Science.gov

Sample records for farmer field schools

  1. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

  2. Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

    A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

  3. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  4. The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

  5. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  6. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

  7. Reducing pesticide risks to farming communities: cotton farmer field schools in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Settle, William; Soumaré, Mohamed; Sarr, Makhfousse; Garba, Mohamed Hama; Poisot, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We provide results from a study of two separate sectors within the cotton-growing region of southern Mali. In one sector, farmers have engaged in a farmer field school (FFS) training programme since 2003—the other not. One goal of the training was the adoption of alternatives to the use of hazardous insecticides, through integrated pest management (IPM) methods. Over an 8-year period, analysis showed that with roughly 20% of the 4324 cotton-growing farm households having undergone training, hazardous insecticide use for the entire sector fell by 92.5% compared with earlier figures and with the second (control) sector. Yields for cotton in both sectors were highly variable over time, but no evidence was found for changes in yield owing to shifts in pest management practices. Evidence is presented for a likely diffusion of new practices having taken place, from FFS participants to non-participants. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the FFS approach, in general, and highlight the need for improved baseline survey and impact analyses to be integrated into FFS projects. PMID:24535387

  8. Local Foods in Maryland Schools and Implications for Extension: Findings from Schools and Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberholtzer, Lydia; Hanson, James C.; Brust, Gerald; Dimitri, Carolyn; Richman, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes results from a study examining the supply chain for local foods in Maryland school meals, the barriers and opportunities for increasing local foods in schools, and the development of Extension efforts to meet the needs identified. Interviews and surveys were administered with stakeholders, including farmers and food service…

  9. Market Diversification and Social Benefits: Motivations of Farmers Participating in Farm to School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Betty T.; Wright, D. Wynne; Hamm, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Activists and academics are increasingly advocating for public procurement of locally grown food as a key market opportunity for farmers. In the United States, linking farmers directly with school cafeterias through farm to school programs are among the efforts that advocates say can provide a significant boost to rural economies. Through an…

  10. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  11. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing value-added…

  12. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  13. Challenges to Institutionalizing Participatory Extension: The Case of Farmer Livestock Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minh, Thai Thi; Larsen, Carl Erik Schou; Neef, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this article is to analyze the introduction of participatory extension approaches (PEA) in the predominantly supply-driven, hierarchical Vietnamese extension system. Drawing on the case of the so-called Farmer Livestock School (FLS) concept, the authors investigate the potential and challenges of scaling up and out the…

  14. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives. PMID:12358073

  15. [Panorama of purchasing food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program].

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Elisa Braga; da Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Cerqueira, Gabrielle Fernandes; Chagas, Carolina Martins dos Santos; Toral, Natacha

    2013-04-01

    This article seeks to describe the viewpoint of purchasing food products from family farmers, analyzing their performance within the new guidelines of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE). It is a critical assessment based on a review of the literature and the official data provided by the National Fund for the Development of Education/Ministry of Education relating to 2010. The program budget in 2010 was approximately R$2.5 billion and attended 45.6 million children, adolescents and adults. From the total amount, R$150,397,052.68 was allocated for the purchase of agricultural products from family farmers. In Brazil, 47.4% of the local councils acquired food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program and the purchase percentage was, on average, 22.7%. Given the nature of recent legislation, other aspects should be explored in order to strengthen the compliance with the regulations in different Brazilian contexts and thus contribute both to local economic development and the provision of school meals which fulfill the principles of a healthy and adequate diet. PMID:23670368

  16. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    PubMed

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ(2) test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and

  17. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers. PMID:26282770

  18. Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Kyselková, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopecký, Jan; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

  19. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  20. Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Chandra, K K

    2013-11-01

    Field trials were conducted in farmer's field of district Chandauli, Uttar Pradesh, India to assess the impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on the performance of tomato crop during rabi (2008) and kharif (2009) season. Before conducting trials technological gap between actual and potential productivity were analyzed by interviewing growers to find out the major causes for low yield. Overall gap in use of fertilizers was recorded 64.90 % whereas overall mean gap in technology was 43.83%. On-farm experiments on INM were conducted by applying FYM (10t ha(-1)) + (NPK (150:80:60 kg ha(-1)) followed by dipping seedling roots in 1% Azotobacter solution for 15 min and foliar spray with 20 ppm ferrous ammonium sulphate after 30, 45 and 75 days of transplantation. The plant height, root length, number of primary branches, average fruit weight increased in INM plots as compared to farm practice. The increment in yield was found to be 28.84 and 33.86% during rabi and kharif season respectively. The maximum marketable yield obtained in INM plot during kharif and rabi seasons was 1025 q ha(-1) and 955 q ha(-1) respectively, whereas as farm practice yielded 740 q ha(-1) and 713 q ha(-1) during the same seasons. The percent loss from total production was recorded 8.5 % and 8.8 % in control plot and only 4.9 % and 5.7 % in INM plot during rabi and kharif seasons respectively. The higher fruit weight and lower incidence of disease and pest were observed in INM field in comparison to farm practice. The benefit cost ratio with INM treatment was recorded 4.25 and 4.23 in rabi and kharif season respectively against the benefit cost ratio of 2.98 and 2.82 in control plot during the same respective seasons. PMID:24555335

  1. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty. PMID:19806197

  2. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  3. Growing the Links between Farms and Schools: A How-To Guidebook for Pennsylvania Farmers, Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Clare; Schafft, Kai; Bloom, Dara; McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This guidebook has been developed to support and coordinate efforts across Pennsylvania to increase the connections between farms and schools. It is written for schools and school districts--and especially for food service directors, teachers, administrators, school nurses, and school health and wellness committees. It is also written for farmers…

  4. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  5. SU-E-T-431: Vertically-Oriented Farmer-Type Chamber for Small-Field Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M; Chu, A; Lincoln, H; Chen, Z; Deng, J; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a non-conventional measurement setup using Farmer-type chambers to accommodate several situations of small-field dose measurements without compromising accuracy. The validation of this technique was demonstrated for photon small-field output measurements, and electron small-field percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements. Methods: Initial chamber alignment was performed using the conventional (horizontally-oriented) chamber setup. A PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size using this arrangement. This PDD was used as a positional reference for the vertically-oriented chamber (VOC) configuration. Next, a PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size with the VOC. The PDD's were superimposed to find the effective shift of the VOC. Using the shifted VOC setup, photon small-field output factors were measured and compared to stereotactic diode output factor measurements. Additionally, electron smallfield PDD's were acquired using the VOC setup and results were compared to electron Monte Carlo (eMC) predictions in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). Results: (1) For photon small-field output factors field-sizes 2×2 cm{sup 2} and larger, the difference between the VOC setup and SFD measurements were less than 0.8%. For field sizes less than 2×2 cm{sup 2} discrepancies ranged from 4.0 to 10.6%. (2) PDD's measured by VOC setup show better than 1.6% agreement as compared to eMC for all electron energies measured down to the 80% depth on the 2×2 cm{sup 2} PDD curve. Disagreement between the VOC setup measurement and eMC calculations for depths down to the 50% depth on the PDD curve is 3.6% or less. Conclusion: Using the VOC setup, it is possible to use a conventional farmer chamber for small field-size measurements down to 2×2 cm{sup 2} field size without sacrificing the accuracy of measurements.

  6. Farmer Field Schools for Improving Farming Practices and Farmer Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2014:6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Hugh; Snilstveit, Birte; Hombrados, Jorge; Vojtkova, Martina; Phillips, Daniel; Davies, Philip; White, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s there has been a decline or stagnation in public expenditure on agriculture in most developing countries (Akroyd & Smith, 2007). Likewise, the proportion of official development assistance (ODA) going to agriculture is estimated to have declined from around 20 per cent in 1979 to a low of 3.7 per cent in 2006, and has remained…

  7. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  8. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work

  9. The High School Players Field Hockey Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Bobbie

    This student's journal aims at helping to develop a successful and highly motivated high school girls field hockey team. General information about the sport and student involvement is presented. Definitions of terms used in field hockey are given as well as general considerations about play, defensive and offensive strategies, and penalties.…

  10. Planning and Conducting a Program of Instruction in Vocational Agriculture for Young Farmers. Suggestions for Teachers and School Administrators in Developing Educational Programs for Out-of-School Young Farmers. (Revised.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Les; And Others

    Designed to help vocational educators, including both teachers and administrators, in secondary and postsecondary institutions to plan, finance, and conduct instructional programs for young farmers and young agribusiness personnel, this manual focuses upon the need and importance of such adult vocational education and provides specific suggestions…

  11. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  12. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  13. The Turbulent Field of Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Dennis A.; Reed, Donald B.

    1983-01-01

    Business and industry have exerted a strong influence on public schools and school administration, especially on assumptions about the school setting and its implications for administrator behavior. Schools have been assumed to be bureaucratic organizations in a stable environment, which implies that administrators should be leaders in…

  14. Can Schools Offer Solutions to Small-Scale Farmers in Africa? Analysis of the Socioeconomic Benefits of Primary School Agriculture in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okiror, John James; Oonyu, Joseph; Matsiko, Frank; Kibwika, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture;This paper discusses the factors influencing application of school gardening knowledge and skills by pupils at school and household level; and whether pupils are effective sources of information to their parents. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare cohorts of 30 pupils randomly selected from eight schools in Kumi and Tororo…

  15. Inclusion and Comprehensive School Reform: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Alan; Lancaster, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Sustaining comprehensive secondary school reform (CSR) represents an immensely difficult and unresolved challenge for the field. The problems associated with CSR are of significant concern to proponents of inclusion given that more responsive schools and classrooms are connected to, if not dependent upon, the success of broader school reform…

  16. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  17. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  18. THE FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

    THE "FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK" HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR USE BY PAROCHIAL AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AT AN OUTDOOR SCHOOL. THE NOTEBOOK EMPHASIZES COMMUNITY DYNAMICS THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES THAT ILLUSTRATE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS. INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON THE ORGANIZATION OF A FIELD STUDY AND ON PERFORMING VARIOUS…

  19. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  20. Dosimetry for the MRI accelerator: the impact of a magnetic field on the response of a Farmer NE2571 ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Meijsing, I; Raaymakers, B W; Raaijmakers, A J E; Kok, J G M; Hogeweg, L; Liu, B; Lagendijk, J J W

    2009-05-21

    The UMC Utrecht is constructing a 1.5 T MRI scanner integrated with a linear accelerator (Lagendijk et al 2008 Radiother. Oncol. 86 25-9). The goal of this device is to facilitate soft-tissue contrast based image-guided radiotherapy, in order to escalate the dose to the tumour while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Dosimetry for the MRI accelerator has to be performed in the presence of a magnetic field. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a Farmer NE2571 ionization chamber for absolute dosimetry. The impact of the mcagnetic field on the response of this ionization chamber has been measured and simulated using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. Two orientations of the ionization chamber with respect to the incident beam and the magnetic field which are feasible in the MRI accelerator configuration are taken into account. Measurements are performed using a laboratory magnet ranging from 0 to 1.2 T. In the simulations a range from 0 to 2 T is used. For both orientations, the measurements and simulations agreed within the uncertainty of the measurements and simulations. In conclusion, the response of the ionization chamber as a function of the magnetic field is understood and can be simulated using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:19387100

  1. Field Placement Schools and Instructional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Student teaching has long been considered a cornerstone of teacher preparation. One dimension thought to affect student teacher learning is the kinds of schools in which these experiences occur. Drawing on extensive survey and administrative data on all teachers, students, and schools in a large, urban district, this study investigates whether…

  2. Australian High Schools Use Audio-Tutorials in Field Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, G. R.; Postlethwait, S. N.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a workshop program for biology teachers involving the preparation of audio-tutorial units designed to prepare high school students for independent study of field ecology. Outlines units prepared and discusses usefulness of similar units in high schools and elsewhere. (EB)

  3. Out-of-School Field on Hunt for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    As out-of-school programs--and the expectations for them--grow, the field is struggling to identify the kind of training staff members need to meet those expectations. A variety of efforts have sprung up across the country to define and improve the quality of after-school staff, some of which bear resemblance to the quest to improve the…

  4. School Facilities and Electric and Magnetic Field Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that electric and magnetic field radiation poses a health hazard should be recognized during the planning and designing of a school. A preconstruction assessment of possible exposure should be evaluated before the start of construction. (MLF)

  5. How Local Farmers and School Food Service Buyers Are Building Alliances: Lessons Learned from the USDA Small Farm/School Meals Workshop, May 1, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Debra; Olowolayemo, Surajudeen

    This report summarizes the educational highlights of a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the University of Kentucky's Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky Department of Agriculture aimed at boosting the use of locally produced fresh food in school feeding programs. The workshop was designed to provide a forum for…

  6. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Ian G; Ferguson, Drewe M; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare. PMID:26480317

  7. Voices from the Field: School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Emily W.; Schanding, Thomas; Elmore, Gail

    2015-01-01

    As school psychologists, educators and parents most often approach us with questions relating to a concern. We have the privilege of serving students in their natural learning environment where skills and behaviors can be observed and analyzed, where interventions can be created and tested, and, hopefully, where a positive change can be made…

  8. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  9. Agricultural Mechanical Skills Needed by Farmers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Knotts, Clifton Don

    This study identified skills that should be taught in the agricultural mechanics area of production vocational agriculture courses in Texas high schools. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to 50 young farmers who had been recognized by the State Association of Young Farmers of Texas for outstanding farming programs during one of the…

  10. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  11. School Psychology 2010--Part 2: School Psychologists' Professional Practices and Implications for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Gelley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Every 5 years, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) conducts a national study of the field. Surveys are sent to randomly selected regular members of NASP to gather information on school psychologists' demographic characteristics, context for professional practices, and professional practices. The latest iteration of the national…

  12. Relationship Between Field Dependence - Field Independence, Piaget Conservation Tasks and School Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicker, Tommie E.; O'Tuel, Frances S.

    This study investigates relationships among conservation, field dependence/independence, school variables, achievement, screening measures, sex and race. A total of 124 first, second and third graders in a Southern rural school were administered 8 typical Piagetian conservation tasks (PCT), Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT), Comprehensive…

  13. Current Practices for Providing School Field Trip Meals: Perspectives of School Nutrition Managers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Jeannie; Vaterlaus Patten, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 extended the requirements for a school food safety program to wherever food is stored, prepared, or served, including meals for field trips. The purpose of this study was to determine what foods are used for field trip meals, how those foods are transported and stored, and what standard…

  14. Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school…

  15. Rethinking Track and Field as Sport in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Peter; Almond, Len

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual framework for developing track and field programs in public schools is related. The framework consists of three phases of experiences: a fundamental movement phase, an athletic form phase which emphasizes action possibilities based on personal striving, and a final phase with a dual focus (health and sport skills/strategies). (IAH)

  16. Instructor's Field Manual: North Carolina Outward Bound School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Morganton, NC.

    A supplement to the North Carolina Outward Bound School's Instructor's Handbook, this field manual presents useful, but not required, information gleaned from old timers and resource books which may enable the instructor to conduct a better course. Section one considers advantages and disadvantages and provides directions and topographical maps…

  17. Professional Development Schools: Researching Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Rick; Breault, Donna Adair

    2011-01-01

    "Professional Development Schools: Researching Lessons from the Field" provides a comprehensive analysis of PDS research that can aid PDS stakeholders in designing and sustaining meaningful research in their partnerships. Breault and Breault used an extensive qualitative meta-synthesis to examine the research over the past 20 years. Their…

  18. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  19. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  20. The Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Shaw, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three years ago the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory instituted an educational outreach program with several New York City high schools. The schools all serve lower-income students (greater than 90 percent Title 1 eligible), and are focused on the STEM disciplines as potentially "leveling" areas, where motivated students can make up ground if properly supported. The program enlists high school teachers and several of their students to work alongside Lamont scientists on funded research programs that have a local (NYC/Hudson Valley) field and/or laboratory measurement component. The program runs full-time for 6 weeks in the summer and continues through laboratory visits and enhanced curriculum during the school year. Preliminary results are positive: teachers report that the program has deepened their curriculum; heightened their enthusiasm; and expanded their view of their students' potential. Nearly all of the participating students are college bound, and several are working their way through their freshmen year in college as laboratory technicians. In addition, the participating teachers and students have been able to collect large numbers of samples in the Hudson estuary, contributing concretely to funded research there. Lessons learned and best practices will be discussed for expanding such partnerships, with a focus on issues faced by partnerships between research scientists and public school science programs in urban areas.

  1. International Field School on Permafrost, Polar Urals, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V.; Ivanov, M.; Sheinkman, V.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Shmelev, D.

    2012-12-01

    The international field school on permafrost was held in the Polar Urals region from June, 30 to July 9, 2012 right after the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost which was held in Salekhard, Russia. The travel and accommodation support generously provided by government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region allowed participation of 150 permafrost young research scientists, out of which 35 students from seven countries participated in the field school. The field school was organized under umbrella of International Permafrost Association and Permafrost Young Research Network. The students represented diverse educational backgrounds including hydrologists, engineers, geologists, soil scientists, geocryologists, glaciologists and geomorphologists. The base school camp was located near the Harp settlement in the vicinity of Polar Urals foothills. This unique location presented an opportunity to study a diversity of cryogenic processes and permafrost conditions characteristic for mountain and plain regions as well as transition between glacial and periglacial environments. A series of excursions was organized according to the following topics: structural geology of the Polar Urals and West Siberian Plain (Chromite mine "Centralnaya" and Core Storage in Labitnangy city); quaternary geomorphology (investigation of moraine complexes and glacial conditions of Ronamantikov and Topographov glaciers); principles of construction and maintains of structures built on permafrost (Labitnangy city and Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railroad); methods of temperature and active-layer monitoring in tundra and forest-tundra; cryosols and soil formation in diverse landscape condition; periglacial geomorphology; types of ground ice, etc. Every evening students and professors gave a series of presentations on climate, vegetation, hydrology, soil conditions, permafrost and cryogenic processes of the region as well as on history, economic development, endogenous population of the Siberia and the

  2. PREFACE: XV Mexican School of Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Napsuciale Mendivil, Mauro; Delepine, David

    2013-11-01

    The XV Mexican School of Particles and Fields was held at Puebla, Mexico at The Old and beautiful building of the Colegio Carolino from 6-15 September 2013. It gathered more than 132 national physicists, and 10 from other countries. This school lasted seven days and consisted of pedagogical lectures, discussions and poster sessions. Experimental, and theoretical developments were presented by distinguished physicists; addressing the most recent results in particle and field physics. The school lectures included topics on collider physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the standard model, astroparticle physics, effective theories among others. The highlight topic of the conference was the discovery of the new boson, announced on 4 July 2012 by the LHC. The discovery of a particle consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson, considered one of the most important discoveries of the 21st Century, was fully addressed. The particle represented the final piece of the standard model. The searching methods and latest results were extensively presented as well as the detector design. The physics implications of the discovery and the future of searches for physics BSM, like SUSY, were covered. The topical conference included: 'Recent results on Higgs' by John Ellis, 'The CMS experiment, Highlights and Performance' by Tiziano Camporesi (CMS spokesperson), and 'LHC physics program by Emilio' Meschi (LHC physics coordinator). For many of the participants, however, the highlight of the school may have been the Sunday excursion to the Large Millimeter Telescope and HAWC Observatory, two of the world's largest astrophysics experiments in their field. We thank all the lecturers for making this a timely and informative school. Thanks to all who encouraged the discussions and stimulated the flow of information during the question time and the discussion sessions. Finally, the School and these Proceedings would have not been possible without the efforts of the sponsors as well as the

  3. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  4. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  5. Farmer's lung in Devon.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, J T; Adkins, G E; Margaret, L; Moore, B; McWhite, E

