce, single-parent families, intergenerational interaction,…

Lindner, Barbara

175

Family Resilience: Israeli Mothers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study reveals components underlying the concept of family resilience based on the perceptions of Israeli women. Five components of family resilience were identified (1) interpersonal relations; (2) ability to share painful feelings; (3) flexibility among family members; (4) connectedness; and (5) family values. Components have practical…

Cohen, Orna; Slonim, Iris; Finzi, Ricky; Leichtentritt, Ronit D.

2002-01-01

176

Getting a High-Speed Family Connection: Associations between Family Media Use and Family Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way families have used the media has substantially changed over the past decade. Within the framework of family systems theory, this paper examines the relations between family media use and family connection in a sample of 453 adolescents (mean age of child = 14.32 years, SD = 0.98, 52% female) and their parents. Results revealed that cell…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.

2012-01-01

177

Getting a High-Speed Family Connection: Associations between Family Media Use and Family Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The way families have used the media has substantially changed over the past decade. Within the framework of family systems theory, this paper examines the relations between family media use and family connection in a sample of 453 adolescents (mean age of child = 14.32 years, SD = 0.98, 52% female) and their parents. Results revealed that cell…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.

2012-01-01

178

Georgia Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.

179

America Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tagline on the America Revealed website says it all: "America Revealed explores the hidden patterns and rhythms that make America work." A remarkable series from PBS, the show talks about everything from how fresh seafood is sourced to how farmers combat crop pests. The Stories section includes a collage of images that, when scrolled over, provide accounts from a variety of people and industries. First-time visitors might want to watch the "Introduction to Manufacturing" series, which explores items that are made in the United States. Visitors can also use the Map section to look for stories of note from around the country, from Long Island to Southern California. The Teachers area includes ten lesson plans and links to additional resources. Finally, visitors can click on the Episodes area to watch complete episodes of the program.

2013-04-22

180

Acetone formation in the Vibrio family: a new pathway for bacterial leucine catabolism.  

PubMed

There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of L-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. L-Leucine, but not D-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of L-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only alpha-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d(7))-L-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

Nemecek-Marshall, M; Wojciechowski, C; Wagner, W P; Fall, R

1999-12-01

181

Indicators of Familial Alcoholism in Children's Kinetic Family Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attempts to delineate indicators in children's depictions of family that suggest the presence of parental alcoholism. Kinetic Family Drawings from two groups of children were collected. Statistical analysis revealed two of six items of the evaluation - depiction of isolation of self and isolation of other family members - were significantly…

Holt, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Donna H.

2001-01-01

182

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: Analysis of linkage to 2p 15-16 places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123 and reveals genetic heterogeneity in seven Canadian families  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait responsible for approximately 6% of colorectal cancers. Linkage of the HNPCC trait to the D2S123 locus on 2p 15-16 has previously been reported in two families. This HNPCC locus is now designated [open quotes]COCA1[close quotes]. The authors have tested seven Canadian HNPCC families, who have a variety of clinical presentations, for linkage to a panel of microsatellite polymorphisms in the vicinity of D2S123. One family was clearly linked to the COCA1 locus (LOD = 4.21), and a second family is likely to be linked (LOD = 0.92). In three families linkage was excluded. In the remaining two families the data were inconclusive. In the linked family, individuals with cancer of the endometrium or ureter share a common haplotype with 12 family members with colorectal cancer. This supports the suspected association between these extracolonic neoplasms and the HNPCC syndrome. In addition, five of the six individuals with adenomatous polyps (but no colorectal cancer) have the same haplotype as the affected individuals, while the sixth carries a recombination. One individual with colorectal cancer carries a recombination that places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123. This study localizes the COCA1 gene to an 8-cM region that is consistent with the location of the hMSH2 gene. The authors also confirm that families presently classified as HNPCC are genetically heterogeneous. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Green, R.C.; Young, T.L. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada)); Narod, S.A.; Tonin, P.; Ginsburg, O.; Miller, S. (Montreal General Hospital, Montreal (Canada) Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)); Morasse, J. (Hopital St-Francois d'Assise, Quebec City (Canada)); Cox, J.; Fitzgerald, G.W.N. (Grenfell Regional Health Services, St. Anthony, Newfoundland (Canada)); Jothy, S. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)) (and others)

1994-06-01

183

Revealing Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Revealing Things is the Smithsonian Institution's first specifically web based exhibit; both the content and design of the site are fascinating. This work in progress is a prototype of a future, more fully-developed exhibit. It concentrates on "common, everyday objects to tell stories about people, their cultures, and the meanings they associate with their possessions." Items discussed include a 1937 chemistry set, a Vietnam memorial offering, a duckpin bowling ball, an early TV, and a celery vase, among many others. Organized according to theme, era, and object, the exhibit is presented in a new pop-up browser window. Within that window, navigation takes place via "maplets," a connected series of moving colored labels representing the three ways that the exhibit is organized. Users can move slider bars to effect the placement of the labels, and search on terms to create their own thematic or object-based exhibit. When the cursor is placed over an object label, scrolling text introduces it. Alternatively, the site can be navigated via a series of icons that run down the middle of the exhibition page. When an icon is clicked, the series of icons may rearrange. Each exhibit contains a photo of the object, along with written commentary on it. In addition, sound is sometimes available to play period music, or render out loud the exhibition text. The most fully-developed object at this time is "Patched Bellbottoms." Users are advised to read the help files on both the main page and the exhibit page for navigation tips. The exhibit is a fascinating precursor of what could be a new way to interactively view museum exhibits, allowing the user to cast off the restraints of a linear orientation. Note that the exhibit is extremely browser and bandwidth intensive.

1998-01-01

184

Foster Families  

MedlinePLUS

... foster family? Let's find out. What Are Foster Families? The word "foster" means to help someone (or ... stressful time. Why Do Kids Live With Foster Families? Most often, a kid goes into a foster ...

185

On the Origins of a Vibrio Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two genome sequences of various Vibrionaceae members are compared, with emphasis on what makes V. cholerae unique. As few as 1,000 gene families are conserved across all the Vibrionaceae genomes analysed; this fraction roughly doubles for gene families conserved within the species V. cholerae. Of these, approximately 200 gene families that cluster on various locations of the genome are not

Tammi Vesth; Trudy M. Wassenaar; Peter F. Hallin; Lars Snipen; Karin Lagesen; David W. Ussery

2010-01-01

186

Family Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.

Holloway, John H.

2004-01-01

187

IGSF9 family proteins.  

PubMed

The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene, whereas vertebrates contain two to four genes. In cnidarians, the gene appears to encode a secreted protein, but transmembrane isoforms of the protein have also evolved, and in many species, alternative splicing facilitates the expression of both transmembrane and secreted isoforms. In most species, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle and mammalian IGSF9 proteins are contradictory. PMID:23417431

Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

2013-02-16

188

Family Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... of families. Some have two parents, while others have a single parent. Sometimes there is no parent and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much more than groups of people who share the same genes or the same ...

189

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

190

Family and migration.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effects of international migration on internal family structure, as well as the adaptation and integration of families into receiving countries. The importance of the role and function of the family in migration research can be examined from 3 angles: theoretical, methodological, and empirical (that is, the societal relevance of family in migration). A renewed theoretical perspective views the family in the sending country instead of the individual as the focus of attention, and reveals that 1) migration patterns are not exclusively among the poor or unemployed; 2) migration is not always for the benefit of the immigrant; and 3) migration should be studied as a process, not as a result. Recent studies show that 1) family or kinship migration is increasingly important and that families help new migrants adapt to the receiving country, both emotionally and financially; 2) family and kinship ties tend to become consolidated in the receiving country; and 3) the family helps migrants cope with stress caused by the migration experience. Studies on families' preservation of culture and adaptation of culture and behavior have gone from 1) descriptive to analytical and, 2) focusing on the receiving society to focusing on the strategies used by immigrants (from value-conformity to an individualistic-situation approach). Migration also causes changes in family organization and functioning, which should be studied as an internal process inside the family and as complex group. Within the family are 3 sets of substructures which change during the process of adaptation and/or assimilation to/into the receiving society: 1) the husband-wife relationship, 2) the parent-child relationship, and 3) the relationship among siblings. PMID:12315897

Dumon, W A

1989-06-01

191

Common evolutionary origin of aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses revealed by genome characterization of Golden shiner reovirus, Grass carp reovirus, Striped bass reovirus and golden ide reovirus (genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-length and partial genome sequences of four members of the genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae (Golden shiner reovirus, Grass carp reovirus, Striped bass reovirus and golden ide reovirus) were characterized. Based on sequence comparison, the unclassified Grass carp reovirus was shown to be a member of the species Aquareovirus C. The status of golden ide reovirus, another unclassified aquareovirus, was also

Houssam Attoui; Qin Fang; Fauziah Mohd Jaafar; Jean-François Cantaloube; Philippe Biagini; Philippe de Micco; Xavier de Lamballerie

192

Fragile Families and Family Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family law reforms concerning paternity, child support, illegitimacy, and domestic violence have helped fragile families over the past 50 years. Yet fragile families remain invisible to much of family law because historically lawmakers have focused on the problems of the middle and upper classes. Also, the law still enshrines some confining stereotypes, thus encouraging the poor to enter into unstable,

LYNN D. WARDLE

193

Family Governance with Family Councils  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the third generation onwards, family firms could get into business threatening situations. This might depend on the growing number of owners, the increasing distance of family members from the firm, and the heterogeneity of their interests. Thus, agency prob- lems and negative conflicts might occur. This calls for the appropriate choice of family gov- ernance mechanisms. Family councils might

Klaus Brockhoff; Alexander Koeberle-Schmid

194

Expression profiling reveals Spot 42 small RNA as a key regulator in the central metabolism of Aliivibrio salmonicida  

PubMed Central

Background Spot 42 was discovered in Escherichia coli nearly 40 years ago as an abundant, small and unstable RNA. Its biological role has remained obscure until recently, and is today implicated in having broader roles in the central and secondary metabolism. Spot 42 is encoded by the spf gene. The gene is ubiquitous in the Vibrionaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria. One member of this family, Aliivibrio salmonicida, causes cold-water vibriosis in farmed Atlantic salmon. Its genome encodes Spot 42 with 84% identity to E. coli Spot 42. Results We generated a A. salmonicida spf deletion mutant. We then used microarray and Northern blot analyses to monitor global effects on the transcriptome in order to provide insights into the biological roles of Spot 42 in this bacterium. In the presence of glucose, we found a surprisingly large number of ? 2X differentially expressed genes, and several major cellular processes were affected. A gene encoding a pirin-like protein showed an on/off expression pattern in the presence/absence of Spot 42, which suggests that Spot 42 plays a key regulatory role in the central metabolism by regulating the switch between fermentation and respiration. Interestingly, we discovered an sRNA named VSsrna24, which is encoded immediately downstream of spf. This new sRNA has an expression pattern opposite to that of Spot 42, and its expression is repressed by glucose. Conclusions We hypothesize that Spot 42 plays a key role in the central metabolism, in part by regulating the pyruvat dehydrogenase enzyme complex via pirin.

2012-01-01

195

DETECTION OF VIBRIOS IN OYSTERS CRASSOSTRTEA VIRGINICA AND SEAWATER USING A NEW, RAPID, SIMPLE, AND QUANTITATIVE ENZYME-BASED ASSAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Vibrionaceae family of bacteria contains important human and fish pathogens. We developed a rapid, simple, and quantitative detection method for members of the Vibrionaceae family. The assay, referred to as the colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP), is based on the rapid and inexpensiv...

196

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

197

Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Method Analysis of Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter hCNT3 Reveals a Novel Discontinuous Region of Functional Importance within the CNT Family Motif (G/A)XKX3NEFVA(Y/M/F)*  

PubMed Central

The human SLC28 family of integral membrane CNT (concentrative nucleoside transporter) proteins has three members, hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. Na+-coupled hCNT1 and hCNT2 transport pyrimidine and purine nucleosides, respectively, whereas hCNT3 mediates transport of both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides utilizing Na+ and/or H+ electrochemical gradients. These and other eukaryote CNTs are currently defined by a putative 13-transmembrane helix (TM) topology model with an intracellular N terminus and a glycosylated extracellular C terminus. Recent mutagenesis studies, however, have provided evidence supporting an alternative 15-TM membrane architecture. In the absence of CNT crystal structures, valuable information can be gained about residue localization and function using substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis with thiol-reactive reagents, such as p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and the cysteineless hCNT3 protein hCNT3C?, substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate was performed on the TM 11–13 region, including bridging extramembranous loops. The results identified residues of functional importance and, consistent with a new revised 15-TM CNT membrane architecture, suggest a novel membrane-associated topology for a region of the protein (TM 11A) that includes the highly conserved CNT family motif (G/A)XKX3NEFVA(Y/M/F).

Slugoski, Melissa D.; Ng, Amy M. L.; Yao, Sylvia Y. M.; Lin, Colin C.; Mulinta, Ras; Cass, Carol E.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Young, James D.

2009-01-01

198

The Family Career Development Project in Chinese Canadian Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six Chinese-Canadian parent-adolescent pairs were monitored over 6 months, revealing characteristics of family involvement in adolescent career development: importance of parental agenda, adolescents' involvement, parent communication of reasoning, and adolescent withholding/withdrawing response. Family career development was central to other…

Young, Richard A.; Ball, Jessica; Valach, Ladislav; Turkel, Hayley; Wong, Yuk Shuen

2003-01-01

199

Teaching Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

Students should study the family system just as they would an organ system, making use of family studies and home visits. A comparison of private and academic faculty revealed the need to instruct private practitioners on patient selection and teaching methodology. Experience has shown that patients from the lower socioeconomic classes tend to allow the student to participate more in their family life and health care and that, in return, the student is often able to assist these patients in some way. Faculty must guide, monitor, and assist students with problems. Audit of students' and patients' reports on and evaluations of the family study will provide valuable information for planning future programs or revamping continuing ones.

