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1

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

2

Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

2014-01-01

3

Unique core genomes of the bacterial family vibrionaceae: insights into niche adaptation and speciation  

PubMed Central

Background The criteria for defining bacterial species and even the concept of bacterial species itself are under debate, and the discussion is apparently intensifying as more genome sequence data is becoming available. However, it is still unclear how the new advances in genomics should be used most efficiently to address this question. In this study we identify genes that are common to any group of genomes in our dataset, to determine whether genes specific to a particular taxon exist and to investigate their potential role in adaptation of bacteria to their specific niche. These genes were named unique core genes. Additionally, we investigate the existence and importance of unique core genes that are found in isolates of phylogenetically non-coherent groups. These groups of isolates, that share a genetic feature without sharing a closest common ancestor, are termed genophyletic groups. Results The bacterial family Vibrionaceae was used as the model, and we compiled and compared genome sequences of 64 different isolates. Using the software orthoMCL we determined clusters of homologous genes among the investigated genome sequences. We used multilocus sequence analysis to build a host phylogeny and mapped the numbers of unique core genes of all distinct groups of isolates onto the tree. The results show that unique core genes are more likely to be found in monophyletic groups of isolates. Genophyletic groups of isolates, in contrast, are less common especially for large groups of isolate. The subsequent annotation of unique core genes that are present in genophyletic groups indicate a high degree of horizontally transferred genes. Finally, the annotation of the unique core genes of Vibrio cholerae revealed genes involved in aerotaxis and biosynthesis of the iron-chelator vibriobactin. Conclusion The presented work indicates that genes specific for any taxon inside the bacterial family Vibrionaceae exist. These unique core genes encode conserved metabolic functions that can shed light on the adaptation of a species to its ecological niche. Additionally, our study suggests that unique core genes can be used to aid classification of bacteria and contribute to a bacterial species definition on a genomic level. Furthermore, these genes may be of importance in clinical diagnostics and drug development. PMID:22574681

2012-01-01

4

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

PubMed Central

Background The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Results Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%–50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1–11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species. Conclusion Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges. PMID:19594870

Gu, Jianying; Neary, Jennifer; Cai, Hong; Moshfeghian, Audrey; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Lilburn, Timothy G; Wang, Yufeng

2009-01-01

5

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

E-print Network

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria ...

Chien, Diana M.

6

Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K

2014-01-01

7

Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study.

Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

2014-01-01

8

Polar Flagellar Motility of the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Polar flagella of Vibrio species can rotate at speeds as high as 100,000 rpm and effectively propel the bacteria in liquid as fast as 60 ?m/s. The sodium motive force powers rotation of the filament, which acts as a propeller. The filament is complex, composed of multiple subunits, and sheathed by an extension of the cell outer membrane. The regulatory circuitry controlling expression of the polar flagellar genes of members of the Vibrionaceae is different from the peritrichous system of enteric bacteria or the polar system of Caulobacter crescentus. The scheme of gene control is also pertinent to other members of the gamma purple bacteria, in particular to Pseudomonas species. This review uses the framework of the polar flagellar system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to provide a synthesis of what is known about polar motility systems of the Vibrionaceae. In addition to its propulsive role, the single polar flagellum of V. parahaemolyticus is believed to act as a tactile sensor controlling surface-induced gene expression. Under conditions that impede rotation of the polar flagellum, an alternate, lateral flagellar motility system is induced that enables movement through viscous environments and over surfaces. Although the dual flagellar systems possess no shared structural components and although distinct type III secretion systems direct the simultaneous placement and assembly of polar and lateral organelles, movement is coordinated by shared chemotaxis machinery. PMID:11528005

McCarter, Linda L.

2001-01-01

9

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

10

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

11

Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier

2013-01-01

12

Structural analyses reveal two distinct families of nucleoside phosphorylases.  

PubMed Central

The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:11743878

Pugmire, Matthew J; Ealick, Steven E

2002-01-01

13

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level.  

PubMed

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria that thrive in a diverse habitats. To elucidate the environmental conditions under which vibrios proliferate, numerous studies have examined correlations with bulk environmental variables-e.g., temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphate-and association with potential host organisms. However, how meaningful these environmental associations are remains unclear because data are fragmented across studies with variable sampling and analysis methods. Here, we synthesize findings about Vibrio correlations and physical associations using a framework of increasingly fine environmental and taxonomic scales, to better understand their dynamics in the wild. We first conduct a meta-analysis to determine trends with respect to bulk water environmental variables, and find that while temperature and salinity are generally strongly predictive correlates, other parameters are inconsistent and overall patterns depend on taxonomic resolution. Based on the hypothesis that dynamics may better correlate with more narrowly defined niches, we review evidence for specific association with plants, algae, zooplankton, and animals. We find that Vibrio are attached to many organisms, though evidence for enrichment compared to the water column is often lacking. Additionally, contrary to the notion that they flourish predominantly while attached, Vibrio can have, at least temporarily, a free-living lifestyle and even engage in massive blooms. Fine-scale sampling from the water column has enabled identification of such lifestyle preferences for ecologically cohesive populations, and future efforts will benefit from similar analysis at fine genetic and environmental sampling scales to describe the conditions, habitats, and resources shaping Vibrio dynamics. PMID:24575082

Takemura, Alison F; Chien, Diana M; Polz, Martin F

2014-01-01

14

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria that thrive in diverse habitats. To elucidate the environmental conditions under which vibrios proliferate, numerous studies have examined correlations with bulk environmental variables—e.g., temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphate—and association with potential host organisms. However, how meaningful these environmental associations are remains unclear because data are fragmented across studies with variable sampling and analysis methods. Here, we synthesize findings about Vibrio correlations and physical associations using a framework of increasingly fine environmental and taxonomic scales, to better understand their dynamics in the wild. We first conduct a meta-analysis to determine trends with respect to bulk water environmental variables, and find that while temperature and salinity are generally strongly predictive correlates, other parameters are inconsistent and overall patterns depend on taxonomic resolution. Based on the hypothesis that dynamics may better correlate with more narrowly defined niches, we review evidence for specific association with plants, algae, zooplankton, and animals. We find that Vibrio are attached to many organisms, though evidence for enrichment compared to the water column is often lacking. Additionally, contrary to the notion that they flourish predominantly while attached, Vibrio can have, at least temporarily, a free-living lifestyle and even engage in massive blooms. Fine-scale sampling from the water column has enabled identification of such lifestyle preferences for ecologically cohesive populations, and future efforts will benefit from similar analysis at fine genetic and environmental sampling scales to describe the conditions, habitats, and resources shaping Vibrio dynamics. PMID:24575082

Takemura, Alison F.; Chien, Diana M.; Polz, Martin F.

2013-01-01

15

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Incidence of lux Gene Horizontal Transfer in Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 21 January 2008\\/Accepted 11 March 2008 Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of

Henryk Urbanczyk; Jennifer C. Ast; Allison J. Kaeding; James D. Oliver; Paul V. Dunlap

2008-01-01

16

Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

17

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

18

In vitro selection of halo-thermophilic RNA reveals two families of resistant RNA  

E-print Network

and Molecular Adaptability, Institute Jacques-Monod, CNRS, University Paris VI, Tour 43, 2 place Jussieu, 752511 In vitro selection of halo-thermophilic RNA reveals two families of resistant RNA Jacques Vergnea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

The dynamics of a family’s gut microbiota reveal variations on a theme  

PubMed Central

Background It is clear that the structure and function of the human microbiota has significant impact on maintenance of health and yet the factors that give rise to an adult microbiota are poorly understood. A combination of genetics, diet, environment, and life history are all thought to impact the development of the gut microbiome. Here we study a chronosequence of the gut microbiota found in eight individuals from a family consisting of two parents and six children ranging in age from two months to ten years old. Results Using 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic shotgun sequence data, it was possible to distinguish the family from a cohort of normal individuals living in the same geographic region and to differentiate each family member. Interestingly, there was a significant core membership to the family members’ microbiota where the abundance of this core accounted for the differences between individuals. It was clear that the introduction of solids represents a significant transition in the development of a mature microbiota. This transition was associated with increased diversity, decreased stability, and the colonization of significant abundances of Bacteroidetes and Clostridiales. Although the children and mother shared essentially the identical diet and environment, the children’s microbiotas were not significantly more similar to their mother than they were to their father. Conclusions This analysis underscores the complex interactions that give rise to a personalized microbiota and suggests the value of studying families as a surrogate for longitudinal studies. PMID:25061514

2014-01-01

20

Seasonal Incidence of Autochthonous Antagonistic Roseobacter spp. and Vibrionaceae Strains in a Turbot Larva (Scophthalmus maximus) Rearing System  

PubMed Central

Bacteria inhibitory to fish larval pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two turbot larva rearing farms over a 1-year period. Samples were taken from the rearing site, e.g., tank walls, water, and feed for larvae, and bacteria with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum were isolated using a replica plating assay. Approximately 19,000 colonies were replica plated from marine agar plates, and 341 strains were isolated from colonies causing clearing zones in a layer of V. anguillarum. When tested in a well diffusion agar assay, 173 strains retained the antibacterial activity against V. anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus. Biochemical tests identified 132 strains as Roseobacter spp. and 31 as Vibrionaceae strains. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three strains confirmed the identification as Roseobacter gallaeciensis. Roseobacter spp. were especially isolated in the spring and early summer months. Subtyping of the 132 Roseobacter spp. strains by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with two primers revealed that the strains formed a very homogeneous group. Hence, it appears that the same subtype was present at both fish farms and persisted during the 1-year survey. This indicates either a common, regular source of the subtype or the possibility that a particular subtype has established itself in some areas of the fish farm. Thirty-one antagonists were identified as Vibrio spp., and 18 of these were V. anguillarum but not serotype O1 or O2. Roseobacter spp. strains were, in particular, isolated from the larval tank walls, and it may be possible to establish an antagonistic, beneficial microflora in the rearing environment of turbot larvae and thereby limit survival of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:15574928

Hjelm, Mette; Riaza, Ana; Formoso, Fernanda; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone

2004-01-01

21

Comparative mapping in the Poaceae family reveals translocations in the complex polyploid genome of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of sugarcane genetics has lagged behind that of other members of the Poaceae family such as wheat, rice, barley and sorghum mainly due to the complexity, size and polyploidization of the genome. We have used the genetic map of a sugarcane cultivar to generate a consensus genetic map to increase genome coverage for comparison to the sorghum genome. We have utilized the recently developed sugarcane DArT array to increase the marker density within the genetic map. The sequence of these DArT markers plus SNP and EST-SSR markers was then used to form a bridge to the sorghum genomic sequence by BLAST alignment to start to unravel the complex genomic architecture of sugarcane. Results Comparative mapping revealed that certain sugarcane chromosomes show greater levels of synteny to sorghum than others. On a macrosyntenic level a good collinearity was observed between sugarcane and sorghum for 4 of the 8 homology groups (HGs). These 4 HGs were syntenic to four sorghum chromosomes with from 98% to 100% of these chromosomes covered by these linked markers. Four major chromosome rearrangements were identified between the other four sugarcane HGs and sorghum, two of which were condensations of chromosomes reducing the basic chromosome number of sugarcane from x?=?10 to x?=?8. This macro level of synteny was transferred to other members within the Poaceae family such as maize to uncover the important evolutionary relationships that exist between sugarcane and these species. Conclusions Comparative mapping of sugarcane to the sorghum genome has revealed new information on the genome structure of sugarcane which will help guide identification of important genes for use in sugarcane breeding. Furthermore of the four major chromosome rearrangements identified in this study, three were common to maize providing some evidence that chromosome reduction from a common paleo-ancestor of both maize and sugarcane was driven by the same translocation events seen in both species. PMID:25059596

2014-01-01

22

RNA profiling reveals familial aggregation of molecular subtypes in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families  

PubMed Central

Background In more than 70% of families with a strong history of breast and ovarian cancers, pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 cannot be identified, even though hereditary factors are expected to be involved. It has been proposed that tumors with similar molecular phenotypes also share similar underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In the current study, the aim was to investigate if global RNA profiling can be used to identify functional subgroups within breast tumors from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations and how these subgroupings relate to different breast cancer patients within the same family. Methods In the current study we analyzed a collection of 70 frozen breast tumor biopsies from a total of 58 families by global RNA profiling and promoter methylation analysis. Results We show that distinct functional subgroupings, similar to the intrinsic molecular breast cancer subtypes, exist among non-BRCA1/2 breast cancers. The distribution of subtypes was markedly different from the distribution found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. From 11 breast cancer families, breast tumor biopsies from more than one affected family member were included in the study. Notably, in 8 of these families we found that patients from the same family shared the same tumor subtype, showing a tendency of familial aggregation of tumor subtypes (p-value?=?1.7e-3). Using our previously developed BRCA1/2-signatures, we identified 7 non-BRCA1/2 tumors with a BRCA1-like molecular phenotype and provide evidence for epigenetic inactivation of BRCA1 in three of the tumors. In addition, 7 BRCA2-like tumors were found. Conclusions Our finding indicates involvement of hereditary factors in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which family members may carry genetic susceptibility not just to breast cancer but to a particular subtype of breast cancer. This is the first study to provide a biological link between breast cancers from family members of high-risk non-BRCA1/2 families in a systematic manner, suggesting that future genetic analysis may benefit from subgrouping families into molecularly homogeneous subtypes in order to search for new high penetrance susceptibility genes. PMID:24479546

2014-01-01

23

Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.] PMID:12618374

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

24

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota.  

PubMed

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

2014-01-01

25

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko

2014-01-01

26

Expressional profiling study revealed unique expressional patterns and dramatic expressional divergence of maize alpha-zein super gene family.  

PubMed

The alpha-zein super gene family encodes the most predominant storage protein in maize (Zea mays) endosperm. In maize inbred line B73, it consists of four gene families with 41 member genes. In this study, we combined quantitative real-time PCR and random clone sequencing to successfully profile the expression of alpha-zein super gene family during endosperm development. We found that only 18 of the 41 member genes were expressed, and their expression levels diverge greatly. At the gene family level, all families had characteristic "up-and-down" oscillating expressional patterns that diverged into two major groups. At the individual gene level, member genes showed dramatic divergence of expression patterns, indicating fast differentiation of their expression regulation. A comparison study among different inbred lines revealed significantly different expressed gene sets, indicating the existence of highly diverged haplotypes. Large gene families containing long gene clusters, e.g. z1A or z1C, mainly contributed the highly divergent haplotypes. In addition, allelic genes also showed significant divergence in their expressional levels. These results indicated a highly dynamic and fast evolving nature to the maize alpha-zein super gene family, which might be a common feature for other large gene families. PMID:19112555

Feng, Lingna; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Gang; Tang, Yuanping; Chen, Hanjun; Jin, Weibo; Wang, Fei; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

2009-04-01

27

Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex), and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery). In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs) are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility. PMID:16343347

Gordon, Jennifer L; Sibley, L David

2005-01-01

28

Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene  

PubMed Central

AIM To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology. METHODS A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP (XLRP) was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members. RESULTS Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members. CONCLUSION We have identified a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be an effective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP. PMID:25349787

Hu, Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Yun; Liu, Lin-Lin; Luo, Yao-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Wang, Hui; Xie, Jing; Hu, Cheng-Quan; Gan, Lin; Huang, Liang

2014-01-01

29

Phylogenetic analysis reveals dynamic evolution of the poly(A)-binding protein gene family in plants.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and functions to maintain the integrity of the mRNA while promoting protein synthesis through its interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G and eIF4B. PABP is encoded by a single gene in yeast and marine algae but during plant evolution the PABP gene family expanded substantially, underwent sequence divergence into three subclasses, and acquired tissue-specificity in gene family member expression. Although such changes suggest functional specialization, the size of the family and its sequence divergence have complicated an understanding of which gene family members may be foundational and which may represent more recent expansions of the family to meet the specific needs of speciation. Here, we examine the evolution of the plant PABP gene family to provide insight into these aspects of the family that may yield clues into the function of individual family members.ResultsThe PABP gene family had expanded to two members by the appearance of fresh water algae and four members in non-vascular plants. In lycophytes, the first sequence divergence yielding a specific class member occurs. The earliest members of the gene family share greatest similarity to those modern members whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues, suggesting that supporting reproductive-associated gene expression is the most conserved function of this family. A family member sharing similarity to modern vegetative-associated members first appears in gymnosperms. Further elaboration of the reproductive-associated and vegetative-associated members occurred during the evolution of flowering plants.ConclusionsExpansion of the plant PABP gene family began prior to the colonization of land. By the evolution of lycophytes, the first class member whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues in higher plants had appeared. A second class member whose expression is vegetative-associated appeared in gymnosperms and all three modern classes had fully evolved by the appearance of the first known basal angiosperm. The size of each PABP class underwent further expansion during subsequent evolution, especially in the Brassicaceae, suggesting that the family is undergoing dynamic evolution. PMID:25421536

Gallie, Daniel R; Liu, Renyi

2014-11-25

30

SH3 Domain–Based Phototrapping in Living Cells Reveals Rho Family GAP Signaling Complexes  

PubMed Central

Rho family GAPs [guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating proteins] negatively regulate Rho family GTPase activity and therefore modulate signaling events that control cytoskeletal dynamics. The spatial distribution of these GAPs and their specificity toward individual GTPases are controlled by their interactions with various proteins within signaling complexes. These interactions are likely mediated through the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, which is abundant in the Rho family GAP proteome and exhibits a micromolar binding affinity, enabling the Rho family GAPs to participate in transient interactions with multiple binding partners. To capture these elusive GAP signaling complexes in situ, we developed a domain-based proteomics approach, starting with in vivo phototrapping of SH3 domain– binding proteins and the mass spectrometry identification of associated proteins for nine representative Rho family GAPs. After the selection of candidate binding proteins by cluster analysis, we performed peptide array–based high-throughput in vitro binding assays to confirm the direct interactions and map the SH3 domain–binding sequences. We thereby identified 54 SH3-mediated binding interactions (including 51 previously unidentified ones) for nine Rho family GAPs. We constructed Rho family GAP interactomes that provided insight into the functions of these GAPs. We further characterized one of the predicted functions for the Rac-specific GAP WRP and identified a role for WRP in mediating clustering of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and the GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor at inhibitory synapses. PMID:22126966

Okada, Hirokazu; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Mason, Frank M.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Soderling, Scott H.

2012-01-01

31

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

PubMed

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO. PMID:22183874

Fay, Johnna P; Richards, Gary P; Ozbay, Gulnihal

2012-05-01

32

Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were examined using gene-specific RNA interference (RNAi). One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype ...

33

Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1) in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP) family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role.

Belen Hurle; Tomas Marques-Bonet; Francesca Antonacci; Inna Hughes; Joseph F Ryan; Evan E Eichler; David M Ornitz; Eric D Green

2011-01-01

34

Brief Report: An Autistic Spectrum Subtype Revealed through Familial Psychopathology Coupled with Cognition in ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified a possible autistic spectrum subtype expressed through family psychopathology coupled with autistic probands' cognitive functioning (i.e., an endophenotypic profile). Participants included 24 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 49 children with Learning Disorder (LD). There were significantly higher rates of Mood…

Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Menard, Philip

2008-01-01

35

Genome-Wide Analysis of mir-548 Gene Family Reveals Evolutionary and Functional Implications  

PubMed Central

mir-548 is a larger, poorly conserved primate-specific miRNA gene family. 69 human mir-548 genes located in almost all human chromosomes whose widespread distribution pattern implicates the evolutionary origin from transposable elements. Higher level of nucleotide divergence was detected between these human miRNA genes, which mainly derived from divergence of multicopy pre-miRNAs and homologous miRNA genes. Products of??mir-548, miR-548-5p, and miR-548-3p showed inconsistent evolutionary patterns, which partly contributed to larger genetic distances between pre-miRNAs. “Seed shifting” events could be detected among miR-548 sequences due to various 5? ends. The events led to shift of seed sequences and target mRNAs, even generated to new target mRNAs. Additionally, the phenomenon of miRNA:miRNA interaction in the miRNA gene family was found. The potential interaction between miRNAs may be contributed to dynamic miRNA expression profiles by complementarily binding events to form miRNA:miRNA duplex with 5?-/3?-overhangs. The miRNA gene family had important roles in multiple biological processes, including signaling pathways and some cancers. The potential abundant roles and functional implication further led to the larger and poorly conserved gene family with genetic variation based on transposable elements. The evolutionary pattern of the primate-specific gene family might contribute to dynamic expression profiles and regulatory network. PMID:23091353

Liang, Tingming; Guo, Li; Liu, Chang

2012-01-01

36

Exome sequencing of extended families with autism reveals genes shared across neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of neurodevelopmental conditions of varying severity, characterized by marked qualitative difficulties in social relatedness, communication, and behavior. Despite overwhelming evidence of high heritability, results from genetic studies to date show that ASD etiology is extremely heterogeneous and only a fraction of autism genes have been discovered. Methods To help unravel this genetic complexity, we performed whole exome sequencing on 100 ASD individuals from 40 families with multiple distantly related affected individuals. All families contained a minimum of one pair of ASD cousins. Each individual was captured with the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon kit, sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq 2000, and the resulting data processed and annotated with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), and SeattleSeq. Genotyping information on each family was utilized in order to determine genomic regions that were identical by descent (IBD). Variants identified by exome sequencing which occurred in IBD regions and present in all affected individuals within each family were then evaluated to determine which may potentially be disease related. Nucleotide alterations that were novel and rare (minor allele frequency, MAF, less than 0.05) and predicted to be detrimental, either by altering amino acids or splicing patterns, were prioritized. Results We identified numerous potentially damaging, ASD associated risk variants in genes previously unrelated to autism. A subset of these genes has been implicated in other neurobehavioral disorders including depression (SLIT3), epilepsy (CLCN2, PRICKLE1), intellectual disability (AP4M1), schizophrenia (WDR60), and Tourette syndrome (OFCC1). Additional alterations were found in previously reported autism candidate genes, including three genes with alterations in multiple families (CEP290, CSMD1, FAT1, and STXBP5). Compiling a list of ASD candidate genes from the literature, we determined that variants occurred in ASD candidate genes 1.65 times more frequently than in random genes captured by exome sequencing (P?=?8.55 × 10-5). Conclusions By studying these unique pedigrees, we have identified novel DNA variations related to ASD, demonstrated that exome sequencing in extended families is a powerful tool for ASD candidate gene discovery, and provided further evidence of an underlying genetic component to a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24410847

2014-01-01

37

Oxylipin Diversity in the Diatom Family Leptocylindraceae Reveals DHA Derivatives in Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Marine planktonic organisms, such as diatoms, are prospective sources of novel bioactive metabolites. Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, generally referred to as oxylipins, in diatoms comprise a highly diverse and complex family of secondary metabolites. These molecules have recently been implicated in several biological processes including intra- and inter-cellular signaling as well as in defense against biotic stressors and grazers. Here, we analyze the production and diversity of C20 and C22 non-volatile oxylipins in five species of the family Leptocylindraceae, which constitute a basal clade in the diatom phylogeny. We report the presence of species-specific lipoxygenase activity and oxylipin patterns, providing the first demonstration of enzymatic production of docosahexaenoic acid derivatives in marine diatoms. The differences observed in lipoxygenase pathways among the species investigated broadly reflected the relationships observed with phylogenetic markers, thus providing functional support to the taxonomic diversity of the individual species. PMID:24445306

Nanjappa, Deepak; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Gallo, Carmela; Zingone, Adriana; Fontana, Angelo

2014-01-01

38

Brief Report: An Autistic Spectrum Subtype Revealed Through Familial Psychopathology Coupled with Cognition in ASD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified a possible autistic spectrum subtype expressed through family psychopathology coupled with autistic\\u000a probands’ cognitive functioning (i.e., an endophenotypic profile). Participants included 24 children with Autism Spectrum\\u000a Disorder (ASD) and 49 children with Learning Disorder (LD). There were significantly higher rates of Mood and Anxiety Disorder\\u000a in first degree maternal relatives and of LD and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Renée Lajiness-O’Neill; Philip Menard

2008-01-01

39

Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals a De Novo SHANK3 Mutation in Familial Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Introduction Clinical genomics promise to be especially suitable for the study of etiologically heterogeneous conditions such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Here we present three siblings with ASD where we evaluated the usefulness of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) for the diagnostic approach to ASD. Methods We identified a family segregating ASD in three siblings with an unidentified cause. We performed WGS in the three probands and used a state-of-the-art comprehensive bioinformatic analysis pipeline and prioritized the identified variants located in genes likely to be related to ASD. We validated the finding by Sanger sequencing in the probands and their parents. Results Three male siblings presented a syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, absence of language, autism spectrum symptoms and epilepsy with negative family history for mental retardation, language disorders, ASD or other psychiatric disorders. We found germline mosaicism for a heterozygous deletion of a cytosine in the exon 21 of the SHANK3 gene, resulting in a missense sequence of 5 codons followed by a premature stop codon (NM_033517:c.3259_3259delC, p.Ser1088Profs*6). Conclusions We reported an infrequent form of familial ASD where WGS proved useful in the clinic. We identified a mutation in SHANK3 that underscores its relevance in Autism Spectrum Disorder. PMID:25646853

Nemirovsky, Sergio I.; Córdoba, Marta; Zaiat, Jonathan J.; Completa, Sabrina P.; Vega, Patricia A.; González-Morón, Dolores; Medina, Nancy M.; Fabbro, Mónica; Romero, Soledad; Brun, Bianca; Revale, Santiago; Ogara, María Florencia; Pecci, Adali; Marti, Marcelo; Vazquez, Martin; Turjanski, Adrián; Kauffman, Marcelo A.

2015-01-01

40

Exome Sequencing Reveals Novel Rare Variants in the Ryanodine Receptor and Calcium Channel Genes in Malignant Hyperthermia Families  

PubMed Central

Background About half of malignant hyperthermia (MH) cases are associated with skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, ?1S subunit (CACNA1S) gene mutations, leaving many with an unknown cause. We chose to apply a sequencing approach to uncover causal variants in unknown cases. Sequencing the exome, the protein-coding region of the genome, has power at low sample sizes and identified the cause of over a dozen Mendelian disorders. Methods We considered four families with multiple MH cases but in whom no mutations in RYR1 and CACNA1S had been identified by Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA. Exome sequencing of two affecteds per family, chosen for maximum genetic distance, were compared. Variants were ranked by allele frequency, protein change, and measures of conservation among mammals to assess likelihood of causation. Finally, putative pathogenic mutations were genotyped in other family members to verify cosegregation with MH. Results Exome sequencing revealed 1 rare RYR1 nonsynonymous variant in each of 3 families (Asp1056His, Val2627Met, Val4234Leu), and 1 CACNA1S variant (Thr1009Lys) in a 4th family. These were not seen in variant databases or in our control population sample of 5379 exomes. Follow-up sequencing in other family members verified cosegregation of alleles with MH. Conclusions Using both exome sequencing and allele frequency data from large sequencing efforts may aid genetic diagnosis of MH. In our sample, it was more sensitive for variant detection in known genes than Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA, and allows for the possibility of novel gene discovery. PMID:24013571

Kim, Jerry H.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Browning, Brian L.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Gordon, Adam S.; Rieder, Mark J.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Fisher, Nickla A.; Hopkins, Philip M.

2014-01-01

41

Revealing the influence of dark matter on the nature of motion and the families of orbits in axisymmetric galaxy models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axially symmetric galactic gravitational model composed of a dense, massive and spherical nucleus with an additional dark matter halo component was used to distinguish between the regular and chaotic character of orbits of stars that move in the meridional plane (R,z). We investigated two different cases: (i) a flat-disk galaxy; (ii) an elliptical galaxy. It is of particular interest to reveal how the portion of the dark matter inside the main body of the galaxy influences the ordered or chaotic nature of motion. Varying the ratio of dark matter to stellar mass, we monitored the evolution not only of the percentage of chaotic orbits, but also of the percentages of orbits that compose the main regular resonant families, by classifying regular orbits into different families. Moreover, we tried to reveal how the starting position of the parent periodic orbits of each regular family changes with respect to the fractional portion of dark matter. We compared our results with previous similar work.

Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Caranicolas, Nicolaos D.

2013-12-01

42

Homozygosity mapping in 64 Syrian consanguineous families with non-specific intellectual disability reveals 11 novel loci and high heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Non-specific intellectual disability of autosomal recessive inheritance (NS-ARID) represents an important fraction of severe cognitive dysfunction disorders. To date, only 10 genes have been identified, and further 24 linked-ARID loci have been reported, as well as others with suggestive linkage. To discover novel genes causing NS-ARID, we undertook genome-wide homozygosity mapping in 64 consanguineous multiplex families of Syrian descent. A total of 11 families revealed unique, significantly linked loci at 4q26-4q28 (MRT17), 6q12-q15 (MRT18), 18p11 (MRT19), 16p12-q12 (MRT20), 11p15 (MRT21), 11p13-q14 (MRT23), 6p12 (MRT24), 12q13-q15 (MRT25), 14q11-q12 (MRT26), 15q23-q26 (MRT27), and 6q26-q27 (MRT28), respectively. Loci ranged between 1.2 and 45.6?Mb in length. One family showed linkage to chromosome 8q24.3, and we identified a mutation in TRAPPC9. Our study further highlights the extreme heterogeneity of NS-ARID, and suggests that no major disease gene is to be expected, at least in this study group. Systematic analysis of large numbers of affected families, as presented here, will help discovering the genetic causes of ID. PMID:21629298

Abou Jamra, R; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Zweier, Markus; Uebe, Steffen; Priebe, Lutz; Ekici, Arif; Giesebrecht, Susanne; Abboud, Ahmad; Al Khateeb, Mohammed Ayman; Fakher, Mahmoud; Hamdan, Saber; Ismael, Amina; Muhammad, Safia; Nöthen, Markus M; Schumacher, Johannes; Reis, André

2011-01-01

43

Biochemical characterization of Sf 9 Sp-family-like protein factors reveals interesting features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We earlier documented the involvement of novel Sp-family-like protein factors in transcription from the Autographa californica\\u000a nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter [Ramachandran et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276: 23440–23449].\\u000a These zinc-dependent Sp-like factors bind to two putative Sp-factor-binding motifs, present within the AcSp sequence upstream of the polh promoter, with very high affinity (Kd = 2.1 × 10?12?M).