    1975-01-01

    Farmer's lung is a cause of disability to agricultural workers in Devon and there is no evidence that the incidence is falling. A survey of known cases was made to assess the degree of disability in relation to the clinical history, the presence of farmer's lung precipitins, tests of lung function, and radiographic changes. Information was obtained about 200 patients diagnosed between 1939 and 1971. A survey of 148 of these patients showed that the disease was most commonly diagnosed in men aged 40 to 50 years and the most important symptom at diagnosis was dyspnoea related to occupational exposure to hay or grain. The onset was often insidious and only 67 patients (45%) were diagnosed during the first year of the disorder. Disability was severe in about one-third of the cases. The degree of disability did not seem to be related to the serological changes recorded either at diagnosis or at the time of our survey. Disability was commonly associated with restriction and reduced gas transfer factor and with airways obstruction in more severe cases. Many individuals reporting significant disability had only slightly abnormal ventilatory function tests at rest. Radiographic changes were found at survey in about one-third of the subjects reporting disability. Many farmers had not used an efficient mask. Treatment is unsatisfactory but steroid therapy is effective in acute episodes. PMID:1179317

  6. Hearing sensitivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Karlovich, R S; Wiley, T L; Tweed, T; Jensen, D V

    1988-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity was measured for tones from 1,000 through 8,000 hertz (Hz) in 534 males and 278 females who resided in rural Wisconsin and ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. The hearing sensitivity for all subjects decreased with advancing age and at higher frequencies, but hearing loss over the range most susceptible to excessive noise exposure (3,000-6,000 Hz) was much greater for males than for females at all ages. The hearing loss was greater than could be accounted for by age and was similar whether the subject was a farmer or not. The results suggested that approximately 25 percent of the males had a communication handicap due to hearing loss by age 30, and the proportion rose to 50 percent by age 50. Less than 20 percent of farmers reported consistent use of personal hearing protection in their farm-related duties. Overall, the findings suggest that men who live in rural areas, including farmers, demonstrate a high prevalence of hearing loss and associated communication problems due to excessive noise exposure. This, in turn, clearly indicates a need for intensification of educational hearing conservation programs for the rural population. PMID:3124200

  7. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place on 2-13 August 2004, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. The School continued with the tradition of promoting High Energy Physics among the younger generation in Mexico. Thus, it was aimed specifically at graduate students and postdocs. The School consisted of several courses delivered by international experts on subjects of current interest to the scientific community. The length of each course was of six to eight hours, English being the language of instruction. A novelty in this edition of the School was its total duration (two weeks as opposed to one), the number of hours assigned to one subject, and the addition of some experimental courses for the students to overcome their inhibitions of a direct encounter with the equipment and its usage. There were also a few overview talks delivered by local experts on the current status of some of the research fields actively pursued in Mexico. The XI-MSPF was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT). We are very grateful to Dr Raúl Arias Lovillo, Dr Víctor Manuel Alcaráz Romero, Dr Asdrúbal Flóres López and Mtro Walter Saiz González, head of the Academic Secretariat, Director and Subdirector of the Office of Scientific Research and Director of the Division of Exact Sciences of the University of Veracruz, respectively, for their invaluable support in all senses to our Summer School. We also appreciate the important and useful assistance provided by Dr Rubén Bernardo Morante López, Director of the Museum of Anthropology of Xalapa, and Dr Héctor Coronel Brizio of the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the state of

  8. Implementing an ASCA-Informed School Counselor Supervision Model: A Qualitative Field-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaes, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The American School Counseling Association's (ASCA) National Model has been recognized in the field of professional school counseling as an effective framework for the training and supervision of school counselor interns. Despite this recommendation, school counselor supervision models which incorporate the ASCA model have until recently been rare…

  9. Sparkling Geomagnetic Field: Involving Schools in Geomagnetic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Rachel; Leonhardt, Roman; Leichter, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Solar activity will be reaching a maximum in 2013/2014 as the sun reaches the end of its cycle, bringing with it an opportunity to study in greater detail the effect of solar wind or "space weather" on our planet's magnetic field. Heightened solar activity leads to a larger amount of clouds of energetic particles bombarding the Earth. Although the Earth's magnetic field shields us from most of these particles, the field becomes distorted and compacted by the solar wind, which leads to magnetic storms that we detect from the surface. These storms cause aurorae at higher latitudes and can lead to widespread disruption of communication and navigation equipment all over the Earth when sufficiently strong. This project, "Sparkling Geomagnetic Field," is a part of Austria's Sparkling Science programme, which aims to involve schools in active scientific research to encourage interest in science from a young age. Researchers from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna have worked hand-in-hand with three schools across Austria to set up regional geomagnetic stations consisting of state-of-the-art scalar and vector magnetometers to monitor the effects of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field. The students have been an active part of the research team from the beginning, first searching for a suitable location to set up the stations as well as later overseeing the continued running of the equipment and analysing the data output. Through this project the students will gain experience in contemporary scientific methods: data processing and analysis, field work, as well as equipment setup and upkeep. A total of three stations have been established with schools in Innsbruck, Tamsweg and Graz at roughly equal distances across Austria to run alongside the already active station in the Conrad Observatory near Vienna. Data acquisition runs through a data logger and software developed to deliver data in near realtime. This network allows for

  10. International Volcanological Field School: Introduction to Geohazard Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Kravchunovskaya, E. A.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Novik, Y. O.; Chebrov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian- Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans nearly 5,400 km. It is home for more than 110 active volcanoes, which produce 4-6 significant explosive eruptions per year. It is also the source of some of the largest tsunami-generating earthquakes in the history of mankind. Volcanic ash clouds and tsunami waves generated in this area travel for thousands of kilometers defying political boundaries, thus making the international cooperation crucial for mitigating geohazards in the Northern Pacifica. In 2003, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Vitus Bering Kamchatka State University, with strong support from the Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences, have established the International Volcanological Field School. This field camp serves as an introduction to volcanology and covers fundamental aspects of geohazard research and monitoring. Offered at both sides of the Russia-US border, the School attracts students from various disciplines and cultures, providing a direct access to the best examples of explosive volcanism at Katmai National Park in Alaska and at Mutnovsky & Gorely volcanoes in Kamchatka. It complements our efforts to build a strong geoscience community in the Northern Pacifica and serves as an important tool to attract brightest young scientists to geohazard research and monitoring.

  11. Evaluation of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Kruger, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Our primary purpose in this study was to determine the relevant ergonomic issues associated with daily use of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms, in order to develop a purchasing guideline and technical specification. The secondary purpose was to evaluate these systems to identify if one or more acoustical parameters could be used to determine the quality and effectiveness of a system. Six sound field systems, with varying numbers and types of speakers, were chosen as a cross-section of available systems on the market. Six representative classrooms, currently in use, were selected based on a range of reverberation times and background noise levels. All systems were installed for two weeks in each classroom. Student speech intelligibility (SI) tests using phonetically balanced word lists were conducted, as well as teacher interviews. The acoustical parameters measured were clarity ratios C50 and C80, speech transmission indices STI and R(rapid)STI, sound pressure level (SPL) uniformity and frequency response. An improvement in SI was found for all systems. Only SPL uniformity and frequency response were found to be useful distinguishing performance parameters between systems. Ergonomic design aspects of sound field systems had a significant influence on the acceptance and usage in the classroom.

  12. Accelerated Schools in Action: Lessons from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Christine, Ed.; And Others

    This book provides insights into one of the nation's largest and most comprehensive school-restructuring movements, the Accelerated Schools Project. Since its inception in 1986, the focus of the movement has been on transforming schools with students at risk of dropping out into schools with high expectations of all students. This is accomplished,…

  13. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the farmer... individual farmers who compose its membership or who are its stockholders, but by the cooperative...

  14. Women in the Farmers' Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, MaryJo

    The involvement of women in U.S. politics of the 1890s, specifically in the Populist Party and the National Farmers' Alliance, is discussed in this paper. Women comprised a large percentage of membership in many of the sub-alliances of the National Farmers' Alliance and a number were national leaders, including Mary Elizabeth Lease, Annie LePorte…

  15. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  16. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  17. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  18. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  19. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  20. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  1. Upper Primary Level History Teachers' Attitudes toward the Use of School Field Trips as an Educational Aid throughout Schools in Irbid First Education Directorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify upper primary level History teachers' attitudes toward the use of school field trips as an educational aid throughout schools in the Irbid First Education Directorate, through exploring the importance of school field trips in the creation of an interactive atmosphere and to encourage school administration attitudes…

  2. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  3. Educational Priorities of Small Farmers in West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Carey L.

    1995-01-01

    According to survey responses from 108 of 150 Western Tennessee small farmers, 53% had less than a high school education and most were near retirement age. Greatest educational needs were in the areas of crop marketing, soil conservation, and pesticide use. Individualized methods and a focus on improving technical knowledge and existing marketing…

  4. School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Albert H.; Carlisle, Cynthia S.; Isaacson, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses four lessons for school counselors responding to any serious crisis: (a) School counselors can expect to take on leadership roles in times of crisis due to their expertise. (b) Crisis teams are temporary organizations within a school structure. Membership in two organizations can create role conflict. (c) Effective school…

  5. School Administrators' Leadership Impact: A View from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul; And Others

    A survey of Oregon school administrators explored the relationships among demographic characteristics, school building and school district constraints, and leadership impact. Methodology involved a mailed survey of 420 administrators, which yielded 319 responses, or a 70 percent response rate, and in-depth personal interviews with 144 respondents.…

  6. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  7. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming have significantly poorer hearing sensitivity than persons not exposed to noise. PMID:1561302

  8. Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky's Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were…

  9. Wolves Are Beautiful and Proud: Science Learning from a School Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marilyn Petty; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the impact of related classroom activities on fourth grade students' science learning from a school field trip. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises a set of…

  10. On the Road again: Field Research in a Rural Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbury, Francie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of "field research" at Marlboro School in southern Vermont. Field research began as a way to expose backwoods kids to the wider world. The Marlboro School Board recognized the value of getting these kids down off the mountain, of learning about other people and places, and of tying classroom…

  11. University Clinics as Field Placements in School Psychology Training: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Benson, A. Jerry

    Although many school psychology programs use university-based clinics as field placements for school psychology students, there is little information in the literature on how these clinics are organized, administered, and funded or on the nature, duration, and sequencing of clinic field experiences. A national telephone survey of 71 directors of…

  12. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on

  13. Developing new pathways into the biomedical informatics field: the AMIA High School Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Unertl, Kim M; Finnell, John T; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2016-07-01

    Increasing access to biomedical informatics experiences is a significant need as the field continues to face workforce challenges. Looking beyond traditional medical school and graduate school pathways into the field is crucial for expanding the number of individuals and increasing diversity in the field. This case report provides an overview of the development and initial implementation of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) High School Scholars Program. Initiated in 2014, the program's primary goal was to provide dissemination opportunities for high school students engaged in biomedical informatics research. We discuss success factors including strong cross-institutional, cross-organizational collaboration and the high quality of high school student submissions to the program. The challenges encountered, especially around working with minors and communicating program expectations clearly, are also discussed. Finally, we present the path forward for the continued evolution of the AMIA High School Scholars Program. PMID:27076620

  14. ENERGY SMART SCHOOLS - APPLIED RESEARCH, FIELD TESTING, AND TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kate Burke

    2004-01-01

    This multi-state collaborative project will coordinate federal, state, and private sector resources and high-priority school-related energy research under a comprehensive initiative that includes tasks that increase adoption of advanced energy efficiency high-performance technologies in both renovation of existing schools and building new ones; educate and inform school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide as to the energy, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improve the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in schools.

  15. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland. PMID:27081893

  16. A Preparadigmatic Field: A Review of Research on School Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, April; Ducey, Michael H.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter reviews the various approaches used in the study of school vandalism and attempts to define what is needed now. The main contribution of early research on vandalism is to point out an intellectual dead end. Conventional demographic approaches to the problem, by…

  17. Voices from the Field: How School Boards Can Support Districtwide School Improvement Efforts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is crucial for effective, lasting school improvement. Although research has established that strong, competent principals are vital for high-performing schools (Hallinger, 2003; Leithwood, 1994), attention is turning increasingly to the importance of effective district leadership, including school boards and their contributions to…

  18. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  1. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  2. An Internal Evaluation of a Field-Based Training Component for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Project ROME-FOCUS (Field-Oriented Competency Utilization System), a competency-based, field-oriented, training program for school administrators was field tested at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia, January - May, 1976. An internal evaluation conducted by the instructional staff suggested that principals preferred ROME-FOCUS training to…

  3. Andra Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Paula

    This report summarizes field work on Andra Island, Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). It opens with an introduction to the site, the school setting, and the community setting. Background on the IMP teacher and the size of classes…

  4. Joining Forces: A Collaborative Venture To Develop Exemplary Field Partnership School Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Donna J.; Ramey, Linda

    This paper describes a recent collaboration between a public university teacher education preparation program, a large urban school district, and a neighboring suburban school district. It highlights the professional experiences of teacher education interns who entered the field from prior professions or training. Candidates were immersed in an…

  5. A Question of Entree: Field Experience and Private Schools in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Hema

    While the university-school connection has gained credence in teacher education, the quality of field experiences and the mentoring available in the placements is an important issue. Private schools in India are in the forefront of reform and innovations but are minimally involved in teacher education, presently the sole responsibility of colleges…

  6. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    PubMed

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  7. Assessing farmers' practices on disposal of pesticide waste after use.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Telidis, Georgios K; Thanos, Stavros D

    2008-02-15

    Common practices of farmers on disposal of pesticide waste after use were surveyed in five regions of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews. Concerning leftover spray solutions, most farmers reported that they normally re-spray the treated field area until the spraying tank is empty (54.9%) or they apply the leftover spray solutions to another crop listed on the product label (30.2%). A minority of the farmers (4.3%) mentioned that they often release the leftover spray solutions near or into irrigation canals and streams. As regards rinsates generated from washing the application equipment, most farmers reported that they release the rinsates over a non-cropped area (45.7%) or they drop the rinsates near or into irrigation canals and streams (40.7%). Moreover, a great proportion of the farmers stated that they dump the empty containers by the field (30.2%) or they throw them near or into irrigation canals and streams (33.3%). Burning the empty containers in open fire (17.9%) or throwing the empty containers in common waste places (11.1%) was also reported. Several farmers stated that they continue to use old pesticides for spraying (35.8%). Training programs which raise awareness of farmers of the potential hazards of pesticide use and particularly of the proper management of waste products, recycling programs and collection systems for unwanted agricultural chemicals to prevent inappropriate waste disposal, as well as improving packaging of pesticides to minimize waste production are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling. PMID:18022675

  8. Development and Evaluation of Farm Management Instructional Units for Young Adult Farmer Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, William E.; Peirce, Harry E.

    This study developed and field tested instructional units designed to help young adult farmers use farm management principles in decision making. Relationships were also sought between farmers' personal characteristics and their posttest scores. Ten teachers of vocational agriculture (Group A) received inservice training in using the instructional…

  9. Farmers' Preferences for Methods of Receiving Information on New or Innovative Farming Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Gor, Christopher Obel

    1989-01-01

    Survey of 386 Idaho farmers (response rate 58 percent) identified preferred methods of receiving information on new or innovative farming practices. Analysis revealed preference for interpersonal methods (demonstrations, tours, and field trips) over mass media such as computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and home study, although younger farmers,…

  10. Biology and the Peasant Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

  11. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  12. International Education in the Schools: The State of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Stewart, Vivien

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of international education in U.S. schools cries out for strong national leadership. The authors, guest editors of this special section, make the case that helping students become globally competent citizens is crucial to the future prosperity and security of the United States, and they discuss strategies for making this happen.…

  13. Increasing Safety in America's Public Schools. Lessons from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Beth

    This publication summarizes the 1999 Metropolitan Life Survey (MetLife) of the American Teacher, Violence in America's Public Schools: Five Years Later, highlighting findings from conversations in four local education fund (LEF) communities. The MetLife study surveyed and interviewed students, teachers, and law enforcement officials. Overall,…

  14. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavora, Jessica

    This book suggests that Title IX of the Education Amendments is not creating more female athletes but instead eliminating some of the most prestigious men's sports programs in the name of gender equity. It shows how Title IX has affected every aspect of education, from kindergarten through graduate school, making profound changes in areas as…

  15. School Bells in 1840: A Field Trip for Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia Potter

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which the Rock Hill School District (Rock Hill, South Carolina) collaborated with a state museum and historic site, Historic Brattonsville (McConnells, South Carolina), to teach third-grade students about South Carolina history. Explains that the students spent a day in a schoolhouse to learn about the life of children in…

  16. Field Test of an Epidemiology Curriculum for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Kimbrough, Maudellyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a middle school epidemiology curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom. The curriculum presents epidemiology as the science of public health, using health-related issues that capture the interest of young students and help prepare them to make evidence-based health-related decisions.…

  17. Reading the water table: The interaction between literacy practices and groundwater management training in preparing farmers for climate change in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-06-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that literacy skills, while valued, are not a prerequisite for all farmers to improve their groundwater and crop management, as long as training includes (1) the presence of at least some literate farmers, (2) activities that involve learning by doing, and (3) learning in small mixed groups of literate and non-literate participants. The study outcomes are of increasing relevance in the context of climate change and variability, as small and marginal farmers constitute over 87 per cent of Indian farmers. Their inability to cope with consequences of climate change could adversely affect the food security in the country.

  18. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  19. Use of Student Field-Based Consulting in Business Education: A Comparison of American and Australian Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciglimpaglia, Donald; Toole, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative study of American business schools and Australian schools of commerce regarding utilization of field-based consultancy and associated critical variables. Respondents in the survey were 141 deans of Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited business schools in the United…

  20. Educational Qualifications of UK Farmers: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    No single source provides information on farmers' educational levels in the United Kingdom. Recent large surveys suggest that a third to half of UK farmers have pursued courses of further/higher education and obtained formal qualifications, largely in agricultural areas. Farmers' educational attainment is related to age, region, farm size and…

  1. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  2. Farmers' Attitudes and Behavior toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrzelka, Peggy; Korsching, Peter F.; Malia, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A mail survey of Iowa farmers with membership in Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI), a sustainable agriculture organization, was used to examine the attitude-behavior relationship of these farmers and the role social influences played in this relationship. Results indicate that when controlling explanatory factors, the attitude-behavior relationship…

  3. Improving a Field School Curriculum Using Modularized Lessons and Authentic Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Roy V.; Hodder, Dexter P.

    2007-01-01

    University course evaluations are replete with student comments expressing frustration with taking time out of work, paying money for, and putting energy into field education projects that lack authentic "real-world" problem-solving objectives. Here, we describe a model for field school education that borrows on pedagogical tools such as…

  4. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  5. Real and Virtual Experiential Learning on the Mekong: Field Schools, e-Sims and Cultural Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip; Lloyd, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two innovative and linked approaches to teaching and student learning in the environmental and development geography of the Mekong region, a region remote from students' normal experiential options. The first approach is field-based learning through Field Schools carried out in Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. The second approach…

  6. Reflections on Teaching and Learning for Sustainability from the Cascadia Sustainability Field School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Cameron; Sotoudehnia, Maral; Erickson-McGee, Paige

    2015-01-01

    A complex and contested concept, sustainability presents a great challenge to teachers and learners. Field study is a potentially promising venue to unpack the problematics of sustainability in practice. This paper reflects on the Cascadia Sustainability Field School, offered through the University of Victoria, Canada, providing an overview of the…

  7. School's IN for Summer: An Alternative Field Experience for Elementary Science Methods Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2007-01-01

    Field experiences are critical to teacher learning and enhance the effectiveness of methods courses; however, when methods courses are offered in the summer, traditional school-based field experiences are not possible. This article describes an alternative campus-based experience created as part of an elementary science methods course. The Summer…

  8. Cognitive Impact of a Grade School Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study to design and conduct a three-hour field experience for 3rd and 4th grade students on forestry and forest products, and to determine the cognitive effects of participation in this field trip on the children. Reports an increase in student knowledge after participating in this experience. Discusses the reasons for students'…

  9. Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’. PMID:22165434

  10. Design and Implementation of a Genomics Field Trip Program Aimed at Secondary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Joanne A.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore. PMID:22956895

  11. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  12. Gendered Fields: Sports and Advanced Course Taking in High School

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer; Crissey, Sarah R.; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the association between sports participation and course taking in high school, specifically comparing subjects with varied gendered legacies—science and foreign language. Analyses of a nationally representative longitudinal sample (N=5,447) of U.S. adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the linked Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement transcript study show that male and female athletes are more likely than non-athletes to take both advanced foreign language and Physics, largely because of their higher academic orientation. However, the association between sports participation and course taking was strongest for girls’ Physics coursework, suggesting that sports may provide girls with a unique opportunity to develop the skills and confidence to persevere in the masculine domain of science. PMID:20221304

  13. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  14. Designing a Field Code: Environmental Values in Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleixandre, Maria Pilar Jimenez; Rodriguez, Ramon Lopez

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes classroom transcriptions from the 4th grade on the elaboration by pupils of a behavior code for a field trip. Characterizes good teaching practice in environmental education. Results show how pupils are able to create and justify their own rules, how they cope with conflicts, and which environmental values are sustained by them. (SAH)

  15. Ecologically-Based Invasive Plant Management Field School Workbook 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A curriculum developed for a field-based course of study for ecologically-based invasive plant management. This curriculum is presented in a modular format with specific exercises to emphasize the important aspects to applying this decision tool to land management....