Baumslag, Naomi

1976-01-01

200

Analysis of deep sequencing microRNA expression profile from human embryonic stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells reveals possible role of let-7 microRNA family in downstream targeting of Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent literature has revealed that genetic exchange of microRNA between cells can be essential for cell-cell communication, tissue-specificity and developmental processes. In stem cells, as in other cells, this can be accomplished through microvesicles or exosome mediated transfer. However, molecular profiles and functions of microRNAs within the cells and in their exosomes are poorly studied. Next generation sequencing technologies

Winston Koh; Chen Tian Sheng; Betty Tan; Qian Yi Lee; Vladimir Kuznetsov; Lim Sai Kiang; Vivek Tanavde

2010-01-01

201

Expression QTL mapping in regulatory and helper T cells from the BXD family of strains reveals novel cell-specific genes, gene-gene interactions and candidate genes for auto-immune disease  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in the control of the immune response. Treg cells represent important targets for therapeutic interventions of the immune system. Therefore, it will be very important to understand in more detail which genes are specifically activated in Treg cells versus T helper (Th) cells, and which gene regulatory circuits may be involved in specifying and maintaining Treg cell homeostasis. Results We isolated Treg and Th cells from a genetically diverse family of 31 BXD type recombinant inbred strains and the fully inbred parental strains of this family--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Subsequently genome-wide gene expression studies were performed from the isolated Treg and Th cells. A comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of these cell populations allowed us to identify many novel differentially expressed genes. Analysis of cis- and trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) highlighted common and unique regulatory mechanisms that are active in the two cell types. Trans-eQTL regions were found for the Treg functional genes Nrp1, Stat3 and Ikzf4. Analyses of the respective QTL intervals suggested several candidate genes that may be involved in regulating these genes in Treg cells. Similarly, possible candidate genes were found which may regulate the expression of F2rl1, Ctla4, Klrb1f. In addition, we identified a focused group of candidate genes that may be important for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of allergy. Conclusions Variation of expression across the strains allowed us to find many novel gene-interaction networks in both T cell subsets. In addition, these two data sets enabled us to identify many differentially expressed genes and to nominate candidate genes that may have important functions for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of allergy.

2011-01-01

202

Molecular analysis reveals a high mutation frequency in the first untranslated exon of the PPOX gene and largely excludes variegate porphyria in a subset of clinically affected Afrikaner families.  

PubMed

A subset of probands from 11 South African families with clinical and/or biochemical features of variegate porphyria (VP), but without the known protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene defects identified previously in the South African population, were subjected to mutation analysis. Disease-related mutation(s) could not be identified after screening virtually the entire PPOX gene by heteroduplex single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (HEX-SSCP), although three new sequence variants were detected in exon 1 of the gene in three normal controls. The presence of these single base changes at nucleotide positions 22 (C/G), 27 (C/A) and 127 (C/A), in addition to the known exon 1 polymorphisms I-26 and I-150, indicates that this untranslated region of the PPOX gene is particularly mutation-prone. Furthermore, microsatellite markers flanking the PPOX and alpha-1 antitrypsin (PI) gene, on chromosomes 1 and 14, respectively, were used to assess the probability of involvement of these loci in disease presentation. Common alleles transmitted from affected parent to affected child were determined where possible in the mutation-negative index cases. Allelic frequencies of these alleles were compared to findings in the normal population, but no predominant disease-associated allele could be identified. Co-segregation of a specific haplotype with the disease phenotype could also not be demonstrated in a large Afrikaner family. It is concluded that further studies are warranted to determine the genetic factor(s) underlying the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in molecularly uncharacterized cases showing clinical symptoms of an acute porphyria. PMID:9778454

Kotze, M J; De Villiers, J N; Groenewald, J Z; Rooney, R N; Loubser, O; Thiart, R; Oosthuizen, C J; van Niekerk, M M; Groenewald, I M; Retief, A E; Warnich, L

1998-10-01

203

Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking*  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the 1994-95 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to conduct logistic regression analyses that revealed adolescents in two biological married parent families were least likely to smoke or drink, whereas adolescents in cohabiting stepfamilies were most likely. Those in single-mother families and married stepfamilies were in between. Maternal socialization was related to reduced odds of smoking and drinking. Maternal modeling was positively associated with smoking and drinking. Family structure is indicative of distinct family processes that are linked to risky behaviors among adolescents.

Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

2010-01-01

204

Family Lessons and Funds of Knowledge: College-Going Paths in Mexican American Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families are crucial in the development of a college-going culture in the home. This qualitative study illustrates that Mexican American families are no exception. Using a multiple case study design, this study explored the funds of knowledge present in Mexican American families. Findings from this study reveal how daily educational practices, extended family networks, and preexisting college knowledge contribute to

Judy Marquez Kiyama

2010-01-01

205

Family Reunification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reunifying children placed in foster care with their birth parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system. Yet, relatively little is known about the reunification process. This article analyzes new data on trends in family reunification and discovers: (1) Although most children still exit foster care through family reunification, exit…

Wulczyn, Fred

2004-01-01

206

Veritas Asteroid Family Still Holds Secrets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veritas asteroid family has been studied for about two decades. These studies have revealed many secrets, and a respectable knowledge about this family had been collected. Here I will present many of these results and review the current knowledge about the family. However, despite being extensively studied, Veritas family is still a mystery. This will be illustrated through the presentation of the most interesting open problems. Was there a secondary collision within this family? Does asteroid (490) Veritas belong to the family named after it? How large was the parent body of the family? Finally, some possible directions for future studies that aims to address these questions are discussed as well.

Novakovic, B.

2012-12-01

207

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri: A symbiotic bacterium with pathogenic congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine -proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue. Among the small number of pathogenic Vibrio species that cause human diseases are Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, the only members of the Vibrionaceae that have had

E. G. Ruby; M. Urbanowski; J. Campbell; A. Dunn; M. Faini; R. Gunsalus; P. Lostroh; C. Lupp; J. McCann; D. Millikan; A. Schaefer; E. Stabb; A. Stevens; K. Visick; C. Whistler; E. P. Greenberg

2005-01-01

208

Family Theory and Family Health Research  

PubMed Central

Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed.

Doherty, William J.

1991-01-01

209

[Family ideology].  

PubMed

This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

Kornblit, A

1982-06-01

210

Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships  

PubMed Central

Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains.

Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

2009-01-01

211

Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O-methyltransferases.  

PubMed

Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells of pods of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Characterization of the corresponding two enzymes, designated Vp-OMT4 and Vp-OMT5, revealed that in vitro both enzymes preferred as a substrate the flavone tricetin, yet their sequences and phylogenetic relationships to other enzymes are distinct from each other. Quantitative analysis of gene expression indicated a dramatic tissue-specific expression pattern for Vp-OMT4, which was highly expressed in the hair cells of the developing pod, the likely location of vanillin biosynthesis. Although Vp-OMT4 had a lower activity with the proposed vanillin precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, than with tricetin, the tissue specificity of expression suggests it may be a candidate for an enzyme involved in vanillin biosynthesis. In contrast, the Vp-OMT5 gene was mainly expressed in leaf tissue and only marginally expressed in pod hair cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Vp-OMT5 evolved from a cyanobacterial enzyme and it clustered within a clade in which the sequences from eukaryotic species had predicted chloroplast transit peptides. Transient expression of a GFP-fusion in tobacco demonstrated that Vp-OMT5 was localized in the plastids. This is the first flavonoid OMT demonstrated to be targeted to the plastids. PMID:21629984

Widiez, Thomas; Hartman, Thomas G; Dudai, Nativ; Yan, Qing; Lawton, Michael; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

2011-04-05

212

Family Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... your son or other family members erupt into arguments and you're left feeling frustrated and angry. ... Your e-mail Clicking "send" signifies that you have read and agree to our privacy policy. Share ...

213

Family Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... the challenges of autism and provides a safe, inclusive environment for both the child and family (see ... the lives of all affected by autism through education, advocacy, services, research and support.

214

Family Life  

MedlinePLUS

... partner and feel sad and frustrated by your limitations. Both people in your relationship may benefit from ... friends, family members, or professionals. Talking openly about limitations and brainstorming possible solutions will help both of ...

215

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... found at http://www.usa.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics About Us Weekly Update Genomics and Health Family Health History Genomic Testing EGAPP Implementation Reports and Publications Blog Podcasts ...

216

Importance of Family Routines  

MedlinePLUS

... Life > Family Dynamics > The Importance of Family Routines Family Life Listen The Importance of Family Routines Article Body Why are family routines so important to children? Every family needs ...

217

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Normal Functioning Family Family Life Listen Normal Functioning Family Article Body Is there any way to tell if my family is functioning normally? Many parents ask themselves this ...

218

Familial nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma.  

PubMed

Judging from recent data, heritable forms account for 30-40% of pheochromocytomas. The molecular basis for the familial pheochromocytoma has been largely elucidated and the role of germline mutation of the VHL, RET, SDHB, and SDHD genes has been established. However, on genotyping a group of 172 sporadic or familial pheochromocytomas, we characterized four unrelated probands with familial pheochromocytomas without any sequence variants of RET (exons 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16) or the entire coding sequence of VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and EGLN3 (exon-intron boundaries included). The proband of family 1 is a man who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 32 and a local recurrence at the age of 48 years. His brother died of malignant pheochromocytoma and his nephew died suddenly of an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. The proband of family 2 is a female who had a 5-cm benign adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 34 years, while her cousin (maternal branch) had a monolateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 42 years. No other tumors had been reported in either family. The proband of family 3 is a female who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 66 years. Her sister had a bilateral pheochromocytoma and breast cancer at the age of 54 years. Several other tumors were recorded in this family, including laryngeal cancer, leukemia, and a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in one brother. MTC was naturally ruled out in the proband and her sister. In family 4, the proband was a female who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 46 years and a local recurrence a few years later, with liver metastases from the pheochromocytoma. Her brother had a monolateral benign pheochromocytoma. The proband also had a melanoma and bilateral renal cysts. This case revealed a VHL sequence variant IVS2+43 A>G, which was also found in one other unrelated sporadic pheochromocytoma. VHL mRNA integrity is currently being evaluated. The proband had no cerebellar or spinal NMR findings or retinal alterations. In family 5, the proband was a female who had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 50 years and a breast cancer at 49 years of age. Her mother had had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at 61 years of age. Although other molecular mechanisms, such as particular variants in untranslated regions or partial gene deletions, cannot be ruled out, we think finding families with nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma without any RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, or EGLN3 mutation may argue in favor of the presence of other pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes. PMID:17102081

Opocher, Giuseppe; Schiavi, Francesca; Iacobone, Maurizio; Toniato, Antonio; Sattarova, Sabina; Erlic, Zoran; Martella, Maddalena; Mian, Caterina; Merante Boschin, Isabella; Zambonin, Laura; De Lazzari, Paola; Murgia, Alessandra; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

2006-08-01

219

[Family therapy in polygamous families].  

PubMed

Patients from polygamous families are over-represented in the Enugu Psychiatric Hospital. The authors came to this conclusion after case notes from 116 anxiety neurotic, 101 schizophrenic and 117 depressive patients were examined. The patients were treated from 1970 to 1979. Polygamy was shortly described with its advantages and disadvantages. Competition between the wives, over-burdening of the husband and often poor care of the children represent the background for the symptoms of the patients, who come from such families. Looking for useful therapeutic methods the method of the natives to solve family quarrels were viewed. Making use of psychoanalytic therapy models especially as represented by Dührssen, Richter and Toman a family therapy model was presented which takes the native judgement model into consideration. A case was presented to illustrate the above. PMID:7234152

Ebigho, P O; Onyeama, W P; Ihezue, U H; Ahanotu, A C

220

Founding-Family Ownership and Firm Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We investigate the relation between,founding-family ownership,and firm per- formance. We find that family ownership is both prevalent and substantial; fa- milies are present in one-third of the S&P500 and account for 18 percent of outstanding equity. Contrary to our conjecture, we find family firms perform better than nonfamily firms. Additional analysis reveals that the relation be- tween family holdings

Ronald C. Anderson; David M. Reeb

221

Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family.  

PubMed

We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:10050890

Almer, G; Hainfellner, J A; Brücke, T; Jellinger, K; Kleinert, R; Bayer, G; Windl, O; Kretzschmar, H A; Hill, A; Sidle, K; Collinge, J; Budka, H

1999-01-01

222

Family Foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for community re-entry. This paper provides a

Brenda Wiewel; Toni Mosley

2006-01-01

223

Family Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

1985-01-01

224

Familial dysautonomia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial dysautonomia is a developmental disorder of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. Recent studies have shown that two mutations in the gene IKBKAP are responsible for the disease. IKAP, the IKBKAP-encoded protein, is a member of the recently identified human Elongator complex. The major FD mutation is a splice mutation that results in aberrant tissue-specific mRNA splicing.

Susan A Slaugenhaupt; James F Gusella

2002-01-01

225

Family Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Falbel describes the process by which she and her brother and parents were saved from Austria on the eve of WWII through the determined efforts of an aunt and uncle in America, and subsequent failed attempts to obtain exit visas for her grandparents. Included are seven letters from among hundreds that were sent between family members in different countries, describing

Rita Falbel

2009-01-01

226

Family Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falbel describes the process by which she and her brother and parents were saved from Austria on the eve of WWII through the determined efforts of an aunt and uncle in America, and subsequent failed attempts to obtain exit visas for her grandparents. Included are seven letters from among hundreds that were sent between family members in different countries, describing

Translated

2009-01-01

227

Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

1979-01-01

228

My Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This elementary reader is designed for use in a bilingual Inupiat-English program in Buckland and Deering, Alaska. It is the story of a small boy named Paul and his family. The Inupiat text and its English equivalent are never in opposition. The Inupiat text is presented on a picture page, with the English on the back. The illustrations, by J.…

Alaska State-Operated Schools, Anchorage.

