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Sample records for far-north province cameroon

  1. Clinical and Microbiological Assessment of Trachoma in the Kolofata Health District, Far North Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Pablo; Benallaoua, Djida; Amza, Abdou; Einterz, Ellen; Huguet, Pierre; Poisson, Francois; Bilinkai, Aminou Bouba; Ismaila, Moustafa; Bensaid, Philippe; Bella, Lucienne; Chaumeil, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Trachoma is a sight-threatening process triggered by the infection of the conjunctiva with Chlamydiae. Blindness associated with trachoma was reported in Sahelian areas of Cameroon. However, data on the prevalence of this neglected infection in the Far North Region are not available. The aim of this study was a) to assess clinical trachoma and b) to detect Chlamydia in the conjunctiva of trachomatous populations living in the Far North Regions of Cameroon. Methods: A total of 2,423 randomly selected children (1–10 years) and 1,590 women over 14 from randomly selected villages from the Kolofata Health District (115,000 inhabitants) were included in a cross-sectional study in February 2009. Trained staff examined and obtained conjunctival swabs from trachomatous subjects. DNA was extracted and amplified to detect Chlamydia DNA by real-time PCR. The quality of sampling was assessed by quantifying the number of epithelial cells. Results: Children (2,397 or 98.9% of the predicted number) and women (1,543; 97.0%) were examined. The prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) in children was 21% (95% CI 17.8–24.5) and of intense inflammatory trachoma (TI) 5.2% (95% CI 3.6–7.3). Among the women, trichiasis (TT) was observed in 3.4% (95% CI 2.4–4.7), corneal opacities (CO) in 1.4% (95% CI 0.8–2.3) and trachoma-related blindness in 0.9% (95% CI 0.4–1.8). Conditions related to income, illiteracy, latrines, water supply and animals wandering close to dwellings were similar in all the villages. PCR was positive in 35% of children with active trachoma and in 6% of adult females presenting TT and/or related corneal opacities. Conclusion: The prevalence of trachoma and the severe trachoma sequelae found during this survey underline the urgent need to implement efficient blindness prevention interventions to improve the visual future of the people in the Sahelian region. PMID:22949801

  2. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  3. What to do with chronically sick animals? Pastoralists’ management strategies in the far north region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca B

    2014-01-01

    While the goal of African pastoralists is health and longevity of herd and household, some of their management strategies appear to counter this long-term goal. Pastoralists in the far north region of Cameroon, for example, do not always remove chronically sick animals from their herds, even though chronic diseases, such as brucellosis, are contagious and have the potential to cause fertility problems in the herd. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to understand why pastoralists do not remove chronically sick animals and whether their management strategies have an impact on herd fertility. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on pastoralists’ understandings of disease and its impacts on fertility as well as data on herd management. We compared these data with disease prevalence and herd fertility data to measure the effect of management strategies on herd fertility. We found that the percentage of chronically sick animals in a herd negatively correlated with herd fertility, but this was not true for the prevalence of brucellosis. Thus, preliminary examination of disease costs and benefits suggests that herders’ decisions to keep sick animals in their herds may lower herd fertility, but this is not due to brucellosis alone. The results of this study underline the complexity of infectious disease ecology in pastoral systems and the need for holistic and comprehensive studies of the ecology of infectious diseases in pastoral systems. PMID:25309717

  4. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Pastoral Mobility in the Far North Region, Cameroon: Data Analysis and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ningchuan; Cai, Shanshan; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca; Pomeroy, Laura W

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the movements of humans and animals is critical to understanding the transmission of infectious diseases in complex social and ecological systems. In this paper, we focus on the movements of pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon, who follow an annual transhumance by moving between rainy and dry season pastures. Describing, summarizing, and modeling the transhumance movements in the region are important steps for understanding the role these movements may play in the transmission of infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. We collected data on this transhumance system for four years using a combination of surveys and GPS mapping. An analysis on the spatial and temporal characteristics of pastoral mobility suggests four transhumance modes, each with its own properties. Modes M1 and M2 represent the type of transhumance movements where pastoralists settle in a campsite for a relatively long period of time (≥20 days) and then move around the area without specific directions within a seasonal grazing area. Modes M3 and M4 on the other hand are the situations when pastoralists stay in a campsite for a relatively short period of time (<20 days) when moving between seasonal grazing areas. These four modes are used to develop a spatial-temporal mobility (STM) model that can be used to estimate the probability of a mobile pastoralist residing at a location at any time. We compare the STM model with two reference models and the experiments suggest that the STM model can effectively capture and predict the space-time dynamics of pastoral mobility in our study area. PMID:26151750

  5. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Pastoral Mobility in the Far North Region, Cameroon: Data Analysis and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ningchuan; Cai, Shanshan; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca; Pomeroy, Laura W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the movements of humans and animals is critical to understanding the transmission of infectious diseases in complex social and ecological systems. In this paper, we focus on the movements of pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon, who follow an annual transhumance by moving between rainy and dry season pastures. Describing, summarizing, and modeling the transhumance movements in the region are important steps for understanding the role these movements may play in the transmission of infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. We collected data on this transhumance system for four years using a combination of surveys and GPS mapping. An analysis on the spatial and temporal characteristics of pastoral mobility suggests four transhumance modes, each with its own properties. Modes M1 and M2 represent the type of transhumance movements where pastoralists settle in a campsite for a relatively long period of time (≥20 days) and then move around the area without specific directions within a seasonal grazing area. Modes M3 and M4 on the other hand are the situations when pastoralists stay in a campsite for a relatively short period of time (<20 days) when moving between seasonal grazing areas. These four modes are used to develop a spatial-temporal mobility (STM) model that can be used to estimate the probability of a mobile pastoralist residing at a location at any time. We compare the STM model with two reference models and the experiments suggest that the STM model can effectively capture and predict the space-time dynamics of pastoral mobility in our study area. PMID:26151750

  6. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon. PMID:24735162

  7. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical constituent of two plants used to manage foot and mouth disease in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Vougat, Ronald Romuald Bebey Ngom; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Ziebe, Roland; Garabed, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Plants used in the Far North Region of Cameroon by livestock farmers to manage foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant potentials of two of them (Boscia senegalensis [BS] and Tapinanthus dodoneifolius [TD]) were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Ethno veterinary data were collected from 325 livestock farmers using semi-structured interviews from September 2011 to April 2012. The 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were first performed with five different solvents to choose the best extract of each plant based on these two factors. To achieve our aim, the ferric iron reducing activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), vitamin E and iron content were analyzed on extracts selected using current techniques. Results: The results showed that 12 plants of 8 different families are regularly used by farmers to manage FMD. It also demonstrated that acetone extract of TD and methanolic extract of BS are the extracts which showed the best total antioxidant activity (AA) and the best TPC. In general, TD show the best AA during the HRSA and FRSA analysis compared with BS. Similarly, TD content more phenolic compounds and tannins than BS. Both plants contain proteins, saponins, tannins, phenols, alkaloid, and polyphenols which are known to have many biological activities. Conclusion: These results support the AA of both plants and can justify their use by herders to treat FMD which is often followed by many secondary diseases. PMID:26401383

  8. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2016-03-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  9. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application during a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Debes, Amanda K.; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  10. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  11. Serotype diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including se...

  12. Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  13. Foot and mouth disease and livestock husbandry practices in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bronsvoort, B M deC; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Morgan, K L

    2003-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is endemic in most of the tropics. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, two-stage random sample design was undertaken in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The objectives were to measure the reported herd-level prevalence of FMD and a range of husbandry practices important for its transmission. The owner-reported prevalence for the previous 12 months was 57.9% (50.4-65.4%), although there was a significant variation across the Province. During the previous dry season, 46.5% (38.6-54.4%) of herds had gone on transhumance. Herds had high numbers of contacts with other herds while on transhumance (98.6%), at pasture (95.8%) and at night (74.4%), with medians of 7-10, 4-6 and 1-3 daily contacts, respectively. The high level of endemic FMD and potential for disease spread presents a significant challenge for control and eradication. Locally sustainable methods need to be developed upon which larger regional control programmes could be built in the future. PMID:14690088

  14. Economic opportunity survey of small scale dairy farms of the north west province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, P H; Webb, E C; Manjeli, Y; Naoussi, P

    2007-12-01

    An Economic Opportunity Survey was conducted on dairy farms in the North West Province of Cameroon. Results showed that median (range) number of cows in milk per farm was zero point six (0-4) and six (3-12) in the zero grazing and transhumance systems, respectively. Medians (range) of three (0-24) and four (3-10) litres of milk were sold per farm per day, corresponding to 30% and 60% of milk produced. 24% and 13% of total cattle per herd were milking cows in the zero grazing and transhumance systems respectively. Median milk production per cow on one day was two (0-25) and two (1-3) litres. Median calf production interval was 14.5 (12-25) and. 21.5 (14-29) months. More milk produced per day represented the best economic opportunity in both systems while reduced age at first calving and longer lactation length were the next in both. Wastage of milk through spoilage from poor hygiene and lack of cooling was a major problem. Holstein cows, which were in the zero grazing system, had unexpectedly short lactations. Constraints identified led to the setting up of interventions of training and advice for farmers and of better nutrition. PMID:18265867

  15. Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Oladele O.

    2005-01-01

    The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000…

  16. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in the South West Province of Cameroon: implications for mass treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Esum, M; Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Enyong, P

    2001-01-01

    Encephalopathy has been reported in Cameroon in individuals heavily infected with Loa loa microfilariae who were treated with ivermectin against onchocerciasis. Prior to the initiation of the community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin (CDTI) in the South West Province of Cameroon, an epidemiological survey of loiasis was conducted (in July 1998-July 1999) to ascertain the intensity of the disease. Thick blood films were made from 1228 blood samples collected during the day. Rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis was conducted among 614 individuals in the Upper Bayang area. Sixteen percent of the population examined were carriers of L. loa microfilariae. More males (20.1%) than females (12.4%) were infected. The community mean microfilaraemias of the different villages were low (< 1100 mf/mL). However, 1 person was found harbouring 174,000 mf/mL of blood and 1% of the study population (12) had microfilaraemia > 8100 mf/mL. Results of the REA of onchocerciasis show that 31.3% of the population investigated in the Upper Bayang area have this disease. These findings show that loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic in the area, but the risk of developing encephalopathy after taking ivermectin is small. PMID:11816443

  17. Measuring the Quality of Communication Linkages between Farmers and the Agricultural Agencies Responsible for the Diffusion of Innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bridget Ayuk

    The quality of communication linkages between farmers and the agricultural agencies responsible for diffusion of innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon was examined in a study of all 25 researchers and 150 extension agents in the province and 385 farmers who were randomly selected from the province's 3,000 farmers. Data were collected…

  18. Risk factors for herdsman-reported foot-and-mouth disease in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bronsvoort, B M de C; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Morgan, K L

    2004-12-15

    We analysed responses from 147 Fulani herdsmen to a questionnaire about cattle herd-level risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the previous year. The study used a cross-sectional design with a stratified, two-stage random sample of cattle herds in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The questionnaire was pre-tested at a local cattle market before a final version was translated into Foulfoulde (the local Fulani dialect). Variables were screened using a univariable analysis and logistic multiple-regression models were developed in a forward-selection process. Fifty-eight percent (50-65; 90% CIs) of herdsmen reported FMD in their herd in the previous 12 months. Important risk factors for FMD in the previous 12 months included going on transhumance (OR=2.6), buying cattle from markets (OR=2.2), mixing of herds at watering points (OR=2.4), feeding cotton-seed cake (OR=3.3), buffalo near the herd (OR=2.2) and administrative division. For the subset of herds that went on transhumance, coming in contact with an FMDV-diseased herd while on transhumance was the strongest factor (OR=16). PMID:15579340

  19. Deltamethrin impregnated bednets for the control of urban malaria in Kumba Town, South-West Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Moyou-Somo, R; Lehman, L G; Awahmukalah, S; Ayuk Enyong, P

    1995-10-01

    This study was conducted from January to December 1992 in Kumba, a town situated in the rain forest region of the South-West Province of Cameroon, and consisted of a longitudinal survey including parasitological and clinical studies. Forty households were chosen for the study and randomly divided into two groups, each with approximately 240 inhabitants aged < or = 15 years. One group received deltamethrin impregnated bednets and the other group had no nets (control). For the months of April, June and August (rainy season), deltamethrin impregnated bednets did not reduce malaria prevalence significantly, but the overall malaria prevalence for all months of the study was significantly reduced (chi 2 MH = 9.17, P = 0.002). Enlarged spleen rates (chi 2 MH = 6.73, P = 0.009) and spleen sizes (P = 0.0002) were also significantly reduced by the nets. However, the reduction in the geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was not significant. Even though some of these reductions were statistically significant, they were relatively low in a global context compared with previous work done mainly in rural areas. In an urban environment, parents and children usually stay up late, and probably receive many mosquito bites before going to sleep. PMID:7563259

  20. The Niger Delta petroleum system; Niger Delta Province, Nigeria, Cameroon, and equatorial Guinea, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In the Niger Delta province, we have identified one petroleum system--the Tertiary Niger Delta (Akata-Agbada) petroleum system. The delta formed at the site of a rift triple junction related to the opening of the southern Atlantic starting in the Late Jurassic and continuing into the Cretaceous. The delta proper began developing in the Eocene, accumulating sediments that now are over 10 kilometers thick. The primary source rock is the upper Akata Formation, the marine-shale facies of the delta, with possibly contribution from interbedded marine shale of the lowermost Agbada Formation. Oil is produced from sandstone facies within the Agbada Formation, however, turbidite sand in the upper Akata Formation is a potential target in deep water offshore and possibly beneath currently producing intervals onshore. Known oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta rank the province as the twelfth largest in the world. To date, 34.5 billion barrels of recoverable oil and 93.8 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas have been discovered. In 1997, Nigeria was the fifth largest crude oil supplier to the United States, supplying 689,000 barrels/day of crude.

  1. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  2. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  3. Improvement of Radwaste Management System at Bilibinskaya NPP in the Far North Conditions - 13456

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Savkin, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Since 2009 Bilibinskaya NPP is getting started to prepare to the decommissioning in the Far North conditions. Bilibinskaya NPP is located in the Far North of Russian Federation in Chukotka region. Since 1974 it operates 4 units EGP-6 with the capacity of 48 MW each. According to the contract, SIA Radon has performed the following works: - LLRW disposal safety analysis, - The technology of spent ion-exchanger and salt residue solidification is proposed, - Expected radwaste (till 2027) management economical analysis, - Technical proposals for LLRW and IRW management. (authors)

  4. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  5. Human ecology and climate change: People and resources in the Far North

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    This book is a collection of papers from a workshop held in October 1993 that explore and develop further ideas about the impacts of climate change on the people and ecosystems of the Far North. Included are researchers and managers from atmospheric sciences, anthropology, sociology, rural economics, northern latitude mammal and fisheries biology, and governmental and management strategies. The book discusses the range of interrelationships that will have to be addressed as natural cycles or anthropogenic causes affect global climate patterns.

  6. [Social factors and their effect on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Far North areas].