S. Rasheedi; A. Ramachandran; N. Z. Ehtesham; S. E. Hasnain

2007-01-01

44

Comparative Genome Analysis of Filamentous Fungi Reveals Gene Family Expansions Associated with Fungal Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/). Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis. PMID:18523684

Soanes, Darren M.; Alam, Intikhab; Cornell, Mike; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

45

Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

2013-01-01

46

Mutational and Structural Analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B Reveal Novel Active Site Residues for Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both ?-1,4-mannosidic and ?-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity. PMID:24278284

Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

2013-01-01

47

Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.  

SciTech Connect

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

2003-05-01

48

Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members  

SciTech Connect

Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

2012-07-11

49

Src family kinase oncogenic potential and pathways in prostate cancer as revealed by AZD0530  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American men. We have previously demonstrated that Src mediates androgen-independent proliferation in prostate cancer. We sought to investigate the Src-mediated oncogenic pathways and tumor biology using AZD0530, a novel Src family kinase/Abl dual-kinase inhibitor that is entering phase II clinical trials. We show that while both Src and Abl are expressed in all prostate cancer cell lines, Src but not Abl is activated in the prostate. Furthermore, Src activation is inhibited by AZD0530 in a rapid and dose-dependent manner. We show that Src mediates cell proliferation in DU145 and PC3 cells at the G1 phase of cell cycle. Src inhibition resulted in decreased binding of ?-catenin to the promoters of G1 phase cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and c-Myc. C-Myc may also be regulated at the protein level by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and GSK3?. Cell motility factors focal adhesion kinase, p130CAS and paxillin activation in DU145 and PC3 cells were also inhibited. Administration of AZD0530 in mice reduced orthotopic DU145 xenograft growth by 45%. We have further delineated the Src-mediated oncogenic growth and migration pathways in prostate cancer and established mechanistic rationale for Src inhibition as novel therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:18679417

Chang, Y-M; Bai, L; Liu, S; Yang, JC; Kung, H-J; Evans, CP

2009-01-01

50

Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae  

PubMed Central

Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T (?=?CICC 33021?=?NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

2014-01-01

51

Exome sequencing reveals a thrombopoietin ligand mutation in a Micronesian family with autosomal recessive aplastic anemia  

PubMed Central

We recently identified 2 siblings afflicted with idiopathic, autosomal recessive aplastic anemia. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in thrombopoietin (THPO, c.112C>T) in both affected siblings. This mutation encodes an arginine to cysteine substitution at residue 38 or residue 17 excluding the 21-amino acid signal peptide of THPO receptor binding domain (RBD). THPO has 4 conserved cysteines in its RBD that form 2 disulfide bonds. Our in silico modeling predicts that introduction of a fifth cysteine may disrupt normal disulfide bonding to cause poor receptor binding. In functional assays, the mutant-THPO–containing media shows two- to threefold reduced ability to sustain UT7-TPO cells, which require THPO for proliferation. Both parents and a sibling with heterozygous R17C change have reduced platelet counts, whereas a sibling with wild-type sequence has normal platelet count. Thus, the R17C partial loss-of-function allele results in aplastic anemia in the homozygous state and mild thrombocytopenia in the heterozygous state in our family. Together with the recent identification of THPO receptor (MPL) mutations and the effects of THPO agonists in aplastic anemia, our results have clinical implications in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aplastic anemia and highlight a role for the THPO-MPL pathway in hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:24085763

Rafi, Syed K.; Olm-Shipman, Adam J.; Wilson, Nathan R.; Abhyankar, Sunil; Ganter, Brigitte; Furness, L. Mike; Fang, Jianwen; Calado, Rodrigo T.

2013-01-01

52

Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

2010-10-01

53

Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases  

SciTech Connect

Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso (NWU); (FSI)

2010-09-02

54

Extensive Expansion of A1 Family Aspartic Proteinases in Fungi Revealed by Evolutionary Analyses of 107 Complete Eukaryotic Proteomes  

PubMed Central

The A1 family of eukaryotic aspartic proteinases (APs) forms one of the 16 AP families. Although one of the best characterized families, the recent increase in genome sequence data has revealed many fungal AP homologs with novel sequence characteristics. This study was performed to explore the fungal AP sequence space and to obtain an in-depth understanding of fungal AP evolution. Using a comprehensive phylogeny of approximately 700 AP sequences from the complete proteomes of 87 fungi and 20 nonfungal eukaryotes, 11 major clades of APs were defined of which clade I largely corresponds to the A1A subfamily of pepsin-archetype APs. Clade II largely corresponds to the A1B subfamily of nepenthesin-archetype APs. Remarkably, the nine other clades contain only fungal APs, thus indicating that fungal APs have undergone a large sequence diversification. The topology of the tree indicates that fungal APs have been subject to both “birth and death” evolution and “functional redundancy and diversification.” This is substantiated by coclustering of certain functional sequence characteristics. A meta-analysis toward the identification of Cluster Determining Positions (CDPs) was performed in order to investigate the structural and biochemical basis for diversification. Seven CDPs contribute to the secondary structure of the enzyme. Three other CDPs are found in the vicinity of the substrate binding cleft. Tree topology, the large sequence variation among fungal APs, and the apparent functional diversification suggest that an amendment to update the current A1 AP classification based on a comprehensive phylogenetic clustering might contribute to refinement of the classification in the MEROPS peptidase database. PMID:24869856

Revuelta, María V.; van Kan, Jan A.L.; Kay, John; ten Have, Arjen

2014-01-01

55

The mouse 5HT5 receptor reveals a remarkable heterogeneity within the 5HT1D receptor family.  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that mediates a wide range of physiological functions by activating multiple receptors. Using a strategy based on amino acid sequence homology between 5-HT receptors that interact with G proteins, we have isolated a cDNA encoding a new serotonin receptor from a mouse brain library. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that this receptor was a distant relative of all previously identified 5-HT receptors; we therefore named it 5HT5. When expressed in Cos-7 cells and NIH-3T3 cells, the 5HT5 receptor displayed a high affinity for the serotonergic radioligand [125I]LSD. Surprisingly, its pharmacological profile resembled that of the 5HT1D receptor, which is a 5-HT receptor subtype which has been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase and which is predominantly expressed in basal ganglia. However, unlike 5HT1D receptors, the 5HT5 receptor did not inhibit adenylate cyclase and its mRNA was not found in basal ganglia. On the contrary, in situ hybridization experiments revealed that the 5HT5 mRNA was expressed predominantly in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, habenula, olfactory bulb and granular layer of the cerebellum. Our results therefore demonstrate that the 5HT1D receptors constitute a heterogeneous family of receptors with distinct intracellular signalling properties and expression patterns. Images PMID:1464308

Plassat, J L; Boschert, U; Amlaiky, N; Hen, R

1992-01-01

56

Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary  

PubMed Central

Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2? gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections. PMID:24212573

Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

2014-01-01

57

Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.  

PubMed

Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution. PMID:23560078

Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant'Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2013-01-01

58

Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family  

PubMed Central

Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution. PMID:23560078

Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant’Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H.; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2013-01-01

59

Functional and Transcriptome Analysis Reveals an Acclimatization Strategy for Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA Family Members  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric complex formed by NF-YA/NF-YB/NF-YC subunits that binds to the CCAAT-box in eukaryotic promoters. In contrast to other organisms, in which a single gene encodes each subunit, in plants gene families of over 10 members encode each of the subunits. Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms. Overexpression of NF-YA2, 7 and 10 resulted in dwarf late-senescent plants with enhanced tolerance to several types of abiotic stress. These phenotypes are related to alterations in sucrose/starch balance and cell elongation observed in NF-YA overexpressing plants. The use of transcriptomic analysis of transgenic plants that express miR169-resistant versions of NF-YA2, 3, 7, and 10 under an estradiol inducible system, as well as a dominant-repressor version of NF-YA2 revealed a set of genes, whose promoters are enriched in NF-Y binding sites (CCAAT-box) and that may be directly regulated by the NF-Y complex. This analysis also suggests that NF-YAs could participate in modulating gene regulation through positive and negative mechanisms. We propose a model in which the increase in NF-YA transcript levels in response to abiotic stress is part of an adaptive response to adverse environmental conditions in which a reduction in plant growth rate plays a key role. PMID:23118940

Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-01-01

60

Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species' cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

In spite of a rapid growth in the number of sequenced bacteria and significant progress in the annotation of their genomes, current computational technologies are limited in their capability to associate the genotype of a sequenced bacterial organism with its phenotypic traits. We evaluated two novel, complimentary approaches that can facilitate this task. They are based on correlation between the numbers of the trait-specific protein families or Pfam domains and a quantitative characteristic of the phenotypic trait among different bacterial species. Our first, a top-down approach, involves quantification and comparison of a higher-level characteristic, a bacterial phenotype, to reveal genomic characteristics and specific genes related to the phenotype. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts phenotypes by quantification of molecular functions in the genomes of closely related bacterial species and by following pair-wise correlation of the molecular functions enrichments and their network clustering. The approach is implemented using network analysis tools. The approaches were validated by a comparison of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. Using the first approach, we were able to identify specific domains and gene clusters associated with cold tolerance of these mesophilic species and to predict some novel cellular mechanisms underlying the phenotype. We find that in three tested species both cold and salt tolerance relate to presence in their genome of a specific Na+/H+ antiporter. By using the second approach we identified genomic clusters predicting several environmentally relevant phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway, utilization of ethanolamine, and arsenic and copper resistance. Results of the study confirm validity of the approaches and their utility for (i) computational predictions of phenotypic traits in the sequenced organisms, (ii) revealing genomic determinants of known complex phenotypes, (iii) orthologs prediction, and for (iv) discovery of function of unknown domains and hypothetical proteins.

Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Obraztsova, Anna Y [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Wang, Yanbin [ORNL; Schmoyer, Denise D [ORNL; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Kothe, T Brett [ORNL; Serres, Margrethe H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Romine, Margaret F [ORNL; Fredrickson, Jim K [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL

2009-01-01

61

A DinB variant reveals diverse physiological consequences of incomplete extension by a Y-family DNA polymerase  

E-print Network

The only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, DinB and its mammalian ortholog pol ?, catalyzes proficient bypass of damaged DNA in translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family DNA polymerases, including ...

Jarosz, Daniel F.

62

A DinB variant reveals diverse physiological consequences of incomplete TLS extension by a Y-family DNA polymerase  

E-print Network

The only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, DinB and its mammalian ortholog pol ?, catalyzes proficient bypass of damaged DNA in translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family DNA polymerases, including ...

Walker, Graham C.

63

Structural Enzymology of Cellvibrio japonicus Agd31B Protein Reveals ?-Transglucosylase Activity in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 31*  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of the storage polysaccharides glycogen and starch is of vital importance to organisms from all domains of life. In bacteria, utilization of these ?-glucans requires the concerted action of a variety of enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases, glycoside phosphorylases, and transglycosylases. In particular, transglycosylases from glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) and GH77 play well established roles in ?-glucan side chain (de)branching, regulation of oligo- and polysaccharide chain length, and formation of cyclic dextrans. Here, we present the biochemical and tertiary structural characterization of a new type of bacterial 1,4-?-glucan 4-?-glucosyltransferase from GH31. Distinct from 1,4-?-glucan 6-?-glucosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.24) and 4-?-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.25), this enzyme strictly transferred one glucosyl residue from ?(1?4)-glucans in disproportionation reactions. Substrate hydrolysis was undetectable for a series of malto-oligosaccharides except maltose for which transglycosylation nonetheless dominated across a range of substrate concentrations. Crystallographic analysis of the enzyme in free, acarbose-complexed, and trapped 5-fluoro-?-glucosyl-enzyme intermediate forms revealed extended substrate interactions across one negative and up to three positive subsites, thus providing structural rationalization for the unique, single monosaccharide transferase activity of the enzyme. PMID:23132856

Larsbrink, Johan; Izumi, Atsushi; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

2012-01-01

64

Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events  

PubMed Central

Knowing the geographical origin of economically important plants is important for genetic improvement and conservation, but has been slowed by uneven geographical sampling where relatives occur in remote areas of difficult access. Less biased species sampling can be achieved when herbarium collections are included as DNA sources. Here, we address the history of Cucurbitaceae, one of the most economically important families of plants, using a multigene phylogeny for 114 of the 115 genera and 25 per cent of the 960 species. Worldwide sampling was achieved by using specimens from 30 herbaria. Results reveal an Asian origin of Cucurbitaceae in the Late Cretaceous, followed by the repeated spread of lineages into the African, American and Australian continents via transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD). North American cucurbits stem from at least seven range expansions of Central and South American lineages; Madagascar was colonized 13 times, always from Africa; Australia was reached 12 times, apparently always from Southeast Asia. Overall, Cucurbitaceae underwent at least 43 successful LDD events over the past 60?Myr, which would translate into an average of seven LDDs every 10?Myr. These and similar findings from other angiosperms stress the need for an increased tapping of museum collections to achieve extensive geographical sampling in plant phylogenetics. PMID:19033142

Schaefer, Hanno; Heibl, Christoph; Renner, Susanne S.

2008-01-01

65

Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.  

PubMed

The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both usually placed in Melanocorypha]; Ammomanopsis grayi and Ammomanes cinctura/deserti [former traditionally placed in Ammomanes]; Chersophilus duponti and Certhilauda spp.; Eremopterix hova [usually placed in Mirafra] and several Mirafra spp.), as well as both highly conserved plumages (e.g. within Mirafra) and strongly divergent lineages (e.g. Eremopterix hova vs. other Eremopterix spp.; Calandrella cinerea complex vs. Eremophila spp.; Eremalauda dunni vs. Chersophilus duponti; Melanocorypha mongolica and male M. yeltoniensis vs. other Melanocorypha spp. and female M. yeltoniensis). Sexual plumage dimorphism has evolved multiple times. Few groups of birds show the same level of disagreement between taxonomy based on morphology and phylogenetic relationships as inferred from DNA sequences. PMID:23792153

Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

2013-12-01

66

Diverse retrotransposon families and an AT-rich satellite DNA revealed in giant genomes of Fritillaria lilies  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae) comprises species with extremely large genomes (1C = 30 000–127 000 Mb) and a bicontinental distribution. Most North American species (subgenus Liliorhiza) differ from Eurasian Fritillaria species by their distinct phylogenetic position and increased amounts of heterochromatin. This study examined the contribution of major repetitive elements to the genome obesity found in Fritillaria and identified repeats contributing to the heterochromatin arrays in Liliorhiza species. Methods Two Fritillaria species of similar genome size were selected for detailed analysis, one from each phylogeographical clade: F. affinis (1C = 45·6 pg, North America) and F. imperialis (1C = 43·0 pg, Eurasia). Fosmid libraries were constructed from their genomic DNAs and used for identification, sequence characterization, quantification and chromosome localization of clones containing highly repeated sequences. Key Results and Conclusions Repeats corresponding to 6·7 and 4·7 % of the F. affinis and F. imperialis genome, respectively, were identified. Chromoviruses and the Tat lineage of Ty3/gypsy group long terminal repeat retrotransposons were identified as the predominant components of the highly repeated fractions in the F. affinis and F. imperialis genomes, respectively. In addition, a heterogeneous, extremely AT-rich satellite repeat was isolated from F. affinis. The FriSAT1 repeat localized in heterochromatic bands makes up approx. 26 % of the F. affinis genome and substantial genomic fractions in several other Liliorhiza species. However, no evidence of a relationship between heterochromatin content and genome size variation was observed. Also, this study was unable to reveal any predominant repeats which tracked the increasing/decreasing trends of genome size evolution in Fritillaria. Instead, the giant Fritillaria genomes seem to be composed of many diversified families of transposable elements. We hypothesize that the genome obesity may be partly determined by the failure of removal mechanisms to counterbalance effectively the retrotransposon amplification. PMID:21156758

Ambrožová, Kate?ina; Mandáková, Terezie; Bureš, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Leitch, Ilia J.; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Ji?í; Lysak, Martin A.

2011-01-01

67

Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals Overlap Between Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a life-threatening complication of systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (SJIA), resembles Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH), a constellation of autosomal recessive immune disorders resulting from deficiency in cytolytic pathway proteins. We hypothesized that MAS predisposition in SJIA could be attributed to rare gene sequence variants affecting the cytotolytic pathway. Methods Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used in 14 SJIA/MAS patients and their parents to identify protein altering SNPs/indels in the known HLH-associated genes. To discover new candidate genes, the entire WES data were filtered to identify protein altering, rare recessive homozygous, compound heterozygous, and de novo variants with the potential to affect the cytolytic pathway. Results Heterozygous protein-altering rare variants in the known genes (LYST, MUNC13-4, and STXBP2) were found in 5 of 14 SJIA/MAS patients (35.7%). This was in contrast to only 4 variants in 4 of 29 (13,7%) SJIA patients without MAS. Homozygosity and compound heterozygosity analysis applied to the entire WES data in SJIAMAS, revealed 3 recessive pairs in 3 genes, and 76 compound heterozygotes in 75 genes. We also identified 22 heterozygous rare protein altering variants that occurred in at least two patients. Many of the identified genes encode proteins with a role in actin and microtubule reorganization and vesicle-mediated transport. “Cellular assembly and organization” was the top cellular function category based on Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (p<3.10E-05). Conclusion WES performed in SJIA/MAS patients identified rare protein altering variants in the known HLH associated genes as well as new candidate genes. PMID:25047945

Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Linghu, Bolan; Szustakowski, Joseph D.; Husami, Ammar; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Kejian; Filipovich, Alexandra; Fall, Ndate; Harley, John B.; Nirmala, N.R.; Grom, Alexei A.

2015-01-01

68

Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae  

PubMed Central

Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage. PMID:21524293

2011-01-01

69

Mice with Combined Gene KnockOuts Reveal Essential and Partially Redundant Functions of Amyloid Precursor Protein Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer's dis- ease is a member of a larger gene family including amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. We generated and examined the phenotypes of mice lacking individual or all pos- sible combinations of APP family members to assess potential functional redundancies within the gene family. Mice deficient for the nervous system-specific APLP1

Sabine Heber; Jochen Herms; Vladan Gajic; Johannes Hainfellner; Adriano Aguzzi; Thomas Rulicke; Hans Kretzschmar; Cornelia von Koch; Sangram Sisodia; Phillippe Tremml; Hans-Peter Lipp; David P. Wolfer; Ulrike Muller

2000-01-01

70

Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate Excitatory\\/Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (SLC1\\/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific subfamilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The composition and expression of vertebrate gene families is shaped by species specific gene loss in combination with a number of gene and genome duplication events (R1, R2 in all vertebrates, R3 in teleosts) and depends on the ecological and evolutionary context. In this study we analyzed the evolutionary history of the solute carrier 1 (SLC1) gene family. These

Matthias Gesemann; Annegret Lesslauer; Colette M Maurer; Helia B Schönthaler; Stephan CF Neuhauss

2010-01-01

71

Microarray analysis of Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumours reveals characteristic gene expression signatures associated with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), the clinically most adverse prognostic parameters are the presence of tumour metastasis at time of diagnosis and poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.To identify genes differentially regulated between metastatic and localised tumours, we analysed 27 ESFT specimens using Affymetrix microarrays. Functional annotation of differentially regulated genes revealed 29 over-represented pathways including PDGF, TP53, NOTCH,

Karl-Ludwig Schaefer; Martin Eisenacher; Yvonne Braun; Kristin Brachwitz; Daniel H. Wai; Uta Dirksen; Claudia Lanvers-Kaminsky; Heribert Juergens; David Herrero; Sabine Stegmaier; Ewa Koscielniak; Angelika Eggert; Michaela Nathrath; Georg Gosheger; Dominik T. Schneider; Carsten Bury; Raihanatou Diallo-Danebrock; Laura Ottaviano; Helmut E. Gabbert; Christopher Poremba

2008-01-01

72

Mutational and Structural Analysis of l-N-Carbamoylase Reveals New Insights into a Peptidase M20/M25/M40 Family Member  

PubMed Central

N-Carbamoyl-l-amino acid amidohydrolases (l-carbamoylases) are important industrial enzymes used in kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures of N-carbamoyl-amino acids due to their strict enantiospecificity. In this work, we report the first l-carbamoylase structure belonging to Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT43 (BsLcar), at a resolution of 2.7 Å. Structural analysis of BsLcar and several members of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family confirmed the expected conserved residues at the active site in this family, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed their relevance to substrate binding. We also found an unexpectedly conserved arginine residue (Arg234 in BsLcar), proven to be critical for dimerization of the enzyme. The mutation of this sole residue resulted in a total loss of activity and prevented the formation of the dimer in BsLcar. Comparative studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the peptidase M20/M25/M40 family is a “small-molecule binding domain,” allowing further evolutionary considerations for this enzyme family. PMID:22904279

García-Pino, Abel; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Loris, Remy; Gavira, Jose Antonio

2012-01-01

73

RNAi screening reveals requirement for host cell secretory pathway in infection by diverse families of negative-strand RNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses comprise many pathogens that cause serious diseases in humans and animals. Despite their clinical importance, little is known about the host factors required for their infection. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic NS RNA virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, we conducted a human genome-wide siRNA screen and identified 72 host genes required for viral infection. Many of these identified genes were also required for infection by two other NS RNA viruses, the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus of the Arenaviridae family and human parainfluenza virus type 3 of the Paramyxoviridae family. Genes affecting different stages of VSV infection, such as entry/uncoating, gene expression, and assembly/release, were identified. Depletion of the proteins of the coatomer complex I or its upstream effectors ARF1 or GBF1 led to detection of reduced levels of VSV RNA. Coatomer complex I was also required for infection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3. These results highlight the evolutionarily conserved requirements for gene expression of diverse families of NS RNA viruses and demonstrate the involvement of host cell secretory pathway in the process. PMID:22065774

Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman; Dinh, Phat X.; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Nayak, Debasis; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Pearson, James L.; Thompson, Jesse; Kelly, David L.; Ladunga, Istvan; Pattnaik, Asit K.

2011-01-01

74

Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).  

PubMed

Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species. PMID:25185409

Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

2014-08-01

75

Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Double-stranded (ds) RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among dsRNA viruses. Results In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Conclusions Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses. PMID:22716092

2012-01-01

76

Study of large inbred Friedreich ataxia families reveals a recombination between D9S15 and the disease locus  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. Precise linkage mapping of the Friedreich ataxia locus (FRDA) in 9q13-q21 should lead to the isolation of the defective gene by positional cloning. The two closest DNA markers, D9S5 and D9S15, show very tight linkage to FRDA, making difficult the ordering of the three loci. We present a linkage study of three large Friedreich ataxia families of Tunisian origin, with several multiallelic markers around D9S5 and D9S15. Haplotype data were used to investigate genetic homogeneity of the disease in these geographically related families. A meiotic recombination was found in a nonaffected individual, which excludes a 150-kb segment, including D9S15, as a possible location for the Friedreich ataxia gene and which should orient the search in the D9S5 region. PMID:1463017

Belal, Samir; Panayides, Kyproula; Sirugo, Giorgio; Hamida, Christiane Ben; Ioannou, Panos; Hentati, Fayçal; Beckmann, Jacques; Koenig, Michel; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Hamida, Mongi Ben; Middleton, Lefkos T.

1992-01-01

77

High-resolution survey in familial Parkinson disease genes reveals multiple independent copy number variation events in PARK2.  

PubMed

A high density comparative genomic hybridization array was designed to evaluate CNVs in the genomic region of six familial PD genes in 181 PD cases and 67 controls. No CNV was found in PARK7, ATP13A2, PINK1, and LRRK2. Intronic-only CNVs were found in SNCA and PARK2 but were not associated with PD risk. A whole-gene duplication of SNCA was found in one case. The allele frequency of PARK2 exonic CNV is significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.02), higher in early-onset (AAO ? 40) than in late-onset cases (P = 0.001), and higher in familial than in sporadic cases (P = 0.005). Except for single exon 2 duplications, all PARK2 exonic CNVs have different breakpoints, even when the same exon(s) were involved. In conclusion, except for SNCA and PARK2, CNVs are not a major contributing mechanism for the familial PD genes examined. The majority of PARK2 exonic CNVs are not recurrent. PMID:23616242

Wang, Liyong; Nuytemans, Karen; Bademci, Guney; Jauregui, Cherylyn; Martin, Eden R; Scott, William K; Vance, Jeffery M; Zuchner, Stephan

2013-08-01

78

Chromosomal mapping of the MADS-box multigene family in Zea mays reveals dispersed distribution of allelic genes as well as transposed copies.  

PubMed Central

A linker PCR procedure has been developed for preparing repetitive DNA-free probes from genomic clones, which is especially efficient for members of gene families. Using this procedure as well as standard methods to prepare hybridization probes, chromosomal map positions of MADS-box genes were determined in recombinant inbred lines of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). It appears that MADS-box genes are scattered throughout the maize genome. While there is evidence that this genomic distribution is representative for plant MADS-box genes in general, the following two other observations probably reflect Zea genome organization. First, at least one family of MADS-box-carrying elements contains line-specific versions, which are present in some maize lines at certain chromosomal positions, but are absent from these loci in other lines. The members of this family resemble transposable elements in some respects. Secondly, the finding of pairs of highly related MADS-box genes which are accompanied by other duplicated markers is a further indication of the ancestral polyploid genome constitution revealed with other markers. The importance of these findings for an understanding of the genomic organization of MADS-box genes and the evolution of the MADS-box gene family is discussed. Images PMID:7596816

Fischer, A; Baum, N; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

1995-01-01

79

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions  

PubMed Central

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-01-01

80

Reassessing breeding investment in birds: class-wide analysis of clutch volume reveals a single outlying family.  