229

Stressors and Family Supports: Families with Children Using Augmentative & Alternative Communication Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A statewide (Pennsylvania) survey examined stressors and family supports of 59 families with children (ages 3 through 12) who use augmentative and alternative technology. The Parenting Stress Index and the Family Support Scale revealed that both parents perceived child-related variables of acceptance and demand as stressful but that mothers and…

Jones, Sheila Dove; Angelo, Dianne H.; Kokoska, Stephen M.

1999-01-01

230

Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of a sample of 100 picture storybooks about family life published 1943-1993 reveals no significant differences in the frequency of appearance of different family types or ethnicities over time. Dominant images remained the nuclear (63%) and Caucasian (67%) family. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

Rodman, Nancy M.; Hildreth, Gladys J.

2002-01-01

231

Family Lessons and Funds of Knowledge: College-Going Paths in Mexican American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families are crucial in the development of a college-going culture in the home. This qualitative study illustrates that Mexican American families are no exception. Using a multiple case study design, this study explored the funds of knowledge present in Mexican American families. Findings from this study reveal how daily educational practices,…

Kiyama, Judy Marquez

2011-01-01

232

The Families of Lesbian and Gay Men: A New Frontier in Family Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of 8,000 articles in family research journals revealed that research on lesbian and gay families is limited and that studies that do exist have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. Challenges the neglect of this population in family studies, and discusses theoretical implications. (JPS)|

Allen, Katherine R.; Demo, David H.

1995-01-01

233

Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

2010-01-01

234

Family Structure and Mental Health: The Mediating Effects of Socioeconomic Status, Family Process, and Social Stress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies reveal differences in mental health by the structure of one's family of origin, there remains debate regarding the processes generating these patterns. Using a sample of young adults (19–21 years) in Miami-Dade County in Florida, this study examines the explanatory significance of three presumed correlates of family type: socioeconomic status, family processes, and level of social stress.

Anne E. Barrett; R. Jay Turner

2005-01-01

235

Familial neonatal SIDS revealing carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with a severe phenotype of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CATR)(McKusick 212138) is reported.\\u000a Prior to birth, a defect in ?-oxidation was suspected because of neonatal death of six siblings. Dietary treatment during\\u000a neonatal adaptation and the subsequent six months of life and a trial of carnitine supplementation are reported. The rapidity\\u000a with which long chain fatty acid metabolites can

J.-M. Nuoffer; P. de Lonlay; C. Costa; C. R. Roe; N. Chamoles; M. Brivet; J. M. Saudubray

2000-01-01

236

Revealing a Child's Pathology: Physicians' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 12 physicians and 12 care-givers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. We explored physicians' experiences when they revealed a diagnosis. We also tried to understand which family members the physician was thinking of, with whom they identified themselves, and their first choice of the person to whom they prefer to…

Scelles, Regine; Aubert-Godard, Anne; Gargiulo, Marcela; Avant, Monique; Gortais, Jean

2010-01-01

237

Mob families and mad families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We show the consistency of where is the size of the smallest off-branch family, and is as usual the dominating number. We also prove the consistency of with large continuum. Here, is the unbounding number, and is the almost disjointness number.

Jörg Brendle

1998-01-01

238

Family Issues in the Workplace: Are Students on Track?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees attempting to balance careers and families have made family issues a major concern in the workplace. Equity issues arise, however, for employees who do not have family responsibilities. In this study, the authors sought to determine whether students' and employees' perceptions of family issues differed in their responses to nine statements. Two-tailed t tests revealed significant differences between students

Karen K. Waner; Janet K. Winter; Ronald G. Breshears

2005-01-01

239

Family Relational Values in the Parent-Adolescent Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study measured the relational family values system of upper-middle-class mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the United States. Results revealed that participants shared common family values that mainly reflected the importance of individualism, equality in family relationships, family member interdependence, and parental guidance. Parent…

Edgar-Smith, Susan E.; Wozniak, Robert H.

2010-01-01

240

Support, Communication, and Hardiness in Families With Children With Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how support and communication are related to hardiness in families who have young children with disabilities. A sample of 108 parents (54 couples) of preschool-age children with disabilities completed the measures. Among demographic variables, family income was positively correlated with family hardiness. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed perceived family support as a predictor

Susanne Frost Olsen; Elaine Sorensen Marshall; Barbara L. Mandleco; Keith W. Allred; Tina Taylor Dyches; Nancy Sansom

1999-01-01

241

Hirayama Family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any of several groups of asteroids each of whose members share similar orbital elements, in particular a closely similar semi-major axis and orbital inclination. These similarities are surmised to indicate that the members of a particular Hirayama family share a common origin in the collisional break-up of a large parent body. The existence of such groups were first pointed out by Kiyotsugu Hiray...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

242

[Familial predisposition to stroke].  

PubMed

Fifty-five patients with ischemic stroke, 22 women, 33 men, mean age 61.14 +/- 11.8 years, have been interviewed. A control group included siblings of patients' spouses. In the group of relatives, the frequency of arterial hypertension was higher by 30.8%, diabetes mellitus--by 76%, ischemic heart disease--by 59.4% and stroke--by 41% compared to the controls. In the combined group, the relative risk (RR) of factors studied was substantially higher for relatives by blood. When effect of sex on RR has been determined, the higher RR values for all risk factors in male relatives of patients have been found. In conclusion, the study of familial predisposition to stroke revealed that family members of patients with stroke are a target group for stroke prevention programs. PMID:19894297

Chinybaeva, L A; Karazhanova, L K; Kapakova, M A

2009-01-01

243

The CIA's Family Jewels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive at George Washington University has been bringing important documents to the general public's attention for years, and they recently finally received a copy of the CIA's "family jewels" report from the 1970s. They had originally filed a request for the document in 1992, and on June 26th, 2007 CIA officers finally brought the document to their headquarters. James Schlesinger, director of the CIA at the time, started the actual "family jewels" operation in 1973. Noted journalist Seymour Hersh reported on the story of this illegal domestic operation in 1974, and his investigation also revealed that the CIA had been involved in wiretapping and various break-ins since the 1950s. The document can be viewed in its entirety here, and interested parties can also search the entire document by keywords.

244

Familial mesothelioma: a report of two families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five reports of familial mesothelioma in which mesotheliomas occurred in two or more family members have been recorded in the medical literature. In this report, we describe two examples of familial mesothelioma. In one family, three brothers who worked in the asbestos insulation industry developed mesothelioma. In the second family, the father, who was occupationally exposed to asbestos, died from

Samuel P. Hammar; Dawn Bockus; Franque Remington; Susan Freidman; Gordon LaZerte

1989-01-01

245

Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

2013-01-01

246

Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family…

Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

2013-01-01

247

Concordance between patient and family reports of family functioning in bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Despite the extensive literature on family functioning and mood disorders, less is known about concordance between patient- and family-reported family functioning. To address this question, adults with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 92) or major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and their family members (n = 135 and 201, respectively) were recruited from hospital sources. All patients and their family members completed the Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, Bishop. J Marital Fam Ther. 9:171-180, 1983). Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed that, in contrast to the moderate degree of concordance in the MDD sample, degree of concordance between patient- and family-reported family functioning was significantly weaker in BD. Subsequent analysis revealed that this discordance was driven by the reports of the child and young adolescent family members of the patients with BD. Results highlight the importance of collateral reports in the assessment of family functioning, especially among families of patients with BD, in research and treatment. PMID:23588224

Weinstock, Lauren M; Wenze, Susan J; Munroe, Mary K; Miller, Ivan W

2013-05-01

248

Family Communication Patterns and the Development of Reticence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the relationship between family communication patterns and reticence. Reveals that reticent individuals reported a significantly lower level of conversation orientation within their families than members of a comparison group. (SG)|

Kelly, Lynne; Keaten, James A.; Finch, Cynthia; Duarte, Ilze B.; Hoffman, Patrizia; Michels, Margaret M.

2002-01-01

249

Military Families Considering Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... Centered Casework Practice Family Group Decision-Making Engaging Communities to Support Families Creating a Family-Centered Agency Culture Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect Home Overview ...

250

Grandparenting in Chinese Immigrant Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the life course perspective, this semistructured interview study with 29 grandparents involved in the caregiving of their grandchildren in Chinese immigrant families revealed three major themes: intergenerational connectedness and continuity of cultural practices, role varieties and responsibilities, and adjustment and adaptation. Despite immigration, Chinese grandparents continued the tradition of providing care to grandchildren. Although the grandparent role

Xiaolin Xie; Yan Xia

2011-01-01

251

Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae: a minireview  

PubMed Central

Examination of the original descriptions of genera placed within the family Opisthorchiidae has revealed that only 33 of the original 43 genera are valid members of this family. Further study of these descriptions should also reveal that many of the subfamilies are also invalid. With reference to the original descriptions of these genera, and subsequent literature, a brief survey of the family has been compiled. Information on the spectrum of definitive hosts that these helminths parasitize is provided, as well as information on the life cycles, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic impacts of the family. More in-depth information is given on those species that are of particular medical importance; namely, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus. The final aims of this review are to provide information on the entire genera of the family Opisthorchiidae, which will aid understanding of the phylogenetic relationships not only within the family, but also within the Class Trematoda.

King, Sandie

2001-01-01

252

Family Support Program  

MedlinePLUS

... Families : Family Support Printer Friendly Send to friend Family Support Program If a child you love has ... launched our scholarship program in 2002 to assist families devastated by the cost of medical care to ...

253

Family Affairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strong bonds that often remain with ex-lovers are a remarkable aspect of lesbian relationships. This poem, written in the early ‘70s, reveals the complexities of ex-lover relationships with a humorous twist. It represents a time in U.S. American lesbian culture when the dividing lines between friends and lovers were blurred and the personal\\/political aspects of non-monogamy were being explored.

L. J. “Tess” Tessier

2004-01-01

254

West Indian Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescents (N=424) in Barbados completed Family Functioning in Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings revealed that most adolescents, like Australian peers, reported fairly favorable perceptions of their families. Adolescents not living with their fathers seemed to have somewhat lower sense of personal security; in other respects did not report…

Payne, Monica A.; Furnham, Adrian

1989-01-01

255

Familial relationship between mood disorders and alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and epidemiological studies have consistently revealed an association between alcohol use disorders and both bipolar and nonbipolar mood disorders. However, the evidence regarding the nature of these associations is unclear. The familial patterns of alcohol and affective disorders were examined using data from a controlled family study of probands with alcohol and anxiety disorders who were sampled from treatment

Martin Preisig; Brenda T. Fenton; Denise E. Stevens; Kathleen R. Merikangas

2001-01-01

256

Family interaction, gender, and status attainment value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on adolescent attainment has virtually ignored the interactional aspects through which children learn attainment values. Using a simulated career game, parent-child interaction (father, mother, and adolescent son or daughter) was coded to assess its impact on the child's attainment value. Encouragement patterns, parental opportunity awareness, and family affect were examined. Results revealed differences in these family interaction variables

Marilyn Ihinger-Tallman

1982-01-01

257

Female-Headed Families: Trends and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current demographic data reveal that the form of the American family is undergoing dramatic change. One change is the unprecedented rise in the number of female-headed families. Reviews current demographic trends, examines the factors behind these changes and their implications, and proposes areas for further research. (Author)

Wattenberg, Esther; Reinhardt, Hazel

1979-01-01

258

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

259

Effects of family connection and family individuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were

Linda G. Bell; David C. Bell

2009-01-01

260

The family routines inventory: development and validation.  

PubMed

This report builds upon pertinent theoretical considerations regarding the nature and importance of routinization within families and describes the development and validation of a standardized inventory to measure family routines. The Family Routines Inventory (FRI) measures 28 positive, strength-promoting family routines, those observable, repetitive behaviours which involve two or more family members and which occur with predictable regularity in the daily life of a family. The 28 routines were selected from an extensive list of 104 routines obtained through family interviews. Scoring options for the inventory were identified based on their face validity and consistency with the underlying theoretical construct. The inventory was subsequently administered to a diverse group of families for reliability and validity testing. This testing identified an optimal scoring method (frequency score) for the inventory and revealed that the Family Routines Inventory, which measures the extent and importance of routinization within a given family, appears to be a reliable and valid measure of family cohesion, solidarity, order and overall satisfaction with family life. PMID:6844952

Jensen, E W; James, S A; Boyce, W T; Hartnett, S A

1983-01-01

261

Familial hypercholesterolaemia.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), defined as the heritable occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholesterol deposits in tendons and premature heart disease, is caused by at least four genes in sterol and lipoprotein pathways and displays varying gene-dose effects. The genes are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH) adaptor protein. All of these disorders have in common defective clearance of LDL within a complex system of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Normal cellular cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed before describing the disorders, their metabolic derangements and their clinical effects. FH is classified as two simplified phenotypes of disease according to the severity of the metabolic derangement. The dominantly inherited heterozygous phenotype comprises defects in the LDL receptor, apoB100, and neural apoptosis regulatory cleavage protein. The homozygous phenotype is co-dominant in defects of the LDL receptor, and occurs also as the ARH of adapter protein mutations. Defective binding of apoB100 does not result in a significant gene dose effect, but enhances the severity of heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. The genetic diagnosis of FH has provided greater accuracy in definition and detection of disease and exposes information about migration of populations. All of these disorders pose a high risk of atherosclerosis, especially in the homozygous phenotype. Studies of influences on the phenotype and responses to treatment are also discussed in the context of the metabolic derangements. PMID:18516203

Marais, A David

2004-02-01

262

From Narrative Inheritance to Narrative Momentum: Past, Present, and Future Stories in an International Adoptive Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This autoethnographic work of an international adoptive family tells a series of stories situated in the past, present, and future of the family's experience as it relates to how international adoption has influenced their family identity. Through the concepts of narrative inheritance, joint storytelling as a family, interactional sense-making, and family culture as local model, the series of stories reveal

Robert L. Ballard; Sarah J. Ballard

2011-01-01

263

Intrainformant agreement and family functioning in depressed and nondepressed parents and their children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined perceptions of family functioning, marital satisfaction, and parent-child bonding in 65 families (child, mother, father) with one or more depressed parents and 26 families with no depressed parent. Intrainformant agreement between offspring and their parents across family functioning measures was examined for the two proband groups. Results revealed more dysfunction in family adaptability, cohesiveness, and parent-child bonding

Nadine Kaslow; Virginia Warner; Karen John; Ronald Brown

1992-01-01

264

The Impact of Family Life Events and Changes on the Health of a Chronically Ill Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between family stress and changes in health of a child with cystic fibrosis. Data from parents (N=100) and clinic records revealed that a decline in pulmonary functioning was associated with family life changes, especially in family development and relationships, family management and decisions, and family finances.…

Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

1983-01-01

265

Parental Substance Use, Family Support and Outcome Following Treatment for Adolescent Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines family variables that may influence adolescent substance use during the 6 months following inpatient treatment: parental substance use, family aftercare attendance, and adolescent ratings of family helpfulness. Results revealed no relationship between either parental substance use and family aftercare attendance or reports of family…

Whitney, Stephen D.; Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

2002-01-01

266

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

267

Family Literacy and ESL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses family literacy and English as a Second Language, focusing on types of family literacy programs, issues in family literacy, and future directions in family literacy. Highlights one program and lists the components of three approaches to family literacy: intervention prevention, multiple literacies, and social change. (Author/VWL)|

Red, David L.