    PubMed

    Tyryltin, M A

    1990-01-01

    Though in the Far North areas there is a decrease in the epidemic causes of tuberculosis, one can observe a greater role of negative social and sanitary factors influencing its morbidity. In the pattern of factors predisposing to newly diagnosed cases of the disease, unsatisfactory housing and living conditions as well as unqualified physical labour performed under unfavourable production and extreme climatic conditions, which are often combined with hazardous habits and concomitant diseases, are becoming more common. Higher tuberculosis morbidity among the aboriginal population with lower rates of their contamination are directly related to the level of their social and sanitary conditions, traditional way of life, occupational activities and disadvantages in the social development of the areas of their preferential habitation. In this connection, while taking further steps against tuberculosis in the Far North areas, it seems necessary to intensify social and preventive measures as well as antituberculous care of the groups which are influenced by clearly negative social and sanitary factors. PMID:2139971

  7. Studies abound on how far north Ixodes scapularis ticks are transported by birds.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D

    2016-03-01

    Several studies report migratory songbirds transporting ticks northward during spring migration in Canada. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, has been documented on Neotropical songbirds as far as Slave Lake, Alberta during northbound spring migration. In addition, Ixodes ticks have been collected from passerine migrants as far north as Watson Lake, Yukon (north of 60th latitude). The presence of Amblyomma ticks parasitizing long-distance migrants, which are moving from wintering grounds in the Neotropics to breeding grounds in Canada, confirms Neotropical songbirds transport ixodid ticks into Canada. Our avian, tick-host studies document 22 species of ticks on wild birds in Canada, and the majority of these species are not indigenous in Canada. Some of these songbird-transported ticks originate from as far south as Brazil. Clearly, passerine migrants transport ticks long distances into Canada during northward spring migration. The importation of ticks into Canada by migratory songbirds is no longer a "hypothesis," it is a fact. PMID:26739029

  8. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  9. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  10. Destination: Cameroon. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; Majeske, Christopher

    Designed to allow teachers and students to take a pro-active approach to learning about Cameroon, the guide is a starting point for research and discussion with information that enables students to identify patterns of culture and geography. In the first section, details on Africa and Cameroon provide information that can be personalized for each…

  11. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  12. [Evaluation of the use of diagnostic/treatment algorithms in the health centers of North Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Haegeman, F; Ledecq, J L; Wyffels, A; Dama, K

    1994-09-01

    In February 1993, four years after their introduction, an assessment was made of the use of clinical flow charts (algorithms) by 16 nurses in charge of primary medical health centers in Northern Cameroon (Diamare Division, Far North Province). A study of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the nurses shows the flow charts to be appreciated as a tool for diagnostic aid and for professional training. 11 nurses report an initial systematic use of the flow charts. This associates with the observation of good skills in using the charts, observed among 10 of the nurses, and also with treatment standardisation. Problems in reading the flow charts correctly hinder their systematic use in diagnostic decision making. A retrospective analysis of 800 treatment prescriptions noted in the consultation registers, shows an average rate of treatment standardisation of 75%, varying from 52 to 98% among the different health centers. Three quarters of non standardised treatment is ineffective or inefficient. Specific training is using the flow charts, given in the form of a 4 day seminar to 7 of the nurses concerned, showed no better results, after 4 years, than those obtained during a practical training session of a global nature, taking place in a functional health centre. Basic professional training, as well as previous professional experience influences the performances of the nurses. This study confirms the need to introduce rationalisation in the prescription of treatment, and shows the importance of verifying practical user skills at the end of specific training sessions. It would be advisable to include the principles of clinical algorithms in the teaching programs of medical schools. PMID:7840690

  13. 'Hero to Healing' drink-driving program for Indigenous communities in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience. PMID:26857181

  14. Structural adjustment, women, and agriculture in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fonchingong, C

    1999-11-01

    This article assesses the impact of economic structural programs on the agricultural activities of women's groups in Cameroon, and explores women's ways of coping with the reduction in individual and family income and the loss of public services. It examines the role of 25 women's groups in both rural and urban areas of Cameroon's northwest and southwest provinces in a study conducted from April to June 1999. Economic structural adjustment caused a tremendous increase in the workload of women that are farming usually in lots distant from their homes that yield poor returns. Land for food-crop cultivation has become increasingly scarce, and inputs have become substantially unaffordable. Income generated from the sale of crops is inadequate to supply the economic and social needs of the family. Moreover, the burden of their work has increased as they cope with housework, child-care, and food production, in addition to an expanded participation in paid employment. Moreover, women spend longer working hours than men, meeting both household responsibilities and their outside work. Women have devised strategies to cope with this economic crisis, but they need organizations that will support them with the important resources to be able to operate. Rural women seem to be coping better than urban women cope. In extreme cases, some women in urban areas resort to prostitution to cope with life in this crisis setting. PMID:12349481

  15. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  16. [DYNAMICS OF THE CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE DURING COMBINED AMLODIPINE-VALSARTAN THERAPY IN FAR NORTH RESIDENTS].

    PubMed

    Zapesochnaya, I L; Avtandilov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study dynamics of daily arterial pressure profile during combined antihypertensive therapy starting from calcium and angiotensin II antagonists (amlodipine-valsartan) in Far North employees suffering arterial hypertension engaged on different working schedules. A total of 137 patients with grade I-III AH were divided into 2 groups. Those in group 1 worked day shifts (n=70) and the remaining ones worked night shifts (group 2). 129 patients completed the course of therapy. The final mean daily doses of amlodipine-valsartan were 8.2 ± 1.1/144.8 1.8 and 9.4 ± 1.6/197.8 ± 3.5 mg in groups I and 2 respectively. AP monitoring was performed before, 4 weeks and 6 months after therapy. Six months after the onset of amlodipine-valsartan therapy 97.2 and 97.6% of the patients in groups 1 and 2 respectively showed the target AP level and normalization of daily AP profile. Daily variability of AP in group 2 (excepting night-time variability) was also normal. Morning AP dynamics markedly improved in both groups. Most patients demonstrated excellent compliance with therapy due to its high efficacy and good tolerability. PMID:26410959

  17. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: Observing, Understanding, and Predicting Social-Ecological Change in the Far North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Boelman, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the high northern latitudes, climate is warming more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, transforming vulnerable arctic tundra and boreal forest landscapes. These changes are altering the structure and function of energy, water and carbon cycles, producing significant feedbacks to regional and global climate through changes in energy, water and carbon cycles. These changes are also challenging local and global society. At the local level, communities seek to adapt to new social-ecological regimes. At the global level, changing arctic and boreal systems are increasing becoming the focus of policy discussions at all levels of decision-making. National and international scientific efforts associated with a new NASA field campaign, the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABOVE) will advance our ability to observe, understand and predict the complex, multiscale and non-linear processes that are confronting the natural and social systems in this rapidly changing region. Over the next decade, the newly assembled ABOVE Science Team will pursue this overarching question: "How vulnerable or resilient are ecosystems and society to environmental change in the Arctic and boreal region of western North America?" Through integration of remote sensing and in situ observations with modeling of both ecological and social systems, the ABOVE Science Team will advance an interdisciplinary understanding of the Far North. In this presentation, we will discuss the conceptual basis for the ABOVE Field Campaign, describe Science Team composition and timeline, and update the community on activities. In addition, we will reflect on the visionary role of Dr. Diane Wickland, retired NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program Manager and lead of the Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Focus Area, in the development and commencement of ABOVE.

  18. The Distribution and Abundance of an Island Population of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Far North of Their Geographic Range

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Denise C.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Koalas are an iconic species of charismatic megafauna, of substantial social and conservation significance. They are widely distributed, often at low densities, and individuals can be difficult to detect, making population surveys challenging and costly. Consequently, koala population estimates have been limited and the results inconsistent. The aims of this study were to estimate the distribution, relative abundance and population size of the koalas on Magnetic Island, far north Queensland. Population densities were estimated in 18 different vegetation types present on the island using a Fecal Standing Crop Method. Koala density ranged from 0.404 ha−1, recorded in forest red gum and bloodwood woodland, to absence from eight of the vegetation types surveyed. The second highest density of 0.297 koalas ha−1 was recorded in mixed eucalypt woodland, which covers 45% of the island. The total abundance of koalas on Magnetic Island, not including those present in urban areas, was estimated at 825±175 (SEM). The large variation in koala density across vegetation types reinforces the need for sampling stratification when calculating abundance over large areas, as uniformity of habitat quality cannot be assumed. In this context, koala populations also occur in low densities in areas generally regarded as poor quality koala habitat. These results highlight the importance of protecting vegetation communities not traditionally considered to have high conservation value to koalas, as these habitats may be essential for maintaining viable, widespread, low-density populations. The results from this study provide a baseline to assess future trends in koala distribution, density and abundance on Magnetic Island. PMID:23527258

  19. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  20. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. PMID:24722001

  1. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  2. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  3. How far north are migrant birds transporting the tick Ixodes scapularis in Canada? Insights from stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers.

    PubMed

    Ogden, N H; Barker, I K; Francis, C M; Heagy, A; Lindsay, L R; Hobson, K A

    2015-09-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in Canada because of northward range expansion of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. It is hypothesised that I. scapularis feeding on passerine birds migrating north in spring are important in founding new I. scapularis populations leading to northward range expansion. However, there are no studies on how far north I. scapularis may be carried, only inferences from passive tick surveillance. We used stable hydrogen isotope (δ(2)H) analysis of rectrices collected from northward migrating, I. scapularis-carrying, passerine birds captured in Canada to estimate how far north I. scapularis may be carried. Rectrices are usually grown close to breeding sites and their δ(2)H values reflect those in the environment, which vary strongly with latitude in North America. Passerines usually return to their breeding or natal sites so δ(2)H values of rectrices of northward migrating birds can identify the likely latitudinal bands of their intended destinations. In 2006 we analysed δ(2)H from rectrices of 73 I. scapularis-carrying birds captured at five migration monitoring stations, mainly from southern Ontario. Values of δ(2)H ranged from -33 to -124‰, suggesting 19/71 (26.7%) birds were destined for latitude band B (the most southerly part of Ontario), 40/71 (56.3%) birds were destined for band C (which extends from southern Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes to southern James Bay) and 12/71 (16.9%) birds were destined for bands D and E (which extend from northern Ontario and Quebec into the southern Canadian Arctic). This indicates that many I. scapularis-carrying migratory birds in spring have destinations far north in Canada, including some farther north than the current region of climatic suitability for I. scapularis. These findings support the hypothesis that I. scapularis may continue to be spread north by spring migrating passerines. Some thrush species may be particularly implicated in far northward dispersion of I. scapularis. PMID

  4. Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ekue, N F; Wilkinson, P J

    1990-05-01

    No evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of African swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the West Province and southern parts of the North West and South West Provinces of Cameroon. The survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. The absence of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was also recorded. PMID:2371751

  5. English in Francophone Elementary Grades in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Since Reunification of French Cameroon and British Cameroons in 1961, the country has adopted French and English as its joint official languages and recommended the promotion of bilingualism in these two foreign languages in official domains. This paper focuses on the primary school level in the francophone sub system of education and examines the…

  6. Basals in Cameroon: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    1999-01-01

    States that in "developing" countries such as Cameroon, educators struggle to overcome the remnants of colonial educational systems and instructional methods, which are not in keeping with current educational theory. Examines the inadequacies of the Evans English textbooks used for literacy instruction in West Cameroon schools as an example of how…

  7. Coverage and costs of childhood immunizations in Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Hugh R.; Dougherty, Leanne; Tegang, Simon-Pierre; Tran, Nhan; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Long, Kanya; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Burke, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between household-level and provider-level determinants and childhood immunization rates in Cameroon while also calculating the cost of childhood immunizations. METHODS: This study uses multilevel regression analysis to calculate these relationships. The 1998 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey and the 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are the main sources of household-level data. These surveys are supplemented by data from a 2002 survey of health facilities conducted in three provinces. At the national level, immunization financing data were collected from the Ministry of Health and donors that support the national Expanded Programme on Immunization. FINDINGS: The 1998 survey found that nationally 37% of children were fully immunized; the 2000 survey found that nationally 34% were fully immunized. These results are strongly correlated with both the mother's level of education and the household's economic status. Multilevel logistic regression shows that maternal education level is a stronger predictor of positive immunization status than is relative economic status. Children of mothers with secondary education or higher education were 3 times more likely to be fully vaccinated than children whose mothers had not completed primary education. At the health-facility level, both having art immunization plan and regular supervisory visits from someone at the health-district level are strongly positively associated with immunization rates. The cost of routine vaccinations for each fully immunized child is 12.73 U.S. dollars when donors' contributions are included but not the costs of immunization campaigns. CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s found that costs per fully immunized child varied from 2.19 U.S. dollars to 26.59 U.S. dollars (not adjusted for inflation) in a range of low-income and middle-income countries. The relatively low rates of immunization coverage in Cameroon, and the strong influence of

  8. Cameroon and Chad: cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Godin, C

    1998-04-01

    African Ministers of Health adopted the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to ensure sustainable and efficient primary health care (PHC), with an eye toward decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The initiative has made local communities largely responsible for identifying problems and distributing and managing local health care resources. Cost recovery is a key component of the Bamako Initiative. The adoption of a policy of decentralization in which the immediate providers and users of PHC services are responsible for the recovery of costs was recommended. Chad and Cameroon decentralized its health services in 1990 and 1992, respectively. With onchocerciasis one of these 2 countries' most important public health problems, the 2 governments decided to base onchocerciasis control efforts upon the mass distribution of Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) integrated into the local PHC systems and including cost recovery. Community participation must now be developed to ensure the sustainability of treatment programs in both countries. In both Cameroon and Chad, studies have found that the introduction of cost recovery has had no significant effect upon treatment coverage in hyper- and meso-endemic communities. In fact, those charged for Mectizan treatment often believe that the drug must be worthwhile because they have to pay for it. PMID:9861286

  9. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  10. [Clinical-parasitological experiences in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S

    1991-02-01

    Clinical-parasitological experiences collected 1989 in Cameroon during a 6-weeks lasting medical work are reported. Malaria tropica is by far the greatest problem due to the impossibility of an effective epidemiologic control, further to rising drug resistances. Beside malaria there are plenty of other parasitoses, but they are more restricted to lower social groups and to certain geographic regions--to the extreme Northern part of Cameroon in particular. Furthermore the actual situation depends also from epidemiologic control programmes. So the trypanosomiasis seems to be under epidemiologic control, the onchocerciasis in opposite to it has been increased again due to the absence of an effective control programme at present. PMID:2039090

  11. English Pronunciation in Cameroon: Conflicts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, A. Simo

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the social and pedagogical problems caused by the conflicting forms of English pronunciation found in Cameroon. American, Nigerian, and local variations compete with British Received Pronunciation. The problems can be minimized through a more adequate training of broadcasters and teachers. (21 references) (MDM)

  12. Antiretroviral drug resistance and routine therapy, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Christian; Kouanfack, Charles; Vergne, Laurence; Tardy, Michèle; Zekeng, Léopold; Noumsi, Nathalie; Butel, Christelle; Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors. PMID:16707062