PubMed

Reproductive investment is typically considered in terms of size and number of propagules produced. Compared with a thorough understanding of the overall patterns and ecological correlates of avian clutch size, egg size has received less attention and the total effort invested in laying a clutch of eggs is rarely considered. We used clutch volume as an alternative estimate of reproductive investment and present the first class-level analysis of clutch volume in birds using 1,364 randomly-selected species in 204 families. The relationship between body mass and egg volume was very strong (r2 = 0.946), validating previous studies identifying four families (Apterygidae, Pelecanoidiididae, Sternidae and Dromadidiae) with disproportionately large eggs. Clutch volume was also closely related to body mass (r2 = 0.909) and all but one of the taxa with disproportionately large eggs conformed to the overall relationship, their greater egg dimensions compensated by diminished clutch size. The only family which departed significantly from the relationship between body mass and clutch volume was the mound builders (Megapodiidae)-the only group of birds that do not rely on body heat for incubation. Although previously known for laying large clutches of large eggs containing disproportionately large yolks, the remarkable investment of megapodes in reproduction (more than seven times greater than other birds of comparable mass) has been hitherto overlooked. We consider the evolutionary basis and ecological implications of this finding, suggesting that energetic costs associated with incubation act as an upper limit on reproductive output of other birds. We recommend clutch volume as a sensitive, fine-grained measure of reproductive effort for research at a wide range of scales and advocate further analysis of ecological correlates of clutch volume in birds and amniotes generally. PMID:25633998

Watson, David M; Anderson, Susan E; Olson, Valerie

2015-01-01

81

Reassessing Breeding Investment in Birds: Class-Wide Analysis of Clutch Volume Reveals a Single Outlying Family  

PubMed Central

Reproductive investment is typically considered in terms of size and number of propagules produced. Compared with a thorough understanding of the overall patterns and ecological correlates of avian clutch size, egg size has received less attention and the total effort invested in laying a clutch of eggs is rarely considered. We used clutch volume as an alternative estimate of reproductive investment and present the first class-level analysis of clutch volume in birds using 1,364 randomly-selected species in 204 families. The relationship between body mass and egg volume was very strong (r2 = 0.946), validating previous studies identifying four families (Apterygidae, Pelecanoidiididae, Sternidae and Dromadidiae) with disproportionately large eggs. Clutch volume was also closely related to body mass (r2 = 0.909) and all but one of the taxa with disproportionately large eggs conformed to the overall relationship, their greater egg dimensions compensated by diminished clutch size. The only family which departed significantly from the relationship between body mass and clutch volume was the mound builders (Megapodiidae)—the only group of birds that do not rely on body heat for incubation. Although previously known for laying large clutches of large eggs containing disproportionately large yolks, the remarkable investment of megapodes in reproduction (more than seven times greater than other birds of comparable mass) has been hitherto overlooked. We consider the evolutionary basis and ecological implications of this finding, suggesting that energetic costs associated with incubation act as an upper limit on reproductive output of other birds. We recommend clutch volume as a sensitive, fine-grained measure of reproductive effort for research at a wide range of scales and advocate further analysis of ecological correlates of clutch volume in birds and amniotes generally. PMID:25633998

Watson, David M.; Anderson, Susan E.; Olson, Valerie

2015-01-01

82

Structures of the first representatives of Pfam family PF06938 (DUF1285) reveal a new fold with repeated structural motifs and possible involvement in signal transduction  

PubMed Central

The crystal structures of SPO0140 and Sbal_2486 were determined using the semiautomated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The structures revealed a conserved core with domain duplication and a superficial similarity of the C-terminal domain to pleckstrin homology-like folds. The conservation of the domain interface indicates a potential binding site that is likely to involve a nucleotide-based ligand, with genome-context and gene-fusion analyses additionally supporting a role for this family in signal transduction, possibly during oxidative stress. PMID:20944214

Han, Gye Won; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Miller, Mitchell D.; Kumar, Abhinav; Carlton, Dennis; Najmanovich, Rafael J.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

83

In silico analysis of glutathione S-transferase supergene family revealed hitherto unreported insect specific ?- and ?-GSTs and mammalian specific ?-GSTs in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The availability of whole genome sequence information of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), an important disease vector of veterinary and public health importance, has opened up new opportunities to explore the vector species at genomic level. Use of acaricides is the mainstay in controlling the disease vector, as effective vaccines are not available for most of the diseases that are transmitted by ticks. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are one of the important supergene families that are involved in protecting the organism from oxidative stress and xenobiotics including the acaricides. The analysis of GST supergene family from Ixodes identified all the three broad GST classes, viz. canonical, mitochondrial, and microsomal forms. In total, 35 GST genes belong to five different canonical GST classes, namely Delta (7 genes), Epsilon (5), Mu (14), Omega (3), and Zeta (3 genes) GST classes, and two mitochondrial Kappa class GST genes, and a single microsomal GST gene were found. Interestingly, Delta- and Epsilon-class members, which are thought to be specific to the class Insecta, were also identified in Ixodes. Further, vertebrate/mammalian specific Mu-GSTs (14 genes) were also identified in Ixodes. Analyses of the intron-exon organization revealed higher frequency of phase '0' and phase '2' introns. The comprehensive listing of the GST supergene family members from Ixodes may help in understanding molecular mechanisms of the acaricide resistance in mites and ticks. Cumulatively, these findings may provide an in-depth understanding of the complex evolution of GST supergene family, one of the oldest supergene families that exist in all the domains of life. PMID:21514893

Reddy, B P Niranjan; Prasad, G B K S; Raghavendra, K

2011-04-01

84

Mycobacterial Phylogenomics: An Enhanced Method for Gene Turnover Analysis Reveals Uneven Levels of Gene Gain and Loss among Species and Gene Families  

PubMed Central

Species of the genus Mycobacterium differ in several features, from geographic ranges, and degree of pathogenicity, to ecological and host preferences. The recent availability of several fully sequenced genomes for a number of these species enabled the comparative study of the genetic determinants of this wide lifestyle diversity. Here, we applied two complementary phylogenetic-based approaches using information from 19 Mycobacterium genomes to obtain a more comprehensive view of the evolution of this genus. First, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships using two new approaches, one based on a Mycobacterium-specific amino acid substitution matrix and the other on a gene content dissimilarity matrix. Then, we utilized our recently developed gain-and-death stochastic models to study gene turnover dynamics in this genus in a maximum-likelihood framework. We uncovered a scenario that differs markedly from traditional 16S rRNA data and improves upon recent phylogenomic approaches. We also found that the rates of gene gain and death are high and unevenly distributed both across species and across gene families, further supporting the utility of the new models of rate heterogeneity applied in a phylogenetic context. Finally, the functional annotation of the most expanded or contracted gene families revealed that the transposable elements and the fatty acid metabolism-related gene families are the most important drivers of gene content evolution in Mycobacterium. PMID:24904011

Librado, Pablo; Vieira, Filipe G.; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Rozas, Julio

2014-01-01

85

Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 5 and 26 ?-(1,4)-Mannanases from Podospora anserina Reveal Differences upon Manno-oligosaccharide Catalysis*  

PubMed Central

The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-?-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the ?4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 ? resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the ?4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

2013-01-01

86

Structure- and context-based analysis of the GxGYxYP family reveals a new putative class of Glycoside Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Background Gut microbiome metagenomics has revealed many protein families and domains found largely or exclusively in that environment. Proteins containing the GxGYxYP domain are over-represented in the gut microbiota, and are found in Polysaccharide Utilization Loci in the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, suggesting their involvement in polysaccharide metabolism, but little else is known of the function of this domain. Results Genomic context and domain architecture analyses support a role for the GxGYxYP domain in carbohydrate metabolism. Sparse occurrences in eukaryotes are the result of lateral gene transfer. The structure of the GxGYxYP domain-containing protein encoded by the BT2193 locus reveals two structural domains, the first composed of three divergent repeats with no recognisable homology to previously solved structures, the second a more familiar seven-stranded ?/? barrel. Structure-based analyses including conservation mapping localise a presumed functional site to a cleft between the two domains of BT2193. Matching to a catalytic site template from a GH9 cellulase and other analyses point to a putative catalytic triad composed of Glu272, Asp331 and Asp333. Conclusions We suggest that GxGYxYP-containing proteins constitute a novel glycoside hydrolase family of as yet unknown specificity. PMID:24938123

2014-01-01

87

Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage  

PubMed Central

Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes. PMID:22577775

2012-01-01

88

Dynamics of PLC? and Src Family Kinase 1 Interactions during Nuclear Envelope Formation Revealed by FRET-FLIM  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope (NE) breaks down and reforms during each mitotic cycle. A similar process happens to the sperm NE following fertilisation. The formation of the NE in both these circumstances involves endoplasmic reticulum membranes enveloping the chromatin, but PLC?-dependent membrane fusion events are also essential. Here we demonstrate the activation of PLC? by a Src family kinase (SFK1) during NE assembly. We show by time-resolved FRET for the first time the direct in vivo interaction and temporal regulation of PLC? and SFK1 in sea urchins. As a prerequisite for protein activation, there is a rapid phosphorylation of PLC? on its Y783 residue in response to GTP in vitro. This phosphorylation is dependent upon SFK activity; thus Y783 phosphorylation and NE assembly are susceptible to SFK inhibition. Y783 phosphorylation is also observed on the surface of the male pronucleus (MPN) in vivo during NE formation. Together the corroborative in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate the phosphorylation and activation of PLC? by SFK1 during NE assembly. We discuss the potential generality of such a mechanism. PMID:22848394

Byrne, Richard D.; Applebee, Christopher; Poccia, Dominic L.; Larijani, Banafshé

2012-01-01

89

Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae) reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ?200-360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N?=?787) and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N?=?770) with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ?800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

Andrews, Kimberly R; Moriwake, Virginia N; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L; Bowen, Brian W

2014-01-01

90

Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria of the genus Shewanella can thrive in different environments and demonstrate significant variability in their metabolic and ecophysiological capabilities including cold and salt tolerance. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are largely unknown. In this study we address the problem by a comparison of the physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. We have employed two novel approaches based on association of a phenotypic trait with the number of the trait-specific protein families (Pfam domains) and on the conservation of synteny (order in the genome) of the trait-related genes. Our first approach is top-down and involves experimental evaluation and quantification of the species’ cold tolerance followed by identification of the correlated Pfam domains and genes with a conserved synteny. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts novel phenotypes of the species by calculating profiles of each Pfam domain among their genomes and following pair-wise correlation of the profiles and their network clustering. Using the first approach we find a link between cold and salt tolerance of the species and the presence in the genome of a Na+/H+ antiporter gene cluster. Other cold tolerance related genes includes peptidases, chemotaxis sensory transducer proteins, a cysteine exporter, and helicases. Using the bottom-up approach we found several novel phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species, including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway in S. woodyi, degradation of ethanolamine by S. benthica, and propanediol degradation by S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. sp. W3-18-1.

Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Obraztsova, Anna; Wang, Yanbing; Schmoyer, Denise D.; Kora, Guruprasad; Park, Byung H.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Romine, Margaret F.; Land, Miriam L.; Kothe, Terence B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Uberbacher, Edward

2010-03-01

91

Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W  

PubMed Central

Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-?-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-?-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and ?-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

2013-01-01

92

Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity  

PubMed Central

Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

2011-01-01

93

IDENTIFICATION OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DEAMIDASE OF THE BACTERIAL PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE CYCLE REVEALS A NOVEL BROADLY CONSERVED AMIDOHYDROLASE FAMILY  

SciTech Connect

The pyridine nucleotide cycle (PNC) is a network of salvage and recycling routes maintaining homeostasis of NAD(P) cofactor pool in the cell. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase (EC 3.5.1.42), one of the key enzymes of the bacterial PNC was originally described in Enterobacteria, but the corresponding gene eluded identification for over 30 years. A genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism across hundreds bacterial species suggested that NMN deamidase reaction is the only possible way of nicotinamide salvage in the marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. This prediction was verified via purification of native NMN deamidase from S. oneidensis followed by the identification of the respective gene, termed pncC. Enzymatic characterization of the PncC protein, as well as phenotype analysis of deletion mutants, confirmed its proposed biochemical and physiological function in S. oneidensis. Of the three PncC homologs present in E. coli, NMN deamidase activity was confirmed only for the recombinant purified product of the ygaD gene. A comparative analysis at the level of sequence and three dimensional structure, which is available for one of the PncC family member, shows no homology with any previously described amidohydrolases. Multiple alignment analysis of functional and non functional PncC homologs, together with NMN docking experiments, allowed us to tentatively identify the active site area and conserved residues therein. An observed broad phylogenomic distribution of predicted functional PncCs in bacterial kingdom is consistent with a possible role in detoxification of NMN, resulting from NAD utilization by DNA ligase.

Galeazzi, Luca; Bocci, Paolo; Amici, Adolfo; Brunetti, Lucia; Ruggieri, Silverio; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Sorci, Leonardo; Raffaelli, Nadia

2011-09-27

94

Novel structural features in the GMC family of oxidoreductases revealed by the crystal structure of fungal aryl-alcohol oxidase.  

PubMed

Lignin biodegradation, a key step in carbon recycling in land ecosystems, is carried out by white-rot fungi through an H(2)O(2)-dependent process defined as enzymatic combustion. Pleurotus eryngii is a selective lignin-degrading fungus that produces H(2)O(2) during redox cycling of p-anisylic compounds involving the secreted flavoenzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO). Here, the 2.4 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of this oxidoreductase, which catalyzes dehydrogenation reactions on various primary polyunsaturated alcohols, yielding the corresponding aldehydes, is reported. The AAO crystal structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction of a selenomethionine derivative obtained by Escherichia coli expression and in vitro folding. This monomeric enzyme is composed of two domains, the overall folding of which places it into the GMC (glucose-methanol-choline oxidase) oxidoreductase family, and a noncovalently bound FAD cofactor. However, two additional structural elements exist in the surroundings of its active site that modulate the access of substrates; these are absent in the structure of the model GMC oxidoreductase glucose oxidase. The folding of these novel elements gives rise to a funnel-like hydrophobic channel that connects the solvent region to the buried active-site cavity of AAO. This putative active-site cavity is located in front of the re side of the FAD isoalloxazine ring and near two histidines (His502 and His546) that could contribute to alcohol activation as catalytic bases. Moreover, three aromatic side chains from two phenylalanines (Phe397 and Phe502) and one tyrosine (Tyr92) at the inner region of the channel form an aromatic gate that may regulate the access of the enzyme substrates to the active site as well as contribute to the recognition of the alcohols that can effectively be oxidized by AAO. PMID:19923715

Fernández, Israel S; Ruíz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Santillana, Elena; Ferreira, Patricia; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T; Romero, Antonio

2009-11-01

95

Extensive Phenotyping of Individuals At-risk for Familial Interstitial Pneumonia Reveals Clues to the Pathogenesis of Interstitial Lung Disease.  

PubMed

Introduction: Asymptomatic relatives of patients with Familial Interstitial Pneumonia (FIP), the inherited form of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia (IIP), carry increased risk for developing interstitial lung disease. Studying these at-risk individuals provides a unique opportunity to investigate early stages of FIP pathogenesis and develop predictive models of disease onset. Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic first-degree relatives of FIP patients (mean age 50.8 years) underwent blood sampling and high-resolution chest CT (HRCT) scan in an ongoing cohort study; 72 consented to bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. Twenty-seven healthy individuals were used as controls. Results: Eleven of 75 at-risk subjects (14%) had evidence of interstitial changes by HRCT while 35.2% had abnormalities on transbronchial biopsies. No differences were noted in inflammatory cells in BAL between at-risk individuals and controls. At-risk subjects had increased herpesvirus DNA in cell-free BAL and evidence of herpesvirus antigen expression in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), which correlated with expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in AECs. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell and AEC telomere length were shorter in at-risk individuals than healthy controls. The minor allele frequency of the Muc5B rs35705950 promoter polymorphism was increased in at-risk subjects. Levels of several plasma biomarkers differed between at-risk subjects and controls, and correlated with abnormal HRCT scans. Conclusions: Evidence of lung parenchymal remodeling and epithelial dysfunction were identified in asymptomatic individuals at-risk for FIP. Together, these findings offer new insights into the early pathogenesis of IIP and provide an ongoing opportunity to characterize presymptomatic abnormalities that predict progression to clinical disease. PMID:25389906

Kropski, Jonathan A; Pritchett, Jason M; Zoz, Donald F; Crossno, Peter F; Markin, Cheryl; Garnett, Errine T; Degryse, Amber L; Mitchell, Daphne B; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Rickman, Otis B; Choi, Leena; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; McConaha, Melinda E; Jones, Brittany R; Gleaves, Linda A; McMahon, Frank B; Worrell, John A; Solus, Joseph F; Ware, Lorraine B; Lee, Jae Woo; Massion, Pierre P; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; White, Eric S; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Johnson, Joyce E; Groshong, Steve D; Lancaster, Lisa H; Young, Lisa R; Steele, Mark P; Phillips Iii, John A; Cogan, Joy D; Loyd, James E; Lawson, William E; Blackwell, Timothy S

2014-11-12

96

Genome-wide analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family reveals differential expression patterns, localization, and heat stress responses  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) class of proteins are evolutionarily conserved molecular chaperones. They are involved in protein folding, assembly, stabilization, activation, and degradation in many normal cellular processes and under stress conditions. Unlike many other well-characterized molecular chaperones, Hsp90s play key roles in signal transduction, cell-cycle control, genomic silencing, and protein trafficking. However, no systematic analysis of genome organization, gene structure, and expression compendium has been performed in the Populus model tree genus to date. Results We performed a comprehensive analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family and identified 10 Populus Hsp90 genes, which were phylogenetically clustered into two major groups. Gene structure and motif composition are relatively conserved in each group. In Populus trichocarpa, we identified three paralogous pairs, among which the PtHsp90-5a/PtHsp90-5b paralogous pair might be created by duplication of a genome segment. Subcellular localization analysis shows that PtHsp90 members are localized in different subcellular compartments. PtHsp90-3 is localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, PtHsp90-5a and PtHsp90-5b are in chloroplasts, and PtHsp90-7 is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, microarray and semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses show that a number of Populus Hsp90 genes are differentially expressed upon exposure to various stresses. Conclusions The gene structure and motif composition of PtHsp90s are highly conserved among group members, suggesting that members of the same group may also have conserved functions. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses show that most PtHsp90s were induced by various stresses, including heat stress. Collectively, these observations lay the foundation for future efforts to unravel the biological roles of PtHsp90 genes. PMID:23915275

2013-01-01

97

Gene Deletion Mutants Reveal a Role for Semaphorin Receptors of the Plexin-B Family in Mechanisms Underlying Corticogenesis ?  

PubMed Central

Semaphorins and their receptors, plexins, are emerging as key regulators of various aspects of neural and nonneural development. Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and B-type plexins demonstrate distinct expression patterns over critical time windows during the development of the murine neocortex. Here, analysis of mice genetically lacking plexin-B1 or plexin-B2 revealed the significance of Sema4D-plexin-B signaling in cortical development. Deficiency of plexin-B2 resulted in abnormal cortical layering and defective migration and differentiation of several subtypes of cortical neurons, including Cajal-Retzius cells, GABAergic interneurons, and principal cells in vivo. In contrast, a lack of plexin-B1 did not impact on cortical development in vivo. In various ex vivo assays on embryonic forebrain, Sema4D enhanced the radial and tangential migration of developing neurons in a plexin-B2-dependent manner. These results suggest that Sema4D-plexin-B2 interactions regulate mechanisms underlying cell specification, differentiation, and migration during corticogenesis. PMID:19948886

Hirschberg, A.; Deng, S.; Korostylev, A.; Paldy, E.; Costa, M. R.; Worzfeld, T.; Vodrazka, P.; Wizenmann, A.; Götz, M.; Offermanns, S.; Kuner, R.

2010-01-01

98

In Silico Analysis Reveals 75 Members of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Family in Rice  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinases (MAPKKKs) are important components of MAPK cascades, which are universal signal transduction modules and play important role in plant growth and development. In the sequenced Arabidopsis genome 80 MAPKKKs were identified and currently being analysed for its role in different stress. In rice, economically important monocot cereal crop only five MAPKKKs were identified so far. In this study using computational analysis of sequenced rice genome we have identified 75 MAPKKKs. EST hits and full-length cDNA sequences (from KOME or Genbank database) of 75 MAPKKKs supported their existence. Phylogenetic analyses of MAPKKKs from rice and Arabidopsis have classified them into three subgroups, which include Raf, ZIK and MEKK. Conserved motifs in the deduced amino acid sequences of rice MAPKKKs strongly supported their identity as members of Raf, ZIK and MEKK subfamilies. Further expression analysis of the MAPKKKs in MPSS database revealed that their transcripts were differentially regulated in various stress and tissue-specific libraries. PMID:20395279

Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Richa, Tambi; Kumar, Kundan; Raghuram, Badmi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

2010-01-01

99

Sequence analyses of the distal-less homeobox gene family in East African cichlid fishes reveal signatures of positive selection  

PubMed Central

Background Gen(om)e duplication events are hypothesized as key mechanisms underlying the origin of phenotypic diversity and evolutionary innovation. The diverse and species-rich lineage of teleost fishes is a renowned example of this scenario, because of the fish-specific genome duplication. Gene families, generated by this and other gene duplication events, have been previously found to play a role in the evolution and development of innovations in cichlid fishes - a prime model system to study the genetic basis of rapid speciation, adaptation and evolutionary innovation. The distal-less homeobox genes are particularly interesting candidate genes for evolutionary novelties, such as the pharyngeal jaw apparatus and the anal fin egg-spots. Here we study the dlx repertoire in 23 East African cichlid fishes to determine the rate of evolution and the signatures of selection pressure. Results Four intact dlx clusters were retrieved from cichlid draft genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of these eight dlx loci in ten teleost species, followed by an in-depth analysis of 23 East African cichlid species, show that there is disparity in the rates of evolution of the dlx paralogs. Dlx3a and dlx4b are the fastest evolving dlx genes, while dlx1a and dlx6a evolved more slowly. Subsequent analyses of the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate ratios indicate that dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a evolved under purifying selection, while signs of positive selection were found for dlx1a, dlx2a, dlx3a and dlx4b. Conclusions Our results indicate that the dlx repertoire of teleost fishes and cichlid fishes in particular, is shaped by differential selection pressures and rates of evolution after gene duplication. Although the divergence of the dlx paralogs are putative signs of new or altered functions, comparisons with available expression patterns indicate that the three dlx loci under strong purifying selection, dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a, are transcribed at high levels in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw and anal fin. The dlx paralogs emerge as excellent candidate genes for the development of evolutionary innovations in cichlids, although further functional analyses are necessary to elucidate their respective contribution. PMID:23865956

2013-01-01

100

Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts  

PubMed Central

Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy. PMID:19948012

2009-01-01

101

Homozygosity mapping reveals new nonsense mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Palestinian family  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Recently, the FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. Methods: We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a consanguineous Palestinian family with two three siblings affected with retinitis pigmentosa. DNA samples were collected from the index patient, his father, his affected sister, and two non-affected brothers. DNA sample from the index was subjected to high resolution genome-wide SNP array. Assuming identity-by-descent in this consanguineous family we applied homozygosity mapping to identify disease causing genes. Results: The index patient reported night blindness since the age of 20 years, followed by moderate disease progression with decrease of peripheral vision, the development of photophobia and later on reduced central vision. At the age of 40 his visual acuity was counting fingers (CF) for both eyes, color discrimination was not possible and his visual fields were severely constricted. Funduscopic examination revealed a typical appearance of advanced RP with optic disc pallor, narrowed retinal vessels, bone-spicule like pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery and atrophic changes in the macula. His younger affected brother (37 years) was reported with overall milder symptoms, while the youngest sister (21 years) reported problems only with night vision. Applying high-density SNP arrays we identified several homozygous genomic regions one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.1003C>T/p.R335X in the index patient and the affected sister. Conclusion: We identified an RP28-linked RP family in the Palestinian population caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FAM161A. RP in this family shows a typical disease onset with moderate to rapid progression into severe visual impairment including central vision in the index and overall milder symptoms in the younger brother and sister. PMID:24520187

Zobor, Ditta; Balousha, Ghassan; Baumann, Britta

2014-01-01

102

The Structure of RdDddP from Roseobacter denitrificans Reveals That DMSP Lyases in the DddP-Family Are Metalloenzymes  

PubMed Central

Marine microbes degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is produced in large quantities by marine algae and plants, with DMSP lyases into acrylate and the gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Approximately 10% of the DMS vents from the sea into the atmosphere and this emission returns sulfur, which arrives in the sea through rivers and runoff, back to terrestrial systems via clouds and rain. Despite their key role in this sulfur cycle DMSP lyases are poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of the putative DMSP lyase RdDddP from Roseobacter denitrificans, which belongs to the abundant DddP family. This structure, determined to 2.15 Å resolution, shows that RdDddP is a homodimeric metalloprotein with a binuclear center of two metal ions located 2.7 Å apart in the active site of the enzyme. Consistent with the crystallographic data, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF) revealed the bound metal species to be primarily iron. A 3D structure guided analysis of environmental DddP lyase sequences elucidated the critical residues for metal binding are invariant, suggesting all proteins in the DddP family are metalloenzymes. PMID:25054772

Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Law, Adrienne; Redecke, Lars; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2014-01-01

103

Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases expressed in brain  

SciTech Connect

A human brainstem cDNA library in bacteriophage {lambda}gt11 was screened under conditions of reduced bybridization stringency with a leukocyte common antigen (LCA) probe that spanned both conserved cytoplasmic domains. cDNA encoding a receptor-linked protein-tyrosinephosphatase (protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48), RPTPase {alpha}, has been cloned and sequenced. Human RPTPase {alpha} consists of 802 amino acids. The extracellular domain of 150 residues includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and eight potential N-glycosylation sites. This is followed by a transmembrane region and two tandemly repeated conserved domains characteristic of all RPTPases identified thus far. The gene for RPTPase {alpha} has been localized to human chromosome region 20pter-20q12 by analysis of its segregation pattern in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of two major transcripts of 4.3 and 6.3 kilobases. In addition to PRTPase {alpha}, two other RPTPases ({beta} and {gamma}), identified in the same screen, have been partially cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence comparisons among LCA, the LCA-related protein LAR, and RPTP-ases {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} reveals the existence of a multigene family encoding different RPTPases, each containing a distinct extracellular domain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane region, and two tandemly repeated conserved cytoplasmic domains.

Kaplan, R.; Morse, B.; Howk, R.; Ravera, M.; Ricca, G.; Jaye, M. (Rorer Biotechnology, Inc., King of Prussia, PA (USA)); Huebner, K.; Croce, C. (Temple Univ., Philadephia, PA (USA)); Schlessinger, J. (New York Univ., NY (USA))

1990-09-01

104

Extensive Morphological Convergence and Rapid Radiation in the Evolutionary History of the Family Geoemydidae (Old World Pond Turtles) Revealed by SINE Insertion Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Geoemydidae is one of three in the superfamily Testudinoidea and is the most diversified family of extant turtle species. The phylogenetic relationships in this family and among related families have been vigorously investigated from both morphological and molecular viewpoints. The evolutionary history of Geoemydidae, however, remains controversial. Therefore, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Geoemydidae and related species,

Takeshi Sasaki; Yuichirou Yasukawa; Kazuhiko Takahashi; Seiko Miura; ANDREW M. SHEDLOCK; Norihiro Okada

2006-01-01

105

Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming.

W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

This picture was taken with Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is a four-color composite, in which light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns is blue; 4.5-micron light is green; 5.8-micron light is orange; and 8-micron light is red.

2008-01-01

106

Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds.

W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

2008-01-01

107

Interaction of a putative BH3 domain of clusterin with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Identification of a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil region of nCLU. {yields} The nCLU BH3 domain binds to BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. {yields} A conserved binding mechanism of nCLU BH3 and the other pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides with Bcl-X{sub L}. {yields} The absolutely conserved Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L.} {yields} Molecular understanding of the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU as a novel BH3-only protein. -- Abstract: Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate and breast cancers. Although CLU is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell survival, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the pro-apoptotic function of nuclear CLU (nCLU) remains unclear. In this study, we identified a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil (CC2) region of nCLU by sequence analysis and characterized the molecular interaction of the putative nCLU BH3 domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical shift perturbation data demonstrated that the nCLU BH3 domain binds to pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. A structural model of the Bcl-X{sub L}/nCLU BH3 peptide complex reveals that the binding mode is remarkably similar to those of other Bcl-X{sub L}/BH3 peptide complexes. In addition, mutational analysis confirmed that Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain, absolutely conserved in the BH3 motifs of BH3-only protein family, are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L}. Taken altogether, our results suggest a molecular basis for the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU by elucidating the residue specific interactions of the BH3 motif in nCLU with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

Lee, Dong-Hwa; Ha, Ji-Hyang [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yul [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kwang-Hee [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Yong [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Sup [Division of Structural and Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637511 (Singapore)] [Division of Structural and Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637511 (Singapore); Park, Sung Goo; Park, Byoung Chul [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Gwan-Su, E-mail: gsyi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seung-Wook, E-mail: swchi@kribb.re.kr [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-20

108

Novel aspects of glutamine synthetase (GS) regulation revealed by a detailed expression analysis of the entire GS gene family of Medicago truncatula under different physiological conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Glutamine Synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) is a central enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, and a key component of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and plant yield and thus it is extremely important to understand how it is regulated in plants. Medicago truncatula provides an excellent model system to study GS, as it contain a very simple GS gene family comprising only four expressed genes, MtGS1a and MtGS1b encoding cytosolic polypeptides, and MtGS2a and MtGS2b encoding plastid-located enzymes. To identify new regulatory mechanisms controlling GS activity, we performed a detailed expression analysis of the entire GS gene family of M. truncatula in the major organs of the plant, over a time course of nodule or seed development and during a diurnal cycle. Results Individual GS transcripts were quantified by qRT-PCR, and GS polypeptides and holoenzymes were evaluated by western blot and in-gel activity under native electrophoresis. These studies revealed that all four GS genes are differentially regulated in each organ of the plant, in a developmental manner, and identified new regulatory controls, which appear to be specific to certain metabolic contexts. Studies of the protein profiles showed that the GS polypeptides assemble into organ-specific protein complexes and suffer organ-specific post-translational modifications under defined physiological conditions. Our studies also reveal that GS expression and activity are modulated during a diurnal cycle. The biochemical properties of the four isoenzymes were determined and are discussed in relation to their function in the plant. Conclusions This work provides a comprehensive overview of GS expression and regulation in the model legume M. truncatula, contributing to a better understanding of the specific function of individual isoenzymes and to the identification of novel organ-specific post-translational mechanisms of GS regulation. We demonstrate that the GS proteins are modified and/or integrated into protein-complexes that assemble into a specific composition in particular organs of the plant. Taken together, the results presented here open new avenues to explore the regulatory mechanisms controlling GS activity in plants, a subject of major importance due to the crucial importance of the enzyme for plant growth and productivity. PMID:24053168

2013-01-01

109

Family-based association analysis of a statistically derived quantitative traits for ADHD reveal an association in DRD4 with inattentive symptoms in ADHD individuals.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes for ADHD are associated with quantitative phenotypes generated from inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. One hundred forty-three SNPs were genotyped in and around five ADHD candidate genes. A highly heritable quantitative phenotype was generated at each SNP by weighting inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Once these phenotypes were generated, a screening procedure was used to select and test the five SNP/phenotype combinations with the greatest power to detect an association for each candidate gene. Adjacent SNPs in the promoter region of DRD4, hCV26775267 and hCV26775266, were associated with the quantitative phenotypes generated from the ADHD symptoms (corrected P-values = 0.012 for both SNPs). The correlations between the ADHD symptoms and quantitative phenotype revealed that inattentive symptoms had a strong influence on the generated phenotype. Subsequent family-based association test-principal components (FBAT-PC) analyses using inattentive symptoms only also had significant associations. SNPs in the promoter region of DRD4 are associated with the phenotypes generated from ADHD symptoms. The strong correlation of the inattentive symptoms with these quantitative phenotypes and the subsequent FBAT-PC analyses suggest this region is primarily associated with inattentive symptoms. This analysis adds to previous findings by suggesting that variants at these loci may be specifically associated with inattentive symptoms. PMID:17579349

Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lange, Christoph; Biederman, Joseph; Tsuang, Ming; Doyle, Alysa E; Smoller, Jordan W; Laird, Nan; Faraone, Stephen

2008-01-01

110

Genome mining reveals the presence of a conserved gene cluster for the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloid precursors in the fungal family Arthrodermataceae.  