2003-01-01

268

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

269

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

270

Family Homicide in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family is viewed by most people as providing a nurturing and loving environment. But for some, the family environment can be deadly. In Australia, almost two in five homicides occur between family members, with an average of 129 family homicides each year. The majority of family homicides occur between intimate partners (60 per cent), and three-quarters of intimate partner

Australia Jenny Mouzos; Catherine Rushforth; Adam Graycar

271

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

272

Revealing the programming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2005-01-01

273

US weapons secrets revealed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

1993-01-01

274

Shipwrecks Reveal Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, a detailed map showing the trajectories of abandoned ships from the late 1800's is used to reveal the routes of surface currents in the Atlantic Ocean. Animations illustrate the role played by ocean currents in the colonization of North America.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

275

Family Preservation (Family Focus Research Project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Family Focus Research project provided a comprehensive evaluation of home-based crisis intervention strategies for families with children at risk of placement into substitute care. It examined the relative costs and benefits of three types of brief, i...

J. R. Taplin C. Rowland

1983-01-01

276

Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

2008-01-01

277

In-Home Family Therapy: Indicators of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explore how specific individual, family, and family-within-community characteristics, as well as aspects of in-home family therapy, relate to responses to treatment. The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale scores and Global Assessment of Functioning scores were used as outcome measures. Results revealed significant…

Yorgason, Jeremy B.; McWey, Lenore M.; Felts, Linda

2005-01-01

278

Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

2011-01-01

279

Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

2011-01-01

280

The role of culture and family in mental illness.  

PubMed

A case is presented of a 25-year-old Oriental man who shocked his family by revealing his homosexuality, choosing atheism over his family's traditional Christian religion, and attempting suicide. The discussant examines the cultural implications of the family's reactions to the patient's clinical picture. PMID:2920247

Jaschke, V; Doi, T

1989-03-01

281

Socioeconomic Impacts of Terrorism on Affected Families in Lahore, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the socioeconomic consequences of terrorism on families directly affected by it. Findings revealed the effects of terrorism on these families are numerous and family breadwinners are predominantly the direct victims. Their age, educational background, and employment status indicate that educated, working-class youth are the primary victims of attacks. In addition to the impact caused by the sabotage

Abdul Waheed; Mokbul Morshed Ahmad

2012-01-01

282

Family Support and Conflict: Prospective Relations to Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between family support, family conflict, and adolescent depressive symptomatology were examined longitudinally in a sample of 231 female and 189 male adolescents and their mothers. Structural equation models revealed that less supportive and more con-flictual family environments were associated with greater depressive symptomatology both concurrently and prospectively over a 1-year period. Conversely, adolescent depressive symptomatology did not predict

Lisa Sheeber; Hyraan Hops; Anthony Alpert; Betsy Davis; Judy Andrews

1997-01-01

283

Family Activities for Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.|

Grosse, Susan J.

2009-01-01

284

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... My Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at ... down to write a note to your donor family can feeling overwhelming. The good news is that ...

285

Annual Family Income  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Annual Family Income. Statistics. N. Valid. Missing. Total annual family income, 904, 0. Total annual family income. Frequency. Percent. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

286

Family Reunion Health Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... your reunion. 1. Send a Kidney Health Message Hi Family, I came across this information and thought ... mails to family members. Before the Reunion 1. Hi family! Taking care of your kidneys is important. ...

287

Living My Family's Story  

PubMed Central

Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk.

Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

2013-01-01

288

Anticipation in familial leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to worsening severity or earlier age at onset with each generation for an inherited disease and primarily has been described for neurodegenerative illnesses resulting from expansion of trinucleotide repeats. We have tested for evidence of anticipation in familial leukemia. Of 49 affected individuals in nine families transmitting autosomal dominant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the mean age at onset is 57 years in the grandparental generation, 32 years in the parental generation, and 13 years in the youngest generation (P < .001). Of 21 parent-child pairs with AML, 19 show younger ages at onset in the child and demonstrate a mean decline in age at onset of 28 years (P < .001). Of 18 affected individuals from seven pedigrees with autosomal dominant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the mean age at onset in the parental generation is 66 years versus 51 years in the youngest generation (P = .008). Of nine parent-child pairs with CLL, eight show younger ages at onset in the child and reveal a mean decline in age at onset of 21 years (P = .001). Inspection of rare pedigrees transmitting acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, multiple types of leukemia, and lymphoma is also compatible with anticipation. Sampling bias is unlikely to explain these findings. This suggests that dynamic mutation of unstable DNA sequence repeats could be a common mechanism of inherited hematopoietic malignancy with implications for the role of somatic mutation in the more frequent sporadic cases. We speculate on three possible candidate genes for familial leukemia with anticipation: a locus on 21q22.1-22.2, CBL2 on 11q23.3, and CBFB or a nearby gene on 16q22. 55 refs., 4 figs.

Horwitz, M.; Jarvik, G.P.; Goode, E.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-11-01

289

Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This

U. Friedrich; O. Mors; H. Ewald

1996-01-01

290

Stressors and Family Supports: Families with Children Using Augmentative & Alternative Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statewide survey was conducted in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Assistive Technology Center of Harrisburg to identify the stressors and family supports of 59 families with young children between the ages of 3 and 12 years who use AAC technology and technology services. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the data. Parenting Stress Index results revealed both fathers

Sheila Dove Jones; Dianne H. Angelo; Stephen M. Kokoska

1999-01-01

291

Singing about family planning.  

PubMed

The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

Emah, E

292

Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders. PMID:17588677

Klockars, Tuomas

2007-06-22

293

Familial mesothelioma: a report of two families  

SciTech Connect

Five reports of familial mesothelioma in which mesotheliomas occurred in two or more family members have been recorded in the medical literature. In this report, we describe two examples of familial mesothelioma. In one family, three brothers who worked in the asbestos insulation industry developed mesothelioma. In the second family, the father, who was occupationally exposed to asbestos, died from a tubulopapillary peritoneal mesothelioma 11 years before his son died from an identical histologic type of peritoneal mesothelioma. Our report, as with those previously recorded, suggests that genetic factors may be important in the genesis of some mesotheliomas.

Hammar, S.P.; Bockus, D.; Remington, F.; Freidman, S.; LaZerte, G.

1989-02-01

294

Familism, family environment, and suicide attempts among Latina youth.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit, intermediate-knit, and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens who attempted suicide as compared with intermediate-knit families or loose-knit families. Moreover, familism increased the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a loose-knit family and the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a intermediate-knit. The results suggest that familism may protect against suicide behavior among Latinas via its influence on family environment. PMID:21463357

Peña, Juan B; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Zayas, Luis H; Baumann, Ana A; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P

2011-04-04

295

Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted suicide as compared to intermediate-knit families or loose-knit families. Moreover, familism increased the odds of being in the tight-knit family vs. the loose-knit family and the odds of being in the tight-knit family vs. the intermediate-knit. Results suggest that familism may protect against suicide behavior among Latinas via its influence on family environment.

Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

2011-01-01

296

Family structure, family organization, and quality of family life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how family organization is associated with the quality of family life for parents in first marriages,\\u000a remarriages with biological children, and several types of stepfamilies. Data are drawn from the 1987–1988 National Survey\\u000a of Families and Households; only married couples in which both spouses participated in the survey and who had children under\\u000a age 19 in the

Patricia Voydanoff; Mark A. Fine; Brena W. Donnelly

1994-01-01

297

Forgotten Streams in the Family Life Course: Utilization of Qualitative Retrospective Interviews in the Analysis of Lifelong Single Women's Family Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combined life course perspective with life history interviewing to compare 15 lifelong unmarried, childless women and 15 ever-married mothers from the 1910 birth cohort. Results suggest that linear progression from family of origin to family of procreation reveals one stream in family life course; experiences of lifelong single women revealed…

Allen, Katherine R.; Pickett, Robert S.

1987-01-01

298

Family planning among the Maranaos.  

PubMed

An effort has been made to introduce population education concepts and family planning practice to the Maranaos of Lanao del Sur province in the southern Philippines. A survey conducted in 1969 revealed that an overwhelming majority were opposed to family planning, because of the belief that it ran counter to the teachings of the Koran. In 1969, Dansalan College 1st opened a maternity clinic and, subsequently, established a family planning clinic on campus, the only one of its kind in the province. Since the clinic began operations, a total of about 1370 acceptors have been recruited. The oral contraceptive is the most preferred method among the acceptors, accounting for 60%, followed by the injectable. Additionally, the college has integrated family planning and population education into its Community Service Program. Despite several years of effort by Dansalan College, however, Maranaos have failed to respond significantly to practicing family planning. College officials continue to be optimistic, recognizing that the effort will take years of motivating and education. PMID:12259638

Guerrero, A M

1976-01-01

299

EOS Family: A Spectroscopic Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eos family detected by Hirayama in 1918 has been always considered to be compositionally homogeneous. To investigate the composition and the homogeneity of the members of this family, we started a spectroscopic survey at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) with wavelength coverage ranging from 4800 to 9200 Å. We observed 45 Eos asteroid members, which constitutes the first large survey of this family. Our results reveal the Eos objects have spectral signature characterizing the whole family: a maximum at ? ˜ 8000-8500 Å and a reflectivity gradient spanning a continuous range. Only two of the 45 investigated objects seem to be interlopers. While the lower range of this spectral distribution has been easily connected with CO-CV chondrites, we have found no satisfactory meteorite counterpart to the upper range. We have interpreted the spread out of Eos spectra to be the results of compositional variation among the Eos members, implying that the Eos parent body was partially differentiated. Moreover, a space weathering effect has been proven to be present, but with a minor role played in the diversity of Eos family, the major role being the compositional variation.

Doressoundiram, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Florczak, M.

1998-01-01

300

Systematic review of family functioning in families of children and adolescents with chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Disturbances in family functioning have been identified in youth with chronic pain and are associated with worse child physical and psychological functioning. Assessment measures of family functioning used in research and clinical settings vary. This systematic review summarizes studies investigating relationships among family functioning, pain and pain-related disability in youth with chronic pain. Sixteen articles were reviewed. All studies were cross-sectional, seven utilized between-group comparisons (chronic pain versus healthy/control) and twelve examined within-group associations among family functioning, pain and/or pain-related disability. Studies represented youth with various pain conditions (e.g., headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia) aged 6 – 20 years. Findings revealed group differences in family functioning between children with chronic pain and healthy controls in five of seven studies. Significant associations emerged among family variables and pain-related disability in six of nine studies with worse family functioning associated with greater child disability; relationships between family functioning and children’s pain were less consistent. Different patterns of results emerged depending on family functioning measure used. Overall, findings showed that families of children with chronic pain generally have poorer family functioning than healthy populations, and that pain-related disability is more consistently related to family functioning than pain intensity.

Lewandowski, Amy S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Stinson, Jennifer; Handley, Susannah; Chambers, Christine T.

2010-01-01

301

Shipwrecks Reveal Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abandoned ships and other objects lost at sea may ride ocean currents for months or even years before sinking or washing ashore. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, describes how scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute plotted the trajectories of abandoned sailing ships, whose positions were reported by 19th century sea captains. The tracks of these derelict ships reveal oceanic circualtion patterns, particularly the Gulf Stream, which sometimes transported these derelicts from the coast of the Carolinas across the Atlantic to Great Britain, a journey which took about ten months. The segment is three minutes five seconds in length.

302

The Universe Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

Spence, Pam

1998-10-01

303

Family Processes and Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Family is a unique relationship context that influences the contents and processes of identity. The identity of individuals\\u000a emerges, at least in part, from being members of a family. Moreover, the family context influences not only the development\\u000a of one’s personal identity as a family member but also other aspects of personal identity. Family is not a neutral environment\\u000a for

Eugenia Scabini; Claudia Manzi

304

Crouching variation revealed.  