  13. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  14. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  15. Cameroon: official lethargy blamed for donor pull-out.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    Cameroon participated in World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated global AIDS control efforts for about 10 years, when the HIV/AIDS epidemic was just beginning in Cameroon. The government established a National AIDS Committee and AIDS Control Service to provide information on prevention of HIV/AIDS. The National AIDS Program was donor-oriented, donor-driven, donor-sustained, and donor-sustaining. It failed, as illustrated by a strong increase in HIV seroprevalence between 1989 and 1992 from 60 to 1304 cases. The donors then abandoned Cameroon. Government officials did not decentralize the program, largely because they believed that districts and communities are incapable of understanding HIV/AIDS-related issues and of managing money from donors. Since the primary health care (PHC) system broke down, it was impossible to integrate HIV/AIDS control activities into PHC, needed for program sustainability. The government did not commit financial resources to the national AIDS program. When donors first provided monies to Cameroon, the economy was strong. 10 years later, a politically and economically unstable situation prevails in Cameroon. WHO has recalled all its staff in Cameroon. The donors often attached conditions that hurt HIV-infected persons. The European Union did not implement a project to train laboratory technicians in the screening and diagnosis of AIDS because of problems encountered with its blood banking and its youth projects, also in Cameroon. Both of these projects have ended. The USAID Office closed in 1994 with about three months' notice, allegedly due to clashes with the Cameroon government. Not all persons working with the funding agencies have totally abandoned Cameroon, however. The government needs to be more concerned about its people and allocation of resources. As Cameroon struggles with its problems, HIV/AIDS is increasing in Cameroon. PMID:12289044

  16. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  17. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41-50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  18. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  19. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  20. Socio-cultural determinants of infant malnutrition in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pemunta, Ngambouk Vitalis; Fubah, Mathias Alubafi

    2015-07-01

    This study seeks to explore and explain the socio-cultural factors responsible for the incidence of infant malnutrition in Cameroon with particular emphasis on northern Cameroon where it is most accentuated. It combines quantitative data drawn from the 1991, 1998, 2004 and 2011 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys, as well as a literature review of publications by the WHO and UNICEF. This is further complemented with qualitative data from various regions of Cameroon, partly from a national ethnographic study on the ethno-medical causes of infertility in Cameroon conducted between 1999 and 2000. Whereas socio-cultural factors related to child feeding and maternal health (breast-feeding, food taboos and representations of the colostrum as dangerous for infants) are widespread throughout Cameroon, poverty-related factors (lack of education for mothers, natural disaster, unprecedented influx of refugees, inaccessibility and inequity in the distribution of health care services) are pervasive in northern Cameroon. This conjunction of factors accounts for the higher incidence of infant malnutrition and mortality in northern Cameroon. The study suggests the need for women's empowerment and for health care personnel in transcultural situations to understand local cultural beliefs, practices and sentiments before initiating change efforts in infant feeding practices and maternal health. Biomedical services should be tailored to the social and cultural needs of the target population--particularly women--since beliefs and practices underpin therapeutic recourse. Whereas infant diarrhoea might be believed to be the result of sexual contact, in reality, it is caused by unhygienic conditions. Similarly, weaning foods aimed at transmitting ethnic identity might not meet a child's age-specific food needs and might instead give rise to malnutrition. PMID:24717356

  1. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Art in Cameroon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural... ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural Dialogues,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  2. Evaluation in Cameroon of a Novel, Simplified Methodology to Assist Molecular Microbiological Analysis of V. cholerae in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Debes, Amanda K.; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etiene; Lopez, Anna Lena; Bugayong, Mark Philip; Retiban, Pearl Joy; Garrine, Marcelino; Mandomando, Inacio; Li, Shan; Stine, O. Colin; Sack, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae is endemic in South Asia and Africa where outbreaks of cholera occur widely and are particularly associated with poverty and poor sanitation. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of toxigenic V. cholerae isolates, particularly in Africa, remains scarce. The constraints in improving this understanding is not only the lack of regular cholera disease surveillance, but also the lack of laboratory capabilities in endemic countries to preserve, store and ship isolates in a timely manner. We evaluated the use of simplified sample preservation methods for molecular characterization using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for differentiation of Vibrio cholerae genotypes. Methods and Findings Forty-seven V. cholerae isolates and 18 enriched clinical specimens (e.g. stool specimens after enrichment in broth) from cholera outbreaks in Cameroon were preserved on Whatman filter paper for DNA extraction. The samples were collected from two geographically distinct outbreaks in the Far North of Cameroon (FNC) in June 2014 and October 2014. In addition, a convenience sample of 14 isolates from the Philippines and 8 from Mozambique were analyzed. All 87 DNAs were successfully analyzed including 16 paired samples, one a cultured isolate and the other the enriched specimen from which the isolate was collected. Genotypic results were identical between 15 enriched specimens and their culture isolates and the other pair differed at single locus. Two closely related, but distinct clonal complexes were identified among the Cameroonian specimens from 2014. Conclusions Collecting V. cholerae using simplified laboratory methods in remote and low-resource settings allows for subsequent advanced molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1. These simplified DNA preservation methods identify V. cholerae and make possible timely information regarding the genetic diversity of V. cholerae; our results set the stage for continued molecular

  3. Petromagnetic characteristics of Cameroon Line volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubangoh, R. U.; Pacca, I. G.; Nyobe, J. B.; Hell, J.; Ateba, B.

    2005-04-01

    Volcanic rock samples collected from 154 sites on the Cameroon Line (CL) have been analysed to study their petromagnetic characteristics. Thermomagnetic experiments and electron microscope observations on the samples indicate that the principal magnetic mineral and carrier of Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) in these rocks is titanomagnetite rich in titanium. These also indicate that the level and stability of magnetisation are dependent on the quantity and composition of the magnetic minerals (which are controlled by the composition of the original liquid magma), their oxidation states and grain sizes. The contribution of high- and low-temperature oxidation observed in some of the magnetic minerals was that of increasing their magnetic resistance. Rocks with abundant ilmenite lamellae in their titanomagnetite showed increased magnetic resistance during demagnetisation experiments. In the analysis, the samples exhibited a considerable magnetisation spectrum indicating that most of them are strongly magnetic. The general tendency in experimental magnetism of an increase in magnetic resistance with decrease in grain sizes of discrete magnetic minerals is not respected in this natural system because of the effects of the presence of many ilmenite lamellae and mini-fractures in some of the titanomagnetite grains. In this way, the conditions of low crystallisation temperature, high fO2 and high PH 2O , which were the conditions for the crystallisation of the most stable rocks (the hawaiites) on the line, were the conditions favourable for the acquisition of a stable magnetisation in the region. The low Curie temperatures (74-250 °C) found for a majority of the rocks indicate that the lower crust in the region and the upper mantle could be nonmagnetic. The high regional negative magnetic anomaly over the Cameroon Line that is not consistent with the small depth previewed by the Curie system and by the paramagnetic effect of the acid volcanic rocks in the region is

  4. Cameroon: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Jasmin

    This report on the educational system of Cameroon contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Cameroon to specified levels of study in the United States. In Cameroon French and English languages share…

  5. Language Practices and Religious Rites in the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with language practices in one Pentecostal church in Cameroon, i.e. the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon (FGMC). The data are produced by some 80 pastors, church officials, choir leaders and congregants, and the settings are some 20 churches located in two anglophone regions and two francophone regions of Cameroon. The instruments…

  6. Serotype-Specific Transmission and Waning Immunity of Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Laura W.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Kim, Hyeyoung; Jumbo, Simon Dickmu; Abdoulkadiri, Souley; Garabed, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes morbidity and mortality in a range of animals and threatens local economies by acting as a barrier to international trade. The outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001 that cost billions to control highlighted the risk that the pathogen poses to agriculture. In response, several mathematical models have been developed to parameterize and predict both transmission dynamics and optimal disease control. However, a lack of understanding of the multi-strain etiology prevents characterization of multi-strain dynamics. Here, we use data from FMDV serology in an endemic setting to probe strain-specific transmission and immunodynamics. Five serotypes of FMDV affect cattle in the Far North Region of Cameroon. We fit both catalytic and reverse catalytic models to serological data to estimate the force of infection and the rate of waning immunity, and to detect periods of sustained transmission. For serotypes SAT2, SAT3, and type A, a model assuming life-long immunity fit better. For serotypes SAT1 and type O, the better-fit model suggests that immunity may wane over time. Our analysis further indicates that type O has the greatest force of infection and the longest duration of immunity. Estimates for the force of infection were time-varying and indicated that serotypes SAT1 and O displayed endemic dynamics, serotype A displayed epidemic dynamics, and SAT2 and SAT3 did not sustain local chains of transmission. Since these results were obtained from the same population at the same time, they highlight important differences in transmission specific to each serotype. They also show that immunity wanes at rates specific to each serotype, which influences patterns of local persistence. Overall, this work shows that viral serotypes can differ significantly in their epidemiological and immunological characteristics. Patterns and processes that drive transmission in endemic settings must consider complex viral dynamics for accurate

  7. Native Peoples of the Russian Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakhtin, Nikolai

    "Northern minorities" is an official term for 26 indigenous peoples who live in a vast northern and Arctic territory (58% of the new Russia, mostly Siberia). These peoples include very different ethnic groups with different cultures and languages, but today they all live in a situation best described as "ethnic catastrophe." The period, covering…

  8. [Primary health care in a prison environment, the Cameroon experience].

    PubMed

    Demoures, B; Nkodo-Nkodo, E; Mbam-Mbam, L

    1998-01-01

    People isolated from their families, such as prisoners, are the most vulnerable to the consequences of the economic crisis in Africa. Some non-governmental organizations are taking action to improve health care conditions in prisons. We describe herein such a project, conducted in the town of Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua Province, Cameroon. The prison houses 400 prisoners, mostly men. Catholic missionaries have been involved in improving conditions since 1988, at the request of a magistrate from the local tribunal. They have introduced a community store, handicrafts and the teaching of reading and writing, carried out by the prisoners themselves. The Catholic Health Service was asked to join the project in October 1992. Its participation was part of the provincial policy of collaboration between private and public organizations for the improvement of health institutions. Meetings between health workers and prisoners first created an opportunity for the prisoners to talk about their concerns and what they wanted. A health committee, consisting of about 10 prisoners took several initiatives related to hygiene. Access to curative care was then improved by increasing the stock of medicines to include 37 drugs, standardizing the therapeutic recommendations (including those of the national program against tuberculosis) and increasing the prisoners' access to health care by making the pharmacy self-sufficient. The pharmacy's prices are low and the wardens and their families are encouraged to use it. Any profit made goes towards a "solidarity fund" managed by the prisoners, which enables them to buy their own drugs (3 to 5 patients are seen each day by the nurse). The link between money entering the system and the supply of drugs was studied. Most of the diseases reported between July 1994 and July 1995 were infectious, including scabies infections and acute respiratory infections (mean of 5 cases per month). Fifteen cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. AIDS was not

  9. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could prevent an estimated 14-336 HIV

  10. Erratum: maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This erratum corrects article: "Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21:16. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.16.3912[This corrects the article on p. 16 in vol. 21, PMID: 26401210.]. PMID:26816561

  11. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as 'Africa in miniature'?

    PubMed

    Mbenda, Huguette Gaelle Ngassa; Awasthi, Gauri; Singh, Poonam K; Gouado, Inocent; Das, Aparup

    2014-09-01

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ~ 20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90 percent Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ~ 41 percent have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment). PMID:25116627

  12. Linguistic Interference in a Multilingual Setting: The Case of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nashipu

    2006-01-01

    Cameroon, a central African state is one of the few countries in the world where, in addition to a very rich linguistically diverse landscape (a little below 300 identified indigenous languages) there is English and French (all vestiges of colonial legacy) used as official languages. Coupled with this, there is pidgin English which plays the role…

  13. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  14. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

  15. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  16. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  17. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  18. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in two areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Shimada, Jun; Koike, Katsuaki; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Richard, Akoachere; Tandia, Beatrice Ketchemen; Nkeng, George Elambo; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2014-06-01

    Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is unfit for human consumption and, if discharging to freshwater or marine habitats, can contribute to algal blooms and eutrophication. The level of nitrate contamination in groundwater of two densely populated, agro-industrial areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area) was evaluated. A total of 100 samples from boreholes, open wells and springs (67 from the Banana Plain; 33 from springs only, in the Mount Cameroon area) were collected in April 2009 and January 2010 and analyzed for chemical constituents, including nitrates. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations for the studied areas are: 17.28 mg/l for the Banana Plain and 2.90 mg/l for the Mount Cameroon area. Overall, groundwaters are relatively free from excessive nitrate contamination, with nitrate concentrations in only 6 % of groundwater resources in the Banana Plain exceeding the maximum admissible concentration for drinking water (50 mg/l). Sources of NO3 - in groundwater of this region may be mainly anthropogenic (N-fertilizers, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, pit latrines, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses of the hydrochemical data revealed that three factors were responsible for the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination): (1) a geogenic factor; (2) nitrate contamination factor; (3) ionic enrichment factor. The impact of anthropogenic activities, especially groundwater nitrate contamination, is more accentuated in the Banana Plain than in the Mount Cameroon area. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  19. Loiasis--a neglected and under-estimated affliction: endemicity, morbidity and perceptions in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Takougang, I; Meli, J; Lamlenn, S; Tatah, P N; Ntep, M

    2007-03-01

    Loiasis is a neglected disease that may have great social and economic impact in some endemic areas. This study was designed to update the geographical distribution of loiasis and assess the frequency and perceptions of the clinical signs of the disease in the Eastern province of Cameroon. The investigation covered 32 villages and involved 4146 respondents. Human infection with Loa loa was endemic in all the study villages but the prevalence of microfilaraemia generally decreased from south to north. All of the study villages had local names for eye worm and Calabar swellings that varied in meaning and among the various ethnic groups. The most common traditional treatment for eye worm was garlic or onion juice, which is dripped into the affected eye. The body sites that were most affected by Calabar swellings were the upper (30%) or lower (32%) limbs. The swellings were very painful (46%), mildly painful (28%) or painless (26%). Most respondents (94%) reported that the swellings itched. The prevalence of L. loa microfilaraemia in most of the study villages was >20%. These villages are clearly at risk of severe adverse events, with encephalopathy, following mass distribution of ivermectin. The prevalence of the main clinical manifestations of loiasis (i.e. eye worm and/or Calabar swellings) was twice that of detectable microfilaraemia. PMID:17316501

  20. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo. PMID:23015325

  1. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  2. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids along the cameroon volcanic line, cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanyileke, G.Z.; Kusakabe, M.; Evans, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the chemical and isotopic analysis of the water and gases discharged from volcanic crater lakes and soda springs located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line were used to characterize and infer their genetic relationships. Variations in the solute compositions of the waters indicate the dominant influence of silicate hydrolysis. Na+ (40-95%) constitutes the major cation in the springs while Fe2+ + Mg2+ (70%) dominate in the CO2-rich lakes. The principal anion is HCO3 (>90%), except in the coastal springs where Cl predominates. Lakes Nyos and Monoun have Fe-Mg-Ca-HCO3 type signatures; the soda springs are essentially Na-HCO3 type, while all other lakes show similar ionic compositions to dilute surface waters. Dissolved gases show essentially CO2 (>90%), with small amounts of Ar and N2, while CH4 constitutes the principal component in the non-gassy lakes. Active volcanic gases are generally absent, except in the Lobe spring with detectable H2S. Stable isotope ratio evidence indicates that the bicarbonate waters are essentially of meteoric origin. CO2 (??13C = -2 to -8???) and He (3He/4He = 1 to 5.6Ra) infer a mantle contribution to the total CO2. CH4 has a biogenic source, while Ar and N2 are essentially atmospheric in origin, but mixing is quite common.