PubMed

Genome sequence analysis of different fungi of the family Arthrodermataceae revealed the presence of a gene cluster consisting of five genes with high sequence similarity to those involved in the early common steps of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea. To provide evidence that this cluster is involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, the gene ARB_04646 of the fungus Arthroderma benhamiae was cloned into pQE60 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme assays with the soluble tetrameric His(6)-tagged protein proved unequivocally that the deduced gene product, here termed ChaDH, catalysed the oxidation of chanoclavine-I in the presence of NAD(+), resulting in the formation of chanoclavine-I aldehyde. The enzyme product was unequivocally proven by NMR and MS analyses. Therefore, ChaDH functions as a chanoclavine-I dehydrogenase. K(m) values for chanoclavine-I and NAD(+) were 0.09 and 0.36 mM, respectively. Turnover number was 0.76 s(-1). PMID:22403186

Wallwey, Christiane; Heddergott, Christoph; Xie, Xiulan; Brakhage, Axel A; Li, Shu-Ming

2012-06-01

111

Comprehensive characterization of HNPCC-related colorectal cancers reveals striking molecular features in families with no germline mismatch repair gene mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable fraction of families with HNPCC shows no germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. We previously detected ‘hidden’ MMR gene defects in 42% of such families, leaving the remaining 58% ‘truly’ mutation negative. Here, we characterized 50 colorectal carcinomas and five adenomas arising in HNPCC families; 24 truly MMR gene mutation negative and 31 MMR gene mutation positive. Among

Wael M Abdel-Rahman; Miina Ollikainen; Reetta Kariola; Heikki J Järvinen; Jukka-Pekka Mecklin; Minna Nyström-Lahti; Sakari Knuutila; Päivi Peltomäki

2005-01-01

112

Families with Gifted Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of families with gifted adolescents have revealed conflicting results. Adolescents, mothers, and fathers of 84 families with a gifted adolescent and of 95 families with a non-gifted adolescent evaluated their family system independently. Dependent variables were cohesion, democratic family style (adaptability), organisation, achievement…

Schilling, Susanne R.; Sparfeldt, Jorn; Rost, Detlef H.

2006-01-01

113

Sequencing of Pax6 Loci from the Elephant Shark Reveals a Family of Pax6 Genes in Vertebrate Genomes, Forged by Ancient Duplications and Divergences  

PubMed Central

Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/P? internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a “small eye” phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent family of Pax6 genes, forged by ancient duplication events and by independent, lineage-specific gene losses. PMID:23359656

Gautier, Philippe; Loosli, Felix; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Murdoch, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro; van Heyningen, Veronica; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

2013-01-01

114

The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

2006-01-01

115

Risk of cancer revealed by follow-up of families with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by susceptibility to large-bowel cancer, frequently with early onset and localized in the right colon. Several tumours of other sites may also occur with increased frequency in these families. During the period 1984-1989, 28 families with HNPCC were identified in our Health Care District through a population-based colorectal cancer registry. Moreover, 61 additional families were selected and classified as having "suspected" HNPCC. The objective of the present study is to report the occurrence of new cases of cancer in the 5- to 6-year follow-up of individuals at risk of tumour development in either HNPCC or "suspected" families. There were 374 family members at risk in HNPCC and 468 in "suspected" families, contributing, respectively, 2,377 and 2,712 persons/year at risk. Thirty-four new tumours developed among HNPCC family members vs. 29.3 expected; however, the occurrence of colorectal cancer in this group was significantly higher than expected, and this excess was particularly evident in the age-groups 41-50 and 51-60. In "suspected" HNPCC, 38 new tumours developed vs. 24.5 expected; at variance with the other group, besides colorectal neoplasms, lung, liver and brain tumours also occurred significantly in excess. Moreover, the increased risk was uniformly distributed among different age-groups. In conclusion, HNPCC family members are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer, with an earlier onset than the general population; in contrast, high-risk individuals in "suspected" HNPCC families seem to be prone to a broader neoplastic spectrum, and risk of tumours does not seem to be limited to any particular age-group. PMID:8370616

Ponz de Leon, M; Benatti, P; Pedroni, M; Sassatelli, R; Roncucci, L

1993-09-01

116

Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SLAC); (Michigan); (U. Muchen)

2011-08-17

117

A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.  

PubMed

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7 Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6 Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

2014-05-01

118

Structural and Functional Insights into the DNA Replication Factor Cdc45 Reveal an Evolutionary Relationship to the DHH Family of Phosphoesterases*  

PubMed Central

Cdc45 is an essential protein conserved in all eukaryotes and is involved both in the initiation of DNA replication and the progression of the replication fork. With GINS, Cdc45 is an essential cofactor of the Mcm2–7 replicative helicase complex. Despite its importance, no detailed information is available on either the structure or the biochemistry of the protein. Intriguingly, whereas homologues of both GINS and Mcm proteins have been described in Archaea, no counterpart for Cdc45 is known. Herein we report a bioinformatic analysis that shows a weak but significant relationship among eukaryotic Cdc45 proteins and a large family of phosphoesterases that has been described as the DHH family, including inorganic pyrophosphatases and RecJ ssDNA exonucleases. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds via a mechanism involving two Mn2+ ions. Only a subset of the amino acids that coordinates Mn2+ is conserved in Cdc45. We report biochemical and structural data on the recombinant human Cdc45 protein, consistent with the proposed DHH family affiliation. Like the RecJ exonucleases, the human Cdc45 protein is able to bind single-stranded, but not double-stranded DNA. Small angle x-ray scattering data are consistent with a model compatible with the crystallographic structure of the RecJ/DHH family members. PMID:22147708

Krastanova, Ivet; Sannino, Vincenzo; Amenitsch, Heinz; Gileadi, Opher; Pisani, Francesca M.; Onesti, Silvia

2012-01-01

119

Newborn brain event-related potentials revealing atypical processing of sound frequency and the subsequent association with later literacy skills in children with familial dyslexia.  

PubMed

The role played by an auditory-processing deficit in dyslexia has been debated for several decades. In a longitudinal study using brain event-related potentials (ERPs) we investigated 1) whether dyslexic children with familial risk background would show atypical pitch processing from birth and 2) how these newborn ERPs later relate to these same children's pre-reading cognitive skills and literacy outcomes. Auditory ERPs were measured at birth for tones varying in pitch and presented in an oddball paradigm (1100 Hz, 12%, and 1000 Hz, 88%). The brain responses of the typically reading control group children (TRC group, N=25) showed clear differentiation between the frequencies, while those of the group of reading disability with familial risk (RDFR, 8 children) and the group of typical readers with familial risk (TRFR, 14 children) did not differentiate between the tones. The ERPs of the latter two groups differed from those of the TRC group. However, the two risk groups also showed a differential hemispheric ERP pattern. Furthermore, newborn ERPs reflecting passive change detection were associated with phonological skills and letter knowledge prior to school age and with phoneme duration perception, reading speed (RS) and spelling accuracy in the 2nd grade of school. The early obligatory response was associated with more general pre-school language skills, as well as with RS and reading accuracy (RA). Results suggest that a proportion of dyslexic readers with familial risk background are affected by atypical auditory processing. This is already present at birth and also relates to pre-reading phonological processing and speech perception. These early differences in auditory processing could later affect phonological representations and reading development. However, atypical auditory processing is unlikely to suffice as a sole explanation for dyslexia but rather as one risk factor, dependent on the genetic profile of the child. PMID:20656284

Leppänen, Paavo H T; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Salminen, Hanne K; Eklund, Kenneth M; Guttorm, Tomi K; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Puolakanaho, Anne; Lyytinen, Heikki

2010-01-01

120

Quantitative label-free phosphoproteomics of six different life stages of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals abundant phosphorylation of members of the CRN effector family.  

PubMed

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato and tomato. Since the underlying processes that govern pathogenicity and development in P. infestans are largely unknown, we have performed a large-scale phosphoproteomics study of six different P. infestans life stages. We have obtained quantitative data for 2922 phosphopeptides and compared their abundance. Life-stage-specific phosphopeptides include ATP-binding cassette transporters and a kinase that only occurs in appressoria. In an extended data set, we identified 2179 phosphorylation sites and deduced 22 phosphomotifs. Several of the phosphomotifs matched consensus sequences of kinases that occur in P. infestans but not Arabidopsis. In addition, we detected tyrosine phosphopeptides that are potential targets of kinases resembling mammalian tyrosine kinases. Among the phosphorylated proteins are members of the RXLR and Crinkler effector families. The latter are phosphorylated in several life stages and at multiple positions, in sites that are conserved between different members of the Crinkler family. This indicates that proteins in the Crinkler family have functions beyond their putative role as (necrosis-inducing) effectors. This phosphoproteomics data will be instrumental for studies on oomycetes and host-oomycete interactions. The data sets have been deposited to ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000433). PMID:24588563

Resjö, Svante; Ali, Ashfaq; Meijer, Harold J G; Seidl, Michael F; Snel, Berend; Sandin, Marianne; Levander, Fredrik; Govers, Francine; Andreasson, Erik

2014-04-01

121

Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.  

PubMed

WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. PMID:25481634

Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

2015-02-15

122

Crystal structure of a member of a novel family of dioxygenases (PF10014) reveals a conserved cupin fold and active site  

PubMed Central

PF10014 is a novel family of 2-oxyglutarate-Fe2+-dependent dioxygenases that are involved in biosynthesis of antibiotics and regulation of biofilm formation, likely by catalyzing hydroxylation of free amino acids or other related ligands. The crystal structure of a PF10014 member from Methylibium petroleiphilum at 1.9 Å resolution shows strong structural similarity to cupin dioxygenases in overall fold and active site, despite very remote homology. However, one of the ?-strands of the cupin catalytic core is replaced by a loop that displays conformational isomerism that likely regulates the active site. PMID:23852666

Xu, Qingping; Grant, Joanna; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

2014-01-01

123

Genetic Analysis of Loop Sequences in the Let-7 Gene Family Reveal a Relationship between Loop Evolution and Multiple IsomiRs  

PubMed Central

While mature miRNAs have been widely studied, the terminal loop sequences are rarely examined despite regulating both primary and mature miRNA functions. Herein, we attempted to understand the evolutionary pattern of loop sequences by analyzing loops in the let-7 gene family. Compared to the stable miRNA length distributions seen in most metazoans, higher metazoan species exhibit a longer length distribution. Examination of these loop sequence length distributions, in addition to phylogenetic tree construction, implicated loop sequences as the main evolutionary drivers in miRNA genes. Moreover, loops from relevant clustered miRNA gene families showed varying length distributions and higher levels of nucleotide divergence, even between homologous pre-miRNA loops. Furthermore, we found that specific nucleotides were dominantly distributed in the 5? and 3? terminal loop ends, which may contribute to the relatively precise cleavage that leads to a stable isomiR expression profile. Overall, this study provides further insight into miRNA processing and maturation and further enriches our understanding of miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25397967

Liang, Tingming; Yang, Chen; Li, Ping; Liu, Chang; Guo, Li

2014-01-01

124

Genetic diversity among Frankia strains nodulating members of the family Casuarinaceae in Australia revealed by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with crushed root nodules.  

PubMed Central

DNA extracted directly from nodules was used to assess the genetic diversity of Frankia strains symbiotically associated with two species of the genus Casuarina and two of the genus Allocasuarina naturally occurring in northeastern Australia. DNA from field-collected nodules or extracted from reference cultures of Casuarina-infective Frankia strains was used as the template in PCRs with primers targeting two DNA regions, one in the ribosomal operon and the other in the nif operon. PCR products were then analyzed by using a set of restriction endonucleases. Five distinct genetic groups were recognized on the basis of these restriction patterns. These groups were consistently associated with the host species from which the nodules originated. All isolated reference strains had similar patterns and were assigned to group 1 along with six of the eight unisolated Frankia strains from Casuarina equisetifolia in Australia. Group 2 consisted of two unisolated Frankia strains from C. equisetifolia, whereas groups 3 to 5 comprised all unisolated strains from Casuarina cunninghamiana, Allocasuarina torulosa, and Allocasuarina littoralis, respectively. These results demonstrate that, contrary to the results of previous molecular studies of isolated strains, there is genetic diversity among Frankia strains that infect members of the family Casuarinacaeae. The apparent high homogeneity of Frankia strains in these previous studies probably relates to the single host species from which the strains were obtained and the origin of these strains from areas outside the natural geographic range of members of the family Casuarinaceae, where genetic diversity could be lower than in Australia. PMID:8975625

Rouvier, C; Prin, Y; Reddell, P; Normand, P; Simonet, P

1996-01-01

125

Expression of cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes in insect cells reveals that CslA family members encode mannan synthases  

PubMed Central

Glucuronoarabinoxylan, xyloglucan, and galactomannan are noncellulosic polysaccharides found in plant cell walls. All consist of ?-linked glycan backbones substituted with sugar side chains. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the structure of these polysaccharides, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes that produce them. Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes are hypothesized to encode Golgi-localized ?-glycan synthases that polymerize the backbones of noncellulosic polysaccharides. To investigate this hypothesis, we used heterologous expression in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to systematically analyze the functions of the gene products of a group of Csl genes from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L.), including members from five Csl gene families (CslA, CslC, CslD, CslE, and CslH). Our analyses indicate that several members of the CslA gene family encode ?-mannan synthases. Recombinant CslA proteins produce ?-linked mannan polymers when supplied GDP-mannose. The same proteins can produce ?-linked glucomannan heteropolymers when supplied both GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose. One CslA protein also produced ?-linked glucan polymers when supplied GDP-glucose alone. Heterologous expression studies of additional candidate glycan synthases in insect cells or other systems may help identify other noncellulosic polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:15647349

Liepman, Aaron H.; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Keegstra, Kenneth

2005-01-01

126

TAC3 and TACR3 Mutations in Familial Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Reveal a Key Role for Neurokinin B in the Central Control of Reproduction  

PubMed Central

The timely secretion of gonadal sex steroids is essential for the initiation of puberty, the post-pubertal maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and the normal perinatal development of male external genitalia. Normal gonadal steroid production requires the actions of the pituitary-derived gonatrophins, LH and FSH. We report four human pedigrees with severe congenital gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal failure in which all affected individuals are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 (encoding Neurokinin B) or its receptor TACR3 (encoding NK3R). Neurokinin B, a member of the substance P-related tachykinin family, is known to be highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons that also express kisspeptin1, a recently identified regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion2. These findings implicate Neurokinin B as a critical central regulator of human gonadal function and suggest novel approaches to the pharmacological control of human reproduction and sex hormone-related diseases. PMID:19079066

Guclu, Metin; Yalin, Ayse Serap; Kotan, L. Damla; Porter, Keith M; Serin, Ayse; Mungan, Neslihan O; Cook, Joshua R; Imamoglu, Sazi; Akalin, N. Sema; Yuksel, Bilgin; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K

2015-01-01

127

A Comparative Metagenome Survey of the Fecal Microbiota of a Breast- and a Plant-Fed Asian Elephant Reveals an Unexpectedly High Diversity of Glycoside Hydrolase Family Enzymes  

PubMed Central

A phylogenetic and metagenomic study of elephant feces samples (derived from a three-weeks-old and a six-years-old Asian elephant) was conducted in order to describe the microbiota inhabiting this large land-living animal. The microbial diversity was examined via 16S rRNA gene analysis. We generated more than 44,000 GS-FLX+454 reads for each animal. For the baby elephant, 380 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at 97% sequence identity level; in the six-years-old animal, close to 3,000 OTUs were identified, suggesting high microbial diversity in the older animal. In both animals most OTUs belonged to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Additionally, for the baby elephant a high number of Proteobacteria was detected. A metagenomic sequencing approach using Illumina technology resulted in the generation of 1.1 Gbp assembled DNA in contigs with a maximum size of 0.6 Mbp. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested high metabolic diversity regarding the use of polymers and aromatic and non-aromatic compounds. In line with the high phylogenetic diversity, a surprising and not previously described biodiversity of glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes was found. Enzymes of 84 GH families were detected. Polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), which are found in Bacteroidetes, were highly abundant in the dataset; some of these comprised cellulase genes. Furthermore the highest coverage for GH5 and GH9 family enzymes was detected for Bacteroidetes, suggesting that bacteria of this phylum are mainly responsible for the degradation of cellulose in the Asian elephant. Altogether, this study delivers insight into the biomass conversion by one of the largest plant-fed and land-living animals. PMID:25208077

Ilmberger, Nele; Güllert, Simon; Dannenberg, Joana; Rabausch, Ulrich; Torres, Jeremy; Wemheuer, Bernd; Alawi, Malik; Poehlein, Anja; Chow, Jennifer; Turaev, Dimitrij; Rattei, Thomas; Schmeisser, Christel; Salomon, Jesper; Olsen, Peter B.; Daniel, Rolf; Grundhoff, Adam; Borchert, Martin S.; Streit, Wolfgang R.

2014-01-01

128

A comparative metagenome survey of the fecal microbiota of a breast- and a plant-fed Asian elephant reveals an unexpectedly high diversity of glycoside hydrolase family enzymes.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic and metagenomic study of elephant feces samples (derived from a three-weeks-old and a six-years-old Asian elephant) was conducted in order to describe the microbiota inhabiting this large land-living animal. The microbial diversity was examined via 16S rRNA gene analysis. We generated more than 44,000 GS-FLX+454 reads for each animal. For the baby elephant, 380 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at 97% sequence identity level; in the six-years-old animal, close to 3,000 OTUs were identified, suggesting high microbial diversity in the older animal. In both animals most OTUs belonged to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Additionally, for the baby elephant a high number of Proteobacteria was detected. A metagenomic sequencing approach using Illumina technology resulted in the generation of 1.1 Gbp assembled DNA in contigs with a maximum size of 0.6 Mbp. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested high metabolic diversity regarding the use of polymers and aromatic and non-aromatic compounds. In line with the high phylogenetic diversity, a surprising and not previously described biodiversity of glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes was found. Enzymes of 84 GH families were detected. Polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), which are found in Bacteroidetes, were highly abundant in the dataset; some of these comprised cellulase genes. Furthermore the highest coverage for GH5 and GH9 family enzymes was detected for Bacteroidetes, suggesting that bacteria of this phylum are mainly responsible for the degradation of cellulose in the Asian elephant. Altogether, this study delivers insight into the biomass conversion by one of the largest plant-fed and land-living animals. PMID:25208077

Ilmberger, Nele; Güllert, Simon; Dannenberg, Joana; Rabausch, Ulrich; Torres, Jeremy; Wemheuer, Bernd; Alawi, Malik; Poehlein, Anja; Chow, Jennifer; Turaev, Dimitrij; Rattei, Thomas; Schmeisser, Christel; Salomon, Jesper; Olsen, Peter B; Daniel, Rolf; Grundhoff, Adam; Borchert, Martin S; Streit, Wolfgang R

2014-01-01

129

The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (Pgip) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and determined the properties of the encoded protein products. Sequence analysis showed that these genes form two clusters: one cluster of about 5 kbp containing Gmpgip1 and Gmpgip2, and the other containing Gmpgip3 and Gmpgip4 within a 60 kb fragment of a separate BAC clone. Sequence diversification of the four members resides mainly in the xxLxLxx region that includes residues forming the beta-sheet B1. When compared with other legume Pgip genes, Gmpgip3 groups with the bean genes Pvpgip1 and Pvpgip2, suggesting that these genes are closer to the ancestral gene. At the protein level, only GmPGIP3 shows the capability to inhibit fungal PGs. The spectrum of inhibition of GmPGIP3 against eight different fungal PGs mirrors that of the PGIP purified from soybean tissues and is similar to that of the bean PvPGIP2, one of the most efficient inhibitors so far characterized. We also report that the four Gmpgip genes are differentially regulated after wounding or during infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Following fungal infection Gmpgip3 is up regulated promptly, while Gmpgip2 is delayed. PMID:16501991

D'Ovidio, R; Roberti, S; Di Giovanni, M; Capodicasa, C; Melaragni, M; Sella, L; Tosi, P; Favaron, F

2006-08-01

130

Familial progressive supranuclear palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progressive extrapyramidal syndrome and dementia occurred in three members of one family. The age of onset was in the seventh decade and the affected individuals showed many of the clinical features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Necropsy of one individual revealed the neuropathological features of PSP. We propose that this family has a familial form of PSP and review

J Brown; P Lantos; M Stratton; P Roques; M Rossor

1993-01-01

131

The Arf Family GTPase Arl4A Complexes with ELMO Proteins to Promote Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling and Reveals a Versatile Ras-binding Domain in the ELMO Proteins Family*  

PubMed Central

The prototypical DOCK protein, DOCK180, is an evolutionarily conserved Rac regulator and is indispensable during processes such as cell migration and myoblast fusion. The biological activity of DOCK180 is tightly linked to its binding partner ELMO. We previously reported that autoinhibited ELMO proteins regulate signaling from this pathway. One mechanism to activate the ELMO-DOCK180 complex appears to be the recruitment of this complex to the membrane via the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of ELMO. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel ELMO-interacting proteins to further define the molecular events capable of controlling ELMO recruitment to the membrane. To do so, we performed two independent interaction screens: one specifically interrogated an active GTPase library while the other probed a brain cDNA library. Both methods converged on Arl4A, an Arf-related GTPase, as a specific ELMO interactor. Biochemically, Arl4A is constitutively GTP-loaded, and our binding assays confirm that both wild-type and constitutively active forms of the GTPase associate with ELMO. Mechanistically, we report that Arl4A binds the ELMO RBD and acts as a membrane localization signal for ELMO. In addition, we report that membrane targeting of ELMO via Arl4A promotes cytoskeletal reorganization including membrane ruffling and stress fiber disassembly via an ELMO-DOCK1800-Rac signaling pathway. We conclude that ELMO is capable of interacting with GTPases from Rho and Arf families, leading to the conclusion that ELMO contains a versatile RBD. Furthermore, via binding of an Arf family GTPase, the ELMO-DOCK180 is uniquely positioned at the membrane to activate Rac signaling and remodel the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:21930703

Patel, Manishha; Chiang, Tsai-Chen; Tran, Viviane; Lee, Fang-Jen S.; Côté, Jean-François

2011-01-01

132

Dynamic instability of the major urinary protein gene family revealed by genomic and phenotypic comparisons between C57 and 129 strain mice  

PubMed Central

Background The major urinary proteins (MUPs) of Mus musculus domesticus are deposited in urine in large quantities, where they bind and release pheromones and also provide an individual 'recognition signal' via their phenotypic polymorphism. Whilst important information about MUP functionality has been gained in recent years, the gene cluster is poorly studied in terms of structure, genic polymorphism and evolution. Results We combine targeted sequencing, manual genome annotation and phylogenetic analysis to compare the Mup clusters of C57BL/6J and 129 strains of mice. We describe organizational heterogeneity within both clusters: a central array of cassettes containing Mup genes highly similar at the protein level, flanked by regions containing Mup genes displaying significantly elevated divergence. Observed genomic rearrangements in all regions have likely been mediated by endogenous retroviral elements. Mup loci with coding sequences that differ between the strains are identified - including a gene/pseudogene pair - suggesting that these inbred lineages exhibit variation that exists in wild populations. We have characterized the distinct MUP profiles in the urine of both strains by mass spectrometry. The total MUP phenotype data is reconciled with our genomic sequence data, matching all proteins identified in urine to annotated genes. Conclusion Our observations indicate that the MUP phenotypic polymorphism observed in wild populations results from a combination of Mup gene turnover coupled with currently unidentified mechanisms regulating gene expression patterns. We propose that the structural heterogeneity described within the cluster reflects functional divergence within the Mup gene family. PMID:18507838

Mudge, Jonathan M; Armstrong, Stuart D; McLaren, Karen; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Nicholson, Christine; Robertson, Duncan H; Wilming, Laurens G; Harrow, Jennifer L

2008-01-01

133

Distribution of interleukin-10 family cytokines in serum and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory arthritis reveals different contribution to systemic and joint inflammation.  

PubMed

Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-10 family cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We sought to determine whether or not these cytokines are involved in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We conducted a prospective study on patients with PsA, RA and osteoarthritis (OA); healthy controls (HC) were also included. We analysed IL-20, IL-24 and IL-19 serum and synovial fluid (SF) levels and change of serum levels following treatment with biological agents. IL-20 serum levels were increased in PsA and RA compared with OA patients and HC and with matched SF levels. IL-24 serum levels in PsA, RA and OA patients were higher than those in HC and also with respect to matched SF in PsA. IL-19 serum levels were higher in HC and OA compared with PsA and RA patients; IL-19 SF levels were higher in PsA and RA compared with OA patients, and in PsA compared with RA patients. PsA and RA patients showed a reduction of IL-19 serum levels after biological treatment. Therefore, IL-19 seems to be involved mainly in the joint inflammation, whereas IL-20 and IL-24 appear to participate mainly in the systemic responses. These findings may further the comprehension of the contribution of these cytokines to the inflammatory response involved in chronic arthritis, as well as to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25178435

Scrivo, R; Conigliaro, P; Riccieri, V; Di Franco, M; Alessandri, C; Spadaro, A; Perricone, R; Valesini, G

2015-02-01

134

Analysis of Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Type 4 (FHL-4) Mutant Proteins Reveals that S-Acylation Is Required for the Function of Syntaxin 11 in Natural Killer Cells  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cell secretory lysosome exocytosis and cytotoxicity are impaired in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 (FHL-4), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the SNARE protein syntaxin 11. We show that syntaxin 11 binds to SNAP23 in NK cells and that this interaction is reduced by FHL-4 truncation and frameshift mutation proteins that delete all or part of the SNARE domain of syntaxin 11. In contrast the FHL-4 mutant proteins bound to the Sec-1/Munc18-like (SM) protein Munc18-2. We demonstrate that the C-terminal cysteine rich region of syntaxin 11, which is deleted in the FHL-4 mutants, is S-acylated. This posttranslational modification is required for the membrane association of syntaxin 11 and for its polarization to the immunological synapse in NK cells conjugated to target cells. Moreover, we show that Munc18-2 is recruited by syntaxin 11 to intracellular membranes in resting NK cells and to the immunological synapse in activated NK cells. This recruitment of Munc18-2 is abolished by deletion of the C-terminal cysteine rich region of syntaxin 11. These results suggest a pivotal role for S-acylation in the function of syntaxin 11 in NK cells. PMID:24910990

Hellewell, Andrew L.; Foresti, Ombretta; Gover, Nicola; Porter, Morwenna Y.; Hewitt, Eric W.

2014-01-01

135

Gustatory expression pattern of the human TAS2R bitter receptor gene family reveals a heterogenous population of bitter responsive taste receptor cells.  

PubMed

Human bitter taste is mediated by approximately 25 members of the human TAS2 receptor (hTAS2R) gene family. The hTAS2R genes are expressed in taste buds of gustatory papillae on the tongue surface. Because many naturally occurring bitter compounds are toxic, bitter taste receptors are believed to serve as warning sensors against the ingestion of toxic food compounds. An important question is whether bitter taste receptor cells are a homogeneous, broadly tuned population of cells, which uniformly express all bitter taste receptor genes, or not. Gene expression analyses in rodents demonstrated an essentially overlapping expression of TAS2R genes indicating a broad tuning, whereas functional in vivo analyses suggest a narrow tuning. The present study demonstrates the expression of all 25 human TAS2R genes in taste receptor cells of human circumvallate papillae. As shown by in situ hybridization experiments, the expression of hTAS2R genes differs in both the apparent level of expression and the number of taste receptor cells expressing these genes, suggesting a heterogeneous bitter taste receptor cell population. Differences in gene expression levels were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR experiments for a subset of hTAS2R genes. Direct evidence for the heterogeneity of bitter taste receptor cells is provided by dual-labeling in situ hybridizations with selected pairs of hTAS2R gene-specific probes. Functional coexpression experiments in heterologous cells show competition among hTAS2Rs, indicating a possible biological reason for the observed expression pattern. From the data, we conclude that human bitter taste receptor cells are tuned to detect a limited subset of bitter stimuli. PMID:18003842

Behrens, Maik; Foerster, Susann; Staehler, Frauke; Raguse, Jan-Dirk; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

2007-11-14

136

Metabolic engineering of raffinose-family oligosaccharides in the phloem reveals alterations in carbon partitioning and enhances resistance to green peach aphid  

PubMed Central

Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT) leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT plants. When added to an artificial diet, RFOs did not have a negative effect on aphid fecundity, suggesting that although aphid resistance in the transgenic plants is enhanced, it is not due to direct toxicity of RFO toward the insect. PMID:23882277

Cao, Te; Lahiri, Ipsita; Singh, Vijay; Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti; Ayre, Brian G.