PubMed

The term 'phenotypic capacitance' was introduced nearly 15 years ago to describe the strain-specific effects of impairing Hsp90, a molecular chaperone, in the fly Drosophila melanogaster (Rutherford & Lindquist 1998). In one genetic background, Hsp90 depletion caused deformed eyes, whereas in other genetic backgrounds, the wings or abdomens or other aspects of morphology were affected. Hsp90 was therefore viewed as acting like a capacitor, allowing genetic differences to build up and to be released at a later time. In the years since, it has been debated whether capacitance is a laboratory curiosity or a major force in evolution. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Takahashi (2013) presents evidence, from high-resolution morphometric analysis of fly wings, that a large number of other capacitors exist in D. melanogaster, and that the variation they reveal can be quite subtle. His results advance our understanding of capacitance and contribute to a new view of its role in evolutionary adaptation. PMID:23437837

Siegal, Mark L

2013-03-01

305

Exploratorium: Revealing Bodies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This almost-completed Website from the Exploratorium Museum (see the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) examines the ways in which new imaging technologies have changed our perceptions of the human body. The site features live webcasts that explore "body imaging technologies, both modern and ancient;" an in-depth examination of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology, which discusses not only its technology but offers a five-minute clip of an in-progress conceptual movie that investigates the emotional experience of an MRI procedure; an online exhibition of art and artifacts revealing the application of various technologies to the human body; and "behind-the-scenes" video clips of the various exhibitions being put together (this portion is still under construction). The site is made possible by grants from the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, the California Arts Council, and the National Endowment for the Arts.

306

The Climate Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, William

1999-10-01

307

The Nme gene family in fish.  

PubMed

The Nme gene family, also known as Nm23 or NDPK, is a very ancient gene family that can be found in all kingdoms of life. In the late eighties, a gene of the Nme family, NME1, was identified as the first metastatic suppressor gene, resulting in a major interest for this family. Due to the complexity of the family, the need for a unified and evolutionary-supported gene nomenclature was recently stressed by the scientific community. Based on a complete evolutionary history study of the gene family in metazoans and vertebrates, a unified nomenclature was recently proposed and accepted by gene nomenclature consortia. In addition to its well-documented role in tumor metastasis, members of the Nme family are also involved in a wide variety of cellular and physiological processes. Available data in non-mammalian species remain, however, scarce with the noticeable exception of Drosophila in which a major role in development was reported. In fish, very few studies have specifically investigated the role of nme genes. Several transcriptomic and proteomic studies have, however, revealed the expression of nme genes in various fish organs and tissues, in mature oocytes, and during embryonic development. Altogether, interest for the Nme gene family in fish is growing and new functions/roles in fish biology are expected to be discovered in the forthcoming years. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge of the Nme family in fish. PMID:22484598

Desvignes, T; Fostier, A; Fauvel, C; Bobe, J

2012-04-08

308

AIDS and the family: families take care.  

PubMed

In 1994, the International Year of the Family, the WHO's Global Program on AIDS (GPA) is marking World AIDS Day under the banner AIDS and the Family. Traditional and non-traditional families have a crucial role to play in addressing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In the run-up to World AIDS Day--and on 1 December itself--GPA urges the world to focus on how families of all kinds are affected by AIDS, on how they can be more effective in prevention and care, and on how they can contribute to global efforts against the disease. For GPA, any group of people linked by feelings of trust, mutual support and a common destiny may be seen as a family. The concept need not be limited to ties of blood, marriage, sexual partnership or adoption. In this light, religious congregations, workers' associations, support groups of people with HIV/AIDS, gangs of street children, circles of drug injectors, collectives of sex workers and networks of governmental, nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations may all be regarded as families within the over-arching family of humankind. Every kind of family should take care to protect its members from HIV. And all families should take care of those among them who fall ill with AIDS. Families take care. "Families whose bonds are based on love, trust, nurturing and openness are best placed to protect their members from infection and give compassionate care and support to those affected by HIV or AIDS," says Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, Director-General of the WHO [World Health Organization]. PMID:12287963

1994-01-01

309

Familial hemiplegic migraine.  

PubMed

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with aura, where hemiplegia occurs during the aura phase. Mutation screening of families with FHM has revealed a range of different mutations. The mutated FHM genes code for ion transport proteins. Animal and cellular studies have associated the mutated FHM genes with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability and altered neurotransmitter release. Abnormal cortical excitability due to dysfunctional ion-channels might facilitate cortical spreading depression (CSD) and thereby migraine aura and migraine headache. Genotyped FHM patients offer us the chance to study the interplay between genotype and phenotype and may be regarded as a genetic migraine model. FHM studies might open for a better understanding of the molecular migraine pathology, and potentially help to unravel the pathogenesis of the more common migraine forms. We have therefore studied genotyped FHM patients to understand the effect of genotype on the response to migraine provoking substances. We show here that two known migraine triggers failed to induce more migraine aura or migraine headache in FHM-patients than in healthy controls, thus indicating that the FHM genotype does not confer hypersensitivity to these migraine triggers. This has implications for our understanding of the headache mechanisms and raises the question whether FHM share neurobiological background with the common types of migraine. The aims of the present thesis were to test the hypothesis that FHM mutations might be associated with hypersensitivity to known migraine triggers and, thereby, share pathophysiological pathways with the common types of migraine, but our results disprove this hypothesis. Thus, FHM seems very different from MO and MA, both genetically and pathophysiologically. The fact that FHM genes regulate ion homeostasis cannot be extrapolated to the common types of migraine. PMID:20816023

Hansen, Jakob Møller

2010-09-01

310

Family Health History and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Health History and Diabetes Family Health History and Diabetes En español Family health history is an important ... Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history ...

311

Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

2010-01-01

312

Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five

G. Almer; J. A. Hainfellner; T. Brucke; K. Jellinger; R. Kleinert; G. Bayer; O. Windl; H. A. Kretzschmar; A. Hill; K. Sidle; J. Collinge; H. Budka

1999-01-01

313

Diffractions reveal drilling hazards  

SciTech Connect

Seismic waves are diffracted where there is a sudden change of curvature or acoustic impedance along a surface such as boulders embedded in clay, across faults, the eroded edges of channels, and at the edges of shallow gas drilling hazards. Diffractions reveal these situations, especially if they are enhanced at the expense of reflections and refractions and organized as in an Offset Panel. The Offset Panel was introduced by Fulton and Darr (1981) as a powerful tool for the analysis of seismic data. Their paper described a method by which conventional exploration seismic data are used to detect shallow gas drilling hazards. The work of Berryhill indicates that boulders, which are one-half the dominant wavelength in size, can be expected to generate diffractions. Hazard seismic data from the North Sea presented here show energy in the 500-700 Hertz band corresponding to wavelengths of 11 to 8 feet. Unfortunately, the spacial sampling of the hazard data is four wavelengths, much too great to resolve boulders. A spacial sampling of 2 to 3 feet would be more appropriate for these data and may allow for the detection of individual boulders or zones containing fewer boulders. Experience with the Offset Panel to detect shallow gas drilling hazards along the line of the profile suggested the Diffraction Panel to detect gas hazards nearby. In this report the authors demonstrate the use of the Diffraction Panel to detect buried channels and shallow gas drilling hazards.

Fulton, T.K.; Hsiao, R.T.

1983-05-01

314

Women’s Experiences with Infertility: The Fluidity of Conceptualizations of ‘Family’  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I examine women’s experiences with infertility and the impact upon their conceptualizations of ‘family.’ Active interviews with 32 women revealed most women started out with conceptualizations that reflected a traditional ideology of family. Participants who conceived biological children through medical assistance expressed a broader conceptualization of family through a greater appreciation for their children and family life

Diana C. Parry

2005-01-01

315

Parental characteristics and interactional dysfunction in families with child behavior problems: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six families with a preteenage behavior problem child were assessed on measures of marital discord, parental psychopathology, and three parental cognitive factors: knowledge of behavioral principles, tolerance for child deviancy, and expectations regarding their child's behavior. Nine nonproblem families with demographic characteristics similar to the problem families were also assessed. Correlational analyses across all families revealed a strong association between

Andrew Christensen; Susan Phillips; Russell E. Glasgow; Steven M. Johnson

1983-01-01

316

The impact of a near-death experience on family relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the influence that a near-death experience (NDE) had on the family relationships of eleven NDErs, based on in-depth interviews. I detail the changes in relationships with extensive quotes providing data on family interactions. Analysis of the adjustments of NDErs within their family relationships reveals that while some families cope well and are positively influenced by an NDE,

Mori Insinger

1991-01-01

317

Comparing Service Use of Early Head Start Families of Children With and Without Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compared patterns of service utilization reported by Early Head Start (EHS) families of children with and without disabilities by secondary analysis of data from the longitudinal investigation of the effectiveness of EHS. Findings reveal comparable positive trends for both groups of families for receipt of services corresponding to EHS performance standards promoting child and family development, family

Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber; Shavaun M. Wall; Ellen E. Kisker; Gayle J. Luze; Jean Ann Summers

2011-01-01

318

Estimating the tempo and mode of gene family evolution from comparative genomic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed that changes in the size of gene families among organisms is quite common. However, there are as yet no models of gene family evolution that make it possible to estimate ancestral states or to infer upon which lineages gene families have contracted or expanded. In addition, large differences in family size have generally been

Matthew W. Hahn; Tijl De Bie; Jason E. Stajich; Chi Nguyen; Nello Cristianini

2005-01-01

319

Family Dysfunction and Family Psychopathology in Child Psychiatry Outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of nuclear family dysfunction and psychopathology in first- and second-degree relatives and the association between these two variables was studied in families of 100 children with psychiatric disorders. Brief, standardized family assessment instruments were used. Family dysfunction was measured by the Family Assessment Device; family history of psychiatric illness was measured by the revised Family History-Research Diagnostic Criteria.

Mary A. Fristad; Traci L. Clayton

1991-01-01

320

Familial Achalasia, a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Although achalasia is a relatively rare disease in pediatric age group, it must be considered for differential diagnosis of esophageal disorders in children with positive family history even in the absence of typical clinical manifestations. Case Presentation A 5-month old boy was hospitalized for cough and mild respiratory distress. Because of positive history of achalasia in his mother, achalasia was detected in esophgagography. Pneumatic dilation through endoscopy was successful. A 12-month follow-up revealed no problem. Conclusion Achalasia must be considered for differential diagnosis in children with positive family history of achalasia even in the absence of typical clinical manifestations. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is probable. We suggest further researches and genetic studies to establish the pattern of inheritance.

Motamed, Farzaneh; Modaresi, Vajiheh; Eftekhari, Kambiz

2010-01-01

321

Normative Family Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the sequentially developmental life stages of healthy, normal families. Provides an exposition of these developmental stages and forms as a guide or normative framework within which to test for dysfunction and pathology in the family process. (Author/JAC)

Barcai, Avner

1981-01-01

322

Familial Periodic Paralyses  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

323

American Families Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the "American Families Project," in which students from two or more schools participate in a creative writing, historical research activity, each playing a role in a fictitious family living in 1838 and corresponding with each other. (RS)|

Medeiros, Ray

1992-01-01

324

Family Money Troubles  

MedlinePLUS

... a while. How Does a Difficult Economy Affect Families? For some people, the slow economy means eating ... put toward allowances or college funds. For other families, though, money problems mean bigger changes, such as ...

325

Families and Friends  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimerâ??s is adjusting to your â??new normalâ? and helping family and friends do the same. Knowing what to ...

326

Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning  

PubMed Central

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals.

Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

1988-01-01

327

Learning about Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

MedlinePLUS

... is inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. In autosomal dominant inherited conditions, a parent who ... Familial hypercholesterolemia is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that to have this condition, it ...

328

Family Patterns in Dogmatism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored Rokeach's theory that dogmatism develops within the family. Subjects were college students and their parents who took the 40-item Dogmatism Scale. Results indicated that family experiences are one source of children's dogmatism but not the only source. (SDH)|

Lesser, Harvey; Steininger, Marion

1975-01-01

329

Candidate gene strategy reveals ENAM mutations.  

PubMed

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous genetic disorder affecting tooth enamel without other non-oral syndromic conditions. Based on a review of the literature, the authors constructed a candidate-gene-based mutational analysis strategy. To test the strategy, they identified two Turkish families with hypoplastic enamel without any other non-oral syndromic phenotype. The authors analyzed all exons and exon/intron boundaries of the enamelin (ENAM) gene for family 1 and the DLX3 and ENAM genes for family 2, to identify the underlying genetic etiology. The analysis revealed 2 ENAM mutations (autosomal-dominant g.14917delT and autosomal-recessive g.13185-13186insAG mutations). A single T deletion in exon 10 is a novel deletional mutation (g.14917delT, c.2991delT), which is predicted to result in a frameshift with a premature termination codon (p.L998fsX1062). This result supports the use of a candidate-gene-based strategy to study the genetic basis for AI. PMID:19329462

Kang, H-Y; Seymen, F; Lee, S-K; Yildirim, M; Tuna, E Bahar; Patir, A; Lee, K-E; Kim, J-W

2009-03-01

330

Family Communication Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has studied the influence of concept and socio oriented family communication on American adolescent purchase influence (Foxman, Tansuhaj, and Ekstrom 1989). This study extends this research by explicitly examining the perceived influence of four types of family communication patterns on family decision making among children between the ages of eight and twelve years for three types of products

Aysen Bakir; Gregory M. Rose; Aviv Shoham

2006-01-01

331

Training of Family Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that family practice is increasingly accepted as part of the academic system, the author discusses its philosophy, overviews undergraduate programs and residency programs, presenting a sample curriculum outline for a 3-year family practice residency and emphasizing the need for continuity of care and a family practice office or center as a…

Rakel, Robert E.