  3. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  4. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon. PMID:21209162

  5. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon and I hereby waive such restriction....

  6. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests,…

  8. Women with Disabilities in the North West Province of Cameroon: Resilient and Deserving of Greater Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiani, Shirin

    2009-01-01

    Cameroonian women living with disabilities face three-fold discrimination as a result of their sex, perceived inability and low socio-economic status. A needs assessment using focus groups (two focus groups, n = 24) and key participant interviews (n = 12) was conducted to explore the experiences of women with disabilities in the North West…

  9. Dynamic evolution of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Dan N.; Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Godfrey Fitton, J.

    2014-05-01

    The growth and destruction of a volcanic edifice reflects dynamic processes that shape the Earth, including transport of mass and heat in a cooling planet versus the mechanical and chemical degradation of igneous material driving toward equilibrium. Central to understanding the nature of volcanoes are determinations of the rates of change in the volumes of these features. Through a quantitative temporal framework it is possible to elucidate the relative importance of competing processes that govern growth and destruction of volcanoes, e.g., magma production versus mass wasting. As the energetics of constructive and destructive processes are directly linked to the hazards that they pose to human populations and because volcanoes are stochastic systems, the only means of long-term forecast is via comprehensive understanding of volcanic history. Mount Cameroon is one of Africa's largest volcanoes and is currently the only active centre on the Cameroon line. The edifice is 4 km high with a volume of at least 1200 km3. Seventeen eruptions have been reported since 1800 and a time-averaged eruption volume of 6 x 106 m3/year is calculated from 7 eruptions over the past 91 years. Eight new Ar/Ar ages have been determined for basaltic rocks distributed across Mt. Cameroon; plateau ages are 4139±19 ka, 195±2 ka, 187±5 ka, 161±2 ka, 82±4, 68±3, 14±4 and 2±4 ka (1σ). The upper age from this set defines the oldest age yet measured for the Mt. Cameroon system. The data demonstrate activity through the mid to upper Pleistocene, continuing through to modern activity. Using recent estimates for basin-wide erosion of ca. 0.05 mm/a on a similar edifice (Kauai, Hawaii, Gayer et al 2008) and extrapolating over the Mt. Cameroon edifice yields an erosion rate of 5x104 m3/a, a factor of 30 times lower than the modern magma production rate. Considering these two fluxes implies that approximately 700 ka is required to construct an edifice of 1200 km3 (the current volume of Mt

  10. The situation of women in physics in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulache, Rosalie Laure; Kom, Guillaume; Siebatcheu, Beatrice Couonang; Onana, Marthe Boyomo

    2013-03-01

    The progress of women in science has been widely discussed in recent years. Women have made great progress in the social sciences, but they lag in the field of physics. A survey of the situation of women in physics in Cameroon over the last three years shows some improvement and some areas of stagnation. For example, the statistics show an increase of women teaching physics in secondary school and a slight improvement in the numbers of women studying physics at the university level, but stagnation in the number of women lecturers in physics.

  11. Geology of the Douala basin, offshore Cameroon, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J.; Thompson, J.M.; Schumann, J.R. ); Cooke, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Douala basin is predominantly an offshore basin extending from the Cameroon volcanic line in the north to the Corisco arch in the south near the Equatorial Guinea-Gabon border. The basin lies wholly within the territorial borders of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Douala basin is one of a series of divergent margin basins occurring along the southwest African coastline resulting from the rifting of Africa from South America. Continental rifting in the Doula basin was initiated at least by Aptian-Albian time and possibly as early as Jurassic. The rift stage persisted until Albian time when the onset of drifting occurred. The sedimentary section in the basin has a maximum thickness of 8-10 km, based on exploration drilling and gravity and magnetics modeling. The synrift section consists of Aptian-Albian sands and shales, deposited primarily as submarine fans, fan-deltas, and turbidite deposits. These are overlain by salt, thought to be equivalent to the Ezagna salt of Aptian age in the Gabon basin to the south. The synrift section is separated from the overlying postrift shale sequence of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age by a major late Albian unconformity. The Douala basin has been explored for hydrocarbons intermittently over the last 25 years. Results show a distinct tendency for gas-proneness. The largest field recorded to date is the Sanaga Sud gas field, discovered in 1979, offshore, near the coastal city of Kribi.

  12. Young women's perceived ability to refuse sex in urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Megan Klein; DeRose, Laurie

    2008-12-01

    In many sub-Saharan African countries, young women face decreasing educational opportunities, age asymmetries between sexual partners, and high prevalence of HIV infection. This study draws upon data from the 2002 Cameroon Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to analyze the determinants of young women's perceived ability to refuse sex in urban Cameroon. Our findings are consistent with predictions of social exchange theory: young women's status characteristics predict their vulnerability differently under different circumstances, and, overall, young women report having a lower ability to refuse sex in their relationships with men who offer to pay their school fees than in their relationships with men in positions of power over them. The costs and benefits of sexual exchanges made in order to continue one's education increase simultaneously in a context of declining enrollments and spreading HIV infection. When educational aspirations exceed opportunities, policy supporting access to education could reduce young women's need to employ their sexual resources in order to invest in their future. PMID:19248717

  13. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  14. Sex chromosome variation and cytotaxonomy of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium squamosum in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Traore-Lamizana, M; Somiari, S; Mafuyai, H B; Vajime, C G; Post, R J

    2001-06-01

    On the basis of sex chromosome variation, three cytotypes of Simulium squamosum (Enderlein) (Diptera: Simuliidae) are described from Cameroon and Nigeria. Simulium squamosum A is the typical form as originally described by Vajime & Dunbar (1975) with chromosome I as the sex chromosome. It occurs throughout most of Cameroon and south-east Nigeria. A second cytotype, S. squamosum B, is described from the river Sanaga (Cameroon). It also has chromosome I as the sex chromosome, but the nature of the sex differential region is different. Simulium squamosum C has no sex-linked chromosomal rearrangements. It is widespread in Nigeria and occurs near Mount Cameroon, where it seems to hybridize with S. squamosum A. PMID:11434559

  15. Structure of the crust beneath Cameroon (West Africa) revealed by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Aoudia, A.

    2011-12-01

    As Cameroon is characterized by moderate seismicity, mainly restricted to Mt. Cameroon, the study of crust and uppermost mantle with traditional seismic tomography methods can be very limited. We use the ambient noise surface wave tomography to overcome the limitations of traditional methods and fully exploit the Cameroon network data. By cross-correlating six months of continuous seismic noise records from 32 broadband stations distributed across Cameroon, we have been able to measure Rayleigh wave group velocity in the period range 5-35 s, sensitive to approximately the upper 40 km of the crust, for about 300 station-to-station paths. We first apply a dispersion analysis using the frequency-time analysis to obtain the group velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves for periods ranging from 5 to 35 sec. We then invert path-averaged dispersion curves to obtain 2D maps, on a 0.5 ° x0.5 ° nodal grid, of group velocity for discrete periods using a method that is the generalization to two dimensions of the Backus and Gilbert method. We obtain tomographic group velocity maps of the Cameroon crust that image the main tectonic features of the Cameroon crust, with an unprecedented detail on the major West Africa tectonic feature, known as Cameroon Volcanic Line. Through Cameroon, the anomaly maps clearly show both higher- and slower-than-average velocities, marking a variety of geological/tectonic features. In the period range 10-20 s, which corresponds to crustal depths, the most evident features are: the high velocity region, wide and composite, in southern Cameroon in clear spatial correspondence with the Congo Craton; the low velocity in the central-eastern part of the country corresponding to the Adamawa Plateau; a strong low velocity anomaly beneath Mt. Cameroon that persists up to 25 s period; and low group velocities along the border with Nigeria. Based on our new results and integrated with precedent studies we discuss the origin of the Cameroon

  16. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  17. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA) was required. Methodology The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT). The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%. Principal findings Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3%) were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%), with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2–5.5) to 20.0% (95% CI: 10–30). The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08–0.16) in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13–2.26) for the total population examined. Conclusion/significance ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%). Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites) necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination. PMID:26353087

  18. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos. PMID:25141868

  19. Parameter Identification in a Tuberculosis Model for Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany Pascal; Röblitz, Susanna; Ehrig, Rainald; Deuflhard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic model of tuberculosis in Cameroon is designed and analyzed with respect to its transmission dynamics. The model includes lack of access to treatment and weak diagnosis capacity as well as both frequency- and density-dependent transmissions. It is shown that the model is mathematically well-posed and epidemiologically reasonable. Solutions are non-negative and bounded whenever the initial values are non-negative. A sensitivity analysis of model parameters is performed and the most sensitive ones are identified by means of a state-of-the-art Gauss-Newton method. In particular, parameters representing the proportion of individuals having access to medical facilities are seen to have a large impact on the dynamics of the disease. The model predicts that a gradual increase of these parameters could significantly reduce the disease burden on the population within the next 15 years. PMID:25874885

  20. Parameter identification in a tuberculosis model for Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany Pascal; Röblitz, Susanna; Ehrig, Rainald; Deuflhard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic model of tuberculosis in Cameroon is designed and analyzed with respect to its transmission dynamics. The model includes lack of access to treatment and weak diagnosis capacity as well as both frequency- and density-dependent transmissions. It is shown that the model is mathematically well-posed and epidemiologically reasonable. Solutions are non-negative and bounded whenever the initial values are non-negative. A sensitivity analysis of model parameters is performed and the most sensitive ones are identified by means of a state-of-the-art Gauss-Newton method. In particular, parameters representing the proportion of individuals having access to medical facilities are seen to have a large impact on the dynamics of the disease. The model predicts that a gradual increase of these parameters could significantly reduce the disease burden on the population within the next 15 years. PMID:25874885

  1. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Egbe, N. F.; Muwonge, A.; Ndip, L.; Kelly, R. F.; Sander, M.; Tanya, V.; Ngwa, V. Ngu; Handel, I. G.; Novak, A.; Ngandalo, R.; Mazeri, S.; Morgan, K. L.; Asuquo, A.; Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9–3.9), 7.7% (6.1–9.6), 21.3% (15.2–28.4) and 13.1% (7.7–20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  2. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  3. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: <21-500,000 ppm). Sixty-six percent of the new paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale. PMID:23472856

  4. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  5. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

  6. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Egbe, N F; Muwonge, A; Ndip, L; Kelly, R F; Sander, M; Tanya, V; Ngwa, V Ngu; Handel, I G; Novak, A; Ngandalo, R; Mazeri, S; Morgan, K L; Asuquo, A; Bronsvoort, B M de C

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne's disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9-3.9), 7.7% (6.1-9.6), 21.3% (15.2-28.4) and 13.1% (7.7-20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  7. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon. PMID:23446968

  8. The Fallacy of Promoting Non Native Varieties of English in Postcolonial Multilingual Settings: The Case of Cameroon English (CamE) in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essossomo, Serges Moïse

    2015-01-01

    This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…

  9. Development of the Oil Industry in Cameroon and Its Implications for Education and Training. IIEP Research Report No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    A study analyzed how the oil industry in Cameroon developed and influenced the expansion, structure, and content of Cameroon's formal and nonformal education and training system. A survey of 213 employees and 8 enterprises was supplemented by a review of government reports and official published and unpublished documents. The economy of Cameroon…

  10. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  11. 40Ar/39Ar dating of basaltic dykes swarm in Western Cameroon: Evidence of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic magmatism in the corridor of the Cameroon Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Simeni Wambo, Nicole Armelle; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Li, Xian-Hua

    2014-05-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of three basalt dykes that intrude the Precambrian basement in the southern continental part of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line are presented. Specimen were sampled at Dschang, Maham and Kendem (Cameroon). The ages obtained are 421.3 ± 3.5 Ma (Dschang), 404.22 ± 3.51 Ma (Maham), and 192.10 ± 7.45 Ma (Kendem). The Dschang and Maham samples yield a relatively undisturbed spectrum while the Kendem sample shows an excess of argon but with plateau ages in the frame of the Mesozoic. Plateau ages at Dschang, Maham and Kendem represent more than 80% of the total 39Ar released and are interpreted as emplacement ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating results confirm Devonian and Jurassic K/Ar ages obtained from similar dykes of the same region. Geochemically, the basalt dykes are subalkaline in composition with 45-50 wt.% SiO2. Incompatible trace elements and rare earth elements are lower than that of the Cameroon Line basalts. Overall geochemical characteristics of the basalt dykes much more closely resemble those of tholeiites of the Benue Through in Nigeria that are interpreted as related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The combination of 40Ar/39Ar ages, major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry data demonstrate a magmatic phase that is significantly older and different of that of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line and younger than the dominantly granitic Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the region. These findings offer new clues for a better understanding of the tectonic history of the region, particularly the origin of the Cameroon Line and Africa-South America pre-drift reconstitutions.

  12. Age and origin of Pan-African granites and associated U-Mo mineralization at Ekomédion, southwestern Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosoh Bambi, C. K.; Frimmel, H. E.; Zeh, A.; Suh, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Various granites in the Pan-African Neoproterozoic Fold Belt of Cameroon were investigated in an area around Ekomédion (southwestern Cameroon) in order to set constraints on their genesis and age. The studied granites were likely emplaced in relation with the Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ). Hence dating the granites provides an age for the dextral transcurrent tectonics event responsible for the CCSZ. The interest in these granitic rocks is spurred by noticeable Mo and U mineralization in a pegmatite that is hosted by two-mica granite. The studied granites comprise post-collisional syn-D4 two-mica granite, alkali-feldspar granite, biotite-rich granite and porphyritic granite. Based on lithogeochemical data, the granites can be characterized as ferroan, peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline. The biotite-rich and alkali feldspar granites show I-type characteristics, whereas the porphyritic and two-mica granites reveal S-type affinity. All of them are marked by strong light rare earth element fractionation and a strong negative Eu anomaly, and they are strongly depleted in Ba, Nb, P, Sr and Ti, pointing to a crustal origin. Crust assimilation is also evident from zircon xenocrysts in the two-mica granite with upper intercept U-Pb ages of 2051 ± 44 Ma and 1550 ± 24 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircon, monazite and xenotime grains/domains yielded indistinguishable ages for both the two-mica granite (578 ± 4 Ma) and the porphyritic granite (579 ± 3 Ma). An identical age (578 ± 11 Ma) was obtained by Re-Os dating of molybdenite that occurs together with uraninite in pegmatite within the two-mica granite, thus clearly attesting to a late-magmatic origin of the ore. The studied granites have many similarities, both in composition and age, with granites in Nigeria and northeastern Brazil, supporting the continuation of a large Pan-African/Braziliano magmatic province from west-central Africa to northeastern Brazil.