2013-01-01

137

Genetic analysis of the Replication Protein A large subunit family in Arabidopsis reveals unique and overlapping roles in DNA repair, meiosis and DNA replication  

PubMed Central

Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds single-stranded DNA. In plants, multiple genes encode the three RPA subunits (RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3), including five RPA1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests two distinct groups composed of RPA1A, RPA1C, RPA1E (ACE group) and RPA1B, RPA1D (BD group). ACE-group members are transcriptionally induced by ionizing radiation, while BD-group members show higher basal transcription and are not induced by ionizing radiation. Analysis of rpa1 T-DNA insertion mutants demonstrates that although each mutant line is likely null, all mutant lines are viable and display normal vegetative growth. The rpa1c and rpa1e single mutants however display hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and combination of rpa1c and rpa1e results in additive hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Combination of the partially sterile rpa1a with rpa1c results in complete sterility, incomplete synapsis and meiotic chromosome fragmentation, suggesting an early role for RPA1C in promoting homologous recombination. Combination of either rpa1c and/or rpa1e with atr revealed additive hypersensitivity phenotypes consistent with each functioning in unique repair pathways. In contrast, rpa1b rpa1d double mutant plants display slow growth and developmental defects under non-damaging conditions. We show these defects in the rpa1b rpa1d mutant are likely the result of defective DNA replication leading to reduction in cell division. PMID:24335281

Aklilu, Behailu B.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Culligan, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

138

Getting a High-Speed Family Connection: Associations between Family Media Use and Family Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way families have used the media has substantially changed over the past decade. Within the framework of family systems theory, this paper examines the relations between family media use and family connection in a sample of 453 adolescents (mean age of child = 14.32 years, SD = 0.98, 52% female) and their parents. Results revealed that cell…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.

2012-01-01

139

Families with Daughters, Families with Sons: Different Challenges for Family Relationships and Marital Satisfaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a longitudinal study, the links between family relations and marital relations were examined in families with early adolescent children. Over the course of 4 years, 128 mother–father–adolescent triads were investigated annually. They completed questionnaires assessing family climate and marital relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed that the initially large discrepancies between adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of family cohesion, support, and

Inge Seiffge-Krenke

1999-01-01

140

Precariousness, precarity, and family: notes from Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical studies which have engaged the family have generally done so by critiquing the patriarchal, heternormative, family. However, this paper argues that families are enmeshed in a plurality of political and ethical spacings that exceed this singular focus—a claim advanced by reviewing recent studies of Palestinian families. These studies reveal ways in which Palestinian families have been constituted by colonialism

Christopher Harker

2012-01-01

141

Indicators of Familial Alcoholism in Children's Kinetic Family Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to delineate indicators in children's depictions of family that suggest the presence of parental alcoholism. Kinetic Family Drawings from two groups of children were collected. Statistical analysis revealed two of six items of the evaluation - depiction of isolation of self and isolation of other family members - were significantly higher…

Holt, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Donna H.

2001-01-01

142

Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.

2012-01-01

143

Family Folklore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

1977-01-01

144

Foster Families  

MedlinePLUS

... foster family? Let's find out. What Are Foster Families? The word "foster" means to help someone (or ... home. Continue Why Do Kids Live With Foster Families? Most often, a kid goes into a foster ...

145

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

146

Family Functioning in Neglectful Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 nonneglectful low-income families found that neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesiveness. Observational measures indicated neglectful families were less organized, more chaotic, and less verbally…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.; And Others

1996-01-01

147

Family functioning in neglectful families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 non-neglectful low-income families is examined using self-report and observational measures. Neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesive. Ratings of observed and videotaped family interactions indicated neglect families were less organized, more chaotic, less verbally expressive, showed less positive and more negative

James M. Gaudin; Norman A. Polansky; Allie C. Kilpatrick; Paula Shilton

1996-01-01

148

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

149

Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

Seita, John R.

2014-01-01

150

Georgia Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.

151

Family Governance with Family Councils  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the third generation onwards, family firms could get into business threatening situations. This might depend on the growing number of owners, the increasing distance of family members from the firm, and the heterogeneity of their interests. Thus, agency prob- lems and negative conflicts might occur. This calls for the appropriate choice of family gov- ernance mechanisms. Family councils might

Klaus Brockhoff; Alexander Koeberle-Schmid

152

Immigrant Family Stability: Some Primary Thoughts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that immigration entails redefinition of sex roles and kin obligations in immigrant families; reveals a trend toward increasingly differentiated nuclear families among immigrants; and identifies pressures that may make immigrant families more susceptible to instability than American families, and countervailing forces that may contribute…

Grant, Geraldine

1983-01-01

153

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

154

Family Violence and Family Physicians  

PubMed Central

The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

Herbert, Carol P.

1991-01-01

155

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

156

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Genomics All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics Family Health History Share Compartir Family History ...

157

Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1992-01-01

158

Georgians Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What was life like during the Georgian era in Britain? During the period between 1714 and 1830, cities and towns were transformed, conspicuous consumption became the pastime of the emerging middle classes, and gardening and shopping for leisure became commonplace. This digital companion to the British Library's "Georgians Revealed" exhibit brings together some of the key books and newspapers from the period, along with details about guided tours through the physical exhibitions, a Georgian London walking tour, and more. For those unable to view the exhibit in person, this companion site provides brief but detailed narratives on interesting facets of the exhibit, including dancing with the Georgians and celebrity culture. The site is rounded out by an excellent timeline of key events from the time of George I (1714-1727) to George IV (1820-1830) accompanied by vivid illustrations and portraiture.

159

The PRT protein family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the homologous PRT family are catalytic and regulatory proteins involved in nucleotide synthesis and salvage. New crystal structures have revealed key elements of PRT protein function, as well as glimpses of how the fold has evolved to perform both catalytic and regulatory functions.

Sangita C Sinha; Janet L Smith

2001-01-01

160

Revealing Rembrandt  

PubMed Central

The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

Parker, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

161

Teaching Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

Students should study the family system just as they would an organ system, making use of family studies and home visits. A comparison of private and academic faculty revealed the need to instruct private practitioners on patient selection and teaching methodology. Experience has shown that patients from the lower socioeconomic classes tend to allow the student to participate more in their family life and health care and that, in return, the student is often able to assist these patients in some way. Faculty must guide, monitor, and assist students with problems. Audit of students' and patients' reports on and evaluations of the family study will provide valuable information for planning future programs or revamping continuing ones. PMID:21308094

Baumslag, Naomi

1976-01-01

162

Familial glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Between 1970 and 1984, the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was made in 860 patients on the basis of a nephritic sediment and/or renal biopsy; of these patients, 86 (10%) had at least one first-degree relative with glomerulonephritis. These patients originated from 45 families and 1674 family members were screened; 172 had glomerulonephritis, of whom 101 could be classified. The diagnostic breakdown of the 101 patients showed that 50.5% had classical Alport's syndrome; 21.8% had atypical forms; 17.8% had familial IgA glomerulonephritis; 1.9% had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; and 7.9% had benign familial haematuria. The proportion of patients with glomerulonephritis who had familial disease was higher than expected. The family history is an important point to consider in the examination of patients with glomerulonephritis. PMID:3153310

Rambausek, M; Hartz, G; Waldherr, R; Andrassy, K; Ritz, E

1987-07-01

163

Family Potyviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

164

FAMILY GEMINIVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses geminivirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vi...

165

Family Workshops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

1978-01-01

166

Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

167

FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vira...

168

Familial glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1970 and 1984, the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was made in 860 patients on the basis of a nephritic sediment and\\/or renal biopsy; of these patients, 86 (10%) had at least one first-degree relative with glomerulonephritis. These patients originated from 45 families and 1674 family members were screened; 172 had glomerulonephritis, of whom 101 could be classified. The diagnostic breakdown

Michael Rambausek; Georg Hartz; Rüdiger Waldherr; Konrad Andrassy; Eberhard Ritz

1987-01-01

169

Family Theory and Family Health Research  

PubMed Central

Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

Doherty, William J.

1991-01-01

170

Whole genome sequencing and analysis reveal insights into the genetic structure, diversity and evolutionary relatedness of luxI and luxR homologs in bacteria belonging to the Sphingomonadaceae family  

PubMed Central

Here we report the draft genomes and annotation of four N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing members from the family Sphingomonadaceae. Comparative genomic analyses of 62 Sphingomonadaceae genomes were performed to gain insights into the distribution of the canonical luxI/R-type quorum sensing (QS) network within this family. Forty genomes contained at least one luxR homolog while the genome of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 contained seven Open Reading Frames (ORFs) that have significant homology to that of luxR. Thirty-three genomes contained at least one luxI homolog while the genomes of Sphingobium sp. SYK6, Sphingobium japonicum, and Sphingobium lactosutens contained four luxI. Using phylogenetic analysis, the sphingomonad LuxR homologs formed five distinct clades with two minor clades located near the plant associated bacteria (PAB) LuxR solo clade. This work for the first time shows that 13 Sphingobium and one Sphingomonas genome(s) contain three convergently oriented genes composed of two tandem luxR genes proximal to one luxI (luxR-luxR-luxI). Interestingly, luxI solos were identified in two Sphingobium species and may represent species that contribute to AHL-based QS system by contributing AHL molecules but are unable to perceive AHLs as signals. This work provides the most comprehensive description of the luxI/R circuitry and genome-based taxonomical description of the available sphingomonad genomes to date indicating that the presence of luxR solos and luxI solos are not an uncommon feature in members of the Sphingomonadaceae family. PMID:25621282

Gan, Han Ming; Gan, Huan You; Ahmad, Nurul H.; Aziz, Nazrin A.; Hudson, André O.; Savka, Michael A.

2015-01-01

171

[Family ideology].  

PubMed

This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

Kornblit, A

1982-06-01

172

Unusual families.  

PubMed

The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

Golombok, Susan

2005-03-01

173

Family Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Family Money is an investment center from Better Homes and Gardens Online. A wide variety of columns advise readers on home finance issues, and additional site tools include savings, loan, and car lease calculators for financial planning purposes.

174

Fact Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the relationship of addition to subtraction is explored with books and with connecting cubes. Students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number using a virtual or actual calculator to find differences. They also investigate fact families when one addend is 0 as well as when the addends are the same. Students will: find missing addends, review the additive identity, generate fact families given two addends or given one addend and the sum.

Illuminations

2012-03-31

175

Jobcode Jobcode Descr Family Job Family Descr Ben Family  

E-print Network

Jobcode Jobcode Descr Job Family Job Family Descr Ben Family Sal Admin Plan Sal Grade Reg Temp FLSA Prof/Admin 93 33 HJC T N N No IPEDS-S Reporting 999 BWC N 010620 NUCLEAR MED TECH (TEMP) 33 Temporary T N N No IPEDS-S Reporting 000 BWC N #12;Jobcode Jobcode Descr Job Family Job Family Descr Ben Family

Awtar, Shorya

176

Multigene families in African swine fever virus: family 505.  

PubMed Central

Sequencing of restriction fragment EcoRI A-SalI C of African swine fever virus has revealed the existence of a multigene family, designated family 505 because of the average number of amino acids in the proteins, composed of seven homologous and tandemly arranged genes. All the genes of family 505 are expressed during infection. Primer extension analysis showed that transcription is initiated a short distance (3 to 62 nucleotides) from the start codon of the corresponding open reading frame. The proteins of family 505 showed similarity to those of family 360 from African swine fever virus. In particular, a striking conservation of three regions at the amino terminus of the polypeptides was observed. Images PMID:8139051

Rodriguez, J M; Yañez, R J; Pan, R; Rodriguez, J F; Salas, M L; Viñuela, E

1994-01-01

177

A FAMILY WITH LEUKONYCHIA TOTALIS  

PubMed Central

A family presented to our dermatology clinic with a complaint of white nails. Physical examination revealed clinical feature of leukonychia totalis and the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, palmo plantar keratoderma and knuckle pads (four essential criteria for the diagnosis of Bart Pumphrey syndrome).Three consecutive generations of this family were affected with variable presentations of Bart Pumphrey syndrome in male and female; and autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. PMID:20418990

Balighi, Kamran; Moeineddin, Fatemeh; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ahmadreza, Rajaee

2010-01-01

178

Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of a sample of 100 picture storybooks about family life published 1943-1993 reveals no significant differences in the frequency of appearance of different family types or ethnicities over time. Dominant images remained the nuclear (63%) and Caucasian (67%) family. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

Rodman, Nancy M.; Hildreth, Gladys J.

2002-01-01

179

Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

2010-01-01

180

Roles within the Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Us My Cart Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Roles Within the Family Family Life Listen Roles Within the Family Article Body Families are not democracies. Each family has its own ways of deciding who has the power and authority within the family unit, and which ...

181

Family Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

1985-01-01

182

FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

183

Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

1979-01-01

184

Family Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family caregiving. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

Frazier, Billie H.

185

Families Speak to Early Childhood Teachers: Impressions and Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigators interviewed 54 families of children with disabilities ages seven through nine to examine the expectations that families of young children hold for their child's teacher. Responses themes were examined to determine if a pattern existed between families of different groups of children. Results reveal many families expressed true…

Thomas, Suzanne B.; Dykes, Frank

2013-01-01

186

Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

2013-01-01

187

Nurture and Conversion in the Early Quaker Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes method of family reconstitution used with problem arising from family religious history. Reports results of such an analysis of early English Quakers, and attempts to account for data thus revealed. (CJ)

Vann, Richard T.

1969-01-01

188

Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant-inherited genetic disorder that leads to elevated blood cholesterol levels. FH may present as severely elevated total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels or as premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods This review presents information on the disease and on the effects of drug treatment and lifestyle changes. Results Routine lipid testing should identify most patients with FH. Once an index case is identified, testing should be offered to family members. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with therapeutic lifestyle changes and statins can prevent premature CHD and other atherosclerotic sequelae in patients with FH. Conclusion Emerging therapies such as LDL apheresis and novel therapeutic agents may be useful in patients with homozygous FH or treatment-resistant FH. Liver transplantation is the only effective therapy for severe cases of homozygous FH. PMID:25598733

Pejic, Rade N.

2014-01-01

189

Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family

Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

2001-01-01

190

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns\\u000a emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers,\\u000a and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed\\u000a three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian

Jaime L. Marks; Chun Bun Lam; Susan M. McHale

2009-01-01

191

West Indian Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N=424) in Barbados completed Family Functioning in Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings revealed that most adolescents, like Australian peers, reported fairly favorable perceptions of their families. Adolescents not living with their fathers seemed to have somewhat lower sense of personal security; in other respects did not report…

Payne, Monica A.; Furnham, Adrian

1989-01-01

192

Psychoanalysis: a dysfunctional family?  

PubMed

The discussion opens with an account of the author's mother's bizarre family in which a strong, charismatic grandmother maintained absolute control over her large family by encouraging a neurotic dependence in them through daily reports of their complaints. Getting interested in psychoanalysis in an effort to understand the dynamics of this dysfunctional family, the author, a biographer, turned to the study of Melanie Klein, becoming entranced by her ideas. Her research also revealed how Klein had discouraged her followers from developing ideas that diverged in any way from her own. Her portrait of the pioneer analyst provoked intense indignation. A similar pattern of absolute loyalty to his person and theories was to be found in Freud's Secret Committee, formed primarily as a means of getting rid of Jung who had been showing disturbing signs of independence. When Ferenczi and Rank began to pursue independent lines of enquiry in their work, they too were though to be undermining the foundations of classical psychoanalysis. Finally, the author concludes that though there have been sorry incidents in psychoanalysis, we should be mature enough to accept both the contributions of the early pioneers and the realizations that new ideas must be permitted to evolve. PMID:9531859

Grosskurth, P

1998-01-01

193

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

194

The Impact of Family Life Events and Changes on the Health of a Chronically Ill Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between family stress and changes in health of a child with cystic fibrosis. Data from parents (N=100) and clinic records revealed that a decline in pulmonary functioning was associated with family life changes, especially in family development and relationships, family management and decisions, and family finances.…

Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

1983-01-01

195

Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.  

PubMed

1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

2001-12-01

196

Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family

Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

2011-01-01

197

Violent Death: A Qualitative Study of Israeli and Palestinian Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to report on how the unexpected and violent death of a civilian family member in Israel and Palestine affected family functioning 3–5 years after the incident. The narrative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the Israeli and Palestinian families on how the death was perceived, on coping strategies, an on how it influenced

Douglas A. Abbott

2009-01-01

198

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

199

The Changing Family Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

1993-01-01

200

Family Resiliency: A Neglected Family Construct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines research on the construct of resiliency and examines factors that promote resiliency in individuals and families. Implications for family counselors, societal systems, and future research are discussed. (Author/MKA)

Buckley, Matthew R.; Thorngren, Jill M.; Kleist, David M.

1997-01-01

201

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059

Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.

2012-01-01

202

Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

2011-01-01

203

Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia  

MedlinePLUS

Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

204

Managing a Family Budget  

E-print Network

- ry. Producers may rarely go back and compare their actual family living expenses against their budgeted amounts. Dean A. McCorkle, Steven L. Klose and Danny Klinefelter* Why Develop a Family Living Budget Budgeting for family expenditures...

McCorkle, Dean; Klinefelter, Danny A.

2008-09-16

205

Family and nation revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the promise of the sixties, the condition of families and children in the United State has deteriorated. However, the subject of family policy seems relevant once more. Establishing social policy conducive to the stability and well?being of family life will require an honest addressing of issues including family structure, poverty, drugs, and race. Fiscal policies also must be

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

1990-01-01

206

Black Families. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

207

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STRESS IN THE VIBRIONACEAE WILLIAM SOTO1  

E-print Network

in the utilization of the genes responsible for light production from the bioluminescent bacteria V. fischeri Bacteria, Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria) is comprised of mostly motile gram

Nishiguchi, Michele

208

Ecology and population structure of vibrionaceae in the coastal ocean  

E-print Network

Extensive genetic diversity has been discovered in the microbial world, yet mechanisms that shape and maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. This thesis investigates to what extent populations of the ...

Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

2010-01-01

209

Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice  

E-print Network

Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...” of services must be reported IFSP supports family outcomes through… Services to assist families in meeting child needs Measurable results of child and family progress Services in the natural environment Family directed assessment of resources, priorities...

Zuna, Nina

2005-05-05

210

Familial Facial disfigurement in Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma  

PubMed Central

Trichoepithelioma is an uncommon, benign hamartomatous tumor of the pilosebaceous follicle. Presenting as multiple papules and nodules on face and neck, they pose a significant cosmetic problem in affected individuals. Familial involvement of this dermatosis occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern, the locus being located on chromosome 9p21, which causes multiple facial lesions in family members and their kins. Here, we report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma causing considerable disfigurement of the face. PMID:24551711

Kataria, Usha; Agarwal, Deepti; Chhillar, Dinesh

2013-01-01

211

Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

Zuk, Gerald H.

1980-01-01

212

Family assessment: Centripetal and centrifugal family systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consideration of interactional style is useful to both researchers and clinicians interested in family assessment. This paper offers data and process evaluation scales designed to determine family interactional style, conceptualized as a continuum ranging from centripetal (CP) to centrifugal (CF), and containing at the midpoint a mixed area in which facets of both the CP and the CF styles

Martha Kelsey-smith; W. Robert Beavers M. D

1981-01-01

213

Families of minor planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical studies of individual family members show that at least the Themis, Eos, Koronis, Nysa/Hertha, and Budrosa families of minor planets are the result of the breakup of discrete parent bodies. Only a few families have been studied in detail, and even in those few cases, the full force of observational techniques has not been applied. Crucial for the understanding of families and their parent bodies are detailed physical studies of family members; precise mineralogical interpretation of observational data to identify the geochemistry of the parent bodies; and studies of the collisional evolution of family members.

Gradie, J. C.; Chapman, C. R.; Williams, J. G.

1979-01-01

214

[Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. A new family].  

PubMed

A new example of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia is reported. The family studied consists of 19 members over four generations. The first patient described in this study had already undergone a classical surgical operation for "primary hyperparathyroidism" before the correct diagnosis was established: that of a new syndrome described for the first time by Foley in 1972 and subsequently studied by Marx since 1977. The features of this syndrome are: hypercalcaemia accompanied by hypocalciuria, autosomal dominant transmission with strong penetrance, with early appearance of hypercalcaemia, absence of signs of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia, benign course and persistence of the hypercalcaemia despite classical sub-total parathyroidectomy. Following a family survey, the authors discovered eight other members of the family who also presented this syndrome. PMID:4081583

Langhendries, J P; Chanoine, F; Corvilain, J; Fuss, M; Van Geertruyden, J

1985-11-01

215

Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones)  

E-print Network

Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae (Arachnida. 2004. Karyotype analysis and achiasmatic meiosis in pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae of prophase I chromosomes in males revealed an achiasmatic mode of meiosis. Findings of the achiasmatic

Stahlavsky, Frantisek

216

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a ... can take to get started. The process of writing your letter may take some time, but at ...

217

The Changing American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent statistics which demonstrate how different modern families are from the stereotyped model American nuclear family. Provides suggestions for elementary social studies teachers and includes an annotated bibliography of instructional resources. (JDH)

Joseph, Pamela B.

1986-01-01

218

Strengthening Our Military Families  

MedlinePLUS

... to quality child care remains a focus of leadership and families across the Armed Forces. Military families ... an expert in military issues to make a difference. Every American can do something.” —Michelle Obama and ...

219

Familial Periodic Paralyses  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

220

Managing Your Family Business  

E-print Network

L-5437 2-03 Managing Your Family Business Danny Klinefelter Professor and Extension Economist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Successful management of a family business involves six characteristics: ? Shared vision...

Klinefelter, Danny A.

2003-04-14

221

Importance of Family Routines  

MedlinePLUS

... Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Participant Manual Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Allergies and Asthma Family Life Health Management - Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & ...

222

Free-Choice Family Learning Experiences at Telescope Observing Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines family experiences at nighttime telescope observing events. The goal was to observe family visitors and understand how they negotiate meaning and incorporate these experiences into their family culture. In this case study of one family's telescope observing experience, the participants' motivations and agenda are described as well as ways in which they negotiated identity and family-community membership at the same time as they were involved in the construction of meaning. The analysis revealed evidence of both meaning making and identity negotiation during, and related to, the educational leisure activity of attending a nighttime telescope observing event.

Wenger, M. C.; Carter, K.; Harris, C. J.

2011-09-01

223

Revealing Entrepreneurial Talent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A society’s allocation of working time to entrepreneurial, organizational and learning activities is the main factor behind technical change and economic growth. Building on Lucas (1978) and Kihlstrom and Laffont (1979), in this paper I offer evidence that the amount of working time spent by small business owners in entrepreneurial activities affects the performance of the business and reveals their

Francesco Ferrante

2005-01-01

224

Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM  

E-print Network

Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed | The Scientist http://the-scientist.com/2011/08/08/schizophrenia-genetics-revealed/[8/9/2011 10:03:33 AM] FLICKR, MARCO CASTELLANI The Nutshell Schizophrenia Genetics Revealed Researchers identify new mutations in schizophrenia patients without a family history of the disease. By Jef

225

Family Life Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual life stages happen within the context of family life. This article describes Betty Carter's and Monica McGoldrick's Family Life Cycle stages as a context for Eric Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Daniel Levinson's Stages of a Man's Life, and Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The author juxtaposes the tasks of each family life stage with the individual life

M. A. Armour

1995-01-01

226

Year of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

California Agriculture, 1994

1994-01-01

227

Familial Cholestatic Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘familial’ is an unfortunate one. Although the definition includes ‘hereditary’, the inference is that it will usually have occurred in other family members. For many of the conditions described in this article this is often not the case, and for this reason, ‘familial’ conditions may be overlooked when reaching a diagnosis. Cholestasis is defined differently by clinicians, pathologists

Richard Thompson

2008-01-01

228

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

229

Family Housing and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need for a strong family housing program to support a student body composed of many nontraditional students, Texas Woman's University converted a traditional residence hall into a family housing unit with an after-school and summer recreation program. The majority of residents in family housing are single mothers with children who…

Murphy-Chadwick, Nancy; And Others

230

Resilience in Remarried Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to identify those resilience factors that enable remarried families to withstand and rebound from the disruptive challenges they face. A parent and a child from 38 families independently completed seven questionnaires and answered an open-ended question. The following resilience-associated factors were identified: (1) supportive family relationships, (2) affirming and supportive communication, (3) a sense of control

Abraham P. Greeff; Carien Du Toit

2009-01-01

231

Families and Fragile Syndrome  

E-print Network

Families and Fragile Syndrome U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency is designed to give you and your family some general information about Fragile X syndrome, its causes, its

Rau, Don C.

232

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

233

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

234

Employment Characteristics of Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

2001-01-01

235

Families in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

1987-01-01

236

Learning from Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a researcher in parent engagement in school and former parent activist, the author shares three lessons for sparking more authentic partnerships between schools and immigrant families. First, schools need to move away from deficit thinking and validate families' cultures. In the case of Latino immigrant families, this entails understanding…

Auerbach, Susan

2011-01-01

237

Family Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

238

Adlerian Family Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model of family counseling based on Adlerian psychology. A brief overview of the psychological principles of Adlerian psychology is provided as well as an intervention schema to help the elementary counselor decide what family members to include in counseling and how to deal ethically with families. (RC)

Kern, Roy M.; Carlson, Jon

1981-01-01

239

Families and Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to assisted living is relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL, and outcomes for these family members. Design and Methods We reviewed current literature utilizing the MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify AL studies that examined issues pertaining to families or informal care. Following the screening of abstracts, 180 reports were retrieved for further review, and 62 studies were selected for inclusion. Results Families visit residents frequently and provide a wide range of instrumental assistance but provide only minimal personal care. Studies of family outcomes indicated relatively high satisfaction, but potential care burden as well. Implications How family care and involvement occurs in AL in relation to formal care provision and whether various types of formal-informal care integration influence family outcomes remains unclear. We suggest a research agenda that attempts to tease out causal relationships for family involvement, differentiate family roles, and implement longitudinal analyses for a range of family outcomes. PMID:18162571

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2008-01-01

240

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

241

Toward the Postmodern Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three aspects of family life that are evolving in directions that have no historical precedent--adolescent indifference to the family's identity that shows up in the discontinuity of values from parents to children, instability in the life of the couple, and systematic demolition of the nuclear family. (Author/IRT)

Shorter, Edward

1976-01-01

242

Familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with alopecia.  

PubMed Central

In one family several male and female members had hypogonadism and frontoparietal alopecia, whereas other members with normal sexual development had normal scalp hair. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of three affected young men (two brothers and their cousin) revealed that the hypogonadism was the result of decreased serum concentrations of follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones. There was no evidence of a deficiency of any other pituitary hormone. Long-term treatment of the three patients with human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in an increase in the serum testosterone concentration, the appearance of male secondary sex characteristics and an increase in the size of the external genitalia. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 PMID:466617

Slti, I S; Salem, Z

1979-01-01

243

Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.  

PubMed

Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review. PMID:22149040

Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

2011-12-01

244

Methadone Maintenance: The Addict's Family Recreated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of four methadone clinics, the addicts treated at these clinics, and their families, reveals basic dissonances in treatment ideology and professional-paraprofessional relationships which, combined with the addict's particular mode of functioning, make significant change in his behavior improbable. (Author)

Schwartzman, John; Bokos, Peter

1979-01-01

245

Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and

Matthew W Hahn; Mira V Han; Sang-Gook Han

2007-01-01

246

Family Fitness = Family Fun! Presented by  

E-print Network

health benefits 35% of adults 18 years and older who engaged in regular leisure-time physical activity calories! · Build family bonds & create memories · Experience love and laughter · Master new skills. #12

247

Serial Subtraction Errors Revealed  

E-print Network

A fine-grained analysis of errors and their frequency during the performance of a mental multi-digit serial subtraction task reveals the cognitive processes most prone to failure. Example serial subtraction problems from the experimental problem set are utilized in illustrating different types of errors and their probable causes. A list of considerations is presented for future descriptive and computational modeling of the errors committed during performance of the task.

Sue E. Kase; Frank E. Ritter; Michael Schoelles

248

Vasectomy complications at a family practice center.  

PubMed

Vasectomy is a safe, effective, economical, and convenient form of permanent sterilization since it can be performed in an outpatient setting. Seventy-three vasectomies were performed during a nine-year period at the Kanawha Valley Family Practice Center. The procedures were performed by family practice residents under the active instruction and supervision of the attending staff. The complication type and frequency are as follows: epididymitis, 5.5 per cent; sperm granuloma, 2.7 per cent; wound infection, 1.4 per cent, and hematoma, 12 per cent. No failures occurred in this study group. All of the complications were minor and responded to conservative medical management. The results of this study reveal that vasectomy complications at this teaching family practice center are comparable to those reported in the medical literature. This study therefore supports the opinion that vasectomies can be performed safely and taught by trained family practitioners in the outpatient setting. PMID:2781781

Beavers, C H

1989-09-01

249

The Good Daughter Dilemma: Latinas Managing Family and School Demands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents strategies employed by Latina doctoral graduate students to balance family relationships with the demands of school to maintain their status of a "good daughter". In-depth interviews reveal some women integrate family and school by explaining the demands placed on them to enlist support while others keep their two social…

Espinoza, Roberta

2010-01-01

250

Family Environment and Social Development in Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involving more than 1,500 academically gifted students and their parents, this study examined relationships between family environment and social competence of gifted students. Results from an online survey revealed that our gifted students rated their families as cohesive and flexible with high levels of satisfaction and communication among…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young; Thomson, Dana

2014-01-01

251

Pets and Family Relationships Among Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anthropological study of pet visiting programs to three nursing homes reveals five aspects of how elderly residents deal with their past and present ties to their families. (1) Sessions trigger childhood memories and family reminiscences associated with animals. (2) Pet loss and human loss are spoken about as interrelated experiences. (3) Animal visits highlight and help counteract the decline

Joel Savishinsky

1985-01-01

252

Results Not Typical: One Latino Family's Experiences in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this narrative, five adult siblings bring their voices together to tell the stories of their interwoven college experiences--how they influenced, supported, and relied on one another and other family members. As the stories unfold, they reveal the strengths of the familial ties that provide meaning and purpose to the college experience, the…

Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Jimenez Hernandez, Norma V.; Luevanos, Ruth; Jimenez, Dulcemonica; Jimenez, Abel, Jr.