  16. A Model for a Rural School Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ray; Hegtvedt, Kathryn

    Fifteen University of Oregon undergraduate education majors participated in a successful 3-day program of total immersion in rural community living and teaching in Condon, Oregon. The field experience model had unique elements: (1) the course was offered as an alternative to a required course in teaching strategies and student teachers were…

  17. Rich Township High School, Olympia Fields Campus, Rich Township, Illinois. Profiles of Significant Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    A profile is presented of a high school designed to accommodate the organization of teachers into teams working with student groups of varying sizes--this organization is housed in a compact building with the teaching teams centered in clusters of classrooms. The building is heated in winter and cooled in summer by a heat pump system. The…

  18. Prevalence of low back pain and associated factors among farmers during the rice transplanting process

    PubMed Central

    Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Swangnetr, Manida; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Settheetham, Dariwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Boucaut, Rose

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain and associated factors in Thai rice farmers during the rice transplanting process. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred and forty-four farmers, aged 20–59 years old, were asked to answer a questionnaire modified from the Standard Nordic Questionnaire (Thai version). The questionnaire sought demographic, back-related, and psychosocial data. [Results] The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain was 83.1%. Farmers younger than 45 years old who worked in the field fewer than six days were more likely to experience low back pain than those who worked for at least six days. Farmers with high stress levels were more likely to have low back pain. [Conclusion] In the rice transplanting process, the low back pain experienced by the farmers was associated with the weekly work duration and stress. PMID:26311961

  19. Exposure of school employees to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, F; Bitovski, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine and compare daily occupational exposure (OE) and non-occupational exposure (NOE) of three employee groups of teachers, maintenance workers and secretarial staff in a Canadian school district. The time-weighted average (TWA) individual OE for subjects ranged from 0.4-3.8 milligauss (mG), and the TWA NOE ranged from 0.2-7.1 mG. TWA OE and NOE were 1.2 mG and 1.5 mG for teachers, 1.8 mG and 1.2 mG for maintenance workers, and 2.9 mG and 2.1 mG for secretarial staff. The differences between TWA OE and NOE of each group and also among the three groups were not statistically significant. OE and NOE of secretarial staff exceeded 10 mG 9.0% and 6.4% of the time--significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates than those of OE and NOE of teachers (1.0% and 1.4%) and maintenance workers (2.8% and 0.1%). Exposures were well below recommended criteria. PMID:10765574

  20. Agricultural communication and the African non-literate farmer: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Soola, E O

    1988-01-01

    In Nigeria, there lies a relatively untapped potential for great agricultural growth. Since the 1960's, Nigeria's "days of agricultural glory," there has been great obstacles in the exchange of information between scientists and Nigerian farmers. There has been a great trend in rural-urban migration and a rise in unemployment; crime and school drop outs have ensued. The Nigerian non-literate farmer is in a neglected class who has suffered the scrutiny and non-support of government and financial institutions. His growth has been limited because he is considered a poor credit risk. Because of his illiteracy, he is limited to traditional methods of farming. However, the Nigerian farmer is not uneducable. He is information-conscious and can be instructed if a communicator is sensitive to the farmer's culture, tradition and farming practices. An agriculture extension agent must not only assess the farmer's needs but also convey relevant information in a manner that is amenable to the farmer's framework of communication. Working with opinion leaders, the mass media, a regional library, audio tapes and by portraying new information and farming practices through festivals and ceremonies are methods available to the extension agent or communicator in his work with the non-literate Nigerian farmer. PMID:12342253

  1. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance. Design This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a “home-grown” school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly

  2. Humour as a Resource and Strategy for Boys to Gain Status in the Field of Informal School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huuki, Tuija; Manninen, Sari; Sunnari, Vappu

    2010-01-01

    Through a feminist approach this paper illustrates how humour is used as a resource and strategy for status among Finnish school boys and in constructing culturally accepted masculinity in the field of informal school. Based on interview and observation material collected in three schools, the results suggest that although humour is often…

  3. A Solar Energy Curriculum for Elementary Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Six. Field Test Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Seymour; And Others

    Presented is the field test version of an elementary school solar energy curriculum consisting of nearly 50 activities and demonstration experiments. Developed by a team of teachers and subject matter specialists, these materials are grouped under seven content area headings: (1) Scientific Method; (2) Energy and Life; (3) Sun and Light; (4)…

  4. The Impact of Sound-Field Systems on Learning and Attention in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Shield, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the installation and use of sound-field systems to investigate the impact of these systems on teaching and learning in elementary school classrooms. Methods: The evaluation included acoustic surveys of classrooms, questionnaire surveys of students and teachers, and experimental testing of students with and without…

  5. Using Field Sketch Mapping to Teach Basic Mapping Concepts in Elementary School Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taketa, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Describes a field sketch mapping project conducted with a sixth-grade class. The project involved selecting appropriate sites around the school to map, organizing the students, and instructing them about measuring distances and drawing maps. Illustrations include assignments and examples of students' work. (MJP)

  6. The Effect of Environmental Field Trips on Student Learning in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legutko, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of an environmental field trip on student learning in one middle school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States was examined. An experimental one-group pretest-posttest group design was implemented on a sample of 579 students which comprised 12 groups. Although a t-test for dependent samples indicated that less than half of the…

  7. SUB-SLAB PRESSURE FIELD EXTENSION IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's experiences using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expe...

  8. Triticale allergy in a farmer.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 29-year-old farmer with hay fever and atopic dermatitis since adolescence who had developed work-related asthma about 5 years earlier. He was sensitized to grass pollen, wheat and rye flour, dust from the floors of the animal facilities (cows and pigs) and grain barn, and a battery of animal feed from his farm. Work-relatedness of his asthma was demonstrated by serial measurements of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at work and during a holiday. Immunoblot analyses revealed dominant IgE-binding to grass pollen and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat). IgE inhibition experiments demonstrated that sensitization to triticale was not due to cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Testing of specific IgE-antibodies to recombinant wheat allergens showed sensitizations to profilin, peroxidase, and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins type I subfamily 9.1 and 9.7. We conclude that triticale allergy may occur as a distinct allergy in farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:501-505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26814013

  9. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies. PMID:11915967

  10. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  11. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

  12. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  13. Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.

  14. A conceptual model for determining career choice of CHROME alumna based on farmer's conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lisa Simmons

    This qualitative program evaluation examines the career decision-making processes and career choices of nine, African American women who participated in the Cooperating Hampton Roads Organization for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and who graduated from urban, rural or suburban high schools in the year 2000. The CHROME program is a nonprofit, pre-college intervention program that encourages underrepresented minority and female students to enter science, technically related, engineering, and math (STEM) career fields. The study describes career choices and decisions made by each participant over a five-year period since high school graduation. Data was collected through an Annual Report, Post High School Questionnaires, Environmental Support Questionnaires, Career Choice Questionnaires, Senior Reports, and standardized open-ended interviews. Data was analyzed using a model based on Helen C. Farmer's Conceptual Models, John Ogbu's Caste Theory and Feminist Theory. The CHROME program, based on its stated goals and tenets, was also analyzed against study findings. Findings indicated that participants received very low levels of support from counselors and teachers to pursue STEM careers and high levels of support from parents and family, the CHROME program and financial backing. Findings of this study also indicated that the majority of CHROME alumna persisted in STEM careers. The most successful participants, in terms of undergraduate degree completion and occupational prestige, were the African American women who remained single, experienced no critical incidents, came from a middle class to upper middle class socioeconomic background, and did not have children.

  15. An Innovative Field Trip Experience for Ohio Middle School Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, D. M.; Wojton, M. A.; Sparks, L.; Dungan, R.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a new collaboration between astronomers and educators at a major science center, we have created a program which combines a field trip experience for middle school students with professional development opportunities for their teachers. The program consists of interactive lectures by astronomers, teacher workshops on space science ideas, and inquiry-based student workshops on fundamental (astro)physical concepts. We conducted a pilot program in 2007 consisting of four schools with different student demographics. Initial results show significant improvement between pre- and post-workshop testing in several areas. Several logistical problems remain to be worked out, especially in the operation of the teacher workshops.

  16. Predicting High School Students' Interest in Majoring in a STEM Field: Insight into High School Students' Postsecondary Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; George-Jackson, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how various individual, family, and school level contextual factors impact the likelihood of planning to major in one of the science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields for high school students. A binary logistic regression model was developed to determine the extent to which each of the covariates helped to…

  17. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  18. Media Preferences of Selected North Carolina Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Allen E.; Richardson, John G.

    Nearly all burley tobacco farmers in the mountains of North Carolina are small or part-time farmers who have limited time for seeking information. Although they desire accurate, user-friendly, timely, and relevant information, their willingness or opportunity to spend time in face-to-face contacts or grower meetings is becoming severely limited.…

  19. Role of Farmers' Fair in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohoni, A. W.; Varma, Harish

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and objectives for organizing an educationally oriented farmers' fair for rural Indians are presented. Various activities are suggested and described, including: research farm visits, question and answer sessions between farmers and experts, farm equipment demonstrations, agro-industrial exhibitions, and competitions. (LH)

  20. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  1. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  2. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  3. Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Ronald D.

    When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to…

  4. Can Farm Policy Help Small Farmers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew G.

    1986-01-01

    Small farmers are a diverse group, ranging from part-time hobbyists with good off-farm jobs to full-time operators. General rural development policies, rather than traditional farm policies, may be the best method to help those small farmers who earn insufficient income. (JHZ)

  5. Informational Benefits via Knowledge Networks among Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire; Lewis, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design/methodology/approach: Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth…

  6. The Tenancy System: The Forgotten Farmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Develops a lesson explaining the farm tenancy system in which displaced farmers work on large landowners' farms. Describes various forms of tenancy: small farmer, cash tenant, share tenant, sharecropper, and migrant worker. Provides lyrics from eight folk songs and lists questions to help students retrieve information about farm tenancy in the…

  7. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  8. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  9. Farmers' paintings promote family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692

  10. Will China's Cooperative Medical System fail again? Insight from farmer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Tang, Kam Ki; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the sustainability of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) by evaluating the satisfaction rate of its participants-the farmers. The study related the overall satisfaction of the farmers to their satisfaction with the four different aspects of the program. It also identified which personal and program attributes affect the farmers' satisfaction rate. Survey data of 1278 households from 66 counties in Shandong Province of China were collected in 2011 using a multi-stage stratified cluster-sampling method. To overcome the nepotistic barriers in rural China, field surveys in each township were conducted by university students from the same place. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions and structural equation modeling method. The results showed that 86% of the farmers were either satisfied or very satisfied with the NCMS and 82% indicated their intention to continue participating in the program. Aside from its financial benefits, both the publicity and reimbursement procedure of the program were found to be significant factors in influencing the satisfaction of the farmers. Majority of the participants held positive opinions toward the NCMS, contradicting the negative assessments made by many previous studies. Given the high proportion of farmers willing to continue with the program, it is likely to be sustainable in the near future. Greater publicity and education efforts should be made to make the farmers better informed about the program, and measures should be taken to improve its reimbursement procedure and the setting of the premium level. PMID:23669160

  11. Sub-slab pressure field extension in schools and other large buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. B.; Craig, A. B.; Leovic, K. W.

    1991-09-01

    The experiences of EPA are discussed in using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of normal mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  12. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  13. Future Farmers of America--A Profile of Chapters and Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    A study was conducted to collect information related to Future Farmers of America (FFA) advisors, chapters, and school characteristics. Specific objectives were to determine FFA activities influenced by the advisor's experience, and to identify factors perceived as contributing to the preparation of teachers for the role of advisor and to the…

  14. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  15. Farmer decision making and spatial variables in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Kanter, Rebekah; Yarnasarn, Sanay; Ekasingh, Methi; Jones, Royce

    1994-05-01

    This research has two interrelated objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which a relationship exists between farmer characteristics and farming practices in three villages in northern Thailand. The second is to use standard statistical methods for incorporating spatial variables into the analysis and to assess the effects of these variables on farmer decision making. The data base includes information on the location and size of villages, roads, streams, and fields; a digital elevation model with information on elevation, slope, and aspect; and information keyed to individual fields on crops and cropping methods and the ethnicity, income, and religion of farmers. The map data (517 plots) were entered into a computerized geographic information systems (GIS). Results suggest several hypotheses about the relationships between land use and owner characteristics. More significantly, the study concludes that spatial analysis appears to be most useful when the dependent variable is either continuous or ordinal. The outlook is not quite as optimistic when the dependent variable is a nonordinal categorical variable. Before spatial analysis can be applied regularly to social science data, better computational tools need to be developed.

  16. The development of a model for artificial insemination by backyard pig farmers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Visalvethaya, Weethima; Tantasuparuk, Wichai; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a model of artificial insemination (AI) technology transferable to backyard pig farmers for strengthening pig productivity in rural areas in Thailand. An AI center, criteria and process for farmer selection, an AI training program, AI practice in pigs, and a backyard farmer network were created as a model. Five hundred and thirty-one farrowing records from 307 sows were analyzed. Farrowing rates (FR), total number of piglets born (TB), and number of piglets born alive (BA) were studied. AI has led to better results in FR, TB, and BA than natural mating (P < 0.05). Demographic factors such as sex and age of farmers only had significant effects on FR (P < 0.05), while educational levels and farmers' AI experience had significant effects on TB and BA (P < 0.05). Model factors such as type of training, semen delivery systems, and semen storage time did not have significant effects on FR, TB, and BA. In conclusion, using this model, we found that backyard farmers could be trained in AI techniques in order to achieve equally good results as experienced technicians. Male farmers within working age or older, with a high school education or higher are the recommended target groups for implementing this model. Strong cooperation with clear responsibilities of all stakeholders could create a good network of backyard pig farmers. Therefore, the implementation of AI techniques in pig production can be applied to the target group with an aim towards a sustainable, self-sufficient community. PMID:21174229

  17. Summer school in the field of Space Technologies: A novel approach for teenage education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolea, Paul; Vladut Dascal, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the main practical aspects regarding the organization of a summer school in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. This one-week summer school is aimed for education of teenagers between 12 and 16 years. Currently, the summer school reached its third edition. During this educational activities some especially designed prototype equipments were used with the main purpose of educating adolescents towards a scientific career in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. The main equipments and associated experiments are presented as follows: 1. A teaching purpose radio telescope emphasizing the working principle of professional radio telescopes. The experiments were focused on scanning the sky for identifying the positions of geostationary satellites and the Sun. 2. A weather satellite reception equipment used for downloading real-time APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) weather data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather satellite fleet. The visual images were used for emphasizing the clouds and cloud systems over Europe. 3. A prototype equipment for receiving electromagnetic waves in the field of VLF (Very Low Frequency) with the purpose of analyzing the electromagnetic radio frequency spectrum. The main emphasized phenomenons in the VLF band (3 kHz - 30 kHz) are related to radio transmitters, electrical discharges in the atmosphere (lightning) and the electromagnetic pollution. 4. An equipment designed for initiating teenagers in the field of radio communication. This equipment was used for transmission and reception of images and sound over a distance of few kilometers, by using high-gain directional antennas. 5. Other sets of experiments were undertaken with the main purpose of mapping the countryside area in which the experiments had taken place. For this activity GPS devices were used. This paper may be considered a practical guideline for those who want to attract young students towards a

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  19. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  20. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices. PMID:21461959

  1. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  2. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  3. Where Should Student Teachers Learn to Teach? Effects of Field Placement School Characteristics on Teacher Retention and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by an ongoing debate about the kinds of schools that make for the best field placements during pre-service preparation. On the one hand, easier-to-staff schools may support teacher learning because they are typically better-functioning institutions that offer desirable teaching conditions. On the other hand, such field…

  4. Curricular Orientations, Experiences, and Actions: Graduate Students in Science and Mathematics Fields Work in Urban High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Nikoletta; Varelas, Maria; Wenzel, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    We examined curricular orientations that graduate students in science and mathematics fields held as they experienced urban high-school science and mathematics classrooms. We analyzed how these educators (called Fellows) saw themselves, students, teachers, schools, education, and the sense they made of mathematics and science education in urban,…

  5. Dynamic Instructional Leadership to Support Student Learning and Development: The Field Guide to Comer Schools in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Edward T., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Comer, James P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Schools are the only universally accessible institutions where there are enough adults to provide continuous support for children's growth, development, and success in life. Using the process pioneered by renowned child psychiatrist Dr. James P. Comer and his colleagues at the Yale School Development Program (SDP), this unique field guide offers…

  6. Educating Bilingual/ESL Teachers in a Language/Culture Exchange Field School: A Collaborative Model in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadarrama, Irma N.

    This paper describes a program that brings bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers from the United States to a Mexican ESL school to teach in the Tetiz (Yucatan, Mexico) field school and in exchange, learn Mayan language and culture. The theoretical base for the project is drawn from the work of major theorists in second language…

  7. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  8. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    PubMed

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

  9. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  10. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  11. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations. PMID:27179801

  12. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  13. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other requirements for affected farmers. 760.7 Section... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity payment for milk may be made under this subpart to an affected farmer only under the following conditions:...

  14. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  15. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  16. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  17. Slash-and-burn farmers: villains or victims?