  13. Perspectives in genetics and sickle cell disease prevention in Africa: beyond the preliminary data from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane Ngo; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Cameroon is a country of 20 million inhabitants with a carrier frequency of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) ranging from 8 to 34 % [1]. Despite the exceptional severity, illustrated by a high prevalence of stroke (6·7%) among SCD patients [2], there are no specialized centres for lifelong medical care in Cameroon. Therefore, management needs to be accompanied by various preventive strategies. Prevention also extends to early detection with the aim to identify SCD in the foetus, provide reproductive options and options for treatment and prognosis. PMID:26044545

  14. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low. PMID:3501739

  15. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions. PMID:22235625

  16. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of trees in Fundong, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Focho, Derek A; Newu, Muh C; Anjah, Mendi G; Nwana, Fongod A; Ambo, Fonge B

    2009-01-01

    Ethnobotanical investigations were conducted in Fundong Central Subdivision in the Northwest Region of Cameroon to identify trees growing in the area and collect information on their uses by the local people. This research covered a period of 12 months from May 2007 to April 2008. Ethnobotanical information was collected through the show-and-tell/semi-structured method and personal interviews during field trips. Three villages were investigated. A total of 82 tree species were identified belonging to 70 genera and 42 families. Among these species, 40 were widely used by the local people in traditional medicine to treat 48 human ailments. Tree species were also used for fuel wood, construction materials, wood carving and honey production. Leaves and barks were commonly used in traditional medicine while the wood, branches and the entire plants were commonly used for other purposes. In spite of the scarcity of natural forests in the study area, the local populations continue to depend on indigenous and exotic trees in their surroundings for their survival. There is therefore need for cultivation, protection and sustainable management of these valuable resources for rural livelihoods. PMID:19555468

  18. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  19. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.

    2005-05-01

    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  20. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile ZK; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  1. Mini-TV: The Case for Cassettes -- The Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Describes a television system proposed for rural Alaska employing a core of locally selected programs transmitted via satellite plus a cassette machine for program substitutions as a way to maximize local participation. (JMF)

  2. Medical science in Siberia: Oxygen exchange in the Far North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, V.; Yegunova, M.

    1979-01-01

    Differences in oxygen conditions between the native and migrant Siberian population were studied in relation to respiratory function, arterial and venous blood indicators and acid-base indicators. Significant adaptation differences were ascertained between the two populations.

  3. Harvesting the Riches of Experiential Learning in the Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the setting and operation of the traditional winter fish net in the remote Native village of Nibinamik (Summer Beaver) in northern Ontario. Discusses the incorporation of this activity into the high school program of cultural and experiential education. (SV)

  4. ESCD/Alaska: An Educational Demonstration -- The Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orvik, James M.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluates the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration in Alaska project in educational television within the context of the rapid social change in land ownership, employment, and schooling. (JMF)

  5. Television on the Bering Strait -- The Far North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, R. J.; Peterson, W. Jack

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using videotaped programing as an alternative to satellite communication for television broadcasting in an isolated Alaskan village. Discusses the impact of television generally and local control in particular on the community. (JMF)

  6. Language Ideology and the Colonial Legacy in Cameroon Schools: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon prior to colonization had many languages, with none having precedence over the other. With the development of trade and the installation of missionaries along its coast, a number of local and European languages gained prominence. English became the most widely used western language. It established itself as the language of trade and of…

  7. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  8. [An inventory of activities related to the collection of demographic data concerning households in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fotso, E

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to list, following a brief introduction, all the projects undertaken since 1921 that have included the collection of demographic data concerning Cameroon. Information is included on the title of the census or survey, date, geographic coverage, executing agency, and publication of results. PMID:12339838

  9. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  10. Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: the case of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kingue, S; Rosskam, E; Bela, AC; Adjidja, A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Cameroon has a severe shortage of human resources for health (HRH) and those that are available are concentrated in urban areas. Approach As the result of a national emergency plan for the years 2006–2008, innovative strategies and a multisectoral partnership – led by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by diverse national and international organizations – were developed to address the shortages and maldistribution of HRH in Cameroon. Local setting At the time that the emergency plan was developed, Cameroon had health services of poor quality, an imbalance between HRH training and employment, a maldistribution of HRH between urban and rural areas and a poor allocation of financial resources for HRH. It also lacked an accreditation system for use in the training of health workers. Relevant changes Between 2007 and 2009, the number of active health workers in Cameroon increased by 36%, several new institutions for higher education in health care and training schools for paramedical staff and midwives were opened, and a national strategy for universal health coverage was developed. Lessons learnt In the improvement of HRH, strong leadership is needed to ensure effective coordination and communication between the many different stakeholders. A national process of coordination and facilitation can produce a consensus-based view of the main HRH challenges. Once these challenges have been identified, the stakeholders can plan appropriate interventions that are coordinated, evidence-based and coherent. PMID:24347711

  11. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  12. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  13. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  14. Exploring the Game of "Julirde": A Mathematical-Educational Game Played by Fulbe Children in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Paulus

    2001-01-01

    Presents an educational mathematical activity from Africa. Shows how one child explored the game of Julirde, a game of the mosque emphasizing problem solving and symmetry. Offers several suggestions for exploring the game from the central African country of Cameroon in the elementary school mathematics classroom. (ASK)

  15. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notermans, Catrien

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  16. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  17. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  18. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  19. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  20. The Dynamics of Political Competition and the Future of Democratization Process in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forje, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper looks at the process of democratisation in Cameroon and its failure to respond to the basic tenets of democracy that meets the aspirations of the people. It argues that though there have been some quasi moves following the collapse of the Soviet Union in trying to open the political space, this has been done to meet donors wish and not…

  1. Is Language Planning an Indispensable Tool for Developing Nations? The Case of Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Tabe Florence Ako

    2000-01-01

    Suggest that because language planning is a tool in the service of many different latent goals, it rarely conforms to a rational paradigm of decision-making or problem-solving. This article presents a linguistic profile of Cameroon. (Author/VWL)

  2. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  3. Local Agency in the Development of Minority Languages: Three Language Committees in Northwest Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Examples of effective community-based action in defence of minority indigenous language are relatively few. However, three indigenous language committees of Northwest Cameroon, the Bafut, Kom and Nso' language committees, provide dynamic models of the role that community-based organisations can play in the development and maintenance of minority…

  4. Students' Indiscipline: Types, Causes and Possible Solutions: The Case of Secondary Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwokabuenui, Ponfua Yhayeh

    2015-01-01

    This study explores students' indiscipline in secondary schools in Cameroon. The purpose of this research is to examine the familiar or common forms, the causes and probable ways to curb indiscipline in schools. The study made use of descriptive survey research design. The study was guided by four research questions whereas two hypotheses were…

  5. Frequency and Use of Modals in Cameroon English and Application to Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This contribution investigates the frequency patterns of the modal verbs as they occur in the one-million-word corpus of Cameroon written English. An analysis of dominant senses of some of the modals is also attempted. I have used results and statistical figures from British and American English (as reported in studies such as Biber et al. 1999…

  6. "A Child has Many Mothers": Views of Child Fostering in Northwestern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This article examines 20 fostering arrangements in a growing urban community in northwestern Cameroon from the perspectives of those involved. Analysis of interviews with caregivers and birth mothers suggests that the nature of adult relationships is central to children's living arrangements. Three caregiver-mother relationship profiles are…

  7. Technical and Vocational Education in Cameroon and Critical Avenues for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, S. Megan

    2007-01-01

    Technical and vocational education (TVE) can influence development and economic progress for post-colonial societies. Some newly independent sub-Saharan African countries attempted curricular transformation that might produce a skilled workforce through widespread access to versions of TVE. In Cameroon, no such post-colonial curricular revolution…

  8. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  9. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  10. Deep seismic imaging across the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.B.; Rosendahl, B.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a southwest-trending line of volcanic centers that extends from near Lake Chad to at least the island of Pagalu. The Sao Tome and Principe Islands along the CVL have intrigued explorationists for decades because oil seeps and windows of sediments occur on them. Recently the 'PROBE Study' acquired a grid of deep-imagining multifold seismic data cross submarine portions of the CVL. Profiles crossing the CVL show upward flexure of oceanic crust and Moho reflections of more than 3 km locally. Upper Cretaceous/lower Tertiary drift sequence reflectors are concordant to crustal uplift, and shoal toward the islands where they are enmeshed with volcanics. These sediments are apparently the source of oil seeps on Sao Tome and Principe. On the flanks of CVL islands and seamounts, regionally continuous sequence boundaries are observed onlapping rotated older sediment reflectors. These sequence boundaries display either base-discordant onlap patterns or divergent onlap patterns, both indicative of uplift, not eustatic fluctuation. The 'uplift sequence boundaries' probably result from uplift associated with pulses of colcanism in the Miocene. It is likely this arching is the equivalent of the Miocene Adamawa uplift that occurs on land. The authors hypothesize crustal uplift was produced by upwelling of the asthenosphere and upward percolation of light mantle fluids. Features which may be the tops of magma bodies 2-20 km wide are imaged in some of the reflection profiles, and possible shear zones and fluid conduits are observed as sub-Moho dipping reflector events.

  11. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  12. Cardiac involvement in HIV infected people in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nzuobontane, D; Blackett, K; Kuaban, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the cardiac abnormalities in HIV infected patients in relation to the clinical stage of the disease and the immunological status of the patients. Methods: A total 75 consecutive patients tested for HIV on the basis of clinical suspicion of the disease from July to September 1996 at the University Hospital Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon were recruited. The patients were classified into AIDS, HIV positive non-AIDS, and HIV negative according to clinical findings and outcome of ELISA and western blot testing. Every patient underwent a clinical examination, two dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, and blood lymphocyte typing. Results: Dilated cardiomyopathy occurred in 7/30 (23.33%) AIDS patients, 1/24 (4.17%) HIV positive non-AIDS patient, but in none of the HIV negative patients. Other echocardiographic abnormalities included pericardial separation, effusion, thickening, and mitral valve prolapse. Although these abnormalities were more frequent in HIV infected patients, the differences did not reach levels of statistical significance. Dilated cardiomyopathy occurred in six (31.58%) of the patients with a CD4 cell count ≤100/mm3 and two (6.06%) in those with absolute CD4 counts >100/mm3 (χ2 = 4.02, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Cardiovascular abnormalities are frequent in African HIV infected patients but clinically discrete. Low CD4 cell counts are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. These abnormalities should be expected with greater frequency in cardiological clinical practice as management of opportunistic infections improves in a situation of continued high disease prevalence in Africa. PMID:12496326

  13. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  14. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change. PMID:26090007

  15. Proterozoic history of the Borborema province (NE Brazil): Correlations with neighboring cratons and Pan-African belts and implications for the evolution of western Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, SéRgio Pacheco

    2003-08-01

    Geological and geochronological correlations between Borborema province (NE Brazil) and neighboring cratons and Brasiliano/Pan-African belts indicate that the Amazonian, West African, and São Francisco/Congo cratons and the basement of the Araguaia, Borborema, Nigerian, and Cameroon provinces were part of the Atlantica supercontinent. This continent was established at the end of the Transamazonian/Eburnean cycle (˜2.0 Ga) and, apart from ubiquitous taphrogenesis in the 1.8-1.7 Ga interval, remained largely unaffected for the following 1 Ga. Around 1 Ga an important magmatic event in Borborema province correlates with rifting episodes and anorogenic magmatism in the São Francisco, Congo, and Amazonian cratons. These events are interpreted as failed attempts to break up Atlantica, which at this time may have been part of the larger Rodinia supercontinent. Renewed extensional conditions in Borborema province during the middle and late Neoproterozoic are attributed to far-field stresses transmitted to the interior of Atlantica by outwardly dipping subduction zones that encircled its northern (present day coordinates) portion. The rarity of petrotectonic assemblages typical of subduction zone environments indicates that extension did not evolve enough to form large oceans basins and thus that the Borborema province essentially includes reworked intracontinental domains. Regional deformation and metamorphism, starting at 650-640 Ma, and shear zone development, beginning at 590-595 Ma, were continuously developed through time and were synchronous throughout most of the Borborema, Araguaia, Cameroon, and Nigerian provinces. Postorogenic conditions were reached 540-530 Myr ago, while active deformation was still occurring in other belts that accreted around Atlantica to form western Gondwana.

  16. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line from SKS and SKKS Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, F. W.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Reusch, A. M.; Euler, G. G.; Shore, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an 1800-km-long line of Cenozoic volcanism that runs from the island of Annobòn in the Atlantic to northeast Cameroon. It does not show a chronological progression consistent with hotspot-related volcanism. We investigate seismic anisotropy to determine the upper mantle lattice preferred orientation and constrain the mantle flow pattern. For this study, we use a temporary array of 32 broadband seismographs deployed throughout Cameroon for 1 to 2 years between 2005 and 2007 along with two additional permanent seismographs in adjacent countries. Using the SKS splitting method described by Silver and Chan (1991) and the analysis program of George Helffrich, we investigate SKS and SKKS arrivals from 44 earthquakes with sources 95 to 145 degrees away and magnitudes greater than 6.0. First we determine the fast direction and lag time indicated beneath each station for each event, and then we stack the high-quality measurements for each station to find the final fast axis and lag time. We interpret the fast directions as indicating the direction of flow in the upper mantle, as suggested by laboratory experiments and previous studies of mantle xenoliths. Our results indicate four regions with different anisotropic parameters in the upper mantle. Two regions indicate anisotropy with a northeast-southwest-oriented fast direction and split time of about 1 s: the Congo craton in Southern Cameroon and the eastern end of the CVL. Between the Congo craton and the CVL, in central Cameroon, the fast direction is variable and has a small lag time of about 0.3 s. Along the CVL, the fast direction has an approximate north-south orientation, with a lag time of about 0.7 s. The splitting values in Southern Cameroon are consistent with large splitting times and NE directions found at GSN stations in Gabon and the Central African Republic and probably indicate a strong consistent anisotropic fabric frozen into the cratonic lithosphere. Splitting

  17. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  18. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sonké, Bonaventure; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontanacrassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  19. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update.

    PubMed

    Ndjemaï, Hamadou N M; Patchoké, Salomon; Atangana, Jean; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Fréderic; Bilong, Charles F Bilong; Reimer, Lisa; Cornel, Anthony; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Fondjo, Etienne

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in populations of A. gambiae s.s. than in A. arabiensis. The West and East African knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were found in both species but at much higher frequencies in A. gambiae s.s. The West Africa kdr mutant was also more frequent in the A. gambiae S form than in the M form. No resistance to bendiocarb and malathion was found. Carbamate and organophosphorous compounds could thus be used as alternatives in locations in Cameroon where pyrethroid-resistant populations are found. PMID:19155034

  20. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  1. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  2. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost

  3. [Fertility and mortality in the urban agglomeration of Banyo (Cameroon): the influence of venereal diseases].