2009-01-01

253

Family-Centered Residential Treatment: Knowledge, Research, and Values Converge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the evidence base for the effectiveness of residential treatment is still very limited, a review of the literature reveals family-centered residential care as an emerging best practice. Synthesizing knowledge from research, families, youth, professionals, as well as values put forth in the standards by accrediting organizations, this…

Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Christopher G.

2008-01-01

254

Adolescent Ego Development: Relationship to Family Cohesion and Adaptability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between global perceptions of family cohesion, adaptability, and adolescent ego development. Data from 180 high school juniors and seniors revealed that adaptability and cohesion were significantly related to ego development in adolescents, but interactions among the two variables, as well as with family structure were…

Bakken, Linda; Romig, Charles

1989-01-01

255

Narratives by District Nurses about Elder Abuse within Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one district nurses (DNs) narrated 44 cases of elder abuse within families. A phenomenological-hermeneutical analysis revealed that the experiences were complex and often included families providing care for an elderly person. The abuse seemed to be related to the inability of one party to meet the care demands required by the elderly, by him- or herself, or by the situation.

Britt-Inger Saveman; Ingalill R. Hallberg; Astrid Norberg

1996-01-01

256

Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and several measures of adolescent social and psychological functioning in a sample of 7,000 Palestinian families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Structural equation analysis of youth self-reported survey data revealed that experience in the intifada (as children) predicted increases in antisocial behavior (males and females)

Brian K. Barber

1999-01-01

257

Family Literacy Schools, teachers and  

E-print Network

1 Family Literacy Schools, teachers and family literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A snapshot of National Family Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A representative community organization . . . 7 Supporting regional cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Family Literacy: Programming that Works

Ellis, Randy

258

Shipwrecks Reveal Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abandoned ships and other objects lost at sea may ride ocean currents for months or even years before sinking or washing ashore. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, describes how scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute plotted the trajectories of abandoned sailing ships, whose positions were reported by 19th century sea captains. The tracks of these derelict ships reveal oceanic circualtion patterns, particularly the Gulf Stream, which sometimes transported these derelicts from the coast of the Carolinas across the Atlantic to Great Britain, a journey which took about ten months. The segment is three minutes five seconds in length.

259

Putting 'family' back in family planning.  

PubMed

Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182

Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher

2015-01-01

260

Neighborhoods and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neighborhoods have a profound impact on children and their families, including health and safety, educational attainment,\\u000a child maltreatment risk, and many others. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms through which neighborhood\\u000a physical and social characteristics features influence child and family outcomes. This chapter looks at current definitions\\u000a for community and family and reviews research for community effects

James R. McDonell

261

The family lecture.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This paper describes a lecture about my extended family, in which I discuss a variety of configurations consisting of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and our children. It raises an array of issues, including alternative insemination, biological and nonbiological parentage, donors and birthmothers, adoption, co-parenting and blended families, significant others, and gay marriage and domestic partnership. It helps many students obtain both a more expansive sense of family and adeeper understanding of homophobia. PMID:24804601

Rose, Nancy E

2002-10-01

262

Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears. PMID:25548700

Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

2014-01-01

263

Exploratorium: Revealing Bodies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This almost-completed Website from the Exploratorium Museum (see the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) examines the ways in which new imaging technologies have changed our perceptions of the human body. The site features live webcasts that explore "body imaging technologies, both modern and ancient;" an in-depth examination of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology, which discusses not only its technology but offers a five-minute clip of an in-progress conceptual movie that investigates the emotional experience of an MRI procedure; an online exhibition of art and artifacts revealing the application of various technologies to the human body; and "behind-the-scenes" video clips of the various exhibitions being put together (this portion is still under construction). The site is made possible by grants from the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, the California Arts Council, and the National Endowment for the Arts.

264

The Climate Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, William

1999-10-01

265

Family Literacy: Abstracts of Family Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abstracts in this publication describe 29 federally and privately funded family literacy projects in the United States. Each entry provides the name of the project, background information, project aims, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of contact persons. (RH)

Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.

266

Familial Mediterranean fever mimicking septic arthritis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young Lebanese female who presented with recurrent episodes of left knee and calf swelling and a synovial fluid leucocyte count suggestive of septic arthritis, however bacteriologic cultures were negative. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was suspected in view of a positive family history and genetic analysis for the mutations in the pyrin/marenostrin (MEFV) gene revealing a homozygote mutation at methionine-694-valine. The arthritis was controlled with prophylactic colchicine therapy. FMF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute monoarticular arthritis with elevated synovial fluid white blood cells counts in regions with high incidence of FMF. PMID:15700115

Uthman, Imad; El-Sayyad, Jinane; El-hajj, Ihab; Bizri, Abdul-Rahman

2005-10-01

267

Social Structure of Pilot Whales Revealed by Analytical DNA Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-finned pilot whales swim in large, extremely cohesive social groups known as pods. Molecular typing revealed that pod members form a single extended family. Mature males neither disperse from nor mate within their natal pods, a situation unusual for mammals. Such behavior could be explained in terms of inclusive fitness benefits gained by adult males helping the large number of

Bill Amos; Christian Schlotterer; Diethard Tautz

1993-01-01

268

Families, Risk, and Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of studying families arise from the difficulty in studying systems in which there are multiple elements interacting with each other and with the child. This book attests to the growing sophistication of the conceptualization and measurement techniques for understanding family processes. Chapters in the first part of the book, "The…

Lewis, Michael, Ed.; Feiring, Candice, Ed.

269

Golden Matrix Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

2011-01-01

270

Family Support and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

Goldstein, Lou Ann

2013-01-01

271

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family help. What We Are A new initiative of the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University

Toronto, University of

272

THE URBAN NEGRO FAMILY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN TRACING THE MOVEMENT OF THE NEGRO FAMILY TOWARD A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND TOWARD URBANIZATION, THIS ARTICLE NOTES THAT THE PATTERN IS BECOMING SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN FAMILY. NEGROES HAVE LEFT THEIR SOUTHERN RURAL FARMS FOR BOTH SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN URBAN AREAS AND HAVE TENDED TO SETTLE IN THE INNER CORE OF THE LARGEST…

DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.

273

Understanding Family Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the reactions by different family members to various social behaviors by a target child to determine what are the most probable consequences that child will experience. These analyses were based on the home observations of 47 nonclinical families with an identified target child between the ages of four and eight. The probabilities

Linda Musun Baskett

1985-01-01

274

Moving Your Family Overseas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the challenges that families face in moving overseas. Chapters include: (1) "What This Move Means for Your Family"; (2) "Breaking the News"; (3) "Learning about Your New Country"; (4) "Preparing for the Move"; (5) "The Early Days"; (6) "Culture Shock"; (7) "Expatriate Life"; (8) "How Is Everyone Coping?"; (9) "Social…

Kalb, Rosalind C.; Welch, Penelope

275

Family-Friendly Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…

Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria

2004-01-01

276

Workshops on Family Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help speech communication professionals become involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating marital or family enrichment programs, this booklet discusses the theory and practice of using marital enrichment programs to increase family harmony. The first section contains an overview of selected enrichment programs, as well as…

Galvin, Kathleen M.

277

Snowbird Intergenerational Family Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined the family relationships of snowbirds. Interviews were conducted with 25 older adults from the Midwest who migrated seasonally to the Sunbelt. Snowbirds did not perceive their winter experience as having a negative impact on their families in any significant way. The vast majority of snowbirds expressed satisfaction with how well they maintained their intergenerational ties and

Kristine E. Bjelde; Gregory F. Sanders

2009-01-01

278

Changing Families, Changing Workplaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

Bianchi, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

279

WORK FAMILY LIFE !"#"$%&$'()*!("$+(,-./*$"#(.-/,*$/&!&#&0&-/  

E-print Network

, China adopted its strict one-child policy in 1979. 5=F%B9%;=B9%=>GG8EBEH%E--and they feel they can manage this with one child, but not more. Many families would like to have more kids toward one-child families. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that, in the last 20 years, the number

Ginzel, Matthew

280

[Focus: Family Communication].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

1977-01-01

281

Families under Economic Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

282

Explaining Family Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy" (Marguerite Stevenson…

Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

283

Family Perspectives on Prematurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

Zero to Three (J), 2003

2003-01-01

284

Education and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the report of the Family Ties Commission, which was established by the Association of Teacher Educators to study the relationship between home and school. Following the preface and two introductory essays, "Education and My Family" (K.B. O'Rourke as told to E. Johnson) and "Preparing for Successful Children" (B. Clawson), the book is…

Kaplan, Leonard, Ed.

285

Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

286

Advancing Measurement of Family Leisure  

E-print Network

of this theory; therefore, 14 anything that happens to one family member will impact all family members. The three prominent and empirically based models of family functioning are: (a) the Beaver’s Family System Model, (b) the Circumplex Model, and (c... Comparison Beaver’s Model of Family Functioning McMaster’s Model of Family Functioning Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems Authors Beavers & Hampson Epstein and colleagues Olson & colleagues Year Developed 1977...

Melton, Karen

2014-08-06

287

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom de Lisa Tedeschi GRADUATE PROGRAM The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research, and practice. The faculty seeks

Raina, Ramesh

288

The familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this paper is to examine the familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders and other psychiatric conditions among first-degree relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder. Design Controlled family study methods. Setting Out-patient psychiatric clinics and the local community (same geographic area). Participants Two hundred and sixty-two probands with a life-time history of cannabis use disorder, alcohol dependence, anxiety disorders or no history of any disorder, and their first-degree relatives and spouses. Measurements Cannabis use disorders and other DSM-III-R disorders in the relatives and spouses using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Findings Results reveal an elevated risk of life-time history of cannabis use disorders among siblings [odds ratio (OR: 3.6), adult offspring (OR): 6.9], and spouses (OR: 4.4) of probands with cannabis use disorders. There is a latent familial factor underlying cannabis use disorders that was shared partially with alcohol abuse/dependence. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders aggregated independently from cannabis use disorders in families. Equal elevation in the magnitude of the association among the first-degree adult relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder suggests the probable contribution of both environmental and genetic factors. Conclusions These findings support a family-based approach to drug abuse intervention and the importance of future research concerning environmental mediators of familial transmission of drug abuse. PMID:19335660

Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Li, Julan Julia; Stipelman, Brooke; Yu, Kelly; Fucito, Lisa; Swendsen, Joel; Zhang, Heping

2009-01-01

289

Revealing plant defense signaling  

PubMed Central

The regulation mechanisms of any plant-pathogen interaction are complex and dynamic. A proteomic approach is necessary in understanding regulatory networks because it identifies new proteins in relation to their function and ultimately aims to clarify how their expression, accumulation and modification is controlled. One of the major control mechanisms for protein activity in plant-pathogen interactions is protein phosphorylation, and an understanding of the significance of protein phosphorylation in plant-pathogen interaction can be overwhelming. Due to the high number of protein kinases and phosphatases in any single plant genome and specific limitations of any technologies, it is extremely challenging for us to fully delineate the phosphorylation machinery. Current proteomic approaches and technology advances have demonstrated their great potential in identifying new components. Recent studies in well-developed plantpathogen systems have revealed novel phosphorylation pathways, and some of them are off the core phosphorylation cascades. Additional phosphoproteomic studies are needed to increase our comprehension of the different mechanisms and their fine tuning involved in the host resistance response to pathogen attacks. PMID:21897123

2011-01-01

290

Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.

2006-01-01

291

On the axioms of revealed preference in fuzzy consumer theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revealed preference is a central subject in classical consumer theory. Authors like Samuelson, Arrow, Richter, Sen, Uzawa\\u000a and others have proposed an axiomatic setting of revealed preference theory.\\u000a \\u000a Consequently revealed preference axioms WARP and SARP and congruence axioms WCA and SCA have been considered.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An important theorem of Sen establishes the equivalence between these axioms provided the family of

Irina Georgescu

2004-01-01

292

Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project  

PubMed Central

There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

2014-01-01

293

Family intervention for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

2014-01-01

294

Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

2010-01-01

295

The Influence of Family Size on Learning Readiness Patterns of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschool Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool readiness measures were secured on 35 pairs of disadvantaged 2- to 3-year-old lower SES black children, representing large and small families, to determine the impact of family size on readiness profiles. The findings reveal that blacks from small families achieved significantly higher scores on 3 of the 9 skill areas: Visual Memory,…

Scott, Ralph; Kobes, David A.

296

Supporting Families: How Are Nursing Students Being Prepared for This Developing Role across Scotland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 95 Scottish nursing programs (54.7%) revealed consensus about the importance of working with families. There were no differences between academic levels and knowledge bases regarding family nursing theory. Professional development for teaching family nursing was needed. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

Burchard, Dorothee J. H. O'Sullivan; Whyte, Dorothy A.; Jackson, Kate

2002-01-01

297

Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

Abbott, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

298

Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison Between Israelis and Palestinians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits and support services given to

Douglas A. Abbott

2010-01-01

299

Family Support, Age, and Emotional States of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored emotional states of dying patients, age, and family support. Findings from 26 terminally ill female cancer patients revealed that younger patients expressed more bargaining and complaints than older patients who revealed more depression and acceptance. Patients with immediate family support expressed less depression and more fears than…

Wu, Kitty K. Y.

1991-01-01

300

Family Structure and Social Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

Olson, Dawn R.

301

Does Addiction Run in Families?  

MedlinePLUS

Listen to this page Does Addiction Run in Families? Addiction can run in families. If people in your family have addictions, you are more likely to become ... En español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history ...

302

Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's Resilience  

MedlinePLUS

... how!. Apply Now Home » Resilience: Total Force Fitness Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's ... own and your family's resilience, this information may help. What is resilience? One popular definition of resilience ...

303

Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan.....................................................................21 Hazardous Material Accidents ..............................................22 Nuclear Power Plants Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family

Noble, James S.

304

75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer...the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront...

2010-03-01

305

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

306

The (late?) modern family: the family's significance for adolescents in Germany and Israel.  

PubMed

This study presents German and Israeli youth's heroes and role models. Two hundred twenty-six students from 22 high schools took part in small group interviews. Despite differences in the normative place of the family in the two cultures, the comparison reveals significant similarities between their views and what attributes the subjects assign to their families. Three main models of family members as hero arise from the data: The Self-made Person; sacrifice and pro-social action; and contending with everyday reality. The results point to a) the fading of traditional heroes from the imagination of youth in post-industrial societies; b) the substantive place the family holds in young people's lives. I suggest that the rise of uncertainty and risk in the current socio-historical constellation, contributes to adolescents' choice of figures from their immediate environments that embody safety and a moral framework. PMID:24956176

Girsh, Yaron

2014-08-01

307

A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.  

PubMed

The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

Carder, M

1974-01-01

308

Multiple etiologies for Alzheimer disease are revealed by segregation analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have evaluated several transmission models for Alzheimer disease (AD), using the logistic regressive approach in 401 nuclear families of consecutively ascertained and rigorously diagnosed probands. Models postulating no major gene effect, random environmental transmission, recessive inheritance, and sporadic occurrence were rejected under varied assumptions regarding the associations among sex, age, and major gene susceptibility. Transmission of the disorder was not fully explained by a single Mendelian model for all families. Stratification of families as early- and late-onset by using the median of family mean onset ages showed that, regardless of the model studied, two groups of families fit better than a single group. AD in early-onset families is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with full penetrance in both sexes and has a gene frequency of 1.5%. Dominant inheritance also gave the best fit of the data in late-onset families, but this hypothesis was rejected, suggesting the presence of heterogeneity within this subset. Our study also revealed that genetically nonsusceptible males and females develop AD, indicating the presence of phenocopies within early-onset and late-onset groups. Moreover, our results suggest that the higher risk to females is not solely due to their increased longevity. 50 refs., 5 tabs.

Rao, V.S.; Connor-Lacke, L.; Cupplies, L.A.; Growdon, J.H.; Farrer, L.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Duijn, C.M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1994-11-01

309

Predictors of Family Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an sociology class class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of households/families, income and race to understand how family structure and demographic information predict trends in family structure. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990 and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Maxine Atkinson

310

A family of strangers  

E-print Network

invo'Ived. 3. Wife's desires regarding employment, regardless of other considerations in the union. 4. Stress as it relates to the husband because he feels the need for total or major responsibility for financial solvency. 5. Stress as it relates... source of family income. 3. If the wife views her husband's occupation as the primary source of family income, she will view her potential or actual occupation as a secondary source of family income. 4. If the couple has consensus on male-female roles...

Sonnenfeld, Carol Price

1975-01-01

311

Evolutionary families of peptidases.  

PubMed Central

The available amino acid sequences of peptidases have been examined, and the enzymes have been allocated to evolutionary families. Some of the families can be grouped together in 'clans' that show signs of distant relationship, but nevertheless, it appears that there may be as many as 60 evolutionary lines of peptidases with separate origins. Some of these contain members with quite diverse peptidase activities, and yet there are some striking examples of convergence. We suggest that the classification by families could be used as an extension of the current classification by catalytic type. PMID:8439290

Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

1993-01-01

312

The SLC39 family of zinc transporters  

PubMed Central

Zinc is a trace element nutrient that is essential for life. This mineral serves as a cofactor for enzymes that are involved in critical biochemical processes and it plays many structural roles as well. At the cellular level, zinc is tightly regulated and disruption of zinc homeostasis results in serious physiological or pathological issues. Despite the high demand for zinc in cells, free or labile zinc must be kept at very low levels. In humans, two major zinc transporter families, the SLC30 (ZnT) family and SLC39 (ZIP) family control cellular zinc homeostasis. This review will focus on the SLC39 transporters. SLC39 transporters primarily serve to pass zinc into the cytoplasm, and play critical roles in maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. These proteins are also significant at the organismal level, and studies are revealing their link to human diseases. Therefore, we will discuss the function, structure, physiology, and pathology of SLC39 transporters. PMID:23506894

Jeong, Jeeyon; Eide, David J.

2012-01-01

313

Interactive use of genograms and ecomaps in family caregiving research.  

PubMed

This article argues for the concurrent and comparative use of genograms and ecomaps in family caregiving research. A genogram is a graphic portrayal of the composition and structure of one's family and an ecomap is a graphic portrayal of personal and family social relationships. Although development and utilization of genograms and ecomaps is rooted in clinical practice with families, as research tools they provide data that can enhance the researcher's understanding of family member experiences. In qualitative research of the supportive and nonsupportive interactions experienced by male family caregivers, the interactive use of genograms and ecomaps (a) facilitated increased understanding of social networks as a context for caregiving, (b) promoted a relational process between researcher and participant, and (c) uncovered findings such as unrealized potential in the participant's social network that may not be revealed with the use of the genogram or ecomap alone, or the noncomparative use of both. PMID:18180467

Rempel, Gwen R; Neufeld, Anne; Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick

2007-11-01

314

Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

Hsiao, C-Y.

2014-01-01

315

Familial Poverty, Family Allowances, and the Normative Family Structure in Britain, 1917-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, the Family Allowances Act was incorporated into law. The family allowances scheme depended on the maintenance of a normative family structure and a wage system that discriminated against women. Eleanor Rathbone, along with social surveyors of the 1930s and social policy makers, recognized the family wage system as a primary cause of poverty among working families. Unfortunately, the

Colleen Margaret Forrest

2001-01-01

316

Family Therapy, Family Practice, and Child and Family Poverty: Historical Perspectives and Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the engagement of family therapy and family practice with families with children, who are living in poverty. It analyzes four promising models from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to critiques, which have been made of the practice of family therapy with families living in poverty; and the second relates to the…

Frankel, Harvy; Frankel, Sid

2006-01-01

317

Structure of a flavonoid glucosyltransferase reveals the basis for plant natural product  

E-print Network

Structure of a flavonoid glucosyltransferase reveals the basis for plant natural product, metabolism and location of small molecules in living cells. In plants, a large multigene family of glycosyl Categories: plant biology; structural biology Keywords: catalysis; flavonoid; glycosylation; structure; wine

Davis, Ben G.

318

National Military Family Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Military Families in 2014. Apply for Military Spouse Scholarships We want to help military spouses gain meaningful ... the ways we do this is by offering scholarships to spouses of all Uniformed Services. Apply Now! ...

319

Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

320

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... love and caring for other family members; providing security and a sense of belonging; open communication; making ... Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute ...

321

Family in Crisis  

MedlinePLUS

... safe. Don't take away that sense of security they're constructing for themselves. Older children & adolescents ... again) can help increase your family's sense of security. Find ways to help others Finally, provide your ...

322

Family Reunion Health Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... and on the Phone 17 Share Materials 20 Planning Tips NATIONAL KIDNEY DISEASE EDUCATION PROGRAM l FAMILY ... with you. Contact these organizations early in your planning process to make arrangements. 5 of 23 CONTENTS ...

323

Family Decision Making  

MedlinePLUS

... Makers Error processing SSI file Family Decision Making Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Communicating How can I ... Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

324

Care of the Family  

MedlinePLUS

... one) is a natural, anticipated process after death. Palliative care provides support to family members preparing for the ... This website is funded by your generous support. Care to Donate ? ©2000-2011 Continuum Health Partners, Inc.

325

My Fact Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use cut out people shapes and number cards to create two addition problems and two subtraction problems using the same three numbers of a fact family to explore the commutative property.

Gehron, Elizabeth

2012-08-15

326

Technology and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology affects family life, size, structure, and relationships and blurs distinctions between home and work. It is imperative to keep sight of human values and a human agenda and to insist that technology serve people, not drive policy. (SK)

McTeer, Maureen A.

1995-01-01

327

job families EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

of computer systems. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Workers in this job group engage in the preparation, negotiationjob families EXPLORATION JOB GROUPS EXAMPLE OCCUPATIONS getgrowing CAREER PATHS WWW Bioinformatics professionals build the technological tools that are needed to improve the data analysis process

Muzzio, Fernando J.

328

[Family violence and generations].  

PubMed

Starting with a description of the place and function of violence inside families, the author raises than the topics of the professional's ethic and responsibility when working with family violence. It is not always easy for professionals to evaluate responsibilities particularly when they try to take into account as many contextual factors as possible. They could worry to become too Manichean and to see themselves as following only a linear causality. PMID:21089424

Goldbeter-Merinfeld, E

2010-09-01

329

The Peale Family Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Portrait Gallery, The Charles Willson Peale Family Papers is a boon to researchers in the history and culture of America from the 1730s to the 1880s. Comprised of copies of more than 6,000 documents, spanning three generations of the Peale family, "the archive traces the family's history from the arrival of Charles Peale, a transported felon, through the career of Charles Willson Peale -- artist, Revolutionary soldier, naturalist and museum keeper, and Enlightenment polymath -- down through the nineteenth-century careers and lives of his many children." Unfortunately, the papers themselves are not accessible online, but the site features essays discussing the papers, the history of the Peale family, and the editorial philosophy behind the publication of the first four volumes of the Peale Family Papers. (The entire collection is currently available in microfiche, and bibliographic information about this resource and the print publications of the papers are provided on-site.) The Website also features a photo gallery of paintings either by or of Peale family members.

330

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress Thlaspi arvense L. Life cycle Erect winter or summer. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress continued

331

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Hoary alyssum  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Hoary alyssum Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Life cycle Annual, biennial to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) oval and slightly flattened, grayish green

332

Salmonella pathogenesis reveals that BMP signaling regulates blood cell homeostasis and immune  

E-print Network

Salmonella pathogenesis reveals that BMP signaling regulates blood cell homeostasis and immune that Decapentaplegic (Dpp; a Drosophila BMP family mem- ber) plays a role in blood cell homeostasis and immune and adult homeostasis in many species. In this family Drosophila Dpp shows greatest amino acid similarity

Newfeld, Stuart J.

333

Revealing the Beast Within  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and have a frantic and relatively short life. Formation sites of massive stars are quite rare and, accordingly, most are many thousands of light-years away. For that reason alone, it is in general much more difficult to observe details of massive-star formation. Moreover, as massive stars are generally formed in the main plane of the Galaxy, in the disc where a lot of dust is present, the first stages of such stars are normally hidden behind very thick curtains. In the case of W49A , less than one millionth of the visible light emitted by a star in this region will find its way through the heavy intervening layers of galactic dust and reach the telescopes on Earth. And finally, because massive stars just formed are still very deeply embedded in their natal clouds, they are anyway not detectable at optical wavelengths. Observations of this early phase of the lives of heavy stars must therefore be done at longer wavelengths (where the dust is more transparent), but even so, such natal dusty clouds still absorb a large proportion of the light emitted by the young stars. Infrared observations of W49 ESO PR Photo 21a/03 ESO PR Photo 21a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 464 x 400 pix - 88k [Normal - JPEG: 928 x 800 pix - 972k] ESO PR Photo 21b/03 ESO PR Photo 21b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 461 pix - 104k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 922 pix - 1.1M] Captions : PR Photo 21a/03 presents a composite near-infrared colour image from NTT/SofI. It covers a sky area of 5 x 5 arcmin 2 and the red, green and blue colours correspond to the Ks- (wavelength 2.2 µm), H- (1.65 µm) and J-band (1.2 µm), respectively. North is up and East is to the left. The labels identify known radio sources. The main cluster is seen north-east of the region labelled "O3". The colour of a star in this image is mostly a measure of the amount of dust absorption towards this star. Hence, all blue stars in this image are located in front of the star-forming region. PR Photo 21b/03 shows a three-colour composite of the central region of the star-forming region W49A , based on a radio emission map (w

2003-07-01

334

Changing families, changing workplaces.  

PubMed

American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child without permanently derailing a fulfilling career. Others need short-term support to attend to a family health crisis. How best to meet this multiplicity of needs is the challenge of the coming decade. PMID:22013627

Bianchi, Suzanne M

2011-01-01

335

Family ownership and firm performance: Influence of family management, family control, and firm size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between family ownership and firm performance by considering the influence of family\\u000a management, family control, and firm size. Using proxy data of 786 public family firms in Taiwan during 2002–2007, this study\\u000a found that family ownership is positively associated with firm performance. The positive association is strong particularly\\u000a when family members serve as CEOs, top

Wenyi Chu

2011-01-01

336

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 Peck Hall-443-3024 The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage of the practice and profession of marriage and family therapy through scholarly research, education, training

Mather, Patrick T.

337

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 1045 James Supervisor T. Reichert-Schimpff GRADUATE PROGRAM The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research, and practice

McConnell, Terry

338

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 1045 James Linda Stone Fish, Graduate Program Director, 315-443-3024 The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research

Raina, Ramesh

339

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

sexuality) and family development (i.e., parenting, marriage, domestic violence). CFS also offers minorsChild And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert P. Moreno, Chair, 315 UNDERGRADUATE Robert P. Moreno, Undergraduate Program Director, 315-443-1715 The Department of Child and Family

Raina, Ramesh

340

Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family

Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

2011-01-01

341

We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

2006-01-01

342

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Ambika Krishnakumar, Chair, 315 Irene Kehres, Director of Undergraduate Studies, 315-443-9634 The Department of Child and Family Studies healthy family and child development. Students are involved in learning both in class and field

McConnell, Terry

343

Family Treatment Approaches to Alcoholism: Assessing the "Alcoholic Family."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research and clinical support for the connections between alcohol abuse and the family milieu have generated increased interest in family treatment approaches to alcoholism. In assessing the "alcoholic family," the clinician must consider numerous aspects of family interaction which have been linked to abuse and to treatment outcomes. Results from…

Gomberg, Christopher A.; Billings, Andrew G.

344

All in the Family? Family Environment Factors in Sibling Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sibling violence is presumed to be the most common form of family violence and the least studied. Based on data from “Physical\\u000a Violence in American Families, 1976,” this paper assesses the family environment factors associated with sibling physical\\u000a violence. Of a range of potential family influences, measures of family disorganization were the most significant predictors\\u000a of sibling violence, overriding the

Shelley Eriksen; Vickie Jensen

2006-01-01

345

Family processes and adolescent adjustment in intact and remarried families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether family processes that predict positive and negative developmental outcomes are the same in intact and remarried families. Surveys were administered to 758 tenth graders from intact families and 95 from stepfather families. Measures of cohesion, democratic decision-making style, permissiveness, and conflict were used to predict self-rated depression, worry, and self-esteem. Remarried and intact families provide similar

Bonnie L. Barber; Janice M. Lyons

1994-01-01

346

Measuring Family Reunion Travel Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study developed a Family Reunion Travel Motivation Scale (FRTMS) measuring family reunion travelers’ motivations. Through a rigorous scale development process, the final model of the scale exhibits excellent levels of psychometric properties. Details of each step are described in this paper. The 15-items scale contains four dimensions labeled as: (a) family history and togetherness, (b) immediate family cohesion, (c)

Juyeon Y. Kluin; Xinran Y. Lehto

347

Marriage and Family Therapy Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of inventories designed to measure dimensions of family systems theory and then provides a discussion of family systems assessment. Includes discussions of two couple's inventories, eight nuclear family inventories, and two family of origin inventories. Concludes that counselor educators must have understanding of marriage and…

West, John D.