    PubMed

    Rambo, T

    1990-01-01

    Slash and burn farmers in southeast Asia are blamed for deforestation and are considered backward or ignorant. Efforts have been made by agricultural development experts to urge farmers to switch to fixed field methods. Slash and burn methods are used in upland areas with steep slopes, low soil fertility, and unpredictable natural hazards in order to allow survival in an environment made difficult for cultivation by other methods. Slash and burn farmers may be stable or migratory and use rotational or pioneering methods. Rotational methods involve clearing and burning a new plot every year, and then allowing regeneration of forest for 10-20 years. When population density is 40/square km, this method does not degrade the environment. Pioneering involves clearance of primary forest, cultivation for several years until soil fertility is destroyed, and then replacement with low productivity "imperata cylindrica grass." Pioneering tends to cause long-term environmental degradation. Humid tropic soils tend toward infertility, and in many areas of southeast Asia the soils are nutrient-poor and acidic. Ash from burning also reduces soil acidity. In northeast Thailand, 454 kg of calcium are released from burning one hectare of mature forest. The advantages are affordable natural fertilization and freedom from technical experts and imported spare parts. Frequent rotation also helps to expand the crops and provide disease protection. Population densities, competition for scarce resources, and social and economic pressures make the slash and burn technique inappropriate. As yet unavailable alternative farming techniques are needed which take advantage of slash and burn benefits. Slash and burn farmers are victims of deforestation even though they may appear to be the villains. PMID:12283382

  18. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  19. Respiratory disorders are not more common in farmers. Results from a study on Icelandic animal farmers

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur T.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Sigurvinsdottir, Lara; Kline, Joel N.; Tomasson, Kristinn

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Respiratory disorders are more common among farmers than in other populations, despite less atopy and a lower prevalence of smoking; this is likely due to environmental exposure to organic dust and irritants. The current prevalence of respiratory disorders and atopy in Icelandic farmers is unknown, but a significantly greater rate of respiratory symptoms than the general population has been reported in the past. Modern farming practices, which effectively decrease the generation of respirable dust, have been implemented in Iceland in the past decade. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory disorders in a nationwide study of Icelandic farmers, and to identify any environmental or occupational associations with these disorders. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based study of all Icelandic farmers with an age-matched comparison group randomly selected from the national citizen registry of Iceland. The questionnaire included items regarding respiratory symptoms and working environment. Results Out of 2042 farmers invited to participate, 1108 responded (54%), as did 689 of 1500 controls (46%). Farmers were slightly older and more likely to be male (77% vs. 47%). Smoking rates were significantly lower among farmers than among controls. The prevalence of asthma was not significantly different between the two groups, with a lifetime prevalence of 9.4% (n=104) among farmers compared to 10.2% (n=70) among controls. Medication use for asthma did not significantly differ between the farmer (6.5%) and control (4.8%) groups. The prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis and emphysema likewise did not significantly differ between the groups, but self-reported “hay fever” was significantly more prevalent among farmers. Conclusion Concomitant with changes in farming practices the prevalence of respiratory disorders among Icelandic farmers has decreased. This suggests that modernization of the

  20. Transforming School Leadership and Management to Support Student Learning and Development: The Field Guide to Comer Schools in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Edward T., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Comer, James P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 35 years, the Yale School Development Program (SDP) has been pioneering the Comer Process for planned change in schools. From initial planning and preparation, through foundation building, transformation, institutionalization, and renewal, the Comer Process provides school leaders with a comprehensive and effective framework for…

  1. Outstanding in the Field II: Citizen Science Experiences for Middle Schools in Northeast Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case Hanks, A. T.; Bhattacharjee, J.; Clark, L.; Pugh, A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to prepare middle school teachers for the next generation sciences standards and the new common core, the University of Louisiana at Monroe (ULM) Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Education and Human Development launched the Outstanding in the Field II program. Through the creation of a mesonet with the weather stations at middle school sites, this project aims to foster and enrich the experience of teacher/student-collected data while logging the data into a larger scientific database, producing citizen scientists. By empowering students and teachers to actively participate in 'real science', they generate data to be analyzed from both the physical and life science perspective and thus, highlight the next generation science standards and core disciplinary ideas. This project also promotes collaboration between the life and physical sciences while highlighting scientific practices and cross-cutting concepts within science and literacy. To ensure the successful implementation of the program, faculty and will provide several follow-up workshops during the academic year. These workshops will focus on the common core connections of math and literacy as well as ways in which the project can be supported at each site through face-to-face observations and online collaborations. This year-long program began with a field intensive workshop in July 2012 and enrolled 30 6th, 7th, and 8th science teachers from the Northeast region of Louisiana to provide a genuine scientific experience that would be taken back and applied within the classroom. By becoming students, teachers began by collecting data in the field and establishing and refining the intricate connection between real- world experiments and science taught in classrooms. . They returned to the ULM campus to build and deploy weather stations. Teachers were then tasked with the development of a plan to install the weather station and collect data at their school site with emphasis on implementation within their

  2. [Smoking prevalence and associated factors among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2,464 tobacco farmers in 2011. Multivariate analysis in men assessed the association between smoking and socioeconomic, behavioral, and occupational variables. Some 31.2% of men and 3.1% of women were current smokers. In men, smoking was directly associated with age, schooling, income, heavy drinking, time at work in tobacco farming, and time of exposure to pesticides. Employment relationship was a risk factor for smoking, and participation in religious activities was a protective factor. Male tobacco farmers showed multiple risk behaviors and higher smoking prevalence than other farmers. Ignoring the risk and cultural legacy may be common factors for these behaviors and suggest combined approaches. PMID:27487442

  3. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  4. Empirical analysis of farmers' drought risk perception: objective factors, personal circumstances, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Duinen, Rianne van; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Peter; Veen, Anne van der

    2015-04-01

    Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on farmers' drought risk perceptions. Understanding the formation of farmers' drought risk perceptions is a prerequisite to designing effective and efficient public drought risk management strategies. Various strands of literature point at different factors shaping individual risk perceptions. Economic theory points at objective risk variables, whereas psychology and sociology identify subjective risk variables. This study investigates and compares the contribution of objective and subjective factors in explaining farmers' drought risk perception by means of survey data analysis. Data on risk perceptions, farm characteristics, and various other personality traits were collected from farmers located in the southwest Netherlands. From comparing the explanatory power of objective and subjective risk factors in separate models and a full model of risk perception, it can be concluded that farmers' risk perceptions are shaped by both rational and emotional factors. In a full risk perception model, being located in an area with external water supply, owning fields with salinization issues, cultivating drought-/salt-sensitive crops, farm revenue, drought risk experience, and perceived control are significant explanatory variables of farmers' drought risk perceptions. PMID:25514996

  5. Human vulnerability to climate variability in the Sahel: farmers' adaptation strategies in northern Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers' vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers' perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers' actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers' dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers' desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts. PMID:19037691

  6. A survey of farmers' attitudes to services provided by consulting veterinarians to the Western Australian sheep industry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H M; Copland, R S; Swan, R A; Robertson, I D

    1991-06-01

    A postal survey was conducted of 80 sheep farmers in the Kojonup and Esperance districts of Western Australia to establish what they wanted from a veterinary service. Twenty five of the farmers surveyed used a sheep consultant, 25 did not, and 30 were interested in employing one. Farmers were asked questions about themselves and their attitudes to private veterinarians who provide specialist services to sheep farmers. Data reported here showed that farmers wanted a veterinarian who lived in the district, was well trained in sheep management and production, was enthusiastic and had good communication skills. The service provided should be whole-farm and available to members of the consultant's group only. Regular newsletters and field days were necessary, but the provision of contract services, such as mulesing, lamb-marking, drenching, pregnancy testing and sheep classing, and 'fire-brigade' services for sick animals, were not rated as important. Most farmers were unwilling or unable to give a dollar value for the likely benefits of a consultancy service. Non-financial benefits included keeping farmers up to date with new technical developments and information. The survey also showed that a veterinarian specialising in services to sheep farmers could be confident of employment. PMID:1888311

  7. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  8. Engaging High School Science Teachers in Field-Based Seismology Research: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Research experiences for secondary school science teachers have been shown to improve their students' test scores, and there is a substantial body of literature about the effectiveness of RET (Research Experience for Teachers) or SWEPT (Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers) programs. RET programs enjoy substantial support, and several opportunities for science teachers to engage in research currently exist. However, there are barriers to teacher participation in research projects; for example, laboratory-based projects can be time consuming and require extensive training before a participant can meaningfully engage in scientific inquiry. Field-based projects can be an effective avenue for involving teachers in research; at its best, earth science field work is a fun, highly immersive experience that meaningfully contributes to scientific research projects, and can provide a payoff that is out of proportion to a relatively small time commitment. In particular, broadband seismology deployments provide an excellent opportunity to provide teachers with field-based research experience. Such deployments are labor-intensive and require large teams, with field tasks that vary from digging holes and pouring concrete to constructing and configuring electronics systems and leveling and orienting seismometers. A recently established pilot program, known as FEST (Field Experiences for Science Teachers) is experimenting with providing one week of summer field experience for high school earth science teachers in Connecticut. Here I report on results and challenges from the first year of the program, which is funded by the NSF-CAREER program and is being run in conjunction with a temporary deployment of 15 seismometers in Connecticut, known as SEISConn (Seismic Experiment for Imaging Structure beneath Connecticut). A small group of teachers participated in a week of field work in August 2015 to deploy seismometers in northern CT; this experience followed a visit of the

  9. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  10. The Quest for Quality: Recent Developments and Future Directions for the Out-of-School-Time Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohalem, Nicole; Granger, Robert C.; Pittman, Karen J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how to assess and improve what happens within out-of-school-time (OST) programs is a critical challenge facing the field. This article explores key developments related to the issue of quality in the OST field during the past several years and then looks ahead at opportunities for future progress. From a practice perspective, one of…

  11. Uneven Playing Field: Demographic Differences and High School "Choice" in Philadelphia. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, eighth graders participate in the School District of Philadelphia's high school application and admissions process, vying for spots in a tiered system of public high schools across the city. This policy brief looks at disparities in the students who are successful in exercising school "choice" in the District's high school selection…

  12. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  13. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.

  14. A model for safety and health promotion among Danish farmers.

    PubMed

    Hjort, Charlotte; Højmose, Poul; Sherson, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, a project concerning the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases was started in Vejle County, Denmark. The aim of the project was to increase the safety and health in farming. The project was based on a participatory strategy. The main principles were local involvement in designing the project, multifaceted activities for defined target-groups and respect for occupational skills and integrity. This multilevel approach involved individuals, groups and organisations. Activities were initiated and adjusted throughout the project. This interactive work remodeling the activities throughout the project period and method encouraged empowerment leaving experiences among the participants. Target groups included farmers, farmers' wives, agricultural advisors, agricultural school teachers, employees and part-time assistants. Activities included dialog-meetings, information meetings in larger and smaller groups, as well as designing of educational safety material, e.g., for children and employees. The project is run with a very low degree of central organisational activities, and is also a so called "bottom-up" project with a low budget. Evaluations are undertaken throughout the project period. If this concept can be implemented in Denmark, it may well be useful in other developed as well as less industrialized countries. PMID:14563628

  15. High School and Undergraduate Participation in Field Experiments as a Means of Teaching Global Change Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariello, N. R.; Gomez, W.; Field, C. B.

    2004-12-01

    Field experiments offer unique opportunities to teach undergraduates and high school students many of the principles and methods of global change science. The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) studies the response of California grassland to four environmental factors changing globally, and has emphasized a tiered program of outreach that combines curriculum supplements, demonstration tours, sample data sets, and internship opportunities. The program emphasizes translating a complex environmental question into an experiment. High school outreach by the JRGCE has focused on the environmental studies classes at a nearby public high school. Students begin with background material via a website and in-class sessions that focus on global and regional changes in the four environmental factors incorporated in the experiment: warming, elevated CO2, increased precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. Each class also visits the experiment to see and discuss many aspects of experimental design: environmental heterogeneity, the importance of replication and randomization, the role of experimental controls, the possibility of experimental artifacts, the importance of minimally disruptive measurements, and the complexity of ecosystems and their responses to experimental treatments. These demonstration tours also emphasize hands-on measurements to illustrate how ecosystem responses to global change are quantified across a wide range of mechanisms. Finally, students use data from the experiment to test for effects of the treatments. For undergraduate classes, outreach focuses on either broad-based or more specialized demonstration tours to support their already well-developed curriculum. A few strongly interested high school students and undergraduates also conduct studies within the JRGCE under the supervision of a graduate student, postdoc, or professor. These educational activities depend crucially on three factors: 1) involvement of many members of the experiment team

  16. White School Counselors Becoming Racial Justice Allies to Students of Color: A Call to the Field of School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lauren J.; Singh, Anneliese A.

    2015-01-01

    White school counselors must consider how racial identity, and whiteness as a construct, influences their work with students of color. This article addresses opportunities for White school counselors regarding how they may become allies to students of color and suggests way in which counselor educators can support the ally identity development in…

  17. Reinforcing key concepts in the discipline of geobiology through active learning in the field - an example integrating middle school through graduate school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W., III; Werne, J. P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnson, E.; Martin, P. A.; Harris, J. H., IV; Fouskas, F.; Steinman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal was to introduce students to current research in the scientific discipline of geobiology. To accomplish this, we established a three-fold approach to link course work with fieldwork through: 1) active participation in the field and laboratory, 2) multi-tiered mentoring, 3) and formal education modules. During the summer of 2015, six undergraduate students and seven graduate students collected field samples from Green Lake (NY) and Mahoney Lake (BC). The students learned how to take water and sediment samples, process samples in anaerobic chambers in the field, and deal with moderately adverse field conditions. These learning by doing activities reinforced lessons learned in the classroom. The second phase involved two high school students who helped process and analyze the samples in the laboratory during summer session. These students worked with the undergraduate and graduate students who participated in the fieldwork. This interaction benefited both the high school students, who learned new methods, and the university students who learned to explain their field research and mentor younger students. The third phase involved creation of education modules to better inform middle school students of the issues of hypoxia. We piloted portions of our module at a conference for forty middle school girls. Graduate students showed the girls field equipment and how to make oxygen measurements using handheld instruments. In all of these activities, the students had the opportunity to work with the PI's, who were fully engaged in the process and who made a constant effort to be educators in the field and in the lab.

  18. Investigating the Transition Process when Moving from a Spiral Curriculum Alignment into a Field-Focus Science Curriculum Alignment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwardt, Randi Kay

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the transition from a spiral science curriculum to a field-focus science curriculum in middle school. A spiral science curriculum focuses on a small part of each field of science during each middle school year, more of a general science concept. In contrast to that, the base of a field-focus curriculum is that each…

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  20. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sankoh, Alhaji I; Whittle, Rebecca; Semple, Kirk T; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced by Sierra Leonean farmers is pest control. Birds, rodents, insects, crustaceans and other organisms can drastically reduce yields. In order to prevent these organisms from destroying their crop, farmers use pesticides. However there are reports that these chemicals are being misused and such misuse is having a negative impact on the environment and the health of the farmers. This research study aimed to investigate the use of pesticides in rice fields and its potential effects on the environment and on the farmers of Sierra Leone. Five hundred farmers and one hundred health workers across the country were interviewed. Fifty focus group discussions were also completed. Field observations were also undertaken to see how farmers apply pesticides to their farms and the possible threats these methods have on human health and the environment. It is clear that a wide range of pesticides are used by rice farmers in Sierra Leone with 60% of the pesticides used entering the country illegally. Most farmers have no knowledge about the safe handling of pesticides as 71% of them have never received any form of training. The pesticides kill both target and non-target organisms some of which enter the food chain. Cases of health problems such as nausea, respiratory disorders and blurred vision investigated in this research are significantly higher among farmers who use pesticides than those who do not use pesticides. Cases of pesticide intoxication are not investigated by health workers but results obtained from interviews with them also indicated that cases of pesticides related symptoms are significantly higher in environments where pesticides are used than those in which pesticides are not used. PMID:27316626

  1. Engaging Families to Support Students' Transition to High School: Evidence from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Epstein, Joyce L.; Sheldon, Steven B.; Fonseca, Ean

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study addresses the challenge of declining family engagement at the critical transition to high school. We use data from a survey of schools to examine whether and how middle grades and high schools engage families when their students transition to high school. Findings indicate that there is a significant negative relationship…

  2. Charter Schools and "Customer" Satisfaction: Lessons from Field Testing a Parent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Mora-Flores, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of magnet schools in the 1960s--and more recently, the proliferation of charter schools in the last fifteen years--school choice has been a pervasive element on the education reform landscape. With this growth has come the need for information tools to help site-based educators manage, grow, and improve their schools. This is…

  3. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  4. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  5. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  6. Financing Travel to the Young Farmer Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, R. Z.; Anderson, Glenn

    1976-01-01

    Described is a fund-raising project successfully undertaken by a Young Farmer organization in Virginia; students cleared tree-covered land in return for the use of the acreage to raise crops of corn and rye. Profits were used to send members to national conventions. (AJ)

  7. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  8. A survey on farmers' fertility desires.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This news brief presents findings from a survey of fertility desires among 10,000 farm households in 1400 villages, 140 townships, and 14 counties in Hunan Province, China. Findings reveal that farmers fully support the present national family planning program. Farmers believe that smaller families will contribute to higher incomes and improvement in people's lives. 1.51% of farmers were dissatisfied with the family planning program, and 2.48% desired more children. During 1982 to the present, the average number of births in Huanglongxincum Village, Huanghua Town, Changsha County, declined from 76 to 26 births. The average net per capita income increased from 100 yuan to 3000 yuan. Five couples with only daughters declined the offer of second birth quotas. A woman from Shou Hongsheng, Heliao Township, Zhigiang County, had an only daughter and left with her family for another village in 1991 with the hope of having a second child. Instead the couple prospered, and net annual family income from a specialized fruit production business increased to 40,000 yuan yearly. By 1994, the couple was given permission to have a second child, but the couple turned down the offer. Local provincial family planning officials believe these changes in attitude among farmers are a hopeful sign and the highest award given by the people to the public sector. PMID:12347489

  9. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  10. Impact of TV on Farmers' Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swamy, B. Sundara; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To assess gain and retention of televised agricultural information and its relation to other characteristics such as farmers' age, land ownership, and education, an experiment using a before-after design was conducted in a rural area of India covered by the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) program. (MF)

  11. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  12. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme. PMID:18840935

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Juciê; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ≥18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families. PMID:23202670

  14. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Institutionalizing outreach to secondary school students at a soft-money research institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrotto, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Secondary School Field Research Program is a field and laboratory internship for high school students at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Over the past 11 years it has grown into a significant program, engaging approximately 50 high school and college students each summer, most of them from ethnic and economic groups that are under-represented in the STEM fields. The internships are based on research-driven science questions on estuarine physics, chemistry, ecology and the paleo-environment. Field studies are linked to associated laboratory analyses whose results are reported by the students as a final project. For the past two years, we have focused on the transition to an institutional program, with sustainable funding and organizational structures. At a grant-driven institution whose mission is largely restricted to basic research, institutionalization has not been an easy task. To leverage scarce resources we have implemented a layered structure that relies on near-peer mentoring. So a typical research team might include a mix of new and more experienced high school students, a college student, a high school science teacher and a Lamont researcher as a mentor. Graduates of the program are employed to assist with administration. Knowledge and best practices diffuse through the organization in an organic, if not entirely structured, fashion. We have found that a key to long-term funding has been survival: as we have sustained a successful program and developed a model adapted to Lamont's unique environment, we have attracted longer term core financing on which grant-driven extensions can be built. The result is a highly flexible program that is student-centered in the context of a broader research culture connecting our participants with the advantages of working at a premier soft-money research institution.

  15. The farmers' market coupon program for low-income elders.

    PubMed

    Balsam, A; Webber, D; Oehlke, B

    1994-01-01

    The Massachusetts Farmers' Market Coupon Program provides coupons to low-income elders redeemable for fresh produce at farmers' markets. The program was conceived to create new direct marketing opportunities for small farmers, while at the same time introducing people at nutritional risk to farmers' markets. This article reports on the results of an evaluation of the program by participating elders and draws conclusions regarding program successes based on the data. PMID:7830223

  16. Respiratory disease in United States farmers

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; Rinsky, Jessica L; Henneberger, Paul K; Salo, Paivi M; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Farmers may be at increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes compared with the general population due to their regular exposures to dusts, animals and chemicals. However, early life farm exposures to microbial agents may result in reduced risk. Understanding respiratory disease risk among farmers and identifying differences between farmers and other populations may lead to better understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to respiratory disease risk in the general population. Methods We compared the prevalence of self-reported respiratory outcomes in 43548 participants from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort of farmers and their spouses from Iowa and North Carolina, with data from adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the same period (2005–2010). Results AHS participants had lower prevalences of respiratory diseases (asthma, adult-onset asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema), but higher prevalences of current respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough and phlegm) even after controlling for smoking, body mass index and population characteristics. The overall prevalence of asthma in the AHS (7.2%, 95% CI 6.9 to 7.4) was 52% of that in NHANES (13.8%, 95% CI 13.3 to 14.3), although the prevalence of adult-onset asthma among men did not differ (3.6% for AHS, 3.7% for NHANES). Conversely, many respiratory symptoms were more common in the AHS than NHANES, particularly among men. Conclusions These findings suggest that farmers and their spouses have lower risk for adult-onset respiratory diseases compared with the general population, and potentially higher respiratory irritation as evidenced by increased respiratory symptoms. PMID:24913223

  17. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  18. Does multifunctionality matter to US farmers? Farmer motivations and conceptions of multifunctionality in dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Rachel F; Nelson, Kristen C

    2014-12-15

    The concept of multifunctionality describes and promotes the multiple non-production benefits that emerge from agricultural systems. The notion of multifunctional agriculture was conceived in a European context and largely has been used in European policy arenas to promote and protect the non-production goods emerging from European agriculture. Thus scholars and policy-makers disagree about the relevance of multifunctionality for United States agricultural policy and US farmers. In this study, we explore lived expressions of multifunctional agriculture at the farm-level to examine the salience of the multifunctionality concept in the US. In particular, we investigate rotational grazing and confinement dairy farms in the eastern United States as case studies of multifunctional and productivist agriculture. We also analyze farmer motivations for transitioning from confinement dairy to rotational grazing systems. Through interviews with a range of dairy producers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and New York, we found that farmers were motivated by multiple factors--including improved cow health and profitability--to transition to rotational grazing systems to achieve greater farm-level multifunctionality. Additionally, rotational grazing farmers attributed a broader range of production and non-production benefits to their farm practice than confinement dairy farmers. Further, rotational grazing dairy farmers described a system-level notion of multifunctionality based on the interdependence of multiple benefits across scales--from the farm to the national level--emerging from grazing operations. We find that the concept of multifunctionality could be expanded in the US to address the interdependence of benefits emerging from farming practices, as well as private benefits to farmers. We contend that understanding agricultural benefits as experienced by the farmer is an important contribution to enriching the multifunctionality concept in the US context, informing agri

  19. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers' fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  20. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters. PMID:26342979

  1. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers...