    PubMed

    Hurault, J

    1983-01-01

    The demographic situation in the city of Banyo, Cameroon, is described for the period 1952-1976 using survey and census data. This city was characterized by a large slave population, particularly in the nineteenth century, and slavery remained common up to the 1960s. The consequences of slavery, including disruption of family life, concubinage, and high rates of venereal disease, are noted. Fertility and mortality differences among the slave and free populations are analyzed by sex. (summary in ENG, SPA) PMID:12312973

  4. Cadmium content of Cameroonian cigarettes: Comparison with other foreign brands sold in Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboue, H.S. ); Tamboue, E.D.; Leno, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Given the increasing concern about heavy metal and in particular cadmium toxicity, the present study has two objectives. First, the authors wanted to measure and compare the amount of cadmium found in Cameroonian cigarettes and in foreign brands sold in Cameroon. Secondly, they measured the amount of cadmium in smoke, ashes and the amount retained by filters of some Cameroonian cigarettes after using a smoking machine.

  5. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    PubMed

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex. PMID:17373068

  6. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern. PMID:25957194

  7. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases. PMID:26608274

  8. Evidence from Cameroon reveals differences in the genetic structure and histories of chimpanzee populations.

    PubMed

    Gonder, Mary Katherine; Locatelli, Sabrina; Ghobrial, Lora; Mitchell, Matthew W; Kujawski, Joseph T; Lankester, Felix J; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2011-03-22

    The history of the genus Pan is a topic of enduring interest. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often divided into subspecies, but the population structure and genetic history of chimpanzees across Africa remain unclear. Some population genetics studies have led to speculation that, until recently, this species constituted a single population with ongoing gene flow across its range, which resulted in a continuous gradient of allele frequencies. Chimpanzees, designated here as P. t. ellioti, occupy the Gulf of Guinea region that spans southern Nigeria and western Cameroon at the center of the distribution of this species. Remarkably, few studies have included individuals from this region, hindering the examination of chimpanzee population structure across Africa. Here, we analyzed microsatellite genotypes of 94 chimpanzees, including 32 designated as P. t. ellioti. We find that chimpanzees fall into three major populations: (i) Upper Guinea in western Africa (P. t. verus); (ii) the Gulf of Guinea region (P. t. ellioti); and (iii) equatorial Africa (P. t. troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii). Importantly, the Gulf of Guinea population is significantly different genetically from the others, sharing a last common ancestor with the populations in Upper Guinea ~0.46 million years ago (mya) and equatorial Africa ~0.32 mya. Equatorial chimpanzees are subdivided into up to three populations occupying southern Cameroon, central Africa, and eastern Africa, which may have constituted a single population until ~0.10-0.11 mya. Finally, occasional hybridization may be occurring between the Gulf of Guinea and southern Cameroon populations. PMID:21368170

  9. Distribution and heterogeneity of hepatitis C genotypes in hepatitis patients in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Christophe; Njouom, Richard; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Dubois, Martine; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Vessière, Aurelia; Timba, Isabelle; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Izopet, Jacques; Nerrienet, Eric

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects humans world-wide. The virus genome varies greatly and it has several genotypes. HCV infection is highly prevalent in Central Africa and Cameroon. Initial studies on the genetic variability of HCV showed infection with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4. We have now sequenced the NS5b and E2 regions of 156 HCV isolates collected from patients presenting for diagnosis in Yaounde and used the data to describe the distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in patients with hepatitis in Cameroon. Genotype 1 was more frequent than Genotypes 4 and 2. Genotypes 1 and 4 were highly heterogeneous, containing many subtypes described previously (1b, 1c, 1e, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) and unsubtyped groups. There was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5b and E2 sequence clustering. The Genotype 2 sequences did not vary. Neither subject age nor gender influenced HCV distribution. HCV Genotypes 1 and 4 are very heterogeneous in Cameroon, perhaps due to ancient infections. The homogeneity of HCV Genotype 2 indicates its more recent introduction from western Africa. PMID:16173014

  10. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence. PMID:22958546

  11. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon. PMID:27055484

  12. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  13. The Nature of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Seismic Anisotropy and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; De Plaen, R. S. M.; Gallacher, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Cameroon geological record spans more than 3 billion years, from Congo Craton basement formation during the Archean, to Cenozoic volcanism along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Intriguingly, the CVL, which straddles the continent-ocean boundary in central West Africa, displays no age-progression along its length. Analogies with other hotspot chains worldwide are thus not well established. To help address this issue, we present a receiver function study of bulk crustal structure, and an SKS shear wave splitting study of seismic anisotropy using data from a recent broadband seismic experiment in Cameroon. Within the cratonic Cameroon, crustal Vp/Vs ratios show little variation between Archean and Proterozoic domains, perhaps indicating similar mechanisms of crustal formation during more than 2 billion years of the Precambrian. The edge of the Congo Craton, however, is characterized by an abrupt change in crustal thickness of ~5 km, which constrains the northern and western edges of the craton to be ~4N and ~10E respectively. Along the CVL, Vp/Vs ratios are low (~1.74) compared to other hotspots worldwide, providing no evidence for either partial melt, or mafic crustal intrusion due to Cenozoic volcanism. The anisotropy study indicates that fast polarisation directions parallel the trend of the Central African Sear Zone (CASZ), which developed during the breakup of the Pangea supercontinent during Cretaceous times. Beneath much of the CVL, however, we observe only null SKS splitting observations. The lack of lithospheric fabric here may be the result of it being destroyed during Cenozoic hotspot tectonism. However, there is no evidence for anisotropic aligned melt within the lithosphere, unlike hotspots such as Ethiopia, with the implication that neither a CASZ-related lithospheric fabric nor horizontally oriented asthenospheric fabrics exist beneath the line. This finding is in agreement with the receiver function study, and petrological studies that suggest

  14. Traditional medicine: past, present and future research and development prospects and integration in the National Health System of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fokunang, C N; Ndikum, V; Tabi, O Y; Jiofack, R B; Ngameni, B; Guedje, N M; Tembe-Fokunang, E A; Tomkins, P; Barkwan, S; Kechia, F; Asongalem, E; Ngoupayou, J; Torimiro, N J; Gonsu, K H; Sielinou, V; Ngadjui, B T; Angwafor, F; Nkongmeneck, A; Abena, O M; Ngogang, J; Asonganyi, T; Colizzi, V; Lohoue, J; Kamsu-Kom

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. In the last decade traditional medicine has become very popular in Cameroon, partly due to the long unsustainable economic situation in the country. The high cost of drugs and increase in drug resistance to common diseases like malaria, bacteria infections and other sexually transmitted diseases has caused the therapeutic approach to alternative traditional medicine as an option for concerted search for new chemical entities (NCE). The World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with the Cameroon Government has put in place a strategic platform for the practice and development of TM in Cameroon. This platform aims at harmonizing the traditional medicine practice in the country, create a synergy between TM and modern medicine and to institutionalize a more harmonized integrated TM practices by the year 2012 in Cameroon. An overview of the practice of TM past, present and future perspectives that underpins the role in sustainable poverty alleviation has been discussed. This study gives an insight into the strategic plan and road map set up by the Government of Cameroon for the organisational framework and research platform for the practice and development of TM, and the global partnership involving the management of TM in the country. PMID:22468007

  15. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  16. Evolution and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Douala Basin, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Batupe, M.; Tampu, S.; Aboma, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    The Douala Basin is a stable Atlantic-type, predominantly offshore basin and forms the northern terminal of a series of divergent passive margin basins located on the Southwest coast of Africa that resulted from the rifting of Africa from South America. An integration of new studies including detailed well, biostratigraphic, sedimentological, geochemical and seismic data has confirmed that the tectonostratigraphic evolution in the basin can be broadly divided into three developmental phases: the Syn-rift, Transitional and Drift phases. This basis has been explored intermittently for hydrocarbon for the past 40 years with two important gas fields discovered and no commercial oil found as yet. This early gas discovery and a corresponding lack of any significant oil discovery, led early operators to term this basin as essentially a gas province. However, recent geochemical analyses of various oil-seeps and oil samples from various localities in the basin, using state-of-the-art techniques have demonstrated that this basin is a potential oil prone basin. The results show that two models of oil sourcing are possible: a Lower Cretaceous lacustrine saline source, similar to the presalt basins of Gabon or a marine Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary source, similar to the neighbouring Rio del Rey/Niger Delta Complex. Additionally, seismic reflection data also demonstrate a variety of reservoir horizons, including submarine fans, channel-like features and buried paleohighs, all interbedded within regionally extensive, uniformity bounded mudstone units. Hence, it is now quite evident that within this basin, there exist a vast potential for a wide variety of stratigraphic, structural and combined traps. These features, which are considered to have significantly enhanced the prospectivity of this basin, will be discussed in this paper.

  17. The Development of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Broadband Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basow, Ian; Gallacher, Ryan; De Plaen, Raphael; Chambers, Emma; Keir, Derek; Keane, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) straddles the continent-ocean boundary in west Africa, but exhibits no clear age progression. This renders it difficult to explain by traditional plume/plate-motion hypotheses; thus there remains no consensus on the processes responsible for its development. To understand better the nature of asthenospheric flow beneath the CVL, and the effects of hotspot tectonism on the overlying lithosphere, we analyse mantle seismic anisotropy, bulk crustal seismic structure, and seismicity. Cameroon is relatively aseismic compared to hotspots elsewhere, with little evidence for magmatism-related crustal deformation away from Mt. Cameroon, which last erupted in 2000. Low crustal Vp/Vs ratios (~1.74) and a lack of evidence for seismically anisotropic aligned melt within the lithosphere both point towards a poorly developed magmatic plumbing system beneath the CVL. Null SKS splitting observations dominate the western continental portion of the CVL; elsewhere, anisotropic fast polarization directions parallel the Precambrian Central African Shear Zone (CASZ). The nulls may imply the CVL convecting upper mantle is isotropic, or characterized by a vertically oriented olivine LPO fabric, perhaps due to a mantle plume or the upward limb of a small-scale convection cell. Precambrian CASZ fossil lithospheric fabrics along the CVL may have been thermomechanically eroded during Gondwana breakup ~130Ma, with an isotropic lower lithosphere subsequently re-forming due to cooling of the slow-moving African plate. Small-scale lithospheric delamination during the 30Ma-Recent development of the line may also have contributed to the erosion of the CASZ lithospheric fossil anisotropy, at the same time as generating the low-volume alkaline basaltic volcanism along the CVL.

  18. The development of magmatism along the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from seismicity and seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Plaen, R. S. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Chambers, E. L.; Keir, D.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keane, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) straddles the continent-ocean boundary in West Africa but exhibits no clear age progression. This renders it difficult to explain by traditional plume/plate motion hypotheses; thus, there remains no consensus on the processes responsible for its development. To understand better the nature of asthenospheric flow beneath the CVL, and the effects of hotspot tectonism on the overlying lithosphere, we analyze mantle seismic anisotropy and seismicity. Cameroon is relatively aseismic compared to hotspots elsewhere, with little evidence for magmatism-related crustal deformation away from Mount Cameroon, which last erupted in 2000. Low crustal Vp/Vs ratios (˜1.74) and a lack of evidence for seismically anisotropic aligned melt within the lithosphere both point toward a poorly developed magmatic plumbing system beneath the CVL. Null SKS splitting observations dominate the western continental portion of the CVL; elsewhere, anisotropic fast polarization directions parallel the strike of the Precambrian Central African Shear Zone (CASZ). The nulls may imply that the convecting upper mantle beneath the CVL is isotropic, or characterized by a vertically oriented olivine lattice preferred orientation fabric, perhaps due to a mantle plume or the upward limb of a small-scale convection cell. Precambrian CASZ fossil lithospheric fabrics along the CVL may have been thermomechanically eroded during Gondwana breakup ˜130 Ma, with an isotropic lower lithosphere subsequently reforming due to cooling of the slow-moving African plate. Small-scale lithospheric delamination during the 30 Ma recent development of the line may also have contributed to the erosion of the CASZ lithospheric fossil anisotropy, at the same time as generating the low-volume alkaline basaltic volcanism along the CVL.

  19. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Lezama, Ines; Asse, Marie-Louise; Okala, Georges; Bosu, William K.; Fanou, Nadia; Mbala, Ludvine; Zagre, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. Results In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program) were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country. PMID:26818193

  20. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  1. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  2. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  3. Early Infant Male Circumcision in Cameroon and Senegal: Demand, Service Provision, and Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Kenu, Ernest; Sint, Tin Tin; Kamenga, Claude; Ekpini, Rene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Male circumcision is almost universal in North and West Africa, and practiced for various reasons. Yet there is little documentation on service delivery, clinical procedures, policies, and programmatic strategies. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) commissioned country program reviews in 2014 to shed light on the delivery of male circumcision services for infants in Cameroon and Senegal. Methods: We conducted a policy desk review, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions at health centers and in communities. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted 21 key informant interviews (13 with regional and district officers, 5 with national officers, and 3 with UNICEF officials) and 36 focus group discussions (6 with men, 6 with women, 12 with adolescent boys, and 12 with service providers). Some of the men and women were parents of the adolescents who participated in the focus group discussions. In the French-speaking areas, the focus group discussions were conducted in French through an accredited translator, audio recorded, and transcribed into English. Results: All of the facilities we visited in Cameroon and Senegal offer medical male circumcision, with 10 out of 12 performing early infant male circumcision (EIMC) routinely. Neither country has policies, guidelines, or strategies for EIMC. The procedure is done mainly by untrained service providers, with some providers using modern circumcision devices. There are no key messages on EIMC for families; the increasing demand for EIMC is led by the community. Conclusion: Despite the absence of national policies and strategies, EIMC is routinely offered at all levels of the health care system in Cameroon and Senegal, mainly by untrained service providers. Improving circumcision services will require guidelines for EIMC and improvements in training, equipment, supply chains, recordkeeping, and demand creation. PMID:27413080

  4. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  5. [Hygiene and microbiologic quality of ice creams produced in Cameroon. A public health problem].

    PubMed

    Wouafo, M N; Njine, T; Tailliez, R

    1996-01-01

    Three hundred samples of ice cream produced in two main towns in Cameroon (Douala and Yaoundé) are evaluated for their hygienic quality. The microbiologic examinations show that many of them are contaminated with bacteria of faecal origin, pathogenic Staphylococcus and Salmonella respectively in 71.3, 49.6 and 5% of the products examinations in the study. The use of non potable water and the disrespect of the hygienic rules during the production are the main causes of contamination. Recommendations are made to preserve the public health in the developing country. PMID:9264738

  6. A case of abdominal textiloma following gynecologic surgery at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2013-01-01

    Textiloma is the inadvertent retention of a textile foreign body on the surgical site. It is a rare complication of surgery but which carries severe consequences for both patients and surgeons in terms of morbi-mortality and medico-legal procedures respectively. We herein report the case of an abdominal textiloma in a 42 year old woman who underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. We also depict the errors that led to this mishap in a tertiary hospital in Yaounde (Cameroon). The textiloma was recognized six weeks after the causative surgery and removed by laparotomy without further complications. PMID:24876905

  7. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  8. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB), which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low-cost way to

  9. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY POWER FROM SUSTAINABLE SMALL HYDRO POWER SYSTEMS – A CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECT IN BANGANG, CAMEROON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydro-turbine developed in Phase I will be fabricated on-site in Bangang, Cameroon using locally sourced materials. Data of the performance tests will be collected and analyzed using appropriate engineering analysis tools. A second trip will be planned for extensive testin...