1975-01-01

332

Establishing Family Math.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family Math Program is an outgrowth of the Equals Program at the Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley. Piloted in 1982 in Richmond, California, this widespread program boasts a simple philosophy: Families "doing math" will get the same result as families who read--improved skills and enjoyment. The program also confronts parental math…

Bobango, Janet, Milgram, Joel

1993-01-01

333

Familial inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systematic family screening has recently identified dilated cardiomyopathy as an inherited disorder in up to 30% of cases. Mutations in genes encoding proteins responsible for myocardial architecture have been identified, but additional pathophysiological mechanisms including inflammatory reactions have been proposed. Aims: Identification and characterization of familial DCM, where at least one affected family member fulfils the criteria for inflammatory

Irene Portig; Andreas Wilke; Matthias Freyland; Markus-Joachim Wolf; Anette Richter; Volker Ruppert; Sabine Pankuweit; Bernhard Maisch

2006-01-01

334

Family Support Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Resource Coalition of America (FRCA) and the National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice convened a meeting of evaluators, policymakers, and program practitioners to discuss the issue of evaluation in the field of family support. The goal was to bring together those who were implementing programs, evaluating programs, and…

Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

1998-01-01

335

Toward the Postmodern Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three aspects of family life that are evolving in directions that have no historical precedent--adolescent indifference to the family's identity that shows up in the discontinuity of values from parents to children, instability in the life of the couple, and systematic demolition of the nuclear family. (Author/IRT)

Shorter, Edward

1976-01-01

336

Year of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

California Agriculture, 1994

1994-01-01

337

Families Experiencing Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... all homeless mothers do not have a high school diploma. 29% of adults in homeless families are working. Have much higher rates of family separation than other low-income families. 4 Mothers Experiencing Homelessness: The impact of homelessness on mothers is profound. Many are ...

338

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

339

Abstract Families of Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion of an abstract family of language (AFL) as a family of sets of words satisfying certain properties common to many types of formal languages is introduced. Operations preserving AFL are then considered. The concept of an abstract family of accep...

S. Ginsburg S. Greibach

1968-01-01

340

Family Planning & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

341

Family Support Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family Resource Coalition of America (FRCA) and the National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice convened a meeting of evaluators, policymakers, and program practitioners to discuss the issue of evaluation in the field of family support. The goal was to bring together those who were implementing programs, evaluating programs, and…

Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

1998-01-01

342

The Resiliency of Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to researchers, the family may be changing but it is still one of the central institutions in society. Studies report a shift in more than 20 attitudes and values, most of which relate to the context of family life. Specifically, these include attitudes toward marriage, divorce, childbearing, childrearing, working women, family…

Morrison, T. R.

343

Relational Factors and Family Treatment Engagement among Low-Income, HIV-Positive African American Mothers  

PubMed Central

Clinically derived hypotheses regarding treatment engagement of families of low-income, HIV-positive, African American mothers are tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Predictors are baseline family relational factors (family support, mother’s desire for involvement with family, and family hassles) and mother’s history of substance dependence. The study examines a subsample of 49 mothers enrolled in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET). SET is a family-based intervention intended to relieve and prevent psychosocial distress associated with HIV/AIDS. Participants in the subsample were randomly assigned to SET and attended at least two therapy sessions. Findings reveal that family relational factors predicted family treatment engagement (family support, p<.004; mother’s desire for involvement with family, p<.008; family hassles, p<.027). Family support predicted family treatment engagement beyond the prediction provided by the other relational factors and the mother’s own treatment engagement (p<.016). History of substance dependence was neither associated with family treatment engagement nor family support. Post hoc analyses revealed that family hassles (p<.003) and mother’s desire for involvement with family (p<.018) were differentially related to family treatment engagement in low- versus high-support families. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

Prado, Guillermo; Feaster, Daniel J.; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Szapocznik, Jose

2005-01-01

344

Family Relationships From Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System Following Firstborns' Leaving Home  

PubMed Central

This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns’ departure from their parents’ home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born children from 184, White, working and middle class families. Multilevel models revealed declines in parent-child conflict, acceptance, and sibling negativity, and increases or U-shaped patterns in sibling and parent-child intimacy over time. Birth order X leaving home interactions revealed that firstborns’ leaving home related to changes in family relationship qualities for both first- and second-borns, with relationships improving for firstborns and no changes or declines in relationship quality for second-borns. Overall, the results highlight the inter-relatedness of family subsystems.

Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2010-01-01

345

When Values and Behaviors Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students' Experiences Revealed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study reveals the discomfort seven immigrant bachelor of social work students reported experiencing when the behaviors expected of them as Canadian social workers conflicted with their fundamental family values. Behaviorally, participants had assimilated to Canadian and to social work cultures; however, the values they held from…

Calderwood, Kimberly; Harper, Kim; Ball, Kellie; Liang, David

2009-01-01

346

When Values and Behaviors Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students' Experiences Revealed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study reveals the discomfort seven immigrant bachelor of social work students reported experiencing when the behaviors expected of them as Canadian social workers conflicted with their fundamental family values. Behaviorally, participants had assimilated to Canadian and to social work cultures; however, the values they held from…

Calderwood, Kimberly; Harper, Kim; Ball, Kellie; Liang, David

2009-01-01

347

Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and

Matthew W. Hahn; Mira V. Han; Sang-Gook Han

2007-01-01

348

Families and schools in rural appalachia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review revealed conceptual elements and approaches that have been productive in the study of(a) rural education and (b) rural families and children as they interface with schools. The Appalachian region is considered relative to these same issues. For nearly two decades the Appalachia Educational Laboratory has pursued systematic research and development aimed at improving the effectiveness of rural

Edward E. Gotts; Richard F. Purnell

1986-01-01

349

Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

2010-01-01

350

Family Interactions in Adoptive Compared to Nonadoptive Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the large and growing numbers of adoptive families, little research describes interactions in families with adopted adolescents. Yet, adopted adolescents' increased risk for adjustment problems, combined with the association between family interactions and adolescent adjustment in nonadoptive families, raises questions about differences in adoptive and nonadoptive family interactions. We compared observed and self-reported family interactions between 284 adoptive and

Martha A. Rueter; Margaret A. Keyes; William G. Iacono; Matt McGue

2009-01-01

351

Family Ties: Communicating Identity Through Jointly Told Family Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family stories work to construct family identity. Little research, however, has examined storytelling in families. This study examined storytelling content and process to assess the extent to which families jointly integrated or fragmented a shared sense of identity and how these discursive practices relate to family qualities. Results of a study involving 58 family triads indicate relationships between story theme

Jody Koenig Kellas

2005-01-01

352

Family Interviews as a Method for Family Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a description of the experience of conducting family interviews in a study to come to understand from families their experience of the hospitalization of a critically ill family member. Traditional family research has been done quantitatively, with a focus on the needs of individual family members rather than the family as a whole. The limited amount of

Sandra K. Eggenberger; Tommie P. Nelms

2007-01-01

353

Men, Sex and Money in Recent Family Melodramas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's melodramas reveal significant trends in terms of gender, class, and the nature of tribulations. This article surveys the dominant features of family melodramas including soap operas, prime time serials such as "Dallas" and "Dynasty," and theatrical feature films. (PD)|

Seiter, Ellen

1983-01-01

354

Multiple etiologies for Alzheimer disease are revealed by segregation analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have evaluated several transmission models for Alzheimer disease (AD), using the logistic regressive approach in 401 nuclear families of consecutively ascertained and rigorously diagnosed probands. Models postulating no major gene effect, random environmental transmission, recessive inheritance, and sporadic occurrence were rejected under varied assumptions regarding the associations among sex, age, and major gene susceptibility. Transmission of the disorder was not fully explained by a single Mendelian model for all families. Stratification of families as early- and late-onset by using the median of family mean onset ages showed that, regardless of the model studied, two groups of families fit better than a single group. AD in early-onset families is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with full penetrance in both sexes and has a gene frequency of 1.5%. Dominant inheritance also gave the best fit of the data in late-onset families, but this hypothesis was rejected, suggesting the presence of heterogeneity within this subset. Our study also revealed that genetically nonsusceptible males and females develop AD, indicating the presence of phenocopies within early-onset and late-onset groups. Moreover, our results suggest that the higher risk to females is not solely due to their increased longevity. 50 refs., 5 tabs.

Rao, V.S.; Connor-Lacke, L.; Cupplies, L.A.; Growdon, J.H.; Farrer, L.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Duijn, C.M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1994-11-01

355

Play Interactions of Family Members Towards Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The play interactions of family members towards children with autism were examined in the current study. Siblings, mothers, and fathers of nine families of a child with autism were observed in dyadic play interactions with the child. Results revealed that mothers and fathers exhibited more play behaviors towards children with autism than siblings, while the children with autism initiated more

Nabil Hassan El-Ghoroury; Raymond G. Romanczyk

1999-01-01

356

Children's Use of Retreats in Family Child Care Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of retreat spaces by 65 children in 9 family child care homes was assessed in this study. Family child care providers used daily diaries to collect information about children's retreat frequency and associated behavior. The findings revealed that nearly half of the children used informal, readily available retreats during the research…

Weinberger, Nanci

2006-01-01

357

Picasso: generating a covering set of protein family profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Evolutionary classification leads to an eco- nomical description of protein sequence data because at- tributes of function and structure are inherited in protein families. This paper presents Picasso, a procedure for de- riving a minimal set of protein family profiles that cover all known protein sequences. Results: Picasso starts from highly overlapping sequence neighbourhoods revealed by all-on-all pairwise Blast

Andreas Heger; Liisa Holm

2001-01-01

358

Family and School Environmental Correlates of Integrated Science Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation of the family and school environmental correlates of the Integrated Science achievement of 480 students. A 50-item Integrated Science Achievement test and the School Environment scales were administered to the students whereas the Family Environment scales were completed by their parents. A stepwise multiple regression procedure was used to analyze the data. The results revealed

Charles Onocha; Promise Okpala

1987-01-01

359

Neuropsychological deficits and neural dysfunction in familial dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the neuropsychological profile and the pattern of brain activity during reading tasks in a sample of familial dyslexics. We studied our subjects with an in-depth neuropsychological assessment and with functional neuroimaging (fMRI) during word and pseudoword reading and false font string observations (baseline condition). The neuropsychological assessment revealed that familial dyslexia, in both persistent and compensated forms, is

Simona Maria Brambati; Cristiano Termine; Milena Ruffino; Massimo Danna; Giovanni Lanzi; Giacomo Stella; Stefano Francesco Cappa; Daniela Perani

2006-01-01

360

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and several measures of adolescent social and psychological functioning in a sample of 7,000 Palestinian families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Structural equation analysis of youth self-reported survey data revealed that experience in the intifada (as children) predicted increases in antisocial behavior (males and females)

Brian K. Barber

1999-01-01

361

Narratives by District Nurses about Elder Abuse within Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one district nurses (DNs) narrated 44 cases of elder abuse within families. A phenomenological-hermeneutical analysis revealed that the experiences were complex and often included families providing care for an elderly person. The abuse seemed to be related to the inability of one party to meet the care demands required by the elderly, by him- or herself, or by the situation.

Britt-Inger Saveman; Ingalill R. Hallberg; Astrid Norberg

1996-01-01

362

Family-Centered Residential Treatment: Knowledge, Research, and Values Converge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the evidence base for the effectiveness of residential treatment is still very limited, a review of the literature reveals family-centered residential care as an emerging best practice. Synthesizing knowledge from research, families, youth, professionals, as well as values put forth in the standards by accrediting organizations, this…

Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Christopher G.

2008-01-01

363

Behavioral Comparisons in Autistic Individuals from Multiplex and Singleton Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined Autism Diagnostic Interviews Revised (ADI-R) data for 69 autistic subjects from multiplex (MP) families (with more than one autistic member) and 88 autistic subjects from singleton (SP) families (with only one autistic member). Multivariate analysis revealed no differences between verbal or nonverbal MP and SP groups for ADI-R…

Cuccaro, Michael L.; Shao, Yujun; Bass, Meredyth P.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Ravan, Sarah A.; Wright, Harry H.; Wolpert, Chantelle M.; Donnelly, Shannon L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

2003-01-01

364

Porcine KLF gene family: Structure, mapping, and phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to the family of zinc finger-containing transcription factors that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we reported the structure, mapping and phylogenetic analysis of KLF gene family in pigs. Comparative analyses revealed strong conservation between pig and human KLFs at the genomic and protein structure levels. Porcine

Zhilong Chen; Ting Lei; Xiaodong Chen; Jian Zhang; An Yu; Qinqiang Long; Huan Long; Dan Jin; Li Gan; Zaiqing Yang

2010-01-01

365

Familial Functioning as a Support System for Adolescents' Postdetention Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youths transitioning out of detention are particularly in need of support systems that can divert them from recidivism. This article examines the relationship between incarcerated youths' sense of their families' functioning and their perceived likelihood for postdetention success. Despite the control of background variables, results reveal that delinquents who indicated stronger familial functioning also reported a greater likelihood of future

Randall Brown; Eric Killian; William P. Evans

2003-01-01

366

Founding-Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe investigate the relation between founding-family ownership and firm performance. We find that family ownership is both prevalent and substantial; families are present in one-third of the S&P 500 and account for 18 percent of outstanding equity. Contrary to our conjecture, we find family firms perform better than nonfamily firms. Additional analysis reveals that the relation between family holdings and

Ronald C. Anderson; David M. Reeb

2003-01-01

367

Functional Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is all about helping youth and families who are in trouble. Central to FFT is the belief this\\u000a can be accomplished by changing family interactions and improving relationship functioning as the primary vehicle for changing\\u000a dysfunctional individual behaviors. FFT shares many similarities with other systems approaches; however, FFT offers a comprehensive\\u000a framework for understanding adolescent behavior

James F. Alexander; Michael S. Robbins

368

Family history assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family history assessment can be used to combine population-wide health promotion and risk-reduction efforts with a high-risk, targeted approach to help reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Family history is an independent predictor of CVD, and the upper portion of the family history distribution explains a larger fraction of CVD in the population than can be explained by extreme

Steven C Hunt; Marta Gwinn; Ted D Adams

2003-01-01

369

Familial dysalbuminaemic hyperthyroxinaemia.  