  2. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers...

  3. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers...

  4. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  5. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for fiscal year 2010 beginning March 11, 2010. Petitioners... in accordance with 7 CFR part 1580.201. The petition must be received by the TAA for Farmers Staff...

  6. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  7. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  8. 75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers AGENCY: Departmental... on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee) will be held to discuss and explore USDA policy options designed to create and sustain ``New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers.'' DATES: The public meetings...

  9. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  10. Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Lorann

    1990-01-01

    Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

  11. Programs and Policies To Assist Displaced Farmers. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; Salant, Priscilla

    A study examined and evaluated both public and private efforts to assist dislocated farmers, with particular emphasis on employment and training programs. The study found that about 46,000 farmers are currently leaving farming each year, and the rate probably will continue for the next several years. Since the majority of the farmers who leave…

  12. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  13. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  14. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  15. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions are…

  16. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA... Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on December 2, 2009. The purpose of the Committee is to..., methods of maximizing participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department of Agriculture...

  17. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  18. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  19. Farmer Perceptions of Soil and Water Conservation Issues: Implications to Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas; Martin, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 731 Iowa farmers received 432 responses indicating that (1) groundwater and water quality were of greater concern than soil conservation; (2) field demonstrations and county meetings were useful information sources on these issues; and (3) government agencies such as cooperative extension and state universities were useful sources of…

  20. Design and analysis of appropriate technology for small farmers: cropping systems research in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention of early-maturing and high-yielding rice varieties has opened up possibilities of increased production and incomes for small farmers in Asia and elsewhere. However, the new varieties were developed under optimal conditions not commonly found on small farms. Therefore, though yields on experiment stations have improved markedly, average farm yields remain low. Agricultural and social scientists are now realizing that greater attention should be given to the specific environmental circumstances facing farmers, socioeconomic as well as agroclimatic, before and during new technology development. Accordingly, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) began technology development for small farmers by undertaking experimentation on farmers' fields in several agroclimatic situations. This study formed part of IRRI's Cropping Systems Program research efforts in rainfed lowland areas of Iloilo, the Philippines, applying a modified methodological approach to identifying and evaluating appropriate new technologies. Study results clearly indicate the desirability and feasibility of ex-ante evaluation of existing and notional new technologies for their potential suitability to the socioeconomic and agroclimatic circumstances faced by small farmers.

  1. Importance of field scientific learning at the time of elementary and junior high school. - Introduction of geological field learning in Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    Importance of the scientific field learning is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. Practice of the geological field study at the time of elementary and junior high school is very important. This study reports the present situation and the practice example of field scientific learning of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the geological field education in a class of Shimane prefecture. I point out that "Consciousness (In)", "knowledge (About)", and "action (For)" are important three factors not only environmental education but also geological field education (e.g. Matsumoto, 2014). However, the practice rate of field geological learning at the elementary and junior high school is very low in Japan (Miyashita and Matsumoto, 2010). I introduce the effective method of increasing the practice rate of field geological study. I discuss about pedagogy which improves especially a student's scientific literacy.

  2. An In-depth Examination of Farmers' Perceptions of Targeting Conservation Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, Margaret; Prokopy, Linda; Frankenberger, Jane; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2014-10-01

    Watershed managers have largely embraced targeting of agricultural conservation as a way to manage strategically non-point source pollution from agricultural lands. However, while targeting of particular watersheds is not uncommon, targeting farms and fields within a specific watershed has lagged. In this work, we employed a qualitative approach, using farmer interviews in west-central Indiana to better understand their views on targeting. Interviews focused on adoption of conservation practices on farmers' lands and identified their views on targeting, disproportionality, and monetary incentives. Results show consistent support for the targeting approach, despite dramatic differences in farmers' views of land stewardship, in their views about disproportionality of water quality impacts, and in their trust in conservation programming. While the theoretical concept of targeting was palatable to all participants, many raised concerns about its practical implementation, pointing to the need for flexibility when applying targeting solutions and revealing misgivings about the government agencies that perform targeting.

  3. The injured and diseased farmer: occupational health, embodiment and technologies of harm and care.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Occupational health in agriculture is a significant public health issue in industrialised agricultural nations. This article reports on 26 in-depth interviews with farmers throughout New Zealand. Farmers are exposed to a range of technologies which place them at risk of injury and disease and/or prevent injury and disease. In this article these technologies are respectively conceptualised as technologies of harm and technologies of care. Despite being vulnerable to high rates of injury, fatality and occupationally related diseases the uptake of technologies of care amongst farmers in New Zealand is poor. The analysis draws on body theory to explore the meaning attached to injury and disease and to examine the socio-cultural field of agriculture. It is argued that the key features of subjective embodiment and social, cultural and symbolic capital can undermine the uptake of technologies of care, ensuring poor occupational health outcomes on New Zealand farms. PMID:21883292

  4. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers

  5. Marketing Fresh Produce to Local Schools: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Cultivating Schools as Customers in a Local Market: The New North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Acquiring Capital and Establishing a Credit History: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Success of the New North Florida Cooperative: A Progress Report on Producer Direct Sales to School Districts. Small Farmer Success Story. Bulletins 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These four bulletins describe how a group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved…

  6. The Role of Living-Learning Programs in Women's Plans to Attend Graduate School in STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of living-learning (L/L) programs in undergraduate women's plans to attend graduate school in STEM fields. Using data from the 2004-2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs (NSLLP), the only existing multi-institutional, longitudinal dataset examining L/L program outcomes, the findings show that women's…

  7. Effects of Classroom Acoustics on Performance and Well-Being in Elementary School Children: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatte, Maria; Hellbruck, Jurgen; Seidel, Jochen; Leistner, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Children are more impaired than adults by unfavorable listening conditions such as reverberation and noise. Nevertheless, the acoustical conditions in classrooms often do not fit the specific needs of young listeners. This field study aimed to analyze the effects of classroom reverberation on children's performance and well-being at school.…

  8. The School for Field Studies Centre for Coastal Studies: A Case Study of Sustainable Development Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, T. A.; Ollervides, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the School for Field Studies-Centre for Coastal Studies (SFS-CCS) study abroad Mexico program, and consider its relative success as a sustainable development education program. Design/methodology/approach: The SFS-CCS academic model and results of its implementation are presented. Program success is discussed by applying…

  9. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Competency Frameworks for Youth Workers in the Out-of-School Time Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Femi

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that the quality of out-of-school time (OST) programs is related to positive youth outcomes and skilled staff are a critical component of high quality programming. This descriptive case study of competency frameworks for youth workers in the OST field demonstrates how experts and practitioners characterize a skilled youth worker.…

  11. Drop-Out in Schools in India: Minor Field Studies in Orissa 1990. Educational and Psychological Interactions. No. 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Gudrun, Ed.

    This document consists of a report on the Minor Field Studies (MFS) program of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) and contains two MFS papers by teacher trainees at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden. The papers presented are "Drop-outs in Orissa," by Elisabeth Rosen, and "Education in India: A Study of Drop-Out Children…

  12. Schooling's "Contribution" to Contemporary Violent Conflict: Review of Theoretical Ideas and Case Studies in the Field of Education and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Some argue that the field of study of "education and conflict" has yet to be solidified since its emergence in the 1990s, partly due to the weak theory base. This article reviews the literature on the "contribution" of schooling in contemporary violent conflict, via three strands of theoretical ideas, to demonstrate the…

  13. The University of Nebraska at Omaha/Westside Community Schools Competency Based, Field Oriented Teacher Preparation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunsen, Dale M.

    Developmental activities and experiences of the University of Nebraska at Omaha/Omaha Westside Community Schools' five-year teacher preparation program are described. The program is designed to prepare classroom educators in a field-oriented, competency-based program involving a fifth year, partially-paid, pre-teaching experience. Program…

  14. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  15. How Zimbabwean AIDS Orphans Negotiate Their Personal Identities within the Fields of Home and School in a Stigmatising Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Chiwimbiso M.

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on field data originally collected for a PhD research project in a small district of Zimbabwe. The study attempts to answer the question about how AIDS orphaned children in a selected context in Zimbabwe construct their concept of self as members of their changed and recomposing families, and as members of their school and…

  16. The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. Method: A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using…

  17. A Field Test of a Structured Television Curriculum on the Mathematics Achievement of Incarcerated High School Equivalency Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Tom

    Problems connected with school dropouts and illiteracy are discussed. The need for decreasing recidivism and prison populations through educational programs is presented, with data on the costs of not doing so. The use of television as a teaching resource is proposed as a possible solution. A field test was conducted to determine the effects of a…

  18. Field Practice in La Mixteca: Transnational Teacher Education in the Service of Mexican Indigenous Students in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Nadeen Teresa; Baird, Peter J.; Torres Hernández, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Initial research has documented the ill treatment suffered by Mexican indigenous students in U.S. schools. Using a framework of transnational teacher education, we examined the impact of field practice in an indigenous area of Mexico on teacher candidates. Candidates showed growth in new understandings, such as their role as bilingual teachers in…

  19. Facial solar UV exposure of Austrian farmers during occupation.

    PubMed

    Schmalwieser, Alois W; Cabaj, Alexander; Schauberger, Günther; Rohn, Herbert; Maier, Bernhard; Maier, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Optoelectronic personal UV-meters were used to monitor the occupational facial solar erythemally effective exposure of 12 Austrian full-time farmers with high temporal resolution. To ensure high quality measurements several quality assurance procedures were applied, like calibration with respect to solar elevation and total ozone column. From April to October the test persons carried the UV-meters on the forehead during working hours. A digital diary (activity, location, weather, photoprotective measures) was completed on an hourly basis. Our field test produced 1427 complete daily records (measurement and diary). The total exposures showed high variability (77-757 standard erythema dose [SED]) which correlates with the number of working days and even stronger with the little numbers of days with high exposure (>10 SED). Risk factors for high exposures were: mixed-culture farms with aggravated working conditions, low degree of automation of working processes, inadequate operating logistics (summarized as manual work outdoor), driving machines without cabins, and female gender. UV exposure of female farmers was approximately twice as high as that of men: Women received 15% of ambient radiation while men got 8%. Avoiding daily exposure >10 SED could reduce exposure down to 40% and the risk in developing skin cancer by a factor of 40. PMID:21039574

  20. In Defense of Field Trips: A Conversation with Educators from an Extraordinary Alabama Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2010-01-01

    People looking for a public school Cinderella story need look no further than George Hall Elementary in Mobile, Alabama. The once struggling school, which serves mostly low-income children, now boasts state math and reading test scores most wealthy suburban schools would be proud of. George Hall did not have to sacrifice all but the basics to get…

  1. A Field Study of Telepractice for School Intervention Using the ASHA NOMS K-12 Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Rodney; Grogan-Johnson, Sue; Alvares, Robin; Bechstein, Leah; Taylor, Jacquelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and effectiveness of a telepractice speech-language therapy program for school-age children. Outcome data related to the caseload, type and amount of intervention, and student progress from a school-based telepractice therapy program were compared with the K-12 Schools National…

  2. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  3. "Micro" Politics: Mapping the Origins of Schools Computing as a Field of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of schools "micro-computing" in the UK between 1977 and 1984--a period of significant educational, technological and political change. During this time, computing developed rapidly from a niche activity in a few select schools to the state subsidized purchasing of a "computer in every school"…

  4. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  5. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  6. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints. PMID:12345425

  7. Respiratory health of California rice farmers.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Ferguson, T J; Goldsmith, D F; Parker, J E; Schenker, M B

    1996-05-01

    Rice farmers are occupationally exposed to agents that may affect respiratory health, including inorganic dusts and smoke from burning of agricultural waste. To assess respiratory health of this occupational group, we conducted a cross-sectional study, including a self-administered health and work questionnaire, spirometry, and chest radiography among 464 male California rice farmers. Mean age +/- SD was 48.3 +/- 15.2 yr; mean duration of rice farming was 25.7 +/- 14.3 yr. Prevalences for respiratory symptoms were: chronic bronchitis (6.3%), physician-diagnosed asthma (7.1%), and persistent wheeze (8.8%). Chronic cough was reported by 7.1% of respondents and was associated with reported hours per year burning rice stubble. Mean FEV1 and FVC were at expected values. FEV1 was inversely associated with years working in rice storage and use of heated rice dryers. Mean FEF25-75 was 93% of expected and was inversely associated with rice storage activities involving unheated rice driers. ILO profusion scores > or = 1/0 for small irregular opacities were seen in 18 (10.1%) of 178 chest radiographs. Study findings suggest increased asthma prevalence among California rice farmers. Radiologic findings consistent with dust or fiber exposure were increased compared with those of the general population, although no associations with specific farming activities were identified. PMID:8630601

  8. Needs assessment for reducing pesticide risk: a case study with farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the needs for and solutions to pesticide risk reduction for farmers in Vietnam, using a comprehensive needs assessment model applied for evaluating community needs and policy development. Four kinds of needs were evaluated using qualitative research methods. A comparative analysis of pesticide regulations was used to identify comparative needs. In-depth interviews with authorities and experts were conducted to identify normative needs. Observations on farmer's practice were used to identify expressed needs, and focus group discussions among farmers were implemented to identify felt needs. The needs for pesticide regulations obtained from comparative analysis and experts include enhancement of pesticide legislation; multisectoral involvement in pesticide regulations; improvement of capacity for sectors involving in pesticide regulations; risk-benefit guidance for pesticide registration; reforms of pesticide regulations relating to the restriction, cancellation, suspension, transport, storage, and disposal of pesticides; and the development of occupational hygiene and safety policy and programs for agricultural activities. The expressed needs based on field observations comprise improvement in knowledge and behavior of farmers about pesticide safety with specific areas, and supports in safety facilities and personal protective equipment. The key request from farmers include needs about technical training for occupational safety and hygiene of pesticide application, and support for safety facilities for pesticide application and protective equipment. The results of comprehensive needs assessment were useful in the development of a range of strategies in legislative improvement, workplace and personal hygiene, information and training, and medical surveillance and pesticide poisoning first aids for pesticide risk reduction for Vietnamese farmers. PMID:24125044

  9. Building Geophysics Talent and Opportunity in Africa: Experience from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics Field School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Jones, M. Q. W.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges faced by geophysics students and academic staff in Africa that make it difficult to develop effective field and research programs. Challenges to conducting field work that have been identified, and that can be tackled are: lack of training on geophysical equipment and lack of exposure to field program design and implementation. To address these challenges, the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics field school is designed to expose participants to a wide variety of geophysical instruments and the entire workflow of a geophysical project. The AA field school was initially developed for the geophysics students at the University of the Witwatersrand. However, by increasing the number of participants, we are able to make more effective use of a large pool of equipment, while addressing challenging geophysical problems at a remote field site. These additional participants are selected partially based on the likely hood of being able start a field school at their home institution. A good candidate would have access to geophysical equipment, but may not have knowledge of how to use it or how to effectively design surveys. These are frequently junior staff members or graduate students in leadership roles. The three week program introduces participants to the full geophysical field workflow. The first week is spent designing a geophysical survey, including determining the cost. The second week is spent collecting data to address a real geophysical challenge, such as determining overburden thickness, loss of ground features due to dykes in a mine, or finding water. The third week is spent interpreting and integrating the various data sets culminating in a final presentation. Participants are given all lecture material and much of the software is open access; this is done to encourage using the material at the home institution. One innovation has been to use graduate students as instructors, thus building a pool of talent that has developed the logistic and

  10. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A.; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  11. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    PubMed

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread. Farmers were questioned about a range of farm management strategies, farm characteristics, herd health, wildlife and biosecurity measures with a focus on farmer attitudes and behaviours such as farmers' perception of endemicity and feelings of control, openness and social cohesion. Data generated in the telephone surveys was supplemented with existing herd-level data and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Overall, herd size (OR 1.07), purchasing an animal at a cattle market compared to purchasing outside of markets (OR 2.6), the number of contiguous bTB incidents (2.30) and the number of inconclusive reactors detected in the 2 years prior to the case incident (OR 1.95) significantly increased the odds of a bTB incident. Beef herds using a field parcel more than 3.2km away from the main farm and dairy herds reporting Johne's disease in the previous 12 months were 3.0 and 4.7 times more likely to have a recent history of a bTB incident, respectively. Beef herds reporting maize growing near, but not on, their farm were less likely to be case herds. Operating a closed farm in the two years prior to the case breakdown did not reduce the odds of a bTB incident. Farmers

  12. Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.

    PubMed

    Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

    2011-12-01

    This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

  13. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    PubMed

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows. PMID:12280736

  14. Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M; Yoshida, K; Atiemo, M; Johnston, D

    1990-01-01

    Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount of chemical found in hand rinses and on wrist patches. Potential inhalation exposure was measured with an air sampler using polyurethane foam as the adsorbent. Urine samples were collected at 24-hr intervals after exposure and monitored for carbofuran. Blood samples were analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), pseudocholinesterase (ChE) and several other blood parameters. The results indicated that during the mixing and/or spraying operation, a farmer could potentially be exposed to a total of 1,264 micrograms carbofuran per kg of active ingredient (a.i.) used. Of this amount, 1,262 micrograms/kg (or 99.8%) was dermal and 2 micrograms/kg (or 0.2%) could be through the inhalation route. Hand and wrist exposure was about 1,100 micrograms/kg a.i. (or 87% of total exposure). Excretion of the chemical in the urine amounted to 28 micrograms/kg a.i. No ChE inhibition was observed. Other blood measurements were within normal ranges. The farmers showed no acute adverse effects during exposure and for four days after exposure. These results are discussed in relation to the mammalian toxicity of carbofuran. PMID:2322020

  15. Armed forces career exploration for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Morgan State University`s School of Engineering conducted its third annual Armed Forces Career Exploration program for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. The four week program was jointly sponsored by the US Army Laboratory Command (Ballistics Research Laboratory and Human Engineering Laboratory) and US Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). The environment in a predominantly urban school system is such that a significant number of very capable students reach the eleventh grade without plans for the future. These students as a result of teacher influence have taken lower level math and science courses and we feel by participating in this program will see reasons for pursuing higher level math and science courses their last two years in high school. Inasmuch as intervention programs have not yet significantly affected the profile of these schools this pool of students represents an opportunity to make an early impact on the number of students that enter college intending to major in math, science or engineering. This report presents the program that provided selected students with pre-engineering and science enrichment experiences designed to enhance their understanding of engineering, increase their awareness of career opportunities in science and engineering, advance their readiness to enter temporary job situation, and foster the development of self-confidence in their individual capabilities.