1988-01-01

348

Changes in American Family Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to provide a factual, historical perspective on the current family situation of American children. Demographic statistics from recent decades are given which show trends toward small family size, nuclear families, one-parent families, and a higher level of education among parents. (MS)

Norton, Arthur J.; Glick, Paul C.

1976-01-01

349

The Power of Family Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the early findings from the analysis of a family literacy demonstration project under the direction of the National Center for Family Literacy. The data in this report are based upon the experiences of over 300 families who participated in the Toyota Families for Learning Program during the 1992-1993 school year. The first…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

350

Stable Black Families. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the final report of a study conducted to determine what factors contribute to strong Black family life and how these strong families solve problems, in order to add to the knowledge base on stable families so as to enhance practical intervention with families in need, and to identify models of self-help strategies used by stable…

Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

351

Trends in Family Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

Neugebauer, Roger

2011-01-01

352

IRAS asteroid families  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sampled the entire asteroid population at wavelengths from 12 to 100 microns during its 1983 all sky survey. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) includes updated results for more recently numbered as well as other additional asteroids with reliable orbital elements. Albedos and diameters were derived from the observed thermal emission and assumed absolute visual magnitudes and then entered into the IMPS database at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for members of the Themis, Eos, Koronis and Maria asteroid families and compared with their visual colors. The IMPS results for the small (down to about 20 km) asteroids within these major families confirm trends previously noted for their larger members. Each of these dynamical families which are defined by their similar proper elements appears to have homogeneous physical properties.

Veeder, G. J.; Williams, J. G.; Tedesco, E. F.; Matson, D. L.

1991-01-01

353

MEFV heterogeneity in Turkish Familial Mediterranean Fever patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is one of the few countries in the world where Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disease caused\\u000a by mutations in MEFV, the gene encoding pyrin, is not rare. Many interesting studies regarding the genetics of Familial Mediterranean Fever in\\u000a Turkey have been already published. Despite that different MEFV genetic profiles have been revealed for Turkish FMF patients, deriving

Vasileios Papadopoulos; Ioannis Mitroulis; Stavros Giaglis

2010-01-01

354

Evolution of a multigene family of chorion proteins in silkmoths.  

PubMed

The evolution of the A family of chorion genes was examined by comparing new protein and DNA sequences from the silkmoths Antheraea pernyi and Bombyx mori with previously known sequences from Antheraea polyphemus. The comparisons indicated that the A family and its major subfamilies are ancient and revealed how parts of the genes corresponding to distinct regions of the protein structure have evolved, both by base substitutions and by segmental reduplications and deletions. PMID:7110139

Rodakis, G C; Moschonas, N K; Kafatos, F C

1982-05-01

355

1.OA Fact Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Fact Family work sheets * Blank addition and subtraction frames (2 of each) * Numbers cards in fact-family sets Actions As a whole class, t...

356

Family Interactions in Adoptive Compared to Nonadoptive Families  

PubMed Central

Despite the large and growing numbers of adoptive families, little research describes interactions in families with adopted adolescents. Yet, adopted adolescents’ increased risk for adjustment problems, combined with the association between family interactions and adolescent adjustment in nonadoptive families, raises questions about differences in adoptive and nonadoptive family interactions. We compared observed and self-reported family interactions between 284 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families and within 123 families with 1 adopted and 1 nonadopted adolescent. Adolescents averaged 14.9 years of age. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance incorporating hierarchical linear methods in SAS PROC MIXED to control family-related correlations in the data. Parents and children reported more conflict in adoptive families when compared with nonadoptive families. Families with 1 adopted and 1 nonadopted adolescent reported more conflict between parents and adopted adolescents. Observed parental behavior was similar across adoptive and nonadoptive children although adopted adolescents were less warm and, in families with 2 adopted children, more conflictual than nonadopted adolescents. These findings suggest a need for further investigation of the association between family interactions and adopted adolescent problem behavior. PMID:19203160

Rueter, Martha A.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

2009-01-01

357

Family Support Builds Stronger Families: The Roots of Family-Supportive Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent Services Project (PSP) is one model of family support that emerged from the heightened awareness of families' needs. Founded in 1980 to integrate family support into four San Francisco Bay Area early childhood programs, PSP since has spread to more than 800 organizations serving 30,000 families in Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida,…

Seiderman, Ethel

2009-01-01

358

Family Resources and Adolescent Family Life Satisfaction in Remarried Family Households.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how family resources and demographic variables relate to adolescent family life satisfaction in remarried family households. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from 95 high school students in remarried families. Showed that flexibility, regularity in household time and routines, and effectiveness in parent communication were…

Henry, Carolyn S.; Lovelace, Sandra G.

1995-01-01

359

Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.  

PubMed

Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. PMID:25516682

Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

2014-12-14

360

The Family of Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

Pavao, Joyce Maguire

361

Endangered Language Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

2012-01-01

362

It's a Family Affair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On paper, Mariella Castillo's family makes her likelier than other students to drop out of college. Her mother left school after the fifth grade, and her father has only a middle-school education. Her parents speak little English, and Castillo, who was born in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi, spoke her first words in Spanish. Numerous studies…

Ashburn, Elyse

2007-01-01

363

Incarceration in Fragile Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little…

Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

2010-01-01

364

Family Caregiver Alliance  

MedlinePLUS

... and to our loved ones is a basic human instinct. Families caring for those with a chronic and debilitating illness that has progressed to the advanced stages will face very difficult decisions regarding medical treatment, life-sustaining care and questions about their own emotional ...

365

Family, welfare, and delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a five-wave panel probability sample of families in the State of Washington were analyzed to test the hypothesis that female headship and welfare experience increased participation in and frequency of juvenile delinquency. Appropriate statistical models of random effect probit and negative binomial were employed. Results indicated that there were no direct effects of female headship and welfare experience

Liqun Cao; Jian Cao; Jihong Zhao

2004-01-01

366

The Smithville Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create the number sequences of Pascal's triangle, and discover a relationship that this triangle has to theoretical probability.Then they will determine the total number of possible girl/boy combinations in a five-child family.

2010-01-01

367

Families in the Military  

MedlinePLUS

... or scrapbook). Don’t make promises that you can’t keep. Initiate and maintain a close relationship and communication ... evaluation by a qualified mental health professional. While it is a difficult time for families, most children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and ...

368

Understanding Fragile Families  

MedlinePLUS

... Earned less and were more likely to live in poverty; Relied on public and private programs and help from family and friends to make ends meet; and Were more likely to report being in poor health, have a health-related limitation, and ...

369

Order: Homoptera Family: Aphididae  

E-print Network

Order: Homoptera Family: Aphididae DESCRIPTION Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black

Liskiewicz, Maciej

370

Family Money Troubles  

MedlinePLUS

... track after a while. How Does a Difficult Economy Affect Families? For some people, the slow economy means eating out less or staying home instead ... emotional survival tips for dealing with a tough economy: Think like an entrepreneur. Jobs may be hard ...

371

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

372

A Migrant Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book incorporates many photographs portraying the life of a migrant family in a camp near San Diego, California. Houses in the camp are built of salvaged plywood with plastic sheets as roofs. Twelve-year-old Juan and his two younger brothers sleep on an old mattress atop a plywood platform. Juan's mother, stepfather, and younger sister sleep…

Brimner, Larry Dane

373

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is probably a genetically transmitted disease affecting infants and very young children. Cardinal symptoms are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Frequently meningeal involvement is seen, manifested by neurologic symptoms and a lymphohistocytic pleocytosis with increased protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Characteristic laboratory findings in FHL are hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia, which are reversible with treatment. The disease

G. E. Janka

1983-01-01

374

Benign infantile familial convulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five infants, three girls and two boys, first had convulsions between the ages of 4 and 6 months. Although the aetiology of the attacks was unknown, all the infants had a family history of similar convulsions occurring at the same age and having a benign outcome. The attacks, which always occurred in a cluster, were promptly controlled, in four cases

F. Vigevano; L. Fusco; M. Di Capua; S. Ricci; R. Sebastianelli; P. Lucchini

1992-01-01

375

Family Strengths in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Romania is situated in the southeast of Central Europe with more than two millennia of agitated history. The main dimensions of the Romanian cultural model are represented by Latinity and Christianity and have involved very consistent principles. This article is focused on the specific aspects of the Romanian family and its present transformation under major structural changes in the socio-cultural

Bogdan Nadolu; Ioana Delia Nadolu; Sylvia M. Asay

2007-01-01

376

Connections: Writing about Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching method in which high school sophomores (1) read A. Munro's "Connection," a short story connecting the author to her family origins; (2) interview relatives about their personal history; and (3) compose vignettes based on the notes collected during a three-week period. Provides numerous questions and prompts used to help the…

Krebs, Jane P.

1987-01-01

377

All in the Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as a little girl, Dr. Nitasha Sharma aspired to become a college professor like her parents, whose careers let the family spend entire summers or longer in either her mother's native Brooklyn, New York, or her father's native India. She dreamed of long vacations as a grown-up and going home for lunch on weekdays. But during a stay in India…

Lum, Lydia

2010-01-01

378

Family Science Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

2014-01-01

379

It's a Family Affair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author features Computers for Youth (CFY), a nonprofit organization that provides computers, software, and training to sixth-grade students and their families at low-income schools. Founded in 1999, Computers for Youth works with low-income schools to put computers in the homes of sixth-grade students and bring parents into…

Demski, Jennifer

2011-01-01

380

Family Play Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

Ariel, Shlomo

381

Familial partial 14 trisomy.  

PubMed Central

Four children in the same family have 47, +der (14), t(9;14) (p24;q21). Their mothers are sisters with 46,XX,t(9;14) (p24;q21). Clinical features of the children are similar to those of others reported to have partial 14 trisomy. Images PMID:469889

Miller, J Q; Willson, K; Wyandt, H; Jaramillo, M A; McConnell, T S

1979-01-01

382

The American Family Transformed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews changes in the U.S. family by comparing its structure and function in 1960 and in 1990. Finds dramatic changes in women's roles and attitudes; new parenting approaches; and effects on children's social, physical, and emotional success. Argues that children and their care are being neglected. (JB)

Hamburg, David A.

1993-01-01

383

[Familial hypercalciuric hypercalcemia].  

PubMed

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) or familial benign hypercalcemia is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of calcium metabolism. It is characterized by lifelong asymptomatic hypercalcemia associated with a relative hypocalciuria and a tendency to hypermagnesemia. The biochemical features of this disorder are difficult to distinguish from mild primary hyperparathyroidism. Several patients have therefore been operated upon for hyperparathyroidism with no effect on calcium levels. The most important diagnostic criterion of FHH in a single individual is the demonstration of asymptomatic hypercalcemia in other family members including children. The pathophysiology of the disorder is unknown. A genetic defect of cellular calcium transport leading to a disturbed regulation of extracellular calcium by parathyroid glands and kidneys has been suggested. The hypercalcemia in this disorder is asymptomatic, usually without complications and does not require treatment. Partial parathyroidectomy has no effect on the hypercalcemia. However, it is important to diagnose this condition in order to avoid unnecessary neck explorations. Two complications have been described in some families: pancreatitis and neonatal primary hyperparathyroidism. The recommended management of these complications is total parathyroidectomy. PMID:2038554

Kassem, M; Eriksen, E F; Mosekilde, L

1991-01-01

384

Not Your Family Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

2007-01-01

385

Perspectives on Family Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

386

Kindergarten: Home and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide presents a working draft of the kindergarten component of a K-6 social studies program developed by the Allegany County Board of Education in Maryland. Goals and activities relating to ethnic heritage studies; family life; and career, consumer, citizenship, and environmental education are included in each of the seven guides.…

Allegany County Board of Education, Cumberland, MD.

387

Investing in Family Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most discussions about narrowing the achievement gap focus on ways to provide disadvantaged children with schooling comparable to that received by middle-class kids. Addressing deficiencies in children's social environment, health, housing, and family income would be more effective and would probably reduce special-education spending. (MLH)

Rothstein, Richard

2001-01-01

388

The Expansion of the PRAME Gene Family in Eutheria  

PubMed Central

The PRAME gene family belongs to the group of cancer/testis genes whose expression is restricted primarily to the testis and a variety of cancers. The expansion of this gene family as a result of gene duplication has been observed in primates and rodents. We analyzed the PRAME gene family in Eutheria and discovered a novel Y-linked PRAME gene family in bovine, PRAMEY, which underwent amplification after a lineage-specific, autosome-to-Y transposition. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two major evolutionary clades. Clade I containing the amplified PRAMEYs and the unamplified autosomal homologs in cattle and other eutherians is under stronger functional constraints; whereas, Clade II containing the amplified autosomal PRAMEs is under positive selection. Deep-sequencing analysis indicated that eight of the identified 16 PRAMEY loci are active transcriptionally. Compared to the bovine autosomal PRAME that is expressed predominantly in testis, the PRAMEY gene family is expressed exclusively in testis and is up-regulated during testicular maturation. Furthermore, the sense RNA of PRAMEY is expressed specifically whereas the antisense RNA is expressed predominantly in spermatids. This study revealed that the expansion of the PRAME family occurred in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in a lineage-dependent manner. Differential selection forces have shaped the evolution and function of the PRAME family. The positive selection observed on the autosomal PRAMEs (Clade II) may result in their functional diversification in immunity and reproduction. Conversely, selective constraints have operated on the expanded PRAMEYs to preserve their essential function in spermatogenesis. PMID:21347312

Chang, Ti-Cheng; Yang, Yang; Yasue, Hiroshi; Bharti, Arvind K.; Retzel, Ernest F.; Liu, Wan-Sheng

2011-01-01

389

Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness  

SciTech Connect

Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This gives rise to the suspicion that sex chromosome aneuploidy may somehow be related to the development of psychosis. But since the data set is small, especially with respect to schizophrenia, further studies are needed to elucidate this observation. In one family, cosegregation of the disease locus with a marker on chromosome 21 was seen. Therefore, further research should determine if chromosome 21 contains a gene for manic depressive illness. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Friedrich, U.; Mors, O.; Ewald, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

1996-02-16

390

Work - Family Researchers Electronic Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and maintained by the Center for Work and Family at Boston College, this site was established to facilitate information dissemination for work-family researchers. The Work-Family Researchers Electronic Network is comprised of four major components: the Work-Family Research Literature Database, the Work-Family Researchers' Discussion Groups, the Work-Family Research Newsletter, and Sloan Grantee Information. The searchable literature database contains over 1,000 bibliographic citations with annotations for selected articles, books, book chapters, reports, and papers in the work-family field. The discussion group section currently provides four fora for exchanging ideas on work and family. The Work-Family Research Newsletter recently posted its first issue online. Information about Sloan grantees and their projects are available in the final section.

391

Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

Thomas, Kevin J. A.

2010-01-01

392

Sibling similarity in family formation.  

PubMed

Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality. PMID:25367282

Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

2014-12-01

393

Psychopathology in drug abusers and their families.  

PubMed

Demographic, clinical, and family pedigree data obtained on 350 hospitalized drug-dependent patients showed that 52% also met DSM-III criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, while 37% met DSM-III criteria for a concurrent axis I psychiatric disorder other than substance abuse. Cyclothymic disorder was significantly more common among cocaine abusers, while generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder were more common among sedative-hypnotic abusers. Data on 1,478 first-degree relatives revealed that the prevalence of alcoholism and affective disorder was highly correlated with the occurrence of similar psychopathology in the probands. These findings suggest a relationship between drug of choice and comorbid psychopathology, a role for familial factors in the transmission of these disorders, and the importance of diagnostic subtypes in the evaluation and treatment of substance abusers. PMID:2001619

Mirin, S M; Weiss, R D; Griffin, M L; Michael, J L

1991-01-01

394

Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.

395

Family matters:” Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about ''family matters'' is vital to developing targeted interventions, reducing placement disruption, and enhancing outcome in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The quality of the caregiving environment and family function are associated with long-term outcome in natural history study of individuals with FASD. This article integrates multiple information sources to better understand the role of family fac- tors in

Heather Carmichael Olson; Rosalind Oti; Julie Gelo; Sharon Beck

2009-01-01

396

Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

Canavan, John

2012-01-01

397

Multiple Perspectives Within the Family: Family Relationship Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the larger network of family relationships (parent-adolescent, marital, and sibling relations) affect adolescent adjustment. The second aim was to identify distinct patterns of family relationships and to examine whether these different family relationship patterns are…

Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten

2005-01-01

398

Connecting Families and Work: Family Literacy Bridges the Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the need for basic skills education among the current labor force cannot be easily met by vocational training alone, this booklet presents the case for family literacy education to improve the skills of unemployed workers and describes the work of the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL). Family literacy is defined as having four…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

399

Families First: Keys to Successful Family Functioning Communication  

E-print Network

is usuallyfoundinunhealthyfamilyrelationships. Marriage and family therapists often report that poor communica- tion is a common complaint and satisfaction with family relationships (Noller & Fitzpatrick, 1990). In fact, one researcher discoveredEntial building bloCk oF strong marital, parEnt-Child, and sibling rElationships. Family communication is the way

Liskiewicz, Maciej

400

Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high incidence of divorce and remarriage means that the structure of American families is changing. Drawing on 13 studies that explore intergenerational obligations, this book discusses the responsibilities of family members to one another after divorce and remarriage. Chapter 1, "Who Is Responsible for Dependent Family Members?," presents an…

Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

401

Strengthening Family Resilience. The Guilford Family Therapy Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offering an alternative to clinician's prevalent focus on family dysfunction, this book draws upon extensive clinical and research experience to present a framework for therapeutic and preventive work with couples and families who are distressed, vulnerable, or at risk. The book identifies key interactional processes that enable family members to…

Walsh, Froma

402

Dual-Earner Families: Conflict between Work and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implications of the dual-earner life-style as compared with other work/family types are presented. Ten work/family types are presented with predictions of future trends of each type. Suggestions are given for ways professionals can recognize the characteristics and needs of the dual-earner family. (Author/CH)

Kingsbury, Nancy M.

1987-01-01

403

Harvard Family Research Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has focused their work and research on complementary learning, which acknowledges that "children need multiple opportunities to learn and grow at home, in school, and in the community." Visitors will definitely want to check out the "Webinar Series", which can be found on the homepage. The archive consists of seven webinars consists that have been released monthly over the past year, and cover topics such as "Data Driven: Making Student and School Data Accessible and meaningful to Families" and "Ensuring School Readiness Through Successful Transitions". The learning doesn't stop with the webinars, as each webinar provides additional resources including research-based definition and framework, data use, and professional development. Many of these supplemental resources are from the HFRP website, and the combination of the webinar and reading materials can provide visitors with an in-depth introduction to the subject presented.

404

The Smithville Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will create number sequences of Pascal's Triangle and discover a relationship that this triangle has to theoretical probability. During this lesson, they will complete the first eight rows of Pascal's Triangle, determine the total number of possible girl/boy combinations in a five child family, find patterns to help them generate the numbers in subsequent rows of Pascal's Triangle, and work collaboratively to address and analyze questions regarding the theoretical probability of other multiple child families using Pascal's Triangle. Site includes the objective, overview of the lesson, list of needed materials, extensions and connections, resources, and ideas for discussion. The lesson can be downloaded including the worksheets (in PDF). A video of the lesson and the correlated state standards can also be found by clicking on More Lessons: 6-8.

Pbs; Math, Pbs T.

2007-12-12

405

Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database  

Cancer.gov

Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research

406

Family therapy sessions with refugee families; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the armed conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s many families escaped to other countries. The main goal of this study was to explore in more detail the complexity of various family members’ experiences and perceptions from their life before the war, during the war and the escape, and during their new life in Sweden. There is insufficient knowledge of refugee families’ perceptions, experiences and needs, and especially of the complexity of family perspectives and family systems. This study focused on three families from Bosnia and Herzegovina who came to Sweden and were granted permanent residence permits. The families had at least one child between 5 and 12 years old. Method Family therapy sessions were videotaped and verbatim transcriptions were made. Nine family therapy sessions were analysed using a qualitative method with directed content analysis. Results Three main categories and ten subcategories were found - 1. Everyday life at home, with two subcategories: The family, Work and School/preschool; 2. The influence of war on everyday life, with three subcategories: The war, The escape, Reflections; 3. The new life, with five subcategories: Employment, Health, Relatives and friends, Limited future, Transition to the new life. Conclusions Health care and social welfare professionals need to find out what kind of lives refugee families have lived before coming to a new country, in order to determine individual needs of support. In this study the families had lived ordinary lives in their country of origin, and after experiencing a war situation they escaped to a new country and started a new life. They had thoughts of a limited future but also hopes of getting jobs and taking care of themselves and their families. When analysing each person’s point of view one must seek an all-embracing picture of a family and its complexity to tie together the family narrative. To offer refugee families meetings with family-oriented professionals to provide the opportunity to create a family narrative is recommended for the health and social welfare sector. Using this knowledge by emphasizing the salutogenic perspectives facilitates support to refugee families and individuals. This kind of support can help refugee families to adapt to a new system of society and recapture a sense of coherence, including all three components that lead to coherence: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. More studies are needed to further investigate the thoughts, experiences and needs of various refugee families and how refugee receiving societies can give the most effective support. PMID:23537380

2013-01-01

407

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

408

Twins in the Family  

PubMed Central

The birth of two babies has an enormous impact on a family. This article describes coping mechanisms for the first three years, emphasizing the babies' psychological and developmental tasks, the parents' abilities to handle these transitions, and the impact on siblings. Each baby needs to feel that it is `the only one', each parent needs help, and each sibling still needs to feel `special'. Imagesp506-a PMID:21283344

Spinner, Miriam R.

1983-01-01

409

Exploring family physician stress  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the nature of professional stress and the strategies used by family physicians to deal with this stress. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Ten key-informant family physicians. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. A total of 40 key informants were identified, based on selected criteria; 24 provided consent. The potential participants were rank-ordered for interviews to provide maximum variation in age, sex, and years in practice. Interviews were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed until thematic saturation was reached, as determined through an iterative process. This occurred after 10 in-depth interviews. Immersion and crystallization techniques were used. MAIN FINDINGS The participants described professional stresses and strategies at the personal, occupational, and health care system levels. Personal stressors included personality traits and the need to balance family and career, which were countered by biological, psychological, social, and spiritual strategies. Occupational stressors included challenging patients, high workload, time limitations, competency issues, challenges of documentation and practice management, and changing roles within the workplace. Occupational stressors were countered by strategies such as setting limits, participating in continuing medical education, soliciting support from colleagues and staff, making use of teams, improving patient-physician relationships, exploring new forms of remuneration, and scheduling appropriately. Stressors affecting the wider health care system included limited resources, imposed rules and regulations, lack of support from specialists, feeling undervalued, and financial concerns. CONCLUSION Family physicians face a multitude of challenges at personal, occupational, and health care system levels. A systems approach provides a new framework in which proactive strategies can augment more than one level of a system and, in contrast, reactive strategies can have negative inputs for different system levels. PMID:19282541

Lee, F. Joseph; Brown, Judith Belle; Stewart, Moira

2009-01-01

410

Arthritis: a family affair.  

PubMed

A diagnosis of arthritis affects not only those who have the disease, but also their family and close friends. Arthritis is not confined to old people, but affects people of all ages from the very young upwards. It is the biggest single cause of physical disability in the UK. It can produce a complex burden of physical and psycho-social effects. The misperception that it occurs only in later life is unhelpful for younger people. PMID:19911729

Spence, Jane

2009-01-01

411

Galileo - Ganymede Family Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This videotape is a continuation of tape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036029. When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, the project scientist and engineers gather together with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received. This videotape presents the last part of that meeting, which culminates in the announcement of the confirmation of the fly-by, and a review of the current trajectory status.

1996-01-01

412

Lipidomics of familial longevity  

PubMed Central

Middle-aged offspring of nonagenarians, as compared to their spouses (controls), show a favorable lipid metabolism marked by larger LDL particle size in men and lower total triglyceride levels in women. To investigate which specific lipids associate with familial longevity, we explore the plasma lipidome by measuring 128 lipid species using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 1526 offspring of nonagenarians (59 years ± 6.6) and 675 (59 years ± 7.4) controls from the Leiden Longevity Study. In men, no significant differences were observed between offspring and controls. In women, however, 19 lipid species associated with familial longevity. Female offspring showed higher levels of ether phosphocholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) species (3.5–8.7%) and lower levels of phosphoethanolamine PE (38:6) and long-chain triglycerides (TG) (9.4–12.4%). The association with familial longevity of two ether PC and four SM species was independent of total triglyceride levels. In addition, the longevity-associated lipid profile was characterized by a higher ratio of monounsaturated (MUFA) over polyunsaturated (PUFA) lipid species, suggesting that female offspring have a plasma lipidome less prone to oxidative stress. Ether PC and SM species were identified as novel longevity markers in females, independent of total triglycerides levels. Several longevity-associated lipids correlated with a lower risk of hypertension and diabetes in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort. This sex-specific lipid signature marks familial longevity and may suggest a plasma lipidome with a better antioxidant capacity, lower lipid peroxidation and inflammatory precursors, and an efficient beta-oxidation function. PMID:23451766

Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won; Dane, Adrie; Troost, Jorne; Paliukhovich, Iryna; Kloet, Frans M; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Slagboom, Eline P

2013-01-01

413

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a 22-year-old Malay woman who presented initially with minor soft tissue injury due to a cycling accident. She was then incidentally found to have severe xanthelasma and hypercholesterolemia (serum TC 15.3 mmol/L and LDL-C 13.9 mmol/L). She was referred to the Specialized Lipid Clinic and was diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) based on the Simon Broome (SB) diagnostic criteria. There was a family history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in that three siblings had sudden cardiac death, and of consanguineous marriage in that her parents are cousins. DNA screening of LDLR and APOB genes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), followed by Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC). Homozygous mutation C255S in Exon 5 of her LDLR gene was found. There was no mutation was found in Exon 26 and Exon 29 of the APOB gene. This report is to emphasize the importance of identifying patients with FH and cascade screening through established diagnostic criteria and genetic studies in order to ensure early detection and early treatment intervention to minimize the risk of developing CHD and related complications. PMID:25194536

Alicezah, M K; Razali, R; Rahman, T; Hoh, B P; Suhana, N H; Muid, S; Nawawi, H M; Koshy, M

2014-08-01

414

[Familial Wolfram syndrome].  

PubMed

Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and it is mainly characterized by the presence of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Other symptoms such as diabetes insipidus, deafness, and psychiatric disorders are less frequent. The WFS1 gene, responsible for the disease and encoding for a transmembrane protein called wolframin, was localized in 1998 on chromosome 4p16. In this report, we present a familial observation of Wolfram syndrome (parents and three children). The propositus was a 6-year-old girl with diabetes mellitus and progressive visual loss. Her family history showed a brother with diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness since childhood and a sister with diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Thus, association of these familial and personal symptoms is highly suggestive of Wolfram syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis (biology), which showed the presence of WFS1 homozygous mutations c.1113G>A (p.Trp371*) in the three siblings and a heterozygote mutation in the parents. Our observation has demonstrated that pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of Wolfram syndrome when diagnosing optic atrophy in diabetic children. PMID:25282462

Bessahraoui, M; Paquis, V; Rouzier, C; Bouziane-Nedjadi, K; Naceur, M; Niar, S; Zennaki, A; Boudraa, G; Touhami, M

2014-11-01

415

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Life cycle Erect winter annual to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Stems Erect, hairless and up to 3 feet

416

Where families and healthcare meet.  

PubMed

Recent developments in professional healthcare pose moral problems that standard bioethics cannot even identify as problems, but that are fully visible when redefined as problems in the ethics of families. Here, we add to the growing body of work that began in the 1990s by demonstrating the need for a distinctive ethics of families. First, we discuss what 'family' means and why families can matter so deeply to the lives of those within them. Then, we briefly sketch how, according to an ethics of families, responsibilities must be negotiated against the backdrop of family relationships, treatment decisions must be made in the light of these negotiated responsibilities and justice must be served, both between families and society more generally and within families themselves. PMID:25210197

Verkerk, M A; Lindemann, Hilde; McLaughlin, Janice; Scully, Jackie Leach; Kihlbom, Ulrik; Nelson, Jamie; Chin, Jacqueline

2015-02-01

417

Implications for familial hypercholesterolemia from  

E-print Network

letters Implications for familial hypercholesterolemia from the structure of the LDL receptor YWTD- tal. Numerous point mutations of the LDLR that result in the genetic disease familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) alter side chains that form conserved packing and hydrogen bonding interactions

Springer, Timothy A.

418

Protect Your Family from Rabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button CDC Features Protect Your Family from Rabies Share Compartir Rabies is a dangerous virus that ... Talk With Your Family About the Seriousness of Rabies While very few people die from rabies, life- ...

419

Veterans and Military Family Health  

MedlinePLUS

Service members and veterans face some different health issues from civilians. Their families also face some unique challenges. Families may have to cope with Separation from their loved ones Anxiety over ...

420

Genetics Home Reference: Familial porencephaly  

MedlinePLUS

... matter that can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During infancy, people with familial porencephaly typically ... disability ; dystonia ; epilepsy ; familial ; gene ; hemiplegia ; hemorrhagic stroke ; imaging ; inherited ; leukoencephalopathy ; magnetic resonance imaging ; migraine ; prevalence ; protein ; ...