PubMed Central

Familial dysalbuminaemic hyperthyroxinaemia (FDH) can be confused with thyrotoxicosis if clinical signs and laboratory tests are misinterpreted. We describe three members of the same family with FDH who were erroneously treated for thyrotoxicosis. Screening of other family members resulted in the discovery of a further six patients at risk of being misdiagnosed as thyrotoxic. Clinical and biochemical findings relevant to the diagnosis of FDH are discussed.

Fleming, S. J.; Applegate, G. F.; Beardwell, C. G.

1987-01-01

370

Households and Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Census Bureau has released a report which demonstrates that "traditional families" (married couples with children) have begun to stabilize as a percentage of all families in the 1990s, and the growth of single-parent families has slowed. Most of the information in the report comes from the March 1997 Current Population Survey. Users may download the full report as well as detailed tables in .pdf format.

Bryson, Ken.; Caspar, Lynne M.

1998-01-01

371

Family intervention in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: This study focuses on the effect of psycho-educative family therapy on the self-assessed burden in families in which one\\u000a member has suffered from relapse of schizophrenia or a schizoaffective syndrome. The impact on the family's self-assessed\\u000a attitude towards continuing to take care of the patient was also evaluated. Burden and attitude were assessed continuously\\u000a during a period that

Nils Berglund; Åke Edman

2003-01-01

372

Homeownership and family formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western countries, home-ownership and family formation are closely connected. From most research on the transition to home-ownership, one gets the impression that the association between family formation and home-ownership is positive: family formation seems to speed up the process of acquiring a home in several countries. However, it has also been argued that there might be a negative association

Clara H. Mulder

2006-01-01

373

Family Bonding with Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university.\\u000a Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families.\\u000a We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate which types of family members have\\u000a the most

Jonathan MeerHarvey; Harvey S. Rosen

2010-01-01

374

Traditional Family Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What is “traditionalism” and how does it relate to family values? What are the family values that concern parental responsibility\\u000a in raising children? Who do the Puerto Ricans say should be the decision maker in the family? Should women with small children\\u000a work outside the home? Should husbands share responsibility for housework? Should a wife always obey her husband? Should

Mary Cuadrado; Louis Lieberman

375

Supporting Family Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported

Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer

2007-01-01

376

Familial Transient Global Amnesia  

PubMed Central

Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA), a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

Davies, R. Rhys; Larner, A.J.

2012-01-01

377

Familial achalasia in children.  

PubMed

Achalasia is rare in the pediatric age group and in most cases it is idiopathic with no family history. Familial achalasia is very rare. This report describes two families with achalasia: in one, six children were affected while in the other a brother and a sister had Allgrove's syndrome (triple-A syndrome consisting of achalasia, adrenal insufficiency, and alacrima). Familial achalasia suggests that it is hereditary and may be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The management of achalasia in children is still controversial. With the recent advances in minimal invasive surgery, laparoscopic Heller's myotomy is the procedure of choice in the management of achalasia in children. PMID:23076455

Torab, Fawaz Chikh; Hamchou, Moustafa; Ionescu, Gabriel; Al-Salem, Ahmed H

2012-10-18

378

Opening Doors: Understanding School and Family Influences on Family Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family involvement in schooling can benefit young children, teachers, and families. Family involvement in schools can be influenced by both school-related and family-related factors. School-related factors include teachers’ attitudes toward families, and school and teacher expectations. Family-related factors include ethnicity, prior school experiences, and family work schedules. Teachers who recognize and understand these influences can employ a variety of strategies

Erin Carlisle; Lindsey Stanley; Kristen Mary Kemple

2005-01-01

379

Family governance practices and teambuilding: paradox of the enterprising family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between family governance practices and financial performance of the business and family\\u000a assets of business-owning families. A business-owning family that shares a focus on preserving and growing wealth as a family\\u000a is defined as the enterprising family. Results of the study are consistent with predictions about the functioning of the enterprising family derived from research

Marta M. Berent-BraunLorraine; Lorraine M. Uhlaner

2012-01-01

380

Family Nursing Research with Asian Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review nursing research with Asian families over the past decade to understand the state of the science and recommend future directions for nursing research. Between 1992 and 2002, 68 databased articles published in English and authored by a nurse were examined for study settings, populations, methods, and findings. The current body of literature

Mayumi A. Willgerodt; Marcia G. Killien

2004-01-01

381

Lineage-specific expansion of IFIT gene family: an insight into coevolution with IFN gene family.  

PubMed

In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

2013-06-20

382

Ontogeny in the Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

When ontogeny takes place in a family, and parents provide essential resources for development, the parents become an environmental component to the development of a wide range of offspring traits. Because differences among parents may partly reflect genetic variation, this environmental component contains genes and may itself evolve. Also, when offspring play an active role in family interactions, offspring become

Mathias Kölliker

2005-01-01

383

Balancing Work & Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is based on what students need to know, to be able to do, and to be like in order to be competent in the work of the family. Each of the 12 units follows a uniform format that includes the following: perennial problem (one faced over and over by successive generations of families); practical problem (the organizing scheme for how…

Hutchinson Community Junior Coll., KS.

384

Patent Family Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting…

Simmons, Edlyn S.

1985-01-01

385

Changing Families, Changing Workplaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

Bianchi, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

386

Genetics & Family History  

Cancer.gov

In 2001 we conducted the Family History Validation Study, a telephone survey of 1,380 Connecticut residents, which assessed self-reported information about family history of cancer. The study also explored demographic, psychosocial, and medical factors associated with such reports.

387

Family-Friendly Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…

Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria

2004-01-01

388

Marinating the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

Hensel, Karen A.

1982-01-01

389

THE FAMILY ALBUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a creative diagnostic tool, developed and clinically applied by the authors in individual, marital, and family therapy. The tool is based on the clients' creation of a family album in the form of a collage, and it enables the therapist to touch the inner (intrapsychic) theater of the client, as well as to understand the interpersonal theater.

Hassia Yerushalmi; Tova Yedidya

1997-01-01

390

Asteroid families: Current situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being the products of energetic collisional events, asteroid families provide a fundamental body of evidence to test the predictions of theoretical and numerical models of catastrophic disruption phenomena. The goal is to obtain, from current physical and dynamical data, reliable inferences on the original disruption events that produced the observed families. The main problem in doing this is recognizing, and

A. Cellino; A. Dell'Oro; E. F. Tedesco

2009-01-01

391

Uninsured Rural Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

2008-01-01

392

Family Perspectives on Prematurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

Zero to Three (J), 2003

2003-01-01

393

Families living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were

M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester

2005-01-01

394

Families, Risk, and Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problems of studying families arise from the difficulty in studying systems in which there are multiple elements interacting with each other and with the child. This book attests to the growing sophistication of the conceptualization and measurement techniques for understanding family processes. Chapters in the first part of the book, "The…

Lewis, Michael, Ed.; Feiring, Candice, Ed.

395

Therapy for Family Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

Rosmann, Michael R.

396

Explaining Family Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy" (Marguerite Stevenson…

Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

397

Feminism and family therapy.  

PubMed

Feminism has had a profound effect on contemporary culture and on thinking in most academic fields, including psychoanalysis. Interestingly, until very recently it had made virtually no impact on the theory and practice of family therapy. This paper proposes an explanation for this peculiar phenomenon and argues that family therapy has been considerably handicapped by its insularity from the feminist critique. Utilizing feminist scholarship in psychoanalysis, history, and sociology, the paper analyzes the structural contradictions in family life that family therapists have essentially ignored and then outlines their clinical implications. Key points in the discussion include the argument that systems theory is an inadequate explanatory matrix from which to build a theory of the family, that the archetypal "family case" of the overinvolved mother and peripheral father is best understood, not as a clinical problem, but as the product of a historical process two hundred years in the making, and that power relations between men and women in families function in terms of paradoxical, incongruous hierarchies that reflect the complex interpenetration between the structure of family relations and the world of work. This conceptual model then provides the basis for an analysis and critique of sexual politics as they emerge in the prototypical clinical situation. PMID:3987881

Goldner, V

1985-03-01

398

Knowledge and the Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We …nd a connection betweeen the logistic learning curves in experi- mentally psychology, and the changing division of labor within the family. A two equation model explains how humans organize their activities both inside and outside the family. The model predicts that in the beginning convex part of the logistic curve it is e¢ cient for unskilled men and women

Graciela Chichilnisky; Peter Eisenberger

399

Home and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa History. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is homes and family life in Iowa history. Selections address what has been important to Iowa's families over time and what homes were like before…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1996-01-01

400

Immigrant Family Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this paper is to examine aspects of the immigration experience that impinge on the issue of family stability. The meager literature on the socioeconomic background of recent immigrants together with data collected on 150 recent immigrant families indicates that the newest wave of immigrants is, in general, well-prepared for life in the United States. However, the process

Geraldine Grant

1983-01-01

401

Firearms and family violence.  

PubMed

Firearms contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in family violence. This article discusses the debate on gun use for protection and guns in the home. Weapons-related risks in the setting of intimate partner violence are closely reviewed. Recommendations for physicians are discussed in the context of firearms and family violence. PMID:10516848

Kellermann, A; Heron, S

1999-08-01

402

Snowbird Intergenerational Family Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined the family relationships of snowbirds. Interviews were conducted with 25 older adults from the Midwest who migrated seasonally to the Sunbelt. Snowbirds did not perceive their winter experience as having a negative impact on their families in any significant way. The vast majority of snowbirds expressed satisfaction with how well they maintained their intergenerational ties and

Kristine E. Bjelde; Gregory F. Sanders

2009-01-01

403

Understanding family values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores how the traditional nuclear family of mother, father and 2 children is being replaced by “beanpole“ families of cohabitating couples with one child, and extending to four rather than three generations; parents have children at a later age and seek to recreate their own childhood by imitating the styles of their children. Discusses the accompanying end of childhood, as

Tim Greenhalgh

2002-01-01

404

Families in the Military  

MedlinePLUS

... and anxious. They may also experience financial stress. Media coverage of events can also increase concern. Some families must also deal with the ... yrs.) may be rebellious, irritable or more challenging of authority. Parents need to ... assignment increases the burden on all family members. The following ...

405

Intervention in Disintegrating Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special demonstration project attempted to find means of assisting hard-core multi-problem families in a predominantly rural Idaho county. A single agency was formed to coordinate community activities and provide a variety of services for the needs of the total family. Project personnel included a director, social worker, home economist, public…

Wootton, Ray W.

406

Abstract Families of Processors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 'processor' is a Turing-like automaton with auxiliary storage. An 'abstract family' of processors (AFP) consists of all processors that use the storage in the same way. Properties common to all AFP are derived. For a family of operations to be the outpu...

G. F. Rose

1968-01-01

407

THE FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The family Tymoviridae comprises the genus Tymovirus, from which it derives its name, the genus Marafivirus and the newly established genus Maculavirus. Members of the family share the following characteristics: (i) non enveloped isometric particles c. 30 nm in diameter, with a rounded contour and...

408

Family Influence on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No one denies that students have many more distractions today than in days gone by. The need for family involvement in a child's reading progress joins a surge in American society for parents to take more responsibility for their children's character and in the condition of their communities. Some hints for parents in establishing family literacy…

Walker, Scott S.

409

Education and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is the report of the Family Ties Commission, which was established by the Association of Teacher Educators to study the relationship between home and school. Following the preface and two introductory essays, "Education and My Family" (K.B. O'Rourke as told to E. Johnson) and "Preparing for Successful Children" (B. Clawson), the book is…

Kaplan, Leonard, Ed.

410

Family Reunification Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utah's Department of Human Services' Family Reunification Project was initiated to demonstrate that intensive, time-limited, home-based services would enable children in foster care to return to their natural families more rapidly than regular foster care management permits. The following steps were taken in project development: (1) sites were…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

411

Effective family problem solving.  

PubMed

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children, with 2 definite-solution tasks--tower building (TWB) and 20 questions (TQ), and 1 indefinite-solution task--plan-something-together (PST). Incentive (for cooperation or competition) and task independence (members worked solo or jointly) were manipulated during TWB and TQ, yielding 4 counterbalanced conditions per task per family. On TQ, solo performance exceeded joint performance; on TWB, competition impaired joint performance. Families effective at problem solving in all conditions of both definite-solution tasks tried more problem-solving strategies during TWB and deliberated longer and reached more satisfactory agreements during PST. Family problem-solving effectiveness was moderately predicted by 2 parents' participation in the study. Parental education, parental occupational prestige, and membership in the family of an academically and socially competent child were weaker predictors. The results indicate that definitions of effective family problem solving that are based on directly observed measures of group interaction are more valid than definitions that rely primarily on family characteristics. PMID:3987417

Blechman, E A; McEnroe, M J

1985-04-01

412

Effective Family Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

1985-01-01

413

The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

2013-11-01

414

Oury Family Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oury Family was an Arizona pioneer family, prominent in territorial political and military affairs. Their number included William S. Oury, who served as the first mayor of Tucson in 1864. He later purchased the "Arizonian" newspaper in Tubac and moved it to Tucson. Other family members contributed to the spirit and culture of the Arizona territory during the late 19th century as well. This site provides interested parties with access to their family papers, which are part of the University of Arizona Libraries Special Collections. First-time visitors should check out the Finding Aid area, as it will help them get acclimated to the breadth of the materials. The documents include family correspondence, diaries, photographs, deeds, articles, and speeches related to the Ourys' involvement in Arizona territorial military experience. It's quite a collection and one that anyone with an interest in American history will find most edifying.

415

Pattern recognition as a caring partnership in families with cancer.  