  16. Building Research Collaboratives among Schools and Universities: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peter; Reichert, Michael; Stoudt, Brett; Ravitch, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In a previous issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education," Hinton and Fischer (2008) argue that educational research needs to be grounded in the lived realities of school life. They advocate for research schools as a venue for accomplishing this. The Center for the Study of Boys' and Girls' Lives represents an alternative model--a research collaborative…

  17. The Development and Field Test of an Employment Interview Instrument for School Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Amy; Ebmeier, Howard

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. schools have seen a growth in the number of special education paraprofessionals employed to serve special education students as well as a growth in the roles these individuals are expected to play in schools. In addition, with passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities…

  18. Teacher Mobility, School Segregation, and Pay-Based Policies to Level the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that teacher quality is distributed very unevenly among schools, to the clear disadvantage of minority students and those from low-income families. Using North Carolina data on the length of time individual teachers remain in their schools, we examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this…

  19. Measure of School Capacity for Improvement (MSCI): Early Field Test Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffle, M. J. S.; Howley, C. W.; Ermolov, L. D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to confirm the validity and reliability of the 64-item Measure of School Capacity for Improvement (MSCI). The MSCI was designed to assess the degree to which schools possess the potential to become high performing learning communities, and was developed in response to a paucity of definition, operationalization, and…

  20. The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Monika; Lindgren, Joakim; Leffler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article's purpose is to examine, on the basis of Bernstein's theory of classification and framing, how teachers express the concept and content of entrepreneurship in classroom practices in two Swedish lower secondary schools. The study is part of a national school improvement program aiming to better understand, develop and encourage…

  1. How to Improve a School that Is Already High Performing: Innovation in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caridas, Evangeline; Hammer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    (Purpose) The case study's purpose was to examine Participative Management Style, high performance strategies, intangible and tangible indicators, trust and its creation of superior achievement in a school district for elementary and middle school children (Illinois). (Methodology) A collaboration effort by Superintendent, administrative staff,…

  2. A Program of Integration for the University and the High School in the Field of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Filho, Aricelso Maia Limaverde; Carneiro, Maria Tereza W. Dias; Godoy, Jose Marcus de Oliveira; Goulart, Mauricio Silveira; Guerchon, Jose

    This paper describes the Project for Integrating the University, the School, and Society (PIUES), developed as part of an effort to restructure the teaching of engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New courses for high school teachers were developed that focused on the debates over basic concepts in…

  3. The Private School Market in Kuwait: A Field Study on Educational Investment Behavior of Kuwaiti Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring Kuwaiti families' educational investment behavior pursuant to the selection of a specific private school for their children from the private school market. Using the quantitative approach and the principles of marketing research, a survey was administered to a randomly selected sample of Kuwaiti families (n =…

  4. The Middle School: Its Institution and English Curriculum. Field Study in Curriculum and Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazelrod, Barbara D.

    The middle school program emerged against a backdrop of criticism, awareness of changing educational necessities and values, and new insights into the needs of the middle range of the student population. The precocity of youth mixed with the pseudo-sophistication of adulthood gives the middle school its reason for existence--the "transescent." The…

  5. Reversing the Underachievement of Gifted Middle School Students: Lessons from Another Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchotte, Jennifer; Rubenstein, Lisa; Murry, Francie

    2015-01-01

    Underachievement often begins in middle school for gifted students. Unfortunately, there is no single intervention that will ameliorate underachievement for all gifted students. To date, interventions aimed at reversing the underachieving behaviors of gifted middle school students have been inconsistent and inconclusive. To create an effective…

  6. The Logistics of Implementing a Field-Based Comprehensive School Reform Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a qualitative, reflective case study regarding a cohort in the form of a district-university partnership between the Oak Park Schools in Oak Park, Michigan and the College of Education at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The initiators of the program envisioned a more successful urban school district by offering…

  7. School District Labour Conflict and Frame Analysis: A Field Study of Contentious Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gordon S.; Vesneske, Staci S.

    2012-01-01

    Labour conflict in school districts is a largely neglected area of educational research. This study examines the perceptions, actions, and decisions of union and district leaders using social movement theory to describe, analyze, and interpret contentious contract negotiations in three school districts in the Pacific Northwest region of the US.…

  8. Official Bilingualism and Field Narratives: Does School Practice Echo Policy Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This research builds on several layers of meaning representing views from education officials, head teachers, teachers and pupils to investigate the discourse and implementation of official bilingualism policy in primary schools in Cameroon. While at the macro-level, the celebration of the "National Bilingualism Day" in schools has tended to…

  9. Testing the Test: A Study of PARCC Field Trials in Two School Districts. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of computer-based assessments has raised concerns from educators, policymakers, and parents about information technology infrastructure in school districts and the preparation of staff and students to use new technologies for assessment purposes, and the potential impact of testing activities on core school functions,…

  10. Tomatoes, Cucumbers, and Salad Tag: A Farmer Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, William

    2013-01-01

    Will Summers has been farming since 2007 when he interned for a small community-supported agriculture (CSA) farm in Austin, Texas. His agricultural experience since then has primarily been with nonprofit organizations where he has cultivated vegetables, kept chickens, milked goats, and introduced young people to the wonders of farming and…

  11. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  13. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  15. Motivation of dairy farmers to improve mastitis management.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Lam, T J G M; Hogeveen, H

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to farmer characteristics. Data on characteristics of farmers were obtained through a traditional paper-based questionnaire (n = 100). Data on the factors motivating farmers to improve mastitis management were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate perceptions of farmers of the importance of factors. Factors that are internal to the farm performance and the individual farmer provided more motivation than external factors implying esteem and awareness of the whole dairy sector performance. Internal nonmonetary factors relating to internal esteem and taking pleasure in healthy animals on the farm were equally motivating as monetary factors affecting farm economic performance. The identified difference in perceptions of farmers of importance of extra financial incentive based on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) depending on whether farmers think in terms of quality premium or penalty for a lower and a higher BMSCC, respectively, suggested that farmers are expected to be more motivated by a price decrease for milk with a greater BMSCC than by a price increase for milk with a lower BMSCC. In this respect, quality penalties were found to be more effective in motivating farmers than quality premiums. Two-stage cluster analysis of individual perceptions resulted in 3 distinct clusters according to motivation of farmers: premium- or penalty-oriented motivation, motivation to have an efficient (well-organized) farm that easily complies with regulatory requirements, and basic economic motivation. The obtained results highlight possible areas of improvement in incentive and educational programs aimed at improving mastitis management

  16. Sub-slab pressure-field extension in schools and other large buildings. Rept. for 1988-91

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses EPA's experiences using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of 'normal' mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  17. Precision of farmer based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a Ferralsol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinguzi, P.; Ebanyat, P.; Tenywa, J. S.; Basamba, T. A.; Tenywa, M. M.; Mubiru, D.

    2015-03-01

    Simple and affordable soil fertility ratings are essential, particularly for the resource-constrained farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in planning and implementing prudent interventions. A study was conducted on Ferralsols in Uganda, to evaluate farmer-field-based soil fertility assessment procedures, hereafter referred to as farmer' field experiences (FFE), for ease of use (simplicity) and precision, against more formal scientific quantitative ratings using soil organic carbon (SQR-SOC). A total of 30 fields were investigated and rated using both approaches, as low, medium and high in terms of soil fertility, with maize as the test crop. Based on maize yield, both rating techniques were fairly precise in delineating soil fertility classes, though the FFE approach showed mixed responses. Soil organic carbon in the top soil (0-15 cm) was exceptionally influential, explaining > 70% in yield variance. Each unit rise in SOC concentration resulted in 966-1223 kg ha-1 yield gain. The FFE approach was effective in identifying low fertility fields, which was coherent with the fields categorized as low (SOC < 1.2%). Beyond this level, its precision can be remarkably increased when supplemented with the SOC procedure.

  18. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  19. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

  20. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

  1. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. PMID:25509101

  2. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  3. Energy Smart Schools--Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Nebiat Solomon; Robin Vieira; William L. Manz; Abby Vogen; Claudia Orlando; Kimberlie A. Schryer

    2004-12-01

    The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) in conjunction with the California Energy Commission, the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Florida Solar Energy Center, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and the Ohio Department of Development's Office of Energy Efficiency conducted a four-year, cost-share project with the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to focus on energy efficiency and high-performance technologies in our nation's schools. NASEO was the program lead for the MOU-State Schools Working group, established in conjunction with the USDOE Memorandum of Understanding process for collaboration among state and federal energy research and demonstration offices and organizations. The MOU-State Schools Working Group included State Energy Offices and other state energy research organizations from all regions of the country. Through surveys and analyses, the Working Group determined the school-related energy priorities of the states and established a set of tasks to be accomplished, including the installation and evaluation of microturbines, advanced daylighting research, testing of schools and classrooms, and integrated school building technologies. The Energy Smart Schools project resulted in the adoption of advanced energy efficiency technologies in both the renovation of existing schools and building of new ones; the education of school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide about the energy-saving, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improved the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in classrooms. It also provided an opportunity for states to share and replicate successful projects to increase their energy efficiency while at the same time driving down their energy costs.

  4. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  5. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers' exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  6. Acceptance of School Integration: 1965-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Jon P.; Knapp, Melvin J.

    1971-01-01

    This national study reports on the changing attitudes of white adults having school age children toward school integration during the period 1965-1969. Stresses the importance of regional and educational variables. With the exception of farmers, most non-Southern respondents accepted some form of school integration. (DM)

  7. (A Model for a Rural School Field Experience--The "Condon Experience".)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ray; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Condon, a community of approximately 950 people in central Oregon, opened its high school to 15 undergraduate secondary education students from the University of Oregon and provided them with perhaps the richest experience of their preprofessional training. (Author/BR)

  8. When School Accountability and Preservice Teachers' Needs Conflict: Effects of Public School Testing on Teacher Education Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas E.

    This paper describes a survey of Texas teacher education programs. The programs investigated whether increased pressure on K-12 teachers to prepare students for mandated tests contributed to dissonance between higher education's expectations for field experiences and preservice students' actual experiences. A questionnaire was mailed to the…

  9. Farmers' beliefs about bovine tuberculosis control in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-06-01

    Beliefs can play an important role in farmer behaviour and willingness to adopt new policies. In Northern Ireland, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most important endemic diseases facing the cattle industry. An observational study was conducted on 192 farms in a high bTB incidence area during 2010-2011 in order to obtain a better understanding of farmers' beliefs in relation to bTB control. The views of farmers who had experienced a recent confirmed or multiple reactor bTB breakdowns (cases) were compared to those of farmers who had no recent reactors or restricted herd tests (controls). Data were obtained from a face-to-face questionnaire assessing farmers' agreement to 22 statements. All participating farmers found bTB control important and most were keen to learn more about bTB biosecurity measures and were in favour of the cattle-related bTB control measures as presented in the questionnaire (isolation of skin test inconclusive animals, use of the gamma-interferon test and pre-movement testing). The majority of farmers would allow badger vaccination and culling on their own land with an overall preference for vaccination. Highest disagreement was shown for the statements querying a willingness to pay for bTB control measures. There was agreement on most issues between case and control farmers and between different age groups of farmers although case farmers showed more support for additional advice on bTB biosecurity measures (P = 0.042). Case farmers were also more in favour of allowing badger vaccination (P = 0.008) and culling (P = 0.043) on their land and showed less concern for public opposition (P = 0.048). PMID:27256021

  10. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  11. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K–12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. PMID:25179609

  12. Maximizing School Counselors' Efforts by Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A Case Study from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily

    2014-01-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) are school-wide, data-driven frameworks for promoting safe schools and student learning. This article explains PBIS and provides practical examples of PBIS implementation by describing a school counselor-run PBIS framework in one elementary school, as part of a larger, district-wide…

  13. Modeling Student Choice of STEM Fields of Study: Testing a Conceptual Framework of Motivation, High School Learning, and Postsecondary Context of Support. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study draws upon social cognitive career theory and higher education literature to propose and test a conceptual framework for understanding the selection of postsecondary STEM fields of study by recent high school graduates who attend four-year institutions. Results suggest that high school math achievement, exposure to math and science…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Their Home-School Clinical Teaching Experience: Evidence to Support an Alternative Field Experience for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett; McKethan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Teacher education programs continue to search for alternative field experiences for preservice teachers. Whether the public schools are overloaded with interns or a break from certain schools is recommended for various reasons, it is important to identify appropriate alternative practice teaching opportunities prior to student teaching. With the…

  15. A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.

    PubMed

    Molitor, C

    1992-12-01

    Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been

  16. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  17. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27,...

  18. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... can be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL...

  19. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  20. Characteristics of Members in the National Young Farmer Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Dale R.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 170 members of the National Young Farmer Education Association (45%) indicated the following: they were 12 years younger than the national average for farmers, had larger farms, sold twice as many agricultural products, and had a higher educational level. More than one-third worked off the farm. Findings suggest a reevaluation of…

  1. Farmers' Quality of Life: Sorting Out the Differences by Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Glen; McCoy, Melinda

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 1,105 Ontario farmers examined perceived quality of life as a function of social class, sex, age, education, income, and off-farm employment. Most farmers, especially highly educated and wealthy ones, felt their quality of life was high, but also believed they had been adversely affected by recent rural social change. (LP)

  2. Helping Farmers Access Farmland: New Jersey's New Land Link Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.; Everett, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Camille L.; Kimmel, David A.; Cook, Justine C.

    2015-01-01

    Access to land is a common obstacle for beginning farmers and established farmers seeking to expand their operations. Particularly in urban-influenced areas, leasing farmland is often more financially feasible than fee ownership. Locating available land or the right leasing situation, however, can be difficult. NJ Land Link (http://njlandlink.org)…

  3. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  8. The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

  9. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  10. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. PMID:23148969

  11. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  12. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year 2011. Petitioners must file the... of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which amended the Trade Act of 1974....

  13. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA,...

  14. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202)...

  15. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  16. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and

  17. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  18. Citizens, farmers fight huge transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brummer, J.

    1982-02-01

    Opposition to high tension power lines with a 20-story towers is growing as coalitions of farmers and advocates of safe energy respond with legal intervention and sabotage, and sometimes with success. Examples of citizen action are the efforts opposing a 450 kilovolt direct current line connecting the US with Quebec Hydro and another opposing a 500 kilovolt alternating current line from Georgia Power Co.'s nuclear plants to Florida. The opposition derives partly from evidence of health hazards to humans and adverse effects on livestock. High voltage lines are felt to symbolize a utility and regulatory failure to assess the recent decline in power demand. It is stated that administration efforts to outlaw organized resistence will not deter the opposition, which cites instances of ground shock, aborted and stillborn cattle, physical irritants, and other phenomena. The General Assembly to Stop the Powerline (GASP) objects to the guinea pig position forced upon residents by the utilities. 6 references. (DCK)

  19. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Eric R; Wall, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change predictions suggest that far-ranging effects might occur in the population dynamics and distributions of livestock parasites, provoking fears of widespread increases in disease incidence and production loss. However, several biological mechanisms (including increased parasite mortality and more rapid acquisition of immunity), in tandem with changes in husbandry practices (including reproduction, housing, nutrition, breed selection, grazing patterns and other management interventions), might act to mitigate increased parasite development rates, preventing dramatic rises in overall levels of disease. Such changes might, therefore, counteract predicted climate-driven increases in parasite challenge. Optimum mitigation strategies will be highly system specific and depend on detailed understanding of interactions between climate, parasite abundance, host availability and the cues for and economics of farmer intervention. PMID:19540163

  20. 76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program Financial Report (Form FNS-683); WIC Farmers'...

  1. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Nzioki, Henry S.; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E.; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L.; Baker, Claire S.; Sands, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  2. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    PubMed

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  3. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach. PMID:26018783

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Yuantari, Maria G C; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Van Straalen, Nico M; Widianarko, Budi; Sunoko, Henna R; Shobib, Muhammad N

    2015-03-01

    The use of synthetic pesticides in tropical countries has increased over the years, following the intensification of agriculture. However, awareness among farmers of the importance of protecting themselves from hazards associated with pesticide application is still lacking, especially in Indonesia. This paper reports results of an inventory on knowledge and attitudes regarding pesticide use by melon farmers of a village in Central Java, Indonesia. The importance of using personal protective equipment such as hats, masks, goggles, boots, and gloves on agricultural land is known and well understood by the farmers. However, in practice, only 3.8 % were wearing glasses and 1.9 % were using boots. In fact, the masks used only consisted of a part of their shirt tied around the mouth. The farmers were not wearing long pants and shirts with long sleeves and used the same clothes for more than 1 day without washing. Almost no farmers used personal protective equipment that was standard, in good condition, and complete. Based on the results of statistical analysis, no significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitude on the required practices on the one hand and the use of personal protective equipment in practice on the other hand. This shows that improved knowledge and attitudes are not enough to change the behavior of farmers to work in a healthy and safe way. The gap between knowledge and practice needs to be bridged by a more interactive and participatory training model. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a special toolkit for pesticide risk reduction which is developed in a participatory manner involving the farmers as the main actors through a series of focus group discussions and field simulations. PMID:25716528

  5. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  6. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after listening to students' conversations during a field trip to the zoo. In order to analyze the preservice teachers' field trip designs, we conducted a review of the literature on field trips to develop the field trip inventory (FTI). The FTI focussed on three major components of field trips: cognitive, procedural, and social. Cognitive components were subdivided into pre-visit, during-visit, and post-visit activities and problem-solving. Procedural components included information about the informal science education facility (the zoo) and the zoo staff and included advanced organizers. Social components on student groups, fun, control during the zoo visit, and control of student learning. The results of the investigation showed that (a) the dominant topic in conversations among elementary school groups at the zoo was management, (b) procedural components were mentioned least often, (c) preservice teachers described during-visit activities more often than any other characteristic central to field trip design, (d) seven of the nine characteristics listed in the FTI were noted more frequently in the preservice teachers' field trip designs after they listened to students' conversations at the zoo, and (e) preservice teachers thought that students were not learning and that planning was important.

  7. Baseline information development for energy smart schools -- applied research, field testing and technology integration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Piette, Mary Ann

    2004-08-05

    The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. The outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the lighting levels contributed

  8. Oil company surface use: Do farmers need protection

    SciTech Connect

    Feriancek, J.; McNeill, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Weld County, a large, rural county in northeastern Colorado, experienced a surge in natural gas exploration and production during the last few years, and led the United States in drilling activity in 1993. Much of Weld County consists of highly productive irrigated cropland where farmers produce onion, carrots, and other surface-intensive crops and the loss of even a small amount of land to oil and gas operations is keenly felt. Not surprisingly, the surge in drilling has led to increased complaints by the agricultural community and has fueled surface owner efforts to gain more control over, and compensation for, oil and gas operations on their land. Oil and gas drilling is not new to Weld County. Oil was first discovered in the Denver-Julesberg basin in 1949. The Wattenberg gas field, located in Weld, Adams, and Boulder Counties, was discovered in 1970. Much of the Wattenberg acreage was leased years ago, and continues to be held by production from wells drilled during the 1970s and 1980s. A federal tax credit for wells drilled prior to January 1, 1993, in {open_quotes}tight sand{close_quotes} formations, combined with a high success ratio, led to the drilling of new wells at a frenzied pace. Wells in the Wattenberg field have been sufficiently profitable that drilling has continued after expiration of the tax credit.

  9. Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

    2014-09-01

    Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in

  10. Are Computer Science and Information Technology Still Masculine Fields? High School Students' Perceptions and Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated Greek high school students' intentions and motivation towards and against pursuing academic studies in Computer Science (CS), the influence of the family and the scholastic environment on students' career choices, students' perceptions of CS and the Information Technology (IT) profession as well as students' attendance at…

  11. ''Principalled'' Leadership in the PDS School: Enhancing the Field Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, the Holmes group (1990) laid out a blueprint for leadership in PDS schools, positing that effective principals could foster leadership roles for all participants. Since then other scholars have explored the challenges of establishing strong principal-PDS relationships. This qualitative case study reveals how one…

  12. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  13. More Clearly Defining the Field: A Survey of Subtopics in School Effects Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Roberts, Sharon Pol

    This paper presents findings of a study that sought to delineate subtopics within school-effects research (SER). After conducting a literature review and determining initial categories, a survey was conducted of 37 authors who were judged to have made the most significant contribution to SER within the last decade. A total of 28 authors responded.…

  14. Mapping the Field: A Report on Expanded-Time Schools in America. Fall 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Expanding learning time has become a leading strategy for closing the achievement and opportunity gaps that plague high-poverty schools in particular. With more time, educators are able to deepen the curriculum, embed enrichment classes and activities, and engage in frequent opportunities for teacher collaboration and professional development.…

  15. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  16. Efficient Financial Management in Rural Schools: Common Problems and Solutions from the Field. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman-Freitas, Deborah

    Based on a recent nationwide survey of rural administrators, this digest reports on the financial problems of rural school districts and some possible strategies for improvement. Rural administrators reported the following financial management problems: (1) cash flow problems due to late receipt of state aid or taxes; (2) expenditures that are…

  17. What Do High School Science Students Gain from Field-Based Research Apprenticeship Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linda M.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses how to encourage and sustain high school students' interest in science. Evaluates the Earthwatch Institute's Student Challenge Awards Program, an apprenticeship program which allows students to work on authentic research projects. Concludes the program had a profound impact on the students' understanding of and affinity for science. (PM)

  18. Employers Talk about Building a School-to-Work System: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Joan L., Ed.