  11. Olivine-hosted glass inclusions from Scoriae erupted in 1954 2000 at Mount Cameroon volcano, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, C. E.; Luhr, J. F.; Njome, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of major, trace, and volatile elements are reported for olivine-hosted glass inclusions from intraplate-type, nepheline-normative trachybasaltic to basanitic scoria samples representing five historical eruptions (1954, 1959, 1982, 1999, and 2000) of Mount Cameroon (4.20°N, 9.17°E). Bulk-rock and mineral compositions are also reported for the same scoria samples and for lava samples from the same eruptions. Mineral analyses are also presented for a spinel-harzburgite mantle xenolith, which we suggest may be the youngest (and freshest) mantle sample known. Mount Cameroon magmas have eruption temperatures of 1150-1200 °C and have relatively high oxygen fugacities just above the trend of the synthetic Ni-NiO buffer. The most primitive glass inclusion analyzed is also the most volatile-rich, with 1.7 wt.% H 2O, 967 ppm CO 2, 1530 ppm F, 2400 ppm S, and 1270 ppm Cl. The Mount Cameroon F contents are the highest known for basaltic glasses. The relatively high CO 2 contents in Mount Cameroon glass inclusions support the interpretation that the CO 2 gas responsible for the Lakes Monoun and Nyos gas disasters is magmatic in origin.

  12. An Exploration of the Relationship between Language Attitudes and Ideologies in a Study of Francophone Students of English in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyers, Charlyn; Abongdia, Jane-Francis

    2010-01-01

    What are the similarities and differences between the concepts "language attitudes" (LAs) and "language ideologies" (LIs)? The need to answer this question arose from a study done by Abongdia in Cameroon with Francophone high school students of English to determine their attitudes towards English as well as their motivation for learning the…

  13. English-Medium Instruction in an English-French Bilingual Setting: Issues of Quality and Equity in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    Despite its multilingual nature Cameroon's educational system provides for full immersion into either French-medium or English-medium education from the first year schooling. Following political tensions in the early 1990s the country decided to reaffirm its commitment to promote bilingualism in the educational system with the outcome being the…

  14. Age, geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks in the Bafang region, West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuimegnie Ngongang, Nicaise Blaise; Kamgang, Pierre; Chazot, Gilles; Agranier, Arnaud; Bellon, Hervé; Nonnotte, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    The origin of the volcanism in the Cameroon Volcanic Line and the nature of its mantle sources are still highly controversial. We present major and trace element compositions as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic results on mafic and intermediate lavas from the Bafang area in the central part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. The lavas range from basanites and basalts to hawaiites and mugearites with an alkaline affinity and were emplaced between 10 and 6 Ma ago. The evolution from basalts and basanites to more differentiated rocks involved fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, but the isotopic compositions show that crustal contamination processes affected some magmas during their ascent in the crust. Basalts and basanites originated from a garnet-bearing mantle source and their differences are mostly due to variable degrees of partial melting. The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated samples imply the participation of three distinct mantle components, the depleted MORB mantle (not dominant), an enriched component and a Pb radiogenic component similar to the source of the Mount Cameroon. Combined with previously published isotopic data from the Cameroon Volcanic Line, our new results indicate that the source of the volcanism mostly reside in the lithospheric mantle and is different from what can be expected from the melting of a mantle accreted from or modified during the emplacement of the St. Helena mantle plume.

  15. "This Is No French School": Language and Education Traditions in Primary Schooling in Cameroon -- A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on the concepts of instrumental and expressive orders to analyse school practice in two Anglophone and two Francophone primary schools in Cameroon, and how micro processes of language socialisation in the schools studied instantiated Anglophone and Francophone education traditions and related to macro processes of systems of…

  16. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  17. ''I Eat to Be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.'' Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon, Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapi, Leonie N.; Omoloko, Cecile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Haglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Settings: Yaounde urban and Bandja rural areas. Participants: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural…

  18. Barriers to Community Participation in Development Planning: Lessons from the Mutengene (Cameroon) Self-Help Water Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.

    2002-01-01

    A community water supply project in Cameroon illustrates the following constraints on community participation in development: paternalistic authorities, prescriptive role of the state, selective participation, bias toward "hard" issues, inattention to negative results, group conflicts, gatekeeping, pressure for immediate results, population size,…

  19. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  20. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  1. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  2. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  3. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Millard, James D.; Nji, Theobald M.; Tantoh, William F.; Nyoh, Doris N.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Methods Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Results Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. Conclusion We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. PMID:25969503

  4. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  5. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Minang, Peter A; McCall, Michael K; Bressers, Hans Th A

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of "community capacity" to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  6. Locally Confined Clonal Complexes of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Two Buruli Ulcer Endemic Regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Sarah; Minyem, Jacques C.; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre Franklin; Junghanss, Thomas; Brites, Daniela; Harris, Simon R.; Parkhill, Julian; Pluschke, Gerd; Lamelas Cabello, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU), which has been reported from over 30 countries worldwide. The majority of notified patients come from West African countries, such as Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon. All clinical isolates of M. ulcerans from these countries are closely related and their genomes differ only in a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a molecular epidemiological study with clinical isolates from patients from two distinct BU endemic regions of Cameroon, the Nyong and the Mapé river basins. Whole genome sequencing of the M. ulcerans strains from these two BU endemic areas revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct clonal complexes. The strains from the Nyong river basin were genetically more diverse and less closely related to the M. ulcerans strain circulating in Ghana and Benin than the strains causing BU in the Mapé river basin. Conclusions Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that M. ulcerans clones diversify locally by the accumulation of SNPs. Case isolates coming from more recently emerging BU endemic areas, such as the Mapé river basin, may be less diverse than populations from longer standing disease foci, such as the Nyong river basin. Exchange of strains between distinct endemic areas seems to be rare and local clonal complexes can be easily distinguished by whole genome sequencing. PMID:26046531

  7. Doassansiopsis caldesiae sp. nov. and Doassansiopsis tomasii: two remarkable smut fungi from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Marcin; Vánky, Kálmán; Mossebo, Dominique C; Piatek, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Three recent collections of Doassansiopsis from western Cameroon are assessed taxonomically. Doassansiopsis caldesiae M. Piatek & Vánky is described as a new species from infected leaves of Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino. Its diagnostic characters are flat, nonthickened sori with spore balls as blackish, slightly elevated dots, more or less globoid spores, conspicuous cortical sterile cells and parasitism on Caldesia reniformis of family Alismataceae. The species is compared to another Doassansiopsis species on host plants belonging to family Alismataceae. Doassansiopsis tomasii Vánky is described from two localities on Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae), which represents the first report of this smut from Cameroon and western Africa. Similarities between this species and Doassansiopsis nymphaeae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Thirum. and D. ticonis M. Piepenbr. are outlined and the global distribution of the three taxa is mapped. The species concept in the genus Doassansiopsis is discussed, and a key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:18833759

  8. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  9. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombination in Cameroon by Use of Nonspecific Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iles, James C.; Njouom, Richard; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bonsall, David; Bowden, Rory; Trebes, Amy; Piazza, Paolo; Barnes, Ellie; Pépin, Jacques; Klenerman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recombination in the evolution and genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently uncertain. Only a small number of intergenotypic recombinants have been identified so far, and each has core and envelope genes classified as belonging to genotype 2. Here, we investigated two putative genotype 4/1 recombinants from southern Cameroon using a number of approaches, including standard Sanger sequencing, genotype-specific PCR amplification, and non-HCV-specific Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Recombination between genotypes 1 and 4 was confirmed in both samples, and the parental lineages of each recombinant belong to HCV subtypes that are cocirculating at a high prevalence in Cameroon. Using the RNA-seq approach, we obtained a complete genome for one sample, which contained a recombination breakpoint at the E2/P7 gene junction. We developed and applied a new method, called Deep SimPlot, which can be used to visualize and identify viral recombination directly from the short sequence reads created by next-generation sequencing in conjunction with a consensus sequence. PMID:26202126

  10. The Two-Phase Emergence of Non Pandemic HIV-1 Group O in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Feyertag, Felix; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mauclère, Philippe; Lachenal, Guillaume; Damond, Florence; De Oliveira, Fabienne; Lemée, Véronique; Simon, François; Robertson, David L; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the pandemic form of HIV-1 (group M), group O viruses are endemic in west central Africa, especially in Cameroon. However, little is known about group O’s genetic evolution, and why this highly divergent lineage has not become pandemic. Using a unique and large set of group O sequences from samples collected from 1987 to 2012, we find that this lineage has evolved in successive slow and fast phases of diversification, with a most recent common ancestor estimated to have existed around 1930 (1914–1944). The most rapid periods of diversification occurred in the 1950s and in the 1980s, and could be linked to favourable epidemiological contexts in Cameroon. Group O genetic diversity reflects this two-phase evolution, with two distinct populations potentially having different viral properties. The currently predominant viral population emerged in the 1980s, from an ancient population which had first developed in the 1950s, and is characterized by higher growth and evolutionary rates, and the natural presence of the Y181C resistance mutation, thought to confer a phenotypic advantage. Our findings show that although this evolutionary pattern is specific to HIV-1 group O, it paralleled the early spread of HIV-1 group M in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both viral lineages are likely to have benefited from similar epidemiological contexts. The relative role of virological and social factors in the distinct epidemic histories of HIV-1 group O and M needs to be reassessed. PMID:26241860

  11. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p < 0.05. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29

  12. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  13. Early Warning Indicators for HIV Drug Resistance in Cameroon during the Year 2010

    PubMed Central

    Billong, Serge C.; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S.; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; Mpoudi, Eitel N.; Ndumbe, Peter M.; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. Results The number of sites attaining the required performance are: 90% (36/40) for EWI1, 20% (8/40) for EWI2; 20% (8/40) for EWI3; 0% (0/37) for EWI4; and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI2, EWI3, and EWI4) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. Conclusions The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon. PMID:22615810

  14. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Methods Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. Results The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates > 98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. Conclusion In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in

  15. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  16. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  17. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  18. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  19. Parameter estimation based synchronization for an epidemic model with application to tuberculosis in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowong, Samuel; Kurths, Jurgen

    2010-10-01

    We propose a method based on synchronization to identify the parameters and to estimate the underlying variables for an epidemic model from real data. We suggest an adaptive synchronization method based on observer approach with an effective guidance parameter to update rule design only from real data. In order, to validate the identifiability and estimation results, numerical simulations of a tuberculosis (TB) model using real data of the region of Center in Cameroon are performed to estimate the parameters and variables. This study shows that some tools of synchronization of nonlinear systems can help to deal with the parameter and state estimation problem in the field of epidemiology. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, synchronization, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  20. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A.; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  1. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. PMID:27394634

  2. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  3. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV). PMID:27262944

  4. [Epidemiology of dracunculosis in the Mandara Mountains (North Cameroon). Organization of a control campaign].

    PubMed

    Ripert, C; Roche, B; Couprie, B; Patuano, E; Same-Ekobo, A; Kollo, B

    1987-01-01

    The map of the Mandara Mountains dracuntiasis focus showing the wells and water bodies, which are the transmission sites of the disease in the study area, shows that the focus is relatively well limited. The drilling of new wells, the protection of existing water bodies used for human consumption, the health education project and the treatment of water by temephos lead to ascertain that the number of Guinea worm cases seen is decreasing every year in the area where the project is meticulously performed. These encouraging results show that it is now possible to eliminate the Guinea worm from North Cameroon by extending the operations in progress to the comprehensive surface of the focus, including the remote areas in mountains and the satellite foci in the plain along the Nigerian border. PMID:2957561

  5. [Telemedicine, a medical social network for humanitarian aid between Spain and Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Manchón, David

    2015-01-01

    The application of information technologies and telecommunications in healthcare in southern countries can improve the health of millions of people living in poverty without access to high-quality health services. Specifically, telemedicine not synchronized with internet platforms is a very efficient option for international cooperation projects. Since its inception, the project Health 2.0: professionals from Africa-Spain connected, of the Spanish organization, Foundation Recover, Hospitals for Africa, has managed to connect health professionals from both continents with the goal of improving health in Cameroon. Thanks to a social network with the scientific format of case management and clinical updates, Spanish physicians collaborate through volunteer e-health in the training of their African colleagues to improve the quality of care provided to residents and also create sources of knowledge and research. PMID:25175358

  6. Pollen-rain-vegetation relationships along a forest-savanna transect in southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Vincens; Dubois; Guillet; Achoundong; Buchet; Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala V; de Namur C; Riera

    2000-07-01

    Modern soil and litter samples from southeastern Cameroon, collected along a continuous forest-savanna transect were analysed for pollen content to define modern pollen-vegetation relationships. The pollen results, completed and compared with botanical inventories, leaf area index and basal area measurements performed in the same area, clearly registered the physiognomy, the main floristic composition and floral richness of the two sampled ecosystems. Distortions were observed between sampled vegetations and their pollen rain, related to important differences in pollen production and dispersal of plant species: this is a general feature in many tropical regions. The pollen data in the area studied reflected well the recent transgression of forest versus savanna. This permitted us to define inside the forest ecosystem more successional vegetation communities than the botanical surveys allowed. PMID:10930605

  7. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes –environmental and water bug transmission– to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission. PMID:26658922

  8. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  9. Development of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae injected into Simulium species from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Eichner, M; Renz, A; Wahl, G; Enyong, P

    1991-07-01

    Microfilariae (mff) of the savanna and forest strains of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were injected intrathoracically into adult females of Simulium damnosum Theobald sensu stricto, S.sirbanum Vajime & Dunbar, S.squamosum Enderlein and S.mengense Vajime & Dunbar. Nine days post infection (pi) 27-29% of the savanna mff and 31-38% of the forest strain had developed to third-stage larvae (L3), irrespective of the fly species, size or injection dose (5, 10 or 15 mff). Savanna flies supported the development of forest O.volvulus better than forest flies, in contrast to the results after per os infections. Therefore, in these four species of the S.damnosum complex from Cameroon, the peritrophic membrane is considered to be the main factor limiting the success rate of microfilarial development following the ingestion of blood infections, while the fly's haemolymph and intracellular environment play minor roles. PMID:1768922

  10. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  11. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tchana, Angele N.; Moundipa, Paul F.; Tchouanguep, Félicité M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon. PMID:20195440

  12. Viable abdominal pregnancy: a case report in Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of abdominal pregnancy managed in Yaounde (Cameroon). The 33 year old G5P2022 woman was referred to our setting for management of an abdominal pregnancy of 34 weeks diagnosed during the first routine obstetrical ultrasonography done two days earlier. This ultrasonography revealed a live foetus within intestinal loops with a severe oligoamnios. After two days of lung maturation, laparotomy was carried out and the live male baby weighed 2 600 grammes. The placenta was left on its implantation sites: omentun, uterine fundus and intestinal loops. The mother did well post-operatively and the resorption of the placenta took 11 months. The newborn presented compression deformities and died three days later of respiratory distress. This case illustrates that intra-abdominal fetuses can reach viability. Though rare, abdominal pregnancy remains a threat to mothers. Practitioners should therefore know the traps in its management. PMID:25419308

  13. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  14. Geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (Equatorial Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes a new geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (CHL) in Equatorial Africa. It is based on the analysis of the distribution of lineaments and of magmatic bodies (Paleogene anorogenic ring-complexes and Neogene volcanic centres). Two successive geodynamic models are proposed to explain the distribution of the Cainozoic to recent magmatic activity. They are both sinistral. The first one, during the Paleogene, developed around the N ∼ 70°E direction while the second one (Neogene) is oriented around the N ∼ 130°E direction. The two periods are separated by a short transition. The emplacement follows the local reactivation of pre-existing (Pan-African) faults in relation to the collision between the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates, during the Alpine history.