PubMed

Pattern recognition as a caring partnership in families with cancer The purpose of this study was to address the process of a caring partnership by elaborating pattern recognition as nursing intervention with families with cancer. It is based on Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness within the unitary-transformative paradigm and is an extension of a previous study of Japanese women with ovarian cancer. A hermeneutic, dialectic method was used to engage 10 Japanese families in which the wife-mothers were hospitalized because of cancer diagnosis. The family included at least the woman with cancer and her primary caregiver. Each of four nurse-researchers entered into partnership with a different family and conducted three interviews with each family. The participants were asked to describe the meaningful persons and events in their family history. The family's story was transmuted into a diagram of sequential patterns of interactional configurations and shared with the family at the second meeting. Evidence of pattern recognition and insight into the meaning of the family pattern were identified further in the remaining meetings. The data revealed five dimensions of a transformative process. Most families found meaning in their patterns and made a shift from separated individuals within the family to trustful caring relationships. One-third of them went through this process within two interviews. The families showed increasing openness, connectedness and trustfulness in caring relationships. In partnership with the family, each nurse-researcher grasped the pattern of the family as a whole and experienced the meaning of caring. Pattern recognition as nursing intervention was a meaning-making transforming process in the family-nurse partnership. PMID:11012802

Endo, E; Nitta, N; Inayoshi, M; Saito, R; Takemura, K; Minegishi, H; Kubo, S; Kondo, M

2000-09-01

416

Familial ventricular tachycardia: a report of four families.  

PubMed Central

Four cases of familial ventricular tachycardia are presented. In each family the proband was an adolescent girl. Twelve members in the four families were affected and all were female. The clinical and electrocardiographic features were relatively constant within each family but there were striking differences between families. These differences argue against a common electrophysiological or pathophysiological basis for the ventricular tachycardia.

Wren, C; Rowland, E; Burn, J; Campbell, R W

1990-01-01

417

Family Relations and the Internet: Exploring a Family Boundaries Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of new technologies such as the Internet into the household can po- tentially change the quality of family relationships. We developed and tested a family boundaries approach, suggesting that frequency and type of Internet use are nega- tively related to family time and positively related to family conflicts, yielding a low overall perception of family cohesion. We also

Gustavo S. Mesch

2006-01-01

418

Genome-Wide Analysis of Arabidopsis Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Reveals Their Essential Role in Organelle Biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome revealed thousands of previously unsuspected genes, many of which cannot be ascribed even putative functions. One of the largest and most enigmatic gene families discovered in this way is characterized by tandem arrays of pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs). We describe a detailed bioinformatic analysis of 441 members of the Arabidopsis PPR family plus

Claire Lurin; Clemence Bruyere; Alain Lecharny; Hakim Mireau; Nemo Peeters; Jean-Pierre Renou; Ian Smalla

2004-01-01

419

Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations  

PubMed Central

Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

2012-01-01

420

Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

2011-01-01

421

Nuclear Versus Quasi-Stem Families: the New Chinese Family Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evolution of the Chinese family as revealed through the returns of the last censuses shows a diminution in size coupled with a stability of the structures, with approximately one-quarter of the population living in the frame of three-generation households. Fluctuations in size have been mainly induced by variations in the age distribution following the process of the demographic transition.

Michel Cartier

1995-01-01

422

Changing Family Composition and the Distribution of Family Income in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unlike findings from previous research based on the full age range of the population, data from the National Longitudinal Surveys revealed growing income inequality between 1976 and 1980 for the families of the baby boom generation. Part of the growth in ...

S. M. Hills J. E. Thompson

1983-01-01

423

Family welfare programme.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu is the first Indian State to recognize the basic relevance of family planning to national planning. It was given national awards for outstanding work in family planning for every year except 1964 from 1961 to 1967, and from 1973 to 1976. Family planning activity was initiated in large maternity hospitals as a postpartum program. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was first implemented in Tamil Nadu. 141 institutions have been certified for the operation. An oral pill program is being implemented in all the rural and urban family welfare centers including the hospitals. The family welfare program has been fully integrated with the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) program which has created confidence among people that their children will be protected from health hazards. The MCH Schemes are conducted through primary health care (PHC) centers, urban family welfare centers, MCH centers, hospitals, and dispensaries. Dais are trained to improve the techniques of midwifery and aid delivery in a hygienic manner. Dais can also use their influence in the local community to further family planning. It is proposed to establish additional subcenters in selected districts to average 1/center/5000 population. The government continues to sponsor and fund equipment, facilities, and infrastructure to facilitate sterilization operations in primary health centers. PMID:12262521

Namadevan, V

1980-07-01

424

Family Day Care Training Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

Nakatsu, Gail

425

Working with Chronically Dysfunctional Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews family therapy with chronically dysfunctional families including the development of family therapy and current trends which appear to give little guidance toward working with severely dysfunctional families. A theoretical stance based upon the systems approach to family functioning and pathology is presented which suggests: (1)…

Younger, Robert; And Others

426

Familial Poland anomaly revisited.  

PubMed

Poland anomaly (PA) is a pectoral muscle hypoplasia/aplasia variably associated with ipsilateral thoracic (TA) and/or upper limb anomalies (ULA). PA is usually sporadic and sometimes familial, making recurrence risk an issue in genetic counseling. Multidisciplinary evaluation of 240 PA patients was carried out, including physical examination of patients and their parents in 190 PA (subjects of the study). Familial conditions were classified into three groups. Group1: true familial PA (F-PA): pectoral muscle defects with familial recurrence: 8(4.2%). Group2: familial Poland-like anomaly families (F-PLA): PA index case and ?1 relative(s) showing normal pectoral muscles but ULA and/or TA common in PA: 16(8.4%). Group3: sporadic PA (S-PA): 166(87.4%). F-PA indicated a stronger male (87.5%) and left side (62.5%) prevalence, but fewer ULA (37.5%) compared to the other two groups. Maternal transmission (6/8) was more common in F-PA. Statistical significance was not reached due to the small number of F-PA and F-PLA. Karyotyping and array-comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 13 families. Three maternally inherited copy number variants were identified in three patients: 1p31.1 deletion, Xp11.22 duplication, and 16q23.1 duplication. Interestingly, the proband's mother carrying the 16q23.1 duplication displayed moderate breast and areola asymmetry, but normal pectoral muscles on ultrasound. Though there is no recent review discussing recurrence of PA, we reviewed 31 published PA families. On the basis of our study and previous reports, familial PA is not uncommon. Nonetheless, no information can be derived either regarding a molecular basis or clinical tools with which to identify cases with recurrence risk. PMID:22110015

Baban, Anwar; Torre, Michele; Costanzo, Sara; Gimelli, Stefania; Bianca, Sebastiano; Divizia, Maria Teresa; Sénès, Filippo Maria; Garavelli, Livia; Rivieri, Francesca; Lerone, Margherita; Valle, Maura; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Calevo, Maria Grazia

2011-11-22

427

75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer...the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront...

2010-03-01

428

75 FR 17946 - Family Report, MTW Family Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-25] Family Report, MTW Family Report AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer...Tenant data is collected to understand demographic, family profile, income, and housing information for...

2010-04-08

429

Revealed Competitive Advantage for Wheat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new indicator of trade performance, called 'revealed competitive advantage' (RCA), is used to examine the changing nature of wheat competitiveness and noncompetitiveness. Time series RCA measures for 5 wheat-exporting countries and 20 wheat-importing co...

T. Vollrath

1987-01-01

430

Revealing the Microstructure of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives are to demonstrate how the microstructure of materials may be revealed by abrasive polishing and chemical etching, and to illustrate how microstructural information is used to monitor manufacturing processes, provide in-depth inspection, an...

J. A. Nelson

1990-01-01

431

Experimental Revealing of Polarization Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stationary and traveling waves of the states of optical polarization are considered in the framework of Jones vector formalism. The feasibility of revealing these waves in holographic and interference arrangements is substantiated and demonstrated.

Angelsky, Oleg V.; Dominikov, Nikolay N.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Tudor, Tiberiu

1999-05-01

432

Experimental revealing of polarization waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stationary and travelling waves of the states of optical polarization have been considered in the framework of Jones vector formalism. Feasibility for these waves by revealed in holographic and interference arrangements is grounded and demonstrated.

Angelsky, Oleg V.; Dominikov, N. N.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Tudor, Tiberiu S.

1998-08-01

433

Familial cutaneous collagenoma.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old woman presented to our dermatology clinic in February 2005 with a chief complaint of numerous flesh-colored nodules on her back and abdomen. She initially noticed the lesions at age 17 years. The plaques had increased in size and number over time, but remained asymptomatic. The patient reported multiple similar lesions on a maternal uncle and a cousin. Her family history was also notable for cardiomyopathy, resulting in the death of her mother. The patient's past medical history was notable for poorly controlled type I diabetes, currently managed with an insulin pump; and coronary artery disease. The patient had undergone multiple cardiac procedures before the age of 40 years, including quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting surgery and placement of 9 cardiac stents. Her ejection fraction on cardiac catheterization in November 2004 was 65% with no wall motion abnormalities. On physical examination, numerous spongy, discrete, flesh-colored plaques and nodules were seen concentrated across the upper part of her back between the scapulae as well as underneath the breasts and across the flanks (Figure 1). All lesions were asymptomatic. Prior workup of this patient had included plain films of the long bones and hands, which were within normal limits. A biopsy from lesional skin on the back highlighted by trichome stain showed an increased number of markedly thickened and eosinophilic dermal collagen bundles compared with adjacent normal skin. Immunohistochemical studies with anticollagen type I and type III antibodies confirmed that the increased collagen material consisted of type I collagen fibers, which is the same type of collagen found in normal dermis. The elastic fibers, highlighted by Verhoeff-van Gieson stain (Figure 2), were diminished and haphazardly arranged. No increased cellular component or inflammatory infiltrate was observed. These findings were consistent with a collagenoma. Further analysis of the lesional tissue by electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural appearance of the collagen fibers, including arrangement and diameters, were not significantly different from that of the normal tissue (Figure 3). PMID:18174804

Dawn, Marianne E; Deng, April C; Petrali, John; Wessely, Caroline; Jaffe, David; Gaspari, Anthony A

434

A review of family meal influence on adolescents' dietary intake.  

PubMed

Recent concerns about adolescent nutrition and unhealthy weights have prompted an examination of the myriad influences on dietary intake during adolescence. Included here are a summary of the literature on family influence on dietary intake, specifically during adolescence and within the family context, a summary of family meal patterns, and a systematic review of the known influences of family meals on dietary intake. Because of the complexity of families in today's society, models were developed to depict the broad context of familial influences on adolescent nutritional behaviours and attitudes and to describe what is known and not known about family meal influences on adolescent dietary intake and quality. A systematic review of the literature revealed seven articles specifically related to adolescents, family meals, and dietary intake, which were analyzed for strength of evidence and plausibility. In spite of data collection methods relying on self-report, results suggested that family meals were associated with improved dietary intakes. Families in today's societies are complex. Nevertheless, parents have the potential to influence positively, through family meals, what food is provided, where it is provided (e.g., home, restaurant), and within what type of atmosphere it is provided. PMID:18334049

Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

2008-01-01

435

Family Centered Maternity Care  

PubMed Central

Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family.

Enkin, Murray W.

1973-01-01

436

Familial poikylodermic cutaneous amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Among the less common variants of primary cutaneous amyloidosis are both the poikylodermic and the familial types. The case of two sisters of thirteen and seventeen years old with extensive asymptomatic lesions with a poikylodermic aspect is reported. The girls' father was also affected and a paternal aunt had consulted at our department some years previously for similar lesions. Thus a new case of familial cutaneous amyloidosis with an autosomal dominant hereditary pattern is described. The possible relationship between multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) and familial cutaneous amyloidosis is discussed. PMID:18474457

Pardo Arranz, Lourdes; Escalonilla García-Patos, Pilar; Román Curto, Concepción; Blanco Barrios, Susana; Fernández López, Emilia; de Unamuno Pérez, Pablo

2008-05-13

437

Eastern Finnish families on the borderland of historical family forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the discussion of the Eastern European family and forms of patriarchalism as an ideological base for families. Changes in the patriarchal families in Eastern Finland will be examined as a process from the pre-Christian period until the 19th century. Eastern Finnish families were situated on the classical European\\/non-European family forms border area. By comparing families of

Kirsi Warpula

2002-01-01

438

Innovativeness in family firms: a family influence perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationships between family influence and family firm performance. Specifically, we investigate\\u000a how generational ownership dispersion, family management involvement, and family member reciprocity affect firm performance.\\u000a We also consider the moderating role of innovativeness. Our findings indicate that family firm influence can have both positive\\u000a and negative consequences for family firm performance. Implications and areas for future

Franz W. KellermannsKimberly; Kimberly A. Eddleston; Ravi Sarathy; Fran Murphy

2012-01-01

439

Ten adaptive strategies for family and work balance: advice from successful families.  

PubMed

Despite negative media images and social dynamics insensitive to the lives of many dual-career couples, research shows that these families are largely healthy and thriving. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies of middle-class, dual-earner couples (N = 47) with children that are successfully managing family and work. Guided by grounded-theory methodology, analysis of interview data revealed that these successful couples structured their lives around 10 major strategies: Valuing family, striving for partnership, deriving meaning from work, maintaining work boundaries, focusing and producing at work, taking pride in dual earning, prioritizing family fun, living simply, making decisions proactively, and valuing time. Each adaptive strategy is defined and illustrated through the participants' own words. Clinical applications for therapists working with dual-earner couples are offered. PMID:11594013

Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; Ziemba, S J; Current, L R

2001-10-01

440

Mothers' Differential Treatment of Their Adolescent Childbearing and Nonchildbearing Children: Contrasts Between and Within Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined mothers' differential treatment of adolescent sibling pairs in 2 family contexts: families with and without an adolescent childbearing daughter. Results based on mothers' ratings and children's ratings revealed that the mothers of childbearing daughters treated all of their children less affectionately than did the mothers of nonchildbearing adolescents. In families with a childbearing daughter, mothers expected a

Patricia L. East; Leanne J. Jacobson

2003-01-01