    This document contains background information on the school-to-work (STW) movement and 20 essays written by employers and intermediaries involved in STW program planning and implementation. Four points are highlighted: (1) it takes time to assemble an STW system; (2) the number of students participating in structured work-based learning remains…

  19. Design Solutions: Supplement to the Curriculum Guide for Art in the Secondary Schools. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Intended to clarify the elements and principles of design as stated in the "Curriculum Guide for Art in the Secondary Schools," this illustrated supplement presents 15 design units with step-by-step instructions for clarifying design problems and providing solutions. Each unit is presented in three stages, each of which is a complete lesson in…

  20. Quality Management in U.S. High Schools: Evidence from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detert, James R.; Bauerly Kopel, Michelle E.; Mauriel, John J.; Jenni, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study examining implementation of a Quality Management reform based on Deming's seven principles. Interview and survey data from a national sample of purposefully chosen high schools show limited results as to teachers' effective use and institutionalization of TQM principles. The principal's role is critical. (Contains…

  1. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  2. Introducing High School Students to NMR Spectroscopy through Percent Composition Determination Using Low-Field Spectrometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Pitzer, Joy M.; Frost, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Mole to gram conversions, density, and percent composition are fundamental concepts in first year chemistry at the high school or undergraduate level; however, students often find it difficult to engage with these concepts. We present a simple laboratory experiment utilizing portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine the…

  3. Mapping the Terrain: Educational Leadership Field Experiences in K-12 Virtual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Jason A.; Beck, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for K-12 students to choose virtual and blended learning experiences continue to grow. All 50 states including Washington, D.C., now offer some virtual experience in K-12 education. Of these, 40 states have state virtual schools or state-led online learning initiatives. In addition, federal and state support for this type of learning…

  4. A Field Study Examining Success Factors of University-School-Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Janzen, Nadeshda; Zehne, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    With decreasing numbers of students pursuing a career in science (OECD, 2008), the call for educational reforms building a basis for an interest in science is great. Cooperation between schools and universities are an important aspect of these reforms, as they aim at sparking an interest in science (Robert Bosch Foundation, 2005). The Ministry of…

  5. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  6. Who Goes to Graduate/Professional School? The Importance of Economic Fluctuations, Undergraduate Field, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Herman, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fluctuations in entry-level labor market conditions on the graduate school enrollment decisions of newly minted undergraduate degree holders. Using repeated cross-section data for recently graduated science and engineering undergraduates from the National Survey of Recent College Graduates, and state-level…

  7. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  8. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  9. Genetic identity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world and 71% of its production is from Sulawesi Island. Knowledge about the genetic background of farmer selections is highly important for effective identification and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. Mor...

  10. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  11. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided. PMID:25674462

  12. Protecting Ourselves from Harm: Voices of Aging Farmers.

    PubMed

    Reed, D B; Claunch, D T

    2015-10-01

    Senior farmers suffer the highest fatality risk of any age group in agriculture. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a "voice" for senior farmers by examining aging farmers' and their families' perspectives of farm work, associated injury risks, and methods to decrease those risks. Focus groups and personal interviews were used to collect data from 81 participants across seven U.S. states. The findings reflect the collective and verified voice of the study group. The Health Belief Model was applied and revealed differences between farmers and their family members; however, the need and desire to continue self-directed work was ubiquitous. Seniors reported external risks, while family members were more likely to name risks associated with the health of the senior farmer. Both groups cited stress as an injury risk. Posing risk to others was the trigger point for senior farmers to make behavior changes. Family members reported uneasiness in initiating safety conversations. Adaptation of existing interventions for self-assessment of risk was rejected. Use of the popular farm press and respected local resources were desired as avenues for safety education. Humor and stories were highly regarded. Interventions should be tailored for the target audience. These new insights into the risk perceptions of senior farmers and their families may result in more appropriate actions by health professionals, extension staff social workers, vocational rehabilitation specialists, and others who work with farm populations. PMID:26710583

  13. Representations of pesticides and social practices: the case of French farmers.

    PubMed

    Zouhri, Bouchra; Feliot-Rippeault, M; Michel-Guillou, E; Weiss, K

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides and their use in agriculture are important social issues. We conducted research to study the construction of this sensitive social object through the lens of social representations (study of the structural organisation of the social representations of pesticides) and their anchoring in three contexts that differ in terms of farming practices (Martinique, Brittany and Southern France). Our research was composed of two phases: hierarchical associations (n = 213) and a context independence test questionnaire (n = 124), conducted among farmers from the three study sites. The results indicate three representational fields that reflect salient issues in each agricultural territory. These illustrate the heuristic nature of social representations in the analysis of agricultural practices and pesticide use among French farmers. PMID:26253184

  14. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  15. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Competency Frameworks for Youth Workers in the Out-of-School Time Field

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that the quality of out-of-school time (OST) programs is related to positive youth outcomes and skilled staff are a critical component of high quality programming. This descriptive case study of competency frameworks for youth workers in the OST field demonstrates how experts and practitioners characterize a skilled youth worker. A comparative analysis of 11 competency frameworks is conducted to identify a set of common core competencies. A set of 12 competency areas that are shared by existing frameworks used in the OST field are identified. The age of youth being served, descriptions of mastery for each competency area, an emphasis on developing mid-level managers, and incorporating research emerge as factors that should be addressed in future competency frameworks. PMID:21170418

  17. Notes from the field: outbreak of skin lesions among high school wrestlers--Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Williams, Candice; Wells, Jamie; Klein, Ronald; Sylvester, Tammy; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2015-05-29

    Skin infections are a common problem among athletes at all levels of competition; among wrestlers, 8.5% of all adverse events are caused by skin infections. Wrestlers are at risk because of the constant skin-to-skin contact required during practice and competition. The most common infections transmitted among high school wrestlers include fungal infections (e.g., ringworm), the viral infection herpes gladiatorum caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and bacterial infections (e.g., impetigo) caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA). On February 7, 2014, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health was notified of multiple wrestlers who reported skin lesions 2 weeks after participating in a wrestling tournament at school A. The tournament was held on January 24-25 and included 168 wrestlers representing 24 schools. The county health department initiated an investigation to identify cases of skin lesion, determine lesion etiology, identify risks associated with lesion development, and provide guidance for preventing additional cases. PMID:26020140

  18. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base-Year Field Test Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2011-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Herget, Deborah; Pratt, Daniel J.; Dever, Jill; Copello, Elizabeth; Leinwand, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the results of the field test for the base year of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). The general purposes of the field test were, in anticipation of the base-year full-scale effort, to test instruments, forms, and procedures; to experiment with different approaches to questionnaire content and survey…

  19. Schools in Estonia as Institutional Actors and as a Field of Socialisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmus, Veronika; Pavelson, Marje

    This paper provides a theoretical overview of education as an institution and as a field of socialization. It analyzes the relationships among multicultural education, integration, and civic society. Some of the socializers of the educational field are the formal curriculum, educational media, and the hidden curriculum. These socializers are…

  20. Field Dependence-Independence and Physical Activity Engagement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose

    2009-01-01

    Background: Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a tendency to rely on external frames (given situations and authoritative people) or internal frames (oneself, including one's own body) for one's information processing and behavior. Literature has constantly reported that field-dependent (FD) individuals, who are less autonomous in…

  1. Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Sarah; Theokas, Christina

    2010-01-01

    As Secretary of Education from 1993 to 2001, Richard Riley had serious concerns about out-of-field teaching. The practice--which places in core academic classes instructors who have neither certification nor a major in the subject field taught--just didn't make sense to him. Both when he considered what children were getting in the classroom or…

  2. A Review of Research on School Field Trips and Their Value in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrendt, Marc; Franklin, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of science field trips as educational tools to connect students to classroom concepts. Experiential learning at formal and informal field trip venues increases student interest, knowledge, and motivation. The teacher's role in preplanning, implementation, and reflection often dictates the…

  3. Development of a High-School Geology Course Based on Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orion, Nir

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method of integrating a course syllabus with a field geological inventory of the surrounding area. Consists of three modules, each with a preparatory unit, field trip, and summary unit. Discusses first hand experiences, learning cycles, novelty factors, and moving from the concrete to abstract. (MVL)

  4. Second Field Test of the AEL Measure of School Capacity for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Lisa D.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Howley, Caitlin W.; Hughes, Georgia K.

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of the second field test of the AEL MSCI instrument was to assess the psychometric properties of the refined version with a larger, more diverse group of respondents. The first objective of this field test was to expand the four-point Likert-type response scale to six points in order to yield more variance in responses. The…

  5. ETIPS: Using Cases with Virtual Schools to Prepare for, Extend, and Deepen Preservice Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara L.; Riedel, Eric; Scharber, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Field experiences are identified as an important component in the preparation of new teachers. As such, methods to supplement field experiences with pre- and post-activities that ready preservice teachers to effectively learn from them warrant further examination. This paper presents one tool that has been used successfully to improve preservice…

  6. Evaluation of One- and Two-Day Forestry Field Programs for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The methods and findings from a program evaluation of a forestry field visit for second grade students are detailed in this article. A pretest, posttest methodology was used to determine changes in students' (n = 133) attitudes and knowledge before and after the field experience(s). Interviews and surveys were conducted with students, teachers (n…

  7. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... (No. 2010008) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for crawfish that was filed by the Louisiana Crawfish Farmers Association and accepted for review by USDA on May 3, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  8. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  9. Evaluating the impact of a school-based health intervention using a randomized field experiment.

    PubMed

    Greve, Jane; Heinesen, Eskil

    2015-07-01

    We conduct an econometric evaluation of a health-promoting programme in primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark. The programme includes health-related measurements of the students, communication of knowledge about health, and support of health-promoting projects for students. Half of the schools in the fourth largest municipality in Denmark were randomly selected into a treatment group implementing the programme, while the remainder served as a control group. We estimate both OLS models using only post-intervention observations and difference in differences (DID) models using also pre-intervention observations. We estimate effects of the initiative on BMI, waist/height ratio, overweight and obesity for the entire sample and by gender and grade. We find no consistent effect of the programme. When we use the entire sample, no estimates are statistically significant at conventional levels, although the point estimates for the effect on BMI, indicating an average reduction in the range of 0.10-0.15 kg/m(2), are consistent with the results in a recent Cochrane review evaluating 55 studies of diet and exercise interventions targeting children; and DID estimates which are marginally significant (at the 10% level) indicate that the intervention reduces the risk of obesity by 1% point. Running separate estimations by gender and grade we find a few statistically significant estimates: OLS estimates indicate that the intervention reduces BMI in females in grade 5 by 0.39 kg/m(2) and reduces the risk of obesity in females in grade 9 by 2.6% points; DID estimates indicate an increase in waist for females in preschool class by 1.2 cm and an increase in the risk of obesity in grade 9 males by 4% points. However, if we corrected for multiple hypotheses testing these estimates would be insignificant. There is no statistically significant correlation between participation in the programme and the number of other health-promoting projects at the schools. PMID:25898077

  10. Stories from the field: Teaching science in low-performing, rural schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conetta, Patrick John

    If teachers matter to the academic success of students, then having experienced teachers shows significant promise in eliminating persistent achievement gaps. However, high rates of teacher attrition are persistent in schools serving low-income and minority students serving to reinforce these persistent gaps. The purpose of this study is to allow the voices of science teachers working in low-performing, rural schools to be heard and expand our current understanding of teacher retention beyond "yes" or "no" decisions. The narratives teachers share demonstrate that persistence is constructed daily through frustrations and hard-won victories that are significant to one's career decisions. With an ear for the structures that guide teacher's practice and create professional tension, teacher narratives also represent hope for the subtle and splendid ways they challenge these tensions to carve out their existence as educators. Their stories are inspirational to future teachers and teacher educators because they provide insights to the ways teachers learn to persist. My research was guided by three general interests: What experiences bring individuals to teach science in hard to staff schools, what conditions did teachers find when they arrived, and how do science teachers respond to the circumstances in which they find themselves teaching. Steered by Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, and Cain's (1998) theoretical framework of Figured Worlds, and inspired by previous work utilizing this framework, I gathered data through extended interviews with nine participants and examined their stories through qualitative narrative analysis to illustrate the delicate interplay between structure and agency and how this interplay is intertwined with teachers' willingness to persist. This study revealed that individual willingness to persist was interwoven with their ability to author themselves within and/or against existing cultural models of the "good teacher" and its implications lead to

  11. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  12. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  13. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  14. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies only to the USDA Farmers Market at headquarters...

  15. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  16. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  17. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies only to the USDA Farmers Market at headquarters...

  18. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies only to the USDA Farmers Market at headquarters...

  19. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies only to the USDA Farmers Market at headquarters...

  20. 26 CFR 1.471-6 - Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... farmers. 1.471-6 Section 1.471-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... other farmers. (a) A farmer may make his return upon an inventory method instead of the cash receipts... products, farmers who render their returns upon an inventory method may value their inventories...

  1. Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the…

  2. Field Test and Performance Verification: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Installed in a School - Final Report: Phase 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2005-12-21

    This report summarizes the results of a field verification pilot site investigation that involved the installation of a hybrid integrated active desiccant/vapor-compression rooftop heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit at an elementary school in the Atlanta Georgia area. For years, the school had experienced serious humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) problems that had resulted in occupant complaints and microbial (mold) remediation. The outdoor air louvers of the original HVAC units had been closed in an attempt to improve humidity control within the space. The existing vapor compression variable air volume system was replaced by the integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) system that was described in detail in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report published in 2004 (Fischer and Sand 2004). The IADR system and all space conditions have been monitored remotely for more than a year. The hybrid system was able to maintain both the space temperature and humidity as desired while delivering the outdoor air ventilation rate required by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 62. The performance level of the IADR unit and the overall system energy efficiency was measured and found to be very high. A comprehensive IAQ investigation was completed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute before and after the system retrofit. Before-and-after data resulting from this investigation confirmed a significant improvement in IAQ, humidity control, and occupant comfort. These observations were reported by building occupants and are echoed in a letter to ORNL from the school district energy manager. The IADR system was easily retrofitted in place of the original rooftop system using a custom curb adapter. All work was completed in-house by the school's maintenance staff over one weekend. A subsequent cost analysis completed for the school district by the design engineer of record concluded that the IADR system

  3. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  4. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  5. Is Authentic Cross-Cultural Collaboration Possible between Universities and Public Schools within a Professional Development School Model? Perceptions from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Debra D.; Muir Welsh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, a state in the Rocky Mountain region combined the concept of partner schools (Goodlad, 1993) and the model of a professional development school (Holmes Group, 1986, 1995) to develop four university public school partnerships. This study asked two guiding questions: Is authentic cross-cultural collaboration possible between a university…

  6. Voices from the Field: Working Together for Safe and Secure Schools. Summary of Findings from Florida Education Commissioner Charlie Crist's School Safety and Security Summits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    During summer and fall 2001, the Florida Commissioner of Education conducted eight regional meetings, open to the public, on school safety and security. The purpose of the meetings was to explore safety issues faced by districts and schools, share best safety practices, and generate local discussion on matters of school safety and security. This…

  7. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  8. Math on the Job. Grain Farmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of grain farming and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  9. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operations must be performed âbyâ a farmer. 780.132 Section...” a farmer. “Farmer” includes the employees of a farmer. It does not include an employer merely because he employs a farmer or appoints a farmer as his agent to do the actual work. Thus, the...

  10. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operations must be performed âbyâ a farmer. 780.132 Section...” a farmer. “Farmer” includes the employees of a farmer. It does not include an employer merely because he employs a farmer or appoints a farmer as his agent to do the actual work. Thus, the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations must be performed âbyâ a farmer. 780.132 Section...” a farmer. “Farmer” includes the employees of a farmer. It does not include an employer merely because he employs a farmer or appoints a farmer as his agent to do the actual work. Thus, the...

  12. Healthier land, healthier farmers: considering the potential of natural resource management as a place-focused farmer health intervention.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Jacki; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2013-11-01

    Farmers have particular wellbeing-related vulnerabilities that conventional health interventions struggle to address. We consider the potential of natural resource management (NRM) programs, which reach large numbers of farmers, as non-conventional place-focused wellbeing interventions. Although designed to address environmental degradation, NRM can influence the wellbeing of farmers. We used qualitative meta-synthesis to reanalyse studies examining social dimensions of NRM in Australia and generate a theoretical framework identifying potential pathways between NRM and wellbeing, intended to inform subsequent empirical work. Our results suggest NRM programs influence several important determinants of farmer wellbeing, in particular social capital, self-efficacy, social identity, material wellbeing, and health itself. The pathways by which NRM influences these determinants are mediated by distal factors such as changes in land conditions, farmer skills and knowledge and resources accessible to farmers. These, in turn, are moderated by the design and delivery of NRM programs, suggesting potential to enhance the health benefits of NRM through specific attention to program design. PMID:24071655

  13. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  14. The Biotic Indexing of Water Quality and Its Application to Field Work in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the biotic indexing of water quality and its application to A-level field work with reference to the Trent Biotic Index and Chandler Score system. These indices are related to the classification of water quality used by the Department of the Environment. Interpretations and limitations of the indices are discussed. (Author/DS)

  15. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  16. Persistence of Women and Minorities in STEM Field Majors: Is It the School that Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    During college, many students switch from their planned major to another, particularly so when that planned major was in a Science, Technology, Engineering, or Mathematics (STEM) field. A worrying statistic shows that persistence in one of these majors is much lower for women and minorities, suggesting that this may be a leaky joint in the STEM…

  17. Success in a High School Completion Program and Its Relation to Field Dependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnarumma, Theresa; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This study explored the cognitive style of field dependence-independence (FDI) and its relation to student attrition and performance on the General Educational Development Test and the Test of Adult Basic Education. Resultant correlations are discussed in terms of the usefulness of FDI in assessing the needs of adult learners. (Author/SK)

  18. An 8000-Mile, 38-Day Field Trip for High-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mary Jo

    1988-01-01

    Describes an extended summer field trip through nine states and Canada on geology, biology, and ecology. Discusses how this trip helps students learn about the world they live in by first-hand experience and by learning to take responsibility for their own education. Highlights the history, organization, and value of this trip. (CW)

  19. The Birth of a Field and the Rebirth of the Laboratory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Marc; Gerlach, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We describe the emergence of a new field, "Mind Brain and Education", dedicated to the science of learning, as well as the roles researchers, policy makers, and educators need to play in developing this collaborative effort. The article highlights the challenges that MBE faces and the strategy researchers and educators in Texas are developing to…

  20. Swedish dairy farmers' perceptions of animal-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    Animal-related injuries are among the most common occupational injuries in agriculture. Despite the large number of documented animal-related injuries in dairy farming, the issue has received relatively limited attention in the scientific literature. The farmers' own perspectives and views on risks and safety during livestock handling and what they think are effective ways of preventing injuries are valuable for the future design of effective interventions. This paper presents results from a qualitative study with the aim to investigate Swedish dairy farmers' own experience of animal-related occupational injuries, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes towards them, including risk and safety issues, and prevention measures. A total of 12 dairy farmers with loose housing systems participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semistructured in-depth interviews. Three main themes with an impact on risks and safety when handling cattle were identified: the handler, the cattle, and the facilities. They all interact with each other, influencing the potential risks of any work task. Most of the farmers believed that a majority of the injuries can be prevented, but there are always some incidents that are impossible to foresee. In conclusion, this study indicates that Swedish dairy farmers are aware of the dangers from working with cattle. However, even though safety is acknowledged by the farmers as an important and relevant issue, in the end safety is often forgotten or not prioritized. One concern is that farmers are willing to take calculated risks to save money or time. In situations where they work alone with high stress levels and under economic distress, safety issues are easily given low priority. PMID:22994638

  1. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

  2. GeoGirls: A Geology and Geophysics Field Camp for Middle School Girls at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, C.; Allstadt, K.; Melander, S.; Groskopf, A.; Driedger, C. L.; Westby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 2015 GeoGirls program was a project designed to inspire girls to gain an appreciation and enthusiasm for Earth sciences using Mount St. Helens as an outdoor volcanic laboratory. Occupations in the field of science and engineering tend to be held by more males than females. One way to address this is to introduce girls to possible opportunities within the geosciences and encourage them to learn more about the dynamic environment in which they live. In 2015, the GeoGirls program sought to accomplish this goal through organizing a five day-long field camp for twenty middle school-aged girls, along with four high school-aged mentors and two local teachers. This group explored Mount St. Helens guided by female scientists from the USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO), the Mount St. Helens Institute (MSHI), UNAVCO, Boise State, Georgia Tech, University of Washington and Oregon State University. To introduce participants to techniques used by volcanologists, the girls participated in hands-on experiments and research projects focusing on seismology, GPS, terrestrial lidar, photogrammetry, water and tephra. Participants also learned to collect samples, analyze data and use microscopes. Through this experience, participants acquired strategies for conducting research by developing hypotheses, making observations, thinking critically and sharing their findings with others. The success of the GeoGirls program was evaluated by participant and parent survey questionnaires, which allowed assessment of overall enthusiasm and interest in pursuing careers in the geosciences. The program was free to participants and was run jointly by MSHI and CVO and funded by NSF, the American Association of University Women, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists and private donors. The program will run again in the summer of 2016.