  15. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  16. Extension and evolution of the 2.1 Ga west-central African belt in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toteu, S. F.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; van Schmus, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    Available isotopic and geochronological data, combined with new petrostructural observations in Cameroon, permit discussion of the nature and the extension of the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt (WCAB, Feybesse et al., 1998), which resulted from the Eburnean collision between the Congo and São Francisco cratons. The portion of the belt recognized in Cameroon is approximately oriented NNE-SSW and includes the Nyong series along the NW corner of the Congo craton and Paleoproterozoic remnants cropping out further north within the late Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt. The dominant rock units consist of migmatitic orthogneisses associated with amphibolites, felsic gneisses of volcanic to volcano-sedimentary origin, quartzites and banded iron formations. Orthogneisses are mostly TTG compositions within the Nyong series and metadiorites to metagranodiorites to the north in the Pan African belt. Paleoproterozoic evolution is characterized by development of nappe tectonic structures, recognized in the Nyong series, and by high-grade, granulitic facies, metamorphism that was associated with arrested charnockite formation. About 600 Ma the Paleoproterozoic structures and mineral assemblages were subsequently reworked more severely in the Pan African mobile belt than in the Nyong series, where they are locally well preserved. Broadly, the Nyong series may be ascribed to a proximal domain characterized by reworking and recycling of the adjacent Archean cratonic crust, while the occurrences farther north represent a more distal domain characterized by newly formed Paleoproterozoic (Birrimian) crust. This is consistent with the distribution of metamorphic ages, which display a polarity from the internal zones (ca 2.1 Ga) to the external zones (ca 2.03 Ga) and suggest origin of the metamorphic rocks in a modern-type collisional belt during the Paleoproterozoic (Eburnean). Reference: Feybesse J.L., Johan V., Triboulet C., Guerrot C., Mayaga-Mikolo F., Bouchot V, Eko N

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  18. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  19. Factors influencing consumption of nutrient rich forest foods in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John H; Kabahenda, Margaret; Okia, Clement A; Snook, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that a number of forest foods consumed in Cameroon are highly nutritious and rich in health boosting bioactive compounds. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions towards the nutritional and health promoting properties of forest foods among forest dependent communities. The relationship between knowledge, perceptions and socio-demographic attributes on consumption of forest foods was also determined. A total of 279 females in charge of decision making with respect to food preparation were randomly selected from 12 villages in southern and eastern Cameroon and interviewed using researcher administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors affecting consumption of forest foods. Baillonella toxisperma (98%) and Irvingia gabonesis (81%) were the most known nutrient rich forest foods by the respondents. About 31% of the respondents were aware of the nutritional value and health benefits of forest foods. About 10%-61% of the respondents expressed positive attitudes to questions related with health benefits of specific forest foods. Consumption of forest foods was found to be higher among polygamous families and also positively related to length of stay in the forest area and age of respondent with consumption of forest foods. Education had an inverse relationship with use of forest foods. Knowledge and positive attitude towards the nutritional value of forest foods were also found to positively influence consumption of forest foods. Since knowledge was found to influence attitude and consumption, there is need to invest in awareness campaigns to strengthen the current knowledge levels among the study population. This should positively influence the attitudes and perceptions towards increased consumption of forest foods. PMID:26686583

  20. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  1. Preparing food and nutrition / primary health care programs: experiences from Cameroon and Liberia.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a process for identifying major food and nutrition problems and their determinants in Liberia and the Cameroon. The article describes the process of applying the information to an operational strategy and developing a plan of operations. The appendices provide a detailed checklist for assessing nutritional problems and their causes, a sample card for prioritizing interventions, and a food and nutrition primary health care program plan of action. The assessment required visits to various ministries and local international agencies offices. These visits yielded 20-35 documents pertaining to an analysis of malnutrition. The documents were read and relevant passages were underscored. The objective was to establish a list of macro- and more immediate microdeterminants of the existing poor health and nutrition situation. The underscored passages, which were referenced by document and page number, were clipped and pasted into a shorter document that was organized by topic. Liberia's final abstract was 30 pages long and included 13 topical headings. The Cameroon document was not organized by topic and resulted in a 96-page final document. The author made attempts to fill in missing data and to resolve contradictory information. The final documents were used to prepare the checklist in appendix A. The checklist and Basic Background Documents were prepared by the author and representatives from each of the agencies providing data. This core group of planners worked over a 7-10 week period. An extended group of policy reviewers met to discuss the first draft and revisions. The review raised the level of awareness of technical personnel. Cards were developed to describe each proposed plan of action. These cards were organized into a coherent order and sequence by the core group. Continual review resulted in the establishment of priorities. The operational strategies were developed and incorporated in national 5-year plans. PMID:12293048

  2. Program on immunization and cold chain monitoring: the status in eight health districts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold chain monitoring is a precondition to ensure immunization quality, efficacy and safety. In Cameroon, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has National Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that describes the vaccines, the cold chain system and equipment, its use and recommended procedures to control and monitor the temperatures and the cold chain. This study was conducted to assess the status of cold chain in eight health districts in Cameroon. Findings The study was carried out in eight health districts out of fifty with poor immunization coverage rate. Data were collected using a validated form by observation and consultation of related documents. District Health Services (DHS) and four Integrated. Health Centers (IHC) randomly selected were targeted per health district. Forty health facilities were included. Twenty eight (70.0%) had at least one functional refrigerator for EPI activities. The power supply was reported to be permanent in 7 (20.6%) out of 34. (85.0%) health facilities with access to power supply. The temperature monitoring chart was pasted on 27 (96.4%) of the cold chain equipment. On 16 (59.3%) of these charts, the temperature was recorded twice daily as recommended. Seven (25.9%) of 27 refrigerators assessed had temperature out of the recommended range of 2 to 8°C. Almost 23.30% of health centers did not received any supervision on cold chain monitoring during a vaccination campaign. Conclusion This study documents failure of the cold chain maintenance and questions the efficacy and safety of vaccines administered during EPI activities in Cameroun. These findings indicate that appropriate actions are needed to ensure monitoring of EPI cold chain in the country. PMID:23497720

  3. Effect of agropesticides use on male reproductive function: a study on farmers in Djutitsa (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Déchaud, Henri; Tchana, Angéle Nkouatchoua; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Pugeat, Michel

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of agropesticides on male reproductive function in farmers in Djutitsa (West Cameroon). To this end, 47 farmers in Djutitsa were asked questions on their health status and pesticide use in agriculture. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of sex hormones including serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone, as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Their serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were also measured. Thirty seven men not exposed to agropesticides were recruited as control group. Fifty six pesticides containing 25 active substances were currently used by farmers enrolled in our study, and most of their symptoms were related to spread/use of these chemicals. Compared to the control group, there was no significant difference in FSH, LH, SHBG, estradiol, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels. Farmers had significantly lower serum testosterone (20.93 ± 1.03 nM vs. 24.32 ± 1.32 nM; P < 0.05) and higher androstenedione level (3.83 ± 0.20 nM vs. 2.80 ± 0.15 nM; P < 0.001). Their serum free testosterone as well as bioavailable testosterone were unchanged, while estradiol/testosterone and androstenedione/testosterone ratios were significantly increased (0.45 ± 0.03% vs. 0.33 ± 0.02%; P < 0.01 and 12.26 ± 3.64 vs 19.31 ± 6.82; P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that male farmers of Djutitsa (West Cameroon) are exposed to agropesticides due to improper protective tool, and this exposure may impair their reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone synthesis; probably by inhibition of testicular 17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD3) and induction of aromatase (CYP19). PMID:22707221

  4. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Suchard, Marc A; Abecasis, Ana; Sousa, J. D.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Camacho, R.J.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Peeters, Martine; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses have revealed an origin of pandemic HIV-1 group M in the Congo River basin in the first part of the XXth century, but the patterns of historical viral spread in or around its epicentre remain largely unexplored. Here, we combine epidemiologic and molecular sequence data to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of the CRF02_AG clade. By explicitly integrating prevalence counts and genetic population size estimates we date the epidemic emergence of CRF02_AG at 1973.1 (1972.1, 1975.3 95% CI). To infer their phylogeographic signature at a regional scale, we analyze pol and env time-stamped sequence data from 8 countries using a Bayesian phylogeographic approach based on a discrete asymmetric model. Our data confirms a spatial origin of this clade in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and suggests that viral dissemination to Cameroon occurred at an early stage of the evolutionary history of CRF02_AG. We find considerable support for epidemiological linkage between neighbour countries. Compilation of ethnographic data suggests that well-supported viral migration was related with chance exportation events rather than by sustained human migratory flows. Finally, using sequence data from 15 locations in Cameroon, we use relaxed random walk models to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of CRF02_AG at a finer geographical detail. Phylogeographic dispersal in continuous space reveals that at least two distinct CRF02_AG lineages are circulating in overlapping regions that are evolving at different evolutionary and diffusion rates. Altogether, by combining molecular and epidemiological data, our results provide a time scale for CRF02_AG, place its spatial root within the putative root of group-M diversity and propose a scenario for the spatiotemporal patterns of a successful HIV-1 lineage both at a regional and country-scale. PMID:21565285

  5. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  6. The 2.1 Ga West Central African Belt in Cameroon: extension and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaye, J.; Toteu, S. F.; Tchameni, R.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Tchakounté, J.; Ganwa, A.; Minyem, D.; Nsifa, E. N.

    2004-06-01

    Available isotopic and geochronological data, combined with new petrographic and structural observations in Cameroon, permit discussion of the nature and extension of the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt, which resulted from the Eburnean collision between the Congo and São Francisco cratons. The portion of the belt recognized in Cameroon is approximately oriented NNE-SSW and includes the Nyong series along the NW corner of the Congo craton and Paleoproterozoic remnants cropping out further north within the late Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt. The dominant rock units consist of migmatitic orthogneisses associated with amphibolites, felsic gneisses of volcanic to volcano-sedimentary origin, quartzites, and banded iron formations. Orthogneisses are mostly TTG compositions within the Nyong series and metadiorites to metagranodiorites to the north in the Pan-African belt. Paleoproterozoic evolution is characterized by the development of nappe tectonic structures, recognized in the Nyong series, and by high-grade, granulitic facies metamorphism that was associated with arrested charnockite formation. The Paleoproterozoic structures and mineral assemblages were subsequently reworked more severely in the Pan-African mobile belt than in the Nyong series, where they are locally well preserved. Broadly, the Nyong series may be ascribed to a proximal domain characterized by reworking and recycling of the adjacent Archean cratonic crust, while the occurrences farther north represent a more distal domain characterized by newly formed Paleoproterozoic (Birrimian) crust. This is consistent with the distribution of metamorphic ages, which display a polarity from the internal zones (ca. 2.1 Ga) to the external zones (ca. 2.03 Ga) and suggest origin of the metamorphic rocks in a modern-type collisional belt during the Paleoproterozoic (Eburnean).

  7. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  8. [History of the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in Bipindi (southern Cameroon), from 1896 to today].

    PubMed

    Sonne, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide historical background on the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in the Bipindi area of southern Cameroon, from the first suspected cases in 1896 until today. Two recent events have created the need for historical perspective on this topic. In December 1994, an OCEAC mission led by Francis Louis discovered 7 cases in the area between the Lolodorf and Bipindi districts. The epicentre was the village of Bidjouka. Five years later, mass screening of all residents in the Bipindi district revealed a total of 44 cases. Although no previous medical studies are available, historical research indicates that the disease has always present in Bipindi area in a less prevalent and virulent form than in neighboring regions along the Nyong River. Bipindi is located about 140 kilometers northeast of Campo, an area on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea where sleeping sickness has been a low-grade health problem since the 1880s. Many Cameroonian refugees forced to live in Campo during a war that ended in February 1916 returned with the trypanosome and subsequently contaminated people who stayed in Bipindi. Transmission of sleeping sickness in Bipindi can also be attributed to economic development since the end of the nineteenth century. Numerous plantations have been installed in the area. Migration and trade with the Gulf of Guinea have expanded greatly, especially involving areas on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. This study is based on written documentations obtained from the National Archives in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the "Colegio Claret" Library, in Luba (Republic of Equatorial Guinea) and on firsthand reports from reliable sources in the Bipindi area. PMID:11803831

  9. HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Domyeum, Jenny; Mouacha, Fatima; Butel, Christelle; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is characterized by a tremendously high genetic diversity, leading to the currently known circulating HIV types, groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms. HIV-1 group O is one of the most diverse forms of HIV-1 and has been so far related to Cameroon or individuals originating from Cameroon. In this study, we investigated in Cameroon, the evolution of this viral group from 2006 to 2013, in terms of prevalence, genetic diversity and public health implications. Our results confirmed the predominance of HIV-1 group M (98.5%), a very low prevalence (<0.02%) for HIV-1 group N and P, and HIV-2 in this country. HIV-1 group O was found at around 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4–0.8%), indicating that the frequency of this virus in Cameroon has remained stable over the last decades. However, we found an extensive high genetic diversity within this HIV-1 group, that resulted from previous steady increase on the effective number of HIV-1 group O infections through time, and the current distribution of the circulating viral strains still does not allow classification as subtypes. The frequency of dual infections with HIV-1 group M and group O was 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.0%), but we found no recombinant forms in co-infected patients. Natural resistance to integrase inhibitors was not identified, although we found several mutations considered as natural polymorphisms. Our study shows that infections with HIV-1 group O can be adequately managed in countries where the virus circulates, but this complex virus still represents a challenge for diagnostics and monitoring strategies. PMID:26371064

  10. Use of DNA fingerprints to control the origin of sapelli timber (Entandrophragma cylindricum) at the forest concession level in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, C; Degen, B

    2012-07-01

    Illegal logging and associated trade are the cause of many economic and ecological problems both in producer and in consumer countries. There are an increasing number of national and international regulations in place that call for efficient timber tracking systems. We present results of a pilot study of a DNA-based method to control the geographical origin of timber in forest concessions in Cameroon. We addressed genetic differentiation at five nuclear microsatellite loci in seven sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum, Meliaceae) populations located in three forest concessions in Eastern Cameroon. In the framework of a blind test, seven anonymous timber sample sets were analysed at three microsatellite loci and compared to the genetic reference data of the forest concessions in Cameroon. Our results show that genetic differentiation was low within and among concessions. Combining the results of Bayesian genetic assignment method and exclusion test, we could determine that the timber stemmed or did not stem from the focus forest concession in six out of the seven blind sample sets. We further discuss the accuracy of the presented method and draw conclusions for a better sampling and genotyping strategy. Our work provides clear evidence that the use of genetic fingerprints is a useful tool to fight against illegal logging. PMID:22169399