421

Higgs family symmetry and supersymmetry  

E-print Network

In this thesis we investigate building models of family symmetry that give the Higgs fields family structure. We construct several models, starting with 2 generation models then moving onto 3 generation models. These models ...

Patt, Brian Lawrence

2006-01-01

422

New Functions for the Ancient DedA Membrane Protein Family  

PubMed Central

The DedA protein family is a highly conserved and ancient family of membrane proteins with representatives in most sequenced genomes, including those of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. The functions of the DedA family proteins remain obscure. However, recent genetic approaches have revealed important roles for certain bacterial DedA family members in membrane homeostasis. Bacterial DedA family mutants display such intriguing phenotypes as cell division defects, temperature sensitivity, altered membrane lipid composition, elevated envelope-related stress responses, and loss of proton motive force. The DedA family is also essential in at least two species of bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. Here, we describe the phylogenetic distribution of the family and summarize recent progress toward understanding the functions of the DedA membrane protein family. PMID:23086209

Sikdar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sujeet; Boughner, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

423

Canadian families into the year 2000.  

PubMed

"Canadian families are pluralistic and varied, with a mix of traditional, modern, and post-modern characteristics. This paper looks at families into the immediate future.... Consideration is given to ethnicity, cohabitation, fertility, childrearing, sexuality, family policy, adolescence, and general family life. The state will continue to influence family life. Non-familial associations will affect family values and activity." PMID:12346243

Peters, J F

1995-01-01

424

Understanding and Fostering Family Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family resilience can be defined as the ability of a family to respond positively to an adverse situation and emerge from the situation feeling strengthened, more resourceful, and more confident than its prior state. This article presents a succinct literature review on family resilience, including its dimensions, working models, and the…

Simon, Joan B.; Murphy, John J.; Smith, Shelia M.

2005-01-01

425

Family Day Care Provider Handbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

2006-01-01

426

NASA Science Served Family Style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Family oriented innovative programs extend the reach of many traditional out-of-school venues to involve the entire family in learning in comfortable and fun environments. Research shows that parental involvement is key to increasing student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Because families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices, we have developed a Family Science program that provides families a venue where they can explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science. NASA Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond. After three years of pilot implementation and assessment, our evaluation data shows that Family Science Night participants have positive change in their attitudes and involvement in science.  Even after a single session, families are more likely to engage in external science-related activities and are increasingly excited about science in their everyday lives.  As we enter our dissemination phase, NASA Family Science Night will be compiling and releasing initial evaluation results, and providing facilitator training and online support resources. Support for NASA Family Science Nights is provided in part through NASA ROSES grant NNH06ZDA001N.

Noel-Storr, Jacob; Mitchell, S.; Drobnes, E.

2010-01-01

427

Family Calendar Survey Hilary Hutchinson*  

E-print Network

Family Calendar Survey Hilary Hutchinson* , Benjamin B. Bederson* , Catherine Plaisant* , Allison and family calendaring habits. By the end of September, we had over 400 responses, which are summarized below be representative of the users we are initially targeting in our research on family calendaring and coordination

Golbeck, Jennifer

428

Molecular evolution of the dog family.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic tools have been used to dissect the evolutionary relationships of the dog-like carnivores, revealing their place in the order Carnivora, the relationships of species within the family Canidae, and the genetic exchange that occurs among conspecific populations. High rates of gene flow among populations within some species, such as the coyote and gray wolf, have suppressed genetic divergence, and where these species hybridize, large hybrid zones have been formed. In fact, the phenotype of the endangered American red wolf may be strongly influenced by hybridization with coyotes and gray wolves. Hybridization and habitat fragmentation greatly complicate plans to conserve the genetic diversity of wild canids. PMID:8337763

Wayne, R K

1993-06-01

429

Explaining Family Change and Variation: Challenges for Family Demographers  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) issued a request for proposals that resulted in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), a unique survey valuable to a wide range of family scholars. This paper describes the efforts of an interdisciplinary group of family demographers to build on the progress enabled by the NSFH and many other theoretical and methodological innovations. Our work, also supported by NICHD, will develop plans for research and data collection to address the central question of what causes family change and variation. We outline the group's initial assessments of orienting frameworks, key aspects of family life to study, and theoretical and methodological challenges for research on family change. Finally, we invite family scholars to follow our progress and to help develop this shared public good. PMID:20376277

Seltzer, Judith A.; Bachrach, Christine A.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Casper, Lynne M.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; DiPrete, Thomas A.; Hotz, V. Joseph; Morgan, S. Philip; Sanders, Seth G.; Thomas, Duncan

2010-01-01

430

Teaching and Doing Gender in African American Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, based on in-depth interviews with a nonrandom sample of 35 African American parents (25 mothers and 10 fathers), I explore the gender socialization of children in their families. Using the conceptual framework advanced by multiracial feminism, I explore how both race and class shape the gender ideologies and behaviors of parents. The findings reveal significant support for

Shirley A. Hill

2002-01-01

431

The Anatomy of the Knee and Gamma-Families  

E-print Network

It is shown that the fine stucture of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the knee region, if explained by the Single Source Model (SSM), can, in principle, be clearly revealed and magnified in the size spectrum of extensive air showers (EAS) associated with gamma families. Existing experimental data on EAS at mountain level give support to this hypothesis.

A. D. Erlykin; A. W. Wolfendale

2006-12-08

432

Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

2004-01-01

433

Was Your Glass Left Half Full? Family Dynamics and Optimism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' levels of a frequently studied adaptive schema (optimism) as a function of parenting variables (parental authority, family intrusiveness, parental overprotection, parentification, parental psychological control, and parental nurturance) were investigated. Results revealed that positive parenting styles were positively related to the…

Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy

2008-01-01

434

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

Frequently, when one mentions natural family planning methods, the response is doubt, bewilderment, ridicule, or scorn. Much of this is due to the fact that many people know only of the rhythm method, which depends on a calculation based on the menstrual pattern. What many people do not know, including physicians and nurses, is that in Australia Drs. John and Lyn Billings have been scientifically researching natural methods of family planning for 25 years, and they have pioneered this Ovulation Method of family planning. The Billings Ovulation Method depends only on the mucus sign. It is based on a scientific knowledge of the combined fertility of husband and wife, and an understanding of the physiology of the female body through simple observations. Important facts relating to the practice of the method include: ovulation takes place only once in the cycle; mucus is secreted by the cervical mucosa before ovulation; the ovum lives for only 3 days at the most; and the sperms live for 5 days at the most, and only in the presence of this fertile mucus. There a 2 types of mucus. The 1st type to appear is cloudy or white. It is nonslippery, sticky, and breaks when stretched between 2 fingers. The 2nd type is like the part of a hen's egg. It is very slippery, much clearer than the former, and stretches when pulled between 2 fingers. This is fertile mucus, and ovulation occurs on the last day that this is present. Of course, it cannot be recognized as the last day until its absence is observed on the following day. The mucus sign can be both seen and felt. After a few months a woman will readily recognize her fertile time, but daily charting is advocated. Simple signs, representing the various observations, are taught. Once a couple knows and understands their combined fertility through the observation of the mucus sign they can plan their family. Rules of the method are outlined. The self control required by this method can only serve to increase the selfless love and unselfish care and respect between partners. PMID:7168858

Bourdillon, C

1982-11-01

435

Redrawing Humanity's Family Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This New York Times article details two skulls, one from central Africa and the other from the Black Sea republic of Georgia, that "have shaken the human family tree to its roots, sending scientists scrambling to see if their favorite theories are among the fallen fruit." The article discusses how the two skulls have caused scientists to rethink not only how we conceive of human evolution and its chain of events, but even the geography of evolution and migration patterns of very early humans.

Wilford, John N.

1969-12-31

436

Familial idiopathic cerebral calcifications.  

PubMed Central

Nine members of a family spanning three generations showed bilateral calcifications of the basal ganglia with autosomal dominant inheritance. Two members developed chorea, dementia, and a characteristic speech disturbance (palialalia) in the third or fourth decade. A third member possibly shows the initial stage of a similar syndrome. Six members with calcifications but without neurological signs are younger than 25 years. All nine patients had normal calcium and phosphorus, and no evidence of endocrinological or somatic abnormalities. Thie 'isiopathic' picture must be differentiated from hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Images PMID:886353

Boller, F; Boller, M; Gilbert, J

1977-01-01

437

Galileo - Ganymede Family Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, on June 26, 1996, the project scientists and engineers gather with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received and to celebrate the mission. This videotape presents that meeting. Representatives from the various instrument science teams discuss many of the instruments aboard Galileo and show videos and pictures of what they have seen so far. This video is continued on Videotape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036028.

1996-01-01

438

What makes a family reliable?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroid families are clusters of asteroids in proper element space which are thought to be fragments from former collisions. Studies of families promise to improve understanding of large collision events and a large event can open up the interior of a former parent body to view. While a variety of searches for families have found the same heavily populated families, and some searches have found the same families of lower population, there is much apparent disagreement between proposed families of lower population of different investigations. Indicators of reliability, factors compromising reliability, an illustration of the influence of different data samples, and a discussion of how several investigations perceived families in the same region of proper element space are given.

Williams, James G.

1992-01-01

439

Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa  

PubMed Central

Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967

Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

2013-01-01

440

Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

2000-01-01

441

Construals of preillness relationship quality predict cardiovascular response in family caregivers of Alzheimer's disease victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relationships between family caregivers' construal of their preillness affection for and cohesiveness with an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and subsequent cardiovas- cular functioning. Scale validation demonstrated the psychometric properties. In a study conducted 2 years later, 31 family caregivers of AD victims performed stress-inducing tasks while cardiovascular activity was monitored. Path analyses revealed that caregivers relatively

Bert N. Uchino; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; John T. Cacioppo

1994-01-01

442

Does Family Structure Matter? A Domain-Specific Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…

Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

2010-01-01

443

Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

2014-01-01

444

The Influence of the Extended Family on the Involvement of Nonresident African American Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the extent to which the extended family provides support to African American nonresident fathers and its influence on their involvement with their children. The data for this study were collected from 278 African American nonresident fathers as a part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The findings revealed

Perry, Armon R.

2009-01-01

445

Family Poverty, School-Based Parental Involvement, and Policy-Focused Protective Factors in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel models of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 19,375) revealed that the negative association between family poverty and school-based parental involvement in education varied according to family and school factors targeted by large-scale policy interventions. Specifically, the association was weaker…

Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

446

Childhood family relationships, marital and work conflict, and mental health distress in Mexican immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the associations among childhood family relationships, adult conflict in marriage and work relationships, and mental health distress in Mexican immigrants. The sample consisted of 135 married Mexican immigrants recruited from an ESL program in Southern California. Structural equation modeling was used to test theoretical hypotheses. The model revealed that dysfunctional childhood family relationships predicted dissatisfaction and

Silvia J. Santos; Lisa M. Bohon

1998-01-01

447

SETX gene mutation in a family diagnosed autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy (ADSMA) is a rare disorder with unknown gene defects in the majority of families. Here we describe a family where the diagnosis of juvenile and adult onset ADSMA was made in three individuals. Because of retained tendon reflexes an atypical course of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) was considered. SETX gene sequencing revealed the

Sabine Rudnik-Schöneborn; Larissa Arning; Jörg T. Epplen; Klaus Zerres

448

Managing To Make It: Urban Families and Adolescent Success. Studies on Successful Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on nearly 500 interviews and qualitative case studies of families in inner-city Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), this book reveals how parents and their teenage children managed different levels of resources and dangers in low-income neighborhoods and how families and communities contributed to the development of the children. The chapters are:…

Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.; Cook, Thomas D; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Elder, Glenn H., Jr.; Sameroff, Arnold

449

Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

2014-01-01

450

A study of familial resemblance for two cognitive psychometric tests by permutation analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently expanded structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) methodology is applied to two psychometric test scores of Caucasian and Japanese families who participated in the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition. Our analyses focused on the Raven progressive matrices (PM) test, which assesses deductive reasoning aptitude, and the Thurstone vocabulary (VOC) test, which bears on verbal facility. Both tests revealed pronounced

Samuel Karlin; Dorit Carmelli

1985-01-01

451

Stress and adaptation in orthodox Jewish families with a disabled child.  

PubMed

A four-year follow-up study of 82 religious families of children with disabilities revealed decreases in the negative impact of the child and increases in sibling and overall family adjustment. Parents reported various coping techniques and cited religion as a source of strength. Lack of time, behavior problems, and limited availability or use of professional assistance were continuing difficulties. PMID:7977661

Leyser, Y

1994-07-01

452

Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

2008-01-01

453

The Role of the Family in Heritage Language Use and Learning: Impact on Heritage Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze the way children and youngsters perceive the role of family in the use and acquisition of the heritage language (HL), through two complementary means: drawings produced by children and students participating in a discussion forum. Our study reveals: (1) the convergence of perceptions that children and adolescents have about family

Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

2015-01-01

454

The Role of Attitudes and Culture in Family Caregiving for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated cultural differences in attitudes toward caregiving and the stress levels of family caregivers. Participants included 98 Japanese American and 86 Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail elders. Analyses using MANOVA and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Caucasian caregivers had more positive attitudes and provided more hours of care than the Japanese caregivers but that both

Linda Anngela-Cole; Jeanne M. Hilton

2009-01-01

455

Middle?School Homework Management: More than just gender and family involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article links student and family characteristics, along with homework characteristics and homework purposes, to homework management as reported by 194 middle?school students in Grades 5–6. The results revealed that homework management was not related to grade level, amount of parental education, time spent on homework, or extrinsic reasons for doing homework. However, girls and students who received family help

Jianzhong Xu

2007-01-01

456

Evolutionary history of bovine endogenous retroviruses in the Bovidae family  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements of retroviral origin that are present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates. In cattle, more than 13,000 elements related to ERVs have been detected, and based on the pol gene, 24 families or groups of bovine ERVs have been described. However, information about ERVs in other bovids and the presence of families of related bovine ERVs in different species of the Bovidae family is scarce. Results The 24 families of bovine ERVs previously detected in cattle (Bos taurus) were also detected in zebus (Bos indicus) and yaks (Bos grunniens). In addition, six new families, named BoERV25 to BoERV30, were detected in the three Bos species. Five more ruminant species were screened for related ERVs: 26 families were detected in these species, but four families (BoERV24, BoERV26, BoERV28 and BoERV29) were specific to cattle, zebus, yaks and buffalo. An analysis of the homology of the ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks revealed that the level of LTR divergence was similar between ERVs from cattle and zebus but was less similar between with ERVs from cattle and yaks. In addition, purifying selection was detected in the genes and retroviral regions of clusters of ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks. Conclusions In this work, the 24 ERV families previously identified in cattle were also found in two other species in the Bos genus. In addition, six new bovine ERV families were detected. Based on LTR divergence, the most recently inserted families are from Class II. The divergence of the LTR, used as an indirect estimate of the ERV insertion time, seemed to be influenced by the differences in genome evolution since the divergence of the species. In addition, purifying selection could be acting on clusters of ERVs from different species. PMID:24256121

2013-01-01

457

The expanding family Marseilleviridae.  

PubMed

The family Marseilleviridae encompasses giant viruses that replicate in free-living Acanthamoeba amoebae. Since the discovery of the founding member Marseillevirus in 2007, 7 new marseilleviruses have been observed, including 3 from environmental freshwater, one from a dipteran, and two from symptom-free humans. Marseilleviruses have ?250-nm-large icosahedral capsids and 346-386-kb-long mosaic genomes that encode 444-497 predicted proteins. They share a small set of core genes with Mimivirus and other large and giant DNA viruses that compose a monophyletic group, first described in 2001. Comparative genomics analyses indicate that the family Marseilleviridae currently includes three lineages and a pan-genome composed of ?600 genes. Antibodies against marseilleviruses and viral DNA have been observed in a significant proportion of asymptomatic individuals and in the blood and lymph nodes of a child with adenitis; these observations suggest that these giant viruses may be blood borne and question if they may be pathogenic in humans. PMID:25104553

Aherfi, Sarah; La Scola, Bernard; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Colson, Philippe

2014-10-01

458

Familial hypercholesterolemia: A review  

PubMed Central

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism resulting in elevated serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels leading to increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The diagnosis of this condition is based on clinical features, family history, and elevated LDL-cholesterol levels aided more recently by genetic testing. As the atherosclerotic burden is dependent on the degree and duration of exposure to raised LDL-cholesterol levels, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is paramount. Statins are presently the mainstay in the management of these patients, although newer drugs, LDL apheresis, and other investigational therapies may play a role in certain subsets of FH, which are challenging to treat. Together these novel treatments have notably improved the prognosis of FH, especially that of the heterozygous patients. Despite these achievements, a majority of children fail to attain targeted lipid goals owing to persistent shortcomings in diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. This review aims to highlight the screening, diagnosis, goals of therapy, and management options in patients with FH. PMID:24987256

Varghese, Mithun J

2014-01-01

459

Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited inflammatory disease characterized by episodes of rash, fever, and joint pain following generalized exposure to cold. Attacks usually occur 1–2 hours after exposure and last less than 24 hours. It has been reported primarily in families from North America and Europe, but sporadic cases have also been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and can be confirmed by the identification of a NALP3 mutation. No clinical trials have been performed with FCAS patients, but anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, has been effective at preventing symptoms prior to a cold challenge and as a maintenance medication in several patients. The NALP3 gene, also known as CIAS1, is expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes and chondrocytes and codes a protein also known as Cryopyrin. NALP3 mutations have also been identified in Muckle Wells syndrome and Chronic infantile neurologic cutanaeous articular syndrome. There are several laboratories in Europe and North America where sequencing of NALP3 is performed. PMID:11590390

Hoffman, Doctor Hal M

2015-01-01

460

[Natural family planning (NFP)].  

PubMed

The author reviews and makes further recommendations for 3 points of the discussion in G. Freundl's pilot study of "Natural Family Planning (Symptothermal Method) and Objective Ovulation Indicators" published by Georg Thieme Verlag in Vlume 6, "Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde," in 1984. It is suggested that the scientific basis of changes in methodological rules, such as the BT3 modified for the double control method in paragraph 3 of the discussion, must be reported Natural Family Planning (NFP) instructors in Bonn, West Germany, along with failure statistics whenever possible, to enable instructors to participate responsibly. In response to errors by users cited in paragraph 4 of the discussion, the reviewer asserts that adequate instructional materials (photos and slides) are available to acquaint the users with changes in cervical mucus and that personal guidance of a couple or small group should be carried out until detection of fertility signals is performed without difficulty and the couple has proved itself capable of abstaining for the required periods, the latter being the more difficult. The author further cautions that before shortening of the abstinence period can be promoted, instructors must be scientifically assured of the accuracy of the basal temperature -6 indicator. She emphasizes that user errors can be reduced with a shorter abstinence period, but that the couple demands reliable rules first and foremost. The author concludes with a call for closer cooperation between gynecologists and NFP instructors. PMID:6570123

Luh-Hardegg, G

1984-12-01

461

Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

2007-01-01

462

Family History Is Important for Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... talk at family gatherings, and • look at death certificates and family medical records, if possible. Collect information ... talk at family gatherings, and • look at death certificates and family medical records, if possible. Collect information ...

463

Understanding and Collecting Your Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Check whether your family has existing family trees, charts, listings of family members. Information may be ... that have helpful resources for putting together family trees that you can find by searching for “genealogy.” ...

464

Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative  

MedlinePLUS

Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative Health care professionals have known for a long time that common diseases - heart disease, cancer, ... learn more about their family health history. My Family Health Portrait Tool Americans know that family history ...

465

[Lead poisoning in two families from a car battery workshop].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning resulting from exposure to lead in a domestic car battery workshop is reported in 10 children in 2 families. 2 girls, aged 2 10/12 and 1 8/12 years, respectively, from 1 of the families were hospitalized for investigation of nausea, vomiting, progressive muscular weakness and peripheral neuropathy. Serum lead levels were 52 and 49 mcg/dl, respectively. Subsequent screening of all members of this family, as well as those of the other family who lived in the same house, revealed abnormally elevated levels of serum lead in all the members of both families. The 2 girls were treated with chelating agents and improved clinically and their serum lead levels decreased to 29 and 34 mcg/dl, respectively. The domestic workshop was closed and the 2 families moved to another neighborhood. These cases illustrate the need to screen all family members and contacts of patients with lead poisoning, as well as the hazards of the uncontrolled use of lead in domestic workshops. PMID:2707678

Leibovitch, S; Geva, T; Mordel, A; Tirosh, M; Sack, J

1989-01-15

466

Parental Family Experiences, the Timing of First Sex, and Contraception  

PubMed Central

By investigating the intergenerational consequences of multiple aspects of family experiences across the life course this paper advances what we know about the forces shaping children's initiation of sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Our aim is to advance the scientific understanding of early sexual experiences by explicitly considering contraceptive use and by differentiating between the consequences of parental family experiences during childhood and those during adolescence and young adulthood. Thanks to unique, highly detailed data measuring parental family experiences throughout the life course and sexual dynamics early in life it is possible to provide detailed empirical estimates of the relationship between parental family experiences and contraceptive use at first sex—a relationship about which we know relatively little. Findings reveal (1) significant simultaneous consequences of many different dimensions of parental family experiences for the timing of first sex and the likelihood of using contraception at first sex, but the specific dimensions of family important for the specific behavior vary across racial groups; and (2) that parental family experiences influence the timing of sex and contraceptive use differently. PMID:21079724

Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.; Axinn, William G.

2010-01-01

467

Vestibular function in families with inherited autosomal dominant hearing loss  

PubMed Central

The inner ear contains the developmentally related cochlea and peripheral vestibular labyrinth. Given the similar physiology between these two organs, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction may be expected to occur simultaneously in individuals segregating mutations in inner ear genes. Twenty-two different genes have been discovered that when mutated lead to non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. A review of the literature indicates that families segregating mutations in 13 of these 22 genes have undergone formal clinical vestibular testing. Formal assessment revealed vestibular dysfunction in families with mutations in ten of these 13 genes. Remarkably, only families with mutations in the COCH and MYO7A genes self-report considerable vestibular challenges. Families segregating mutations in the other eight genes do not self-report significant balance problems and appear to compensate well in everyday life for vestibular deficits discovered during formal clinical vestibular assessment. An example of a family (referred to as the HL1 family) with progressive hearing loss and clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction that does not report vestibular symptoms is described in this review. Notably, one member of the HL1 family with clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:18776598

Street, Valerie A.; Kallman, Jeremy C.; Strombom, Paul D.; Bramhall, Naomi F.; Phillips, James O.

2008-01-01

468

Mexican American Family Functioning and Acculturation: A Family Systems Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationtship betweeni acculturation anid famtnily funictioninig in families of Mexican descent. Using a family s)stemns fraflmework, faiiii funictiotiiig is defined in terms of internal versus extrernalfameilv activitiies. Accultluratioln is defined by generational statu.s, language preferentcelproficienicy, aid letgtgh of-residence. Forty-five families were selected from Head Start programns aid placed ilto three groups-unacculturated, moderately acctulturated, and acctiltturated. Thte

Erich Rueschenberg; Raymond Buriel

1989-01-01

469

Prolonged neurologic course of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a very unusual cause for demyelination and the clinician would do well to be aware of the condition, especially when children present with atypical findings on magnetic resonance imaging associated with fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. This is a rare autosomal recessive, multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by widespread organ infiltration by macrophages and activated lymphocytes. It is usually diagnosed in the first 2 years of life and is rapidly fatal if untreated. Reported here is the case of a 12-year-old boy, from a poor family, with a 6-year history of visual loss and fever for 5 months, and transient hemiparesis with hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple areas of hyperintense signal, predominantly involving white matter. The boy also had elevated triglycerides and ferritin, with low fibrinogen level. Bone marrow aspiration revealed hemophagocytosis. He was diagnosed as having familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with the HLH 2004 protocol. A sibling also had evidence of hemophagocytosis. Remission was achieved, but his parents could not afford the cost of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. He relapsed after 8 months and later died. PMID:19664539

Puliyel, Mammen M; Rose, Winsley; Kumar, Sharath; Moses, Prabhakar D; Gibikote, Sridhar

2009-09-01

470

Familial perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is characterized by an accumulation of a limited amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage, predominantly around the midbrain, and a lack of blood in the brain parenchyma or ventricular system. It represents 5% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In spite of extensive investigation, understanding of the mechanisms leading to perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains incompletely defined. A growing body of evidence has supported a familial predisposition for non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset headache associated with diplopia. His computed tomography scan revealed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram showed no apparent source of bleeding. He was treated conservatively and discharged after 1 week without any neurological deficits. The older brother of the first case, a 44-year-old Caucasian man, presented 1.5 years later with acute onset of headache and his computed tomography scan also showed perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was discharged home with normal neurological examination 1 week later. Follow-up angiograms did not reveal any source of bleeding in either patient. Conclusions We report the cases of two siblings with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may further suggest a familial predisposition of non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and may also point out the possible higher risk of perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first-degree relatives of patients with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25416614

2014-01-01

471

Family Size Evolution in Drosophila Chemosensory Gene Families: A Comparative Analysis with a Critical Appraisal of Methods  

PubMed Central

Gene turnover rates and the evolution of gene family sizes are important aspects of genome evolution. Here, we use curated sequence data of the major chemosensory gene families from Drosophila—the gustatory receptor, odorant receptor, ionotropic receptor, and odorant-binding protein families—to conduct a comparative analysis among families, exploring different methods to estimate gene birth and death rates, including an ad hoc simulation study. Remarkably, we found that the state-of-the-art methods may produce very different rate estimates, which may lead to disparate conclusions regarding the evolution of chemosensory gene family sizes in Drosophila. Among biological factors, we found that a peculiarity of D. sechellia’s gene turnover rates was a major source of bias in global estimates, whereas gene conversion had negligible effects for the families analyzed herein. Turnover rates vary considerably among families, subfamilies, and ortholog groups although all analyzed families were quite dynamic in terms of gene turnover. Computer simulations showed that the methods that use ortholog group information appear to be the most accurate for the Drosophila chemosensory families. Most importantly, these results reveal the potential of rate heterogeneity among lineages to severely bias some turnover rate estimation methods and the need of further evaluating the performance of these methods in a more diverse sampling of gene families and phylogenetic contexts. Using branch-specific codon substitution models, we find further evidence of positive selection in recently duplicated genes, which attests to a nonneutral aspect of the gene birth-and-death process. PMID:24951565

Almeida, Francisca C.; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Campos, Jose Luis; Rozas, Julio

2014-01-01

472

Family Perspectives on the Hospice Experience in Adult Family Homes  

PubMed Central

Growing numbers of terminally ill older adults receive hospice services in adult family homes (AFHs); however, little is known about the provision and receipt of end-of-life care in such environments. This paper reports findings from a qualitative exploration of family members’ perspectives of the hospice experience in AFHs. Analysis of data obtained during interviews of fifteen residents’ family members exposed significant challenges associated with transition to an AFH, highlighted the importance of AFH and hospice staff in family members’ assessment of overall quality of care, and emphasized the critical nature of communication in AFH settings. PMID:21240714

Washington, Karla T.; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Shaunfield, Sara

2011-01-01

473

Revealing the microstructure of materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to demonstrate how the microstructure of materials may be revealed by abrasive polishing and chemical etching, and to illustrate how microstructural information is used to monitor manufacturing processes, provide in-depth inspection, and perform failure analysis. Microstructural analysis is the procedure used to reveal the internal microstructural details of a material or part by sectioning and polishing the cut surface so that it may be examined under a suitable microscope. A printed wiring board was selected as the test material because it contains both metals and nonmetals that have distinctive microstructures, and because this technique is used throughout the electronic industry as a key quality control tool. The three principle component materials in printed circuit boards are glass/epoxy laminates faced with copper foil; copper, deposited by both electroless and electrolytic plating; and tin/lead solder. Sample preparation, mounting, grinding, polishing, and examination and analysis are discussed.

Nelson, James A.

1990-01-01

474

[Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

2014-01-01

475

User study on family communication in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a core element of society. The development of economics and the transformation of cultures in mainland China bring new challenges to family communications. To understand current practices and the needs of family communication in mainland China, we studied 27 rural and urban families with ethnographic methods. We summarized the main family structures for rural and urban families and

Jie Wang; Ying Liu; Huanglingzi Liu; Jyri Salomaa

2008-01-01

476

Bulimia Nervosa: A Review of Family Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review was to demonstrate that a family systems conceptualization of family dysfunction could be applied to bulimic families. In general, self-report and observational family characteristics studies support the hypothesis that bulimic families, like anorectic families, have significant systemic dysfunction in…

Lau, DeeAnne Karyl

477

Evolutionary analysis of the mammalian M1 aminopeptidases reveals conserved exon structure and gene death.  

PubMed

The members of the M1 aminopeptidase family share conserved domains, yet show functional divergence within the family as a whole. In order to better understand this family, this study analyzed the mammalian members in depth at exon, gene, and protein levels. The twelve human members, eleven rat members, and eleven mouse members were first analyzed in multiple alignments to visualize both reported and unreported conserved domains. Phylogenetic trees were then generated for humans, rats, mice, and all mammals to determine how closely related the homologs were and to gain insight to the divergence in the family members. This produced three groups with similarity within the family. Next, a synteny study was complete