  3. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  4. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  5. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  6. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The specific conductance of the saline water from the shallower fractured zone in the southwest field was about 16,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (μS/cm at 25°C), and that from the fractured zone in the northeast field was about 65,000 μS/cm at 25°C. The saline waters were characterized by a chemical composition similar to that of deep formation brines collected from oil and gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. About 40 percent of the geothermal wells discharged methane gas to land surface during and (or) following drilling. Sandstone beds at depths of 348 to 378 ft bls are the likely source of the methane gas, which was determined to be early thermogenic in origin.

  7. School Finance and the Conditions of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1994-01-01

    Problems relating to school environment and building concerns eat up school budgets and negatively influence the overall fiscal condition of school districts. The article examines three issues impacting on school finance for the 1990s: environmental hazards (asbestos, radon, lead, electromagnetic fields, and air quality), school infrastructure…

  8. [Measurement of peak correction factor of Farmer chamber for calibration of flattening filter free (FFF) clinical photon beams].

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Farmer-type ionization chambers are considered the most reliable detectors and for this reason they are most frequently used for the calibration of photon beams of medical linear accelerators. Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of linear accelerators have recently started to be used in radiotherapy. The dose profile of FFF beams is peaked in the center of the field and the dose distribution will be inhomogeneous along the axis of the 2.3 cm long measuring volume of the Farmer chamber. The peaked radiation field will result in volume averaging effects in the large Farmer chamber, therefore this chamber will underestimate the true central axis dose. Our objective was to determine the value of the peak correction factor (Kp) of Farmer-type chamber with measurements to avoid the underestimation of the central axis dose during the calibration of FFF radiation fields. Measurements were made with 6 MV and 10 MV flattened (6X and 10X) and FFF beams (6XFFF and 10XFFF) of a Varian TrueBeam medical linear accelerator in a solid water phantom at 10 cm depth. The source surface distance (SSD) was 100 cm, the field size was 10×10 cm and the dose rate was always 400 MU/min during the measurements. We delivered 100 MU in each measurement and the absorbed dose to water was calculated according to the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetry protocol. The measured signals of the ionization chambers were always corrected for the ion recombination loss. The ion recombination correction factors (Kr) were determined with the two-voltage method separately for the used ion chambers and for flattened and unflattened beams. First, we measured the dose to water with PTW TM30012 Farmer chamber in 6XFFF and 6X beams, then calculated the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams (R6,Farmer). Immediately after this we repeated the above measurements with PTW TM31010 Semiflex chamber and determined the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams again (R6,Semiflex). The length of the sensitive volume of the Semiflex

  9. Precision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a Ferralsol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinguzi, P.; Ebanyat, P.; Tenywa, J. S.; Basamba, T. A.; Tenywa, M. M.; Mubiru, D.

    2015-09-01

    Simple and affordable soil fertility ratings are essential, particularly for the resource-constrained farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in planning and implementing prudent interventions. A study was conducted on Ferralsols in Uganda to evaluate farmer-based soil fertility assessment techniques, hereafter referred to as farmers' field experiences (FFE), for ease of use and precision, against more formal scientific quantitative ratings using soil organic carbon (SQR-SOC). A total of 30 fields were investigated and rated using both techniques, as low, medium and high in terms of soil fertility - with maize as the test crop. Both soil fertility rating techniques were fairly precise in delineating soil fertility classes, though the FFE was inefficient in distinguishing fields > 1.2 % SOC with medium and high fertility. Soil organic carbon, silt and clay were exceptionally influential, accounting for the highest percentage in grain yield of 50 % in the topsoil (0-15 cm) and 67 % for the mean concentrations from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm. Each unit increase in SOC concentration resulted in 966 to 1223 kg ha-1 yield gain. The FFE technique was effective in identifying low-fertility fields, and this was coherent with the fields categorized as low (SOC < 1.2 %). Beyond this level, its precision can be remarkably increased when supplemented with the SQR-SOC technique.

  10. Effectiveness of development-radio programming among poor farmers: a case study.

    PubMed

    Melkote, S R

    1989-01-01

    The number of radio receivers has increased 118% worldwide since 1966, and the penetration in developing countries is substantial and growing. Radio is much more effective then printed media with illiterate and neo- literate people in the 3rd world. A recent research project measured the effectiveness of a radio messages broadcast as part of an agricultural extension project. The radio component of an agricultural project in India, organized under the training and visit system of the World Bank ongoing to disseminate information on improved seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and better cultivation methods to selected farmers was analyzed. The information was transferred in 2 steps, workshops and scheduled visits. The agricultural radio program broadcast the information every morning and was taped for the study. The data analysis for the study was limited to rice crop knowledge and technical terms associated with the extension materials. Most of the farmers were 45 years old or younger. 90% had less than 6 years of schooling. Most were poor and 94% owned less than 6 hectors of land. 96% of those interviewed were males, and over 50% listened to the radio broadcast everyday. The results indicate very little convergence between the extension source and the farmers. In order to communicate effectively, the proper subjects must be selected and presented in simple, colloquial, and familiar words. None of the material was tested, nor were the recipients involved in the process of message preparation. The study suggests that no matter what medium is used, message content and presentation have an important effect on the distribution of the information, and the comprehension and the behavior of the recipient. To be most effective it is important to study not only the content of the message, but the code, structure, and treatment, and to determine the extend of adequate comprehension of those with low literacy. PMID:12316206

  11. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  12. Finnish farmers' self-reported morbidity, work ability, and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Perkio-Makela, M M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate Finnish farmers' self-reported morbidity, especially musculoskeletal disease and disabilities, work ability, physical fitness, and functional capacity. A further goal was to identify the group of farmers that most need a means to promote their work ability. The data were collected with a computer-assisted telephone interview. The study population comprised of 577 full-time farmers (296 men and 281 women). The results have been expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals determined in a logistic regression analysis. The farmers with the greatest need for activities that support and promote work ability are those over 34 years of age, female farmers, farmers with fewer than 10 years of education, farmers from farms with fewer than 20 hectares of cultivated land, farmers who milk cows regularly, and depressed farmers. PMID:10865239

  13. The impact of curiosity on learning during a school field trip to the zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Kerry Ann

    1999-11-01

    This study was designed to examine (a) differences in cognitive learning as a result of a zoo field trip, (b) if the trip to the zoo had an impact on epistemic curiosity, (c) the role epistemic curiosity plays in learning, (d) the effect of gender, race, prior knowledge and prior visitation to the zoo on learning and epistemic curiosity, (e) participants' affect for the zoo animals, and (f) if prior visitation to the zoo contributes to prior knowledge. Ninety-six fourth and fifth grade children completed curiosity, cognitive, and affective written tests before and after a field trip to the Lowery Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida. The data showed that students were very curious about zoo animals. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest curiosity levels. The trip did not influence participants' curiosity levels. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, curiosity, and the independent variables, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. No significant differences were found. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest cognitive scores. The field trip to the zoo did not cause an increase in participants' knowledge. However, participants did learn on the trip. After the field trip, participants identified more animals displayed by the zoo than they did before. Also, more animals were identified by species and genus names after the trip than before. These differences were significant (alpha = .05). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, posttest cognitive performance, and the independent variables, curiosity, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. A significant difference was found for prior knowledge (alpha = .05). No significant differences were found for the other independent variables. Chi-square tests of significance indicated significant differences

  14. Dysart Unified School District: How One School District Used Collaborative Planning to Improve Outcomes for All Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaven, Chip; Hall, Sara; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Dysart Unified School District (Dysart) in Arizona covers 140 square miles and serves numerous communities, including the cities of Surprise and El Mirage and some unincorporated areas of Maricopa County. At one time the fastest-growing school system in Arizona, Dysart has tripled in size since 2000. The district continues to grow, and in…

  15. The Bureaucratization of a County Schools Office: An Historical Field Study of the County Superintendent of Schools Office in Riverside County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, William Edward

    The bureaucratic nature of school organizations is now commonly acknowledged. According to Carlson's description of four types of service organizations, school organizations are "domestic" rather than "wild" in that they do not have to compete with peer organizations for their own survival. To investigate the historical development and…

  16. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water. PMID:26882113

  17. Farm-to-School Programs: Perspectives of School Food Service Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Betty T.; Alaimo, Katherine; Hamm, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children's diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. Design: Semistructured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. Setting: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest…

  18. Facilitating Identity Formation, Group Membership, and Learning in Science Classrooms: What Can Be Learned from Out-of-Field Teaching in an Urban School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores both the obstacles and the possibilities for students developing identities associated with science by engaging in solidarity-building classroom interactions. Data come from ethnographic research conducted in a diverse eighth-grade urban magnet school classroom in which the teacher taught out of field for part of the year.…

  19. Assessment of the Status of Implementation of Response to Intervention in High, Average, and Low Economic Resource-Need Long Island School Districts: Feedback from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siciliano, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare Long Island special education directors' early assessments of the implementation of Response to intervention (RTI) in high, average, and low economic resource-need Long Island school districts in an attempt to provide the field feedback to better guide and operationalize the Individuals with…

  20. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  1. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide for the High School E.M.R.: A Field Test Copy. Research Monograph Number 11, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plue, William V.; And Others

    This vocational education curriculum guide for educable mentally handicapped high school students, an outgrowth of a Mississippi state research project, was developed by a professor from the University of Southern Mississippi's Department of Special Education to be field-tested, revised, and expanded. Under the general competencies of psychomotor…

  2. STURGIS, KENTUCKY, A TENTATIVE DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE SCHOOL DESEGREGATION CRISIS. FIELD REPORTS ON DESEGREGATION IN THE SOUTH, FR. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIFFIN, ROSCOE

    THIS REPORT OF A FIELD STUDY DESCRIBES THE 1956 CONFLICT WHICH OCCURRED IN A SMALL KENTUCKY TOWN AS A RESULT OF A SCHOOL DESEGREGATION CRISIS. THE REPORT CONTAINS (1) A SUMMARY OF THE OPINIONS IN THE COMMUNITY ABOUT RACE RELATIONS, SPECIFICALLY NEGRO OPINIONS, (2) A DISCUSSION OF THE ATTITUDES OF THE LOCAL PRESS, CIVIC OFFICIALS, LAW ENFORCEMENT…

  3. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  4. Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

  5. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  6. A sociohydrological model for smallholder farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a sociohydrological model that can help us to better understand the system dynamics of a smallholder farmer. It couples the dynamics of the six main assets of a typical smallholder farmer: water storage capacity, capital, livestock, soil fertility, grazing access, and labor. The hydroclimatic variability, which is a main driver and source of uncertainty of the smallholder system, is accounted for at subannual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms of smallholders (for example, adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers and selling livestocks) when farmers face adverse sociohydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, occurrence of dry spells, or variability of input or commodity prices. We have applied the model to analyze the sociohydrology of a cash crop producing smallholder in Maharashtra, India, in a semisynthetic case study setting. Of late, this region has witnessed many suicides of farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lacked irrigation and were susceptible to fluctuating commodity prices and climatic variability. We studied the sensitivity of a smallholder's capital, an indicator of smallholder well-being, to two types of cash crops (cotton and sugarcane), water storage capacity, availability of irrigation, initial capital that a smallholder starts with, prevalent wage rates, and access to grazing. We found that (i) smallholders with low water storage capacities and no irrigation are most susceptible to distress, (ii) a smallholder's well-being is low at low wage rates, (iii) wage rate is more important than absolution of debt, (iv) well-being is sensitive to water storage capacity up to a certain level, and (v) well-being increases with increasing area available for livestock grazing. Our results indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers or to invest in local storage to buffer rainfall variability may not be enough. In addition, alternative

  7. "School Violence" as a Social Problem: Charting the Rise of the Problem and the Emerging Specialist Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 years, violence taking place in schools has entered both popular and academic discourse. Frequently, the term "school violence" is used as a catch-all concept to refer to disorder and disruption in schools, as well as the unruliness of contemporary youth. This is apparent not only in the North American context, but in highly…

  8. Handbook on Tentative Standards and Procedures for the Registration of Secondary Schools. 1979-80 Field Trial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This handbook contains the tentative secondary school registration standards and procedures approved by the New York State Board of Regents for the 1979-80 school year. It explains the program providing for the registration (or accreditation) of New York schools and outlines the steps that will make up the registration procedure. Most of the…

  9. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined. PMID:24475547

  10. Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, CERN, 15 19 January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A.

    2007-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 15 to the 19 of January 2007. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous conferences have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next will again take place at CERN, in January 2008. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, the notes of which are published in the present proceedings, and seven working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. String theory is a compelling candidate for a theory of all interactions. A basic challenge in this field is therefore to explore the connection of string theory models and the laws of physics in different realms, like high-energy particle physics, early cosmology, or physics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Concerning the exploration of string theory compactifications leading to realistic models of particle physics, one of the main obstacles in this direction is the proper understanding of supersymmetry breaking. The lecture notes by Nathan Seiberg review the realization of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry in field theory, including recent developments via the use of meta-stable long-lived vacua. It is

  11. Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  12. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  13. Educating Our Children to Be Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Shannon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Trends indicate that students in Africa will most likely find successful employment in the field of agriculture rather than industry. Examines major overhauls in curricula needed to instill in schoolchildren a respect for farming and give them the agricultural skills critical for success. (LZ)

  14. Denali Geographic 2012 : A University led scientific field experience for High School students at the Alaska Summer Research Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Burke, S.; Chebul, E.; Dempsey, A.; Hastings, H.; Terry, R.; Drake, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) annually provides the opportunity for ~150 exceptional high school students to engage in scientific exploration at the university level. In July 2012, University of Alaska Fairbanks instructors led a two-week long ASRA module, called 'Denali Geographic', where eight student participants from across the USA and Canada learned how to observe changes in the natural world and design their own experiments for a field expedition to Denali National Park and Preserve, with assistance from the National Park Service. Each student designed an experiment/observational project prior to the expedition to investigate changes across the expanse of the park. Projects included wildlife documentation; scat and track observations; soil ph and moisture with elevation and vegetation changes; wildflowers species distribution; waterborne insect populations; atmospheric pressure and temperature variations; construction of sustainable buildings to minimize human impact on the park; and park geology comparisons between outcrop and distal stream deposits. The students learned how to design experiments, purchase supplies needed to conduct the work, and select good locations in which to sample in the park. Students used equipment such as GPS to mark field locations; a range finder to determine distance from wildlife; a hygrometer for temperature and pressure; nets and sorting equipments to analyze insects; and the preparation of Plaster of Paris for creating casts of animal tracks. All observations were documented in their field notebooks and blog entries made to share their experiences. Day excursions as part of the module included Poker Flats Research Range, where students learned about the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in scientific exploration; Alaska Volcano Observatory, where students learned about volcanic hazards in Alaska and the North Pacific; Chena Hot Springs and the Ice Museum, where students learned about thermal imaging using a Forward

  15. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail... (No. 2010009) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was filed by the...

  16. 75 FR 41430 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail... (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2010014) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that...

  17. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater than 15 percent decrease in...

  18. A Study of Ontario Farmers' Use of Selected Technical Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ian C.; Blackburn, Donald J.

    This study sought to determine the extent to which selected publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food were received by farmers in the Province on Ontario, Canada. Investigations were made of relationships between various social and demographic characteristics of respondents, and their receipt of these publications. A…

  19. Women Farmers in Central America: Myths, Roles, Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudelman, Sally W.

    1994-01-01

    Improving economic opportunities for the increasing number of women farmers in rural Central America involves addressing low educational levels and challenging traditional social values. Government policies need to strengthen women's agricultural and natural-resource management skills by improving land access; encouraging membership in…

  20. Adult Education for Farmers in a Developing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    Based on the author's international observations and experiences in education, the book attempts to convey to educational policy-makers, administrators, and teachers, as well as adult educators in developing countries, the significance of the current agricultural break-through and the need and potential of adult education to farmers. Today's…

  1. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  2. After the Farm. The Experience of Farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Susan; Saupe, William

    1990-01-01

    Of southwest Wisconsin farmers who quit farming, 1982-86, 40 percent cited financial reasons, but 60 percent cited health problems, age, or other job opportunities. Most voluntary retirees remained in their homes and were financially secure. Involuntary leavers often improved their incomes, but many relocated and still had farm debts. (Author/SV)

  3. Bolivian Farmers and Alternative Crops: Some Insights into Innovation Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Linda S.; Smith, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 85 Bolivian farmers found that adoption or rejection of new crops replacing coca cultivation was related to capital outlay required, expected profitability, and perceptions of risk. Adoption of new crops was related to younger age but not to educational attainment. Strategies are recommended to promote the change to new crops. (SV)

  4. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  5. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  6. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  7. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Louisiana Crawfish Farmers Association on behalf of farm-raised crawfish producers in Louisiana. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of crawfish contributed importantly to a greater than...

  8. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program by the Kona Coffee Farmers Association. The petition was accepted for review by USDA on July 21, 2010...' criterion, the Administrator was not able to certify the petition, making coffee producers in...

  9. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  10. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  11. Innovative storage solutions to improve food security for small farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solutions exist in developed countries to reduce post-harvest grain losses caused by insects to less than 1%., yet developing countries can experience post-harvest losses of >20% (APHLIS, 2011). Most solutions available to developed countries are not appropriate for developing country small farmers...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Annually, your board of directors must review these policies and the performance of your Farmer Mac.... (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143....

  13. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  14. America's Aging Farmers: Who Will Take Their Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Trends over the last decade show an increase in the average age of farmers and a steady decline in the number of young people entering farming. These trends will have adverse effects on rural economies and communities. It is unlikely that current government programs can reverse trends toward large corporate farms. (KS)

  15. Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

  16. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  17. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  18. The Farmer and the Goose--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald; Martelli, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the process of generalization. Illustrates the process by generalizing the classic problem of how a farmer can get a fox, a goose, and a bag of corn across a river in a boat that is large enough only for him and one of the three items. (MDH)

  19. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  20. Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen

    The